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  • 1.
    Alejo Vargas, Lucio Rodrigo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Analysis of Negative Emission Ammonia Fertilizer (urea) Process2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the world population keeps increasing, ammonia-based fertilizers like urea are essential to provide food security. However, the current fertilizer industry is based on fossil fuel feedstock (mainly natural gas), making the production process CO2 emission-intensive. More specifically, besides the CO2 emitted during the process, the CO2 captured in urea is also released into the atmosphere after the fertilizer is applied to agricultural soils. Thus, positioning the fertilizer industry among the top four industrial emitters globally. Hence, in order to meet the target of limiting global warming to 1.5 ºC and achieve net-zero emissions by 2050, it is necessary to strengthen the carbon mitigation efforts in the current fertilizer industry. This can be achieved in different ways, such as using renewable biofuels and implementing technologies that can lead to zero/negative CO2 emissions.

    For that reason, the present study presents pathways to achieve a more environmentally friendly fertilizer production process. An overall analysis is performed if negative emissions can be achieved by replacing different fractions of natural gas (used as both feedstock and fuel) with biogas and biomethane and by capturing and storing the CO2 emitted from the process using chemical solvents as activated MDEA and MEA. The results obtained from the study revealed that negative emissions in fertilizer plant can be achieved by retrofitting an existing ammonia plant with a MEA based CO2 capture system (with a carbon capture rate of 90%) for the SMR burner flue gas, and by introducing 50% of biogas in the feedstock (alongside Natural gas), and 75% of biogas in the SMR burner fuel (alongside Natural gas). This initial approach would result in net negative emissions from urea's production and application and require approximately 0.5 kg of biogas per kg of urea produced in this case. Furthermore, the equivalent energy intensity for the negative emission urea plant would be 0.32% and 3.37% lower compared to the fossil fuel-based case without/with CCS, respectively. Ultimately, it is even possible to produce approximately 6% more urea product by replacing a particular fraction of natural gas with biogas. The reason for this increased production is due to the surplus of carbon dioxide by the introduction of biogas. It can be used along with the ammonia product going to storage in the fossil fuel-based case, where there was not enough CO2 to keep the feedstock molar ratio at the urea plant's inlet.

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  • 2.
    Amara, Soumia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    CO2 capture in industry using chilled ammonia process2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CO2 capture and storage (CCS) is estimated to reduce 14% of the global CO2 emissions in the 2 °C scenario presented by the International Energy Agency. Moreover, post combustion capture is identified as a potential method for CO2 capture from industry since it can be easily retrofitted without disturbing the core industrial process. Among the post-combustion capture methods, absorption using mono-ethanol amine (MEA) is the most mature technology that has been demonstrated at plant scale. However, using chilled ammonia process as a post combustion capture technology in a cement industry can reduce 47% energy penalty for CO2 capture when compared to the conventional MEA absorption method. 

    Hence, the current project aims at analyzing the chilled ammonia process when integrated with steel and ammonia plants. Key performance indicator like specific primary energy consumption per kilogram of CO2 avoided (SPECCA) is estimated and compared with MEA absorption method. Firstly, chilled ammonia process (CAP) for cement plant was used as reference case. Then, CAP for steel and ammonia processes was optimized by the means of the decision variables affecting the capture and energy efficiency. The energy consumption per kg CO2 captured and SPECCA was lower for the higher CO2 concentration in the flue gas. Results for SPECCA were 3,56, 3,52 and 3,61 MJ/kg CO2 for cement, steel, and ammonia plants, respectively. 

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  • 3.
    Andersson, Filippa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Integrating biomass gasification with electric arc furnace steel making2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas emissions are increasing worldwide, and new techniques are being adopted to suppress the emissions. The steel sector is responsible for 7% of the emissions. 25% ofthe world’s steel production is made through the recycling technique EAF. Throughout the recycling process, 500 kg CO2 gets emitted per ton of liquid steel produced. An opportunity to lower these direct emissions is to couple the EAF process to biomass gasification and CO2 utilisation process. The proposed solution in this thesis is to utilise the off-gases in the gasification process and create high-valuable products. The project evaluates the technical feasibility via energy efficiency and carbon utilisation. The proposed process was simulated using Aspen Plus.

    A problem with the off-gases from EAF gasification is the fluctuation in composition. Three cases of off-gas composition were therefore investigated. Case 1 was the average off-gas composition, while cases 2 and 3 were extreme with high CO and CO2 content, respectively. The result showed that the syngas composition strongly depends on the gasifying agent. In all cases, the energy efficiency increased, and the direct emissions decreased. Case 1 generally showed the highest efficiency and carbon utilisation, while the CO2 heavily case (case 3) had the lowest. A continuous flow of gasifying agents is required to run the gasification process. Since EAF is a batch process, air gasification runs when off-gases are unavailable. The desired outcome of air gasification is to produce syngas similar to off-gas gasification. The results showed that air infiltration in off-gases is favourable for more similar syngas composition.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Application of Liquid Hydrogen Carriers in Hydrogen Steelmaking2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1392-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steelmaking is responsible for approximately one third of total industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Hydrogen (H2) direct reduction (H-DR) may be a feasible route towards the decarbonization of primary steelmaking if H2 is produced via electrolysis using fossil-free electricity. However, electrolysis is an electricity-intensive process. Therefore, it is preferable that H2 is predominantly produced during times of low electricity prices, which is enabled by the storage of H2. This work compares the integration of H2 storage in four liquid carriers, methanol (MeOH), formic acid (FA), ammonia (NH3) and perhydro-dibenzyltoluene (H18-DBT), in H-DR processes. In contrast to conventional H2 storage methods, these carriers allow for H2 storage in liquid form at moderate overpressures, reducing the storage capacity cost. The main downside to liquid H2 carriers is that thermochemical processes are necessary for both the storage and release processes, often with significant investment and operational costs. The carriers are compared using thermodynamic and economic data to estimate operational and capital costs in the H-DR context considering process integration options. It is concluded that the use of MeOH is promising compared to the other considered carriers. For large storage volumes, MeOH-based H2 storage may also be an attractive option to the underground storage of compressed H2. The other considered liquid H2 carriers suffer from large thermodynamic barriers for hydrogenation (FA) or dehydrogenation (NH3, H18-DBT) and higher investment costs. However, for the use of MeOH in an H-DR process to be practically feasible, questions regarding process flexibility and the optimal sourcing of CO2 and heat must be answered

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Improving the economics of fossil-free steelmaking via co-production of methanolManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Steelmaking is responsible for 7% of the global net emissions of carbon dioxide and heavily reducing emissions from currently dominating steelmaking processes is difficult and costly. Recently, new steelmaking processes based on the reduction of iron ore with hydrogen (H2) produced via water electrolysis have been suggested. If the electricity input to such processes is fossil-free, near-zero carbon dioxide emissions steelmaking is achievable. However, the high electricity demand of electrolysis is a significant implementation barrier. A H2 storage may alleviate this via allowing a larger share of H2 to be produced at low electricity prices. However, accurately forecasting the dynamics of electricity markets is challenging. This increases the risk of investment in a H2 storage. Here we evaluate a novel methanol-based H2 storage concept for a H2-based steelmaking process that also allows for the co-production of methanol. During electricity price peaks, the methanol can be reformed to produce H2 for the steelmaking process. During prolonged periods of low electricity prices, excess methanol can be produced and sold off, thus improving the prospects of storage profitability. We use historical electricity prices and a process model to evaluate methanol-fossil-free steel co-production schemes. Methanol co-production has the potential to improve the economics of H2 supply to a fossil-free steelmaking process by up to an average of 0.40 €/kg H2 across considered scenarios, equivalent to a reduction in H2 production electricity costs of 25.0%.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Non-geological hydrogen storage for fossil-free steelmaking2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last half-century, global steel use has increased more than threefold and further growth is expected, particularly in developing economies. However, steelmaking is currently responsible for 7% of the global net carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and any substantial further optimization of existing processes that utilize fossil fuels for iron ore reduction is infeasible. Therefore, steelmaking must change for climate change mitigation targets to be achievable. Hydrogen (H2) steelmaking using H2 produced via electrolysis is one way forward. A challenge is the substantial electricity demand of electrolysis. H2 storage may lower the electricity cost of electrolysis by allowing a larger share of H2 to be produced when the electricity price is low. Existing experience with large-scale H2 storage is limited to salt caverns and the construction of such caverns requires suitable geological formations, which are neither ubiquitous nor well-distributed. However, geologically-independent H2 storage technologies have not previously been evaluated for integration with H2 steelmaking. This is the aim of this thesis. H2 storage technologies were reviewed and liquid H2 carriers were identified as the most techno-economically feasible non-geological options. Out of these liquid carriers, methanol (CH3OH) was found particularly promising for H2 steelmaking due to the low heat demand of its dehydrogenation, its low-cost storage, and the high technological readiness of plants for both its production and dehydrogenation. A complete CH3OH-based H2 storage concept was developed, including processes for CO2 and heat supply. Its ability to reduce the H2 production cost in a H2 steelmaking process was evaluated via a deterministic optimization method based on historical electricity prices. Results indicate that CH3OH-based storage may be competitive with geological storage options, especially for cases with long-duration electricity price patterns.  The option to also sell off accumulated CH3OH from the storage was investigated. Such steel and CH3OH co-production may improve storage utilization and reduce the risk of investment into H2 storage as it allows for profitability to be reached under a more diverse set of electricity market conditions.

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  • 7.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    A comparison of two hydrogen storages in a fossil-free direct reduced iron process2021In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 46, no 56, p. 28657-28674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen direct reduction has been proposed as a means to decarbonize primary steelmaking. Preferably, the hydrogen necessary for this process is produced via water electrolysis. A downside to electrolysis is the large electricity demand. The electricity cost of water electrolysis may be reduced by using a hydrogen storage to exploit variations in electricity price, i.e., producing more hydrogen when the electricity price is low and vice versa. In this paper we compare two kinds of hydrogen storages in the context of a hydrogen direct reduction process via simulations based on historic Swedish electricity prices: the storage of gaseous hydrogen in an underground lined rock cavern and the storage of hydrogen chemically bound in methanol. We find the methanol-based storages to be economically advantageous to lined rock caverns in several scenarios. The main advantages of methanol-based storage are the low investment cost of storage capacity and the possibility to decouple storage capacity from rate capacity. Nevertheless, no storage option is found to be profitable for historic Swedish electricity prices. For the storages to be profitable, electricity prices must be volatile with relatively frequent high peaks, which has happened rarely in Sweden in recent years. However, such scenarios may become more common with the expected increase of intermittent renewable power in the Swedish electricity system.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Improving the economics of fossil-free steelmaking via co-production of methanol2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 350, p. 131469-, article id 131469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steelmaking is responsible for 7% of the global net emissions of carbon dioxide and heavily reducing emissions from currently dominating steelmaking processes is difficult and costly. Recently, new steelmaking processes based on the reduction of iron ore with hydrogen (H-2) produced via water electrolysis have been suggested. If the electricity input to such processes is fossil-free, near-zero carbon dioxide emissions steelmaking is achievable. However, the high electricity demand of electrolysis is a significant implementation barrier. A H-2 storage may alleviate this via allowing a larger share of H-2 to be produced at low electricity prices. However, accurately forecasting electricity market dynamics is challenging. This increases the risk of investment in a H-2 storage. Here we evaluate a novel methanol-based H-2 storage concept for H-2-based steelmaking that also allows for the coproduction of methanol. During electricity price peaks, the methanol can be reformed to produce H-2 for the steelmaking process. During prolonged periods of low electricity prices, excess methanol can be produced and sold off, thus improving the prospects of storage profitability. We use historical electricity prices and a process model to evaluate methanol and fossil-free steel co-production schemes. Methanol co-production is found to have the potential to improve the economics of H-2 supply to a fossil-free steelmaking process by up to an average of 0.40 (sic)/kg H-2 across considered scenarios, equivalent to a 25.0% reduction in H-2 production electricity costs.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Large-scale storage of hydrogen2019In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, no 23, p. 11901-11919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The large-scale storage of hydrogen plays a fundamental role in a potential future hydrogen economy. Although the storage of gaseous hydrogen in salt caverns already is used on a full industrial scale, the approach is not applicable in all regions due to varying geological conditions. Therefore, other storage methods are necessary. In this article, options for the large-scale storage of hydrogen are reviewed and compared based on fundamental thermodynamic and engineering aspects. The application of certain storage technologies, such as liquid hydrogen, methanol, ammonia, and dibenzyltoluene, is found to be advantageous in terms of storage density, cost of storage, and safety. The variable costs for these high-density storage technologies are largely associated with a high electricity demand for the storage process or with a high heat demand for the hydrogen release process. If hydrogen is produced via electrolysis and stored during times of low electricity prices in an industrial setting, these variable costs may be tolerable.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Krüger, Andries
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Methanol as a carrier of hydrogen and carbon in fossil-free production of direct reduced iron2020In: Energy Conversion and Management: X, E-ISSN 2590-1745, Vol. 7, no 100051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steelmaking is responsible for around 7% of the global emissions of carbon dioxide and new steelmaking processes are necessary to reach international climate targets. As a response to this, steelmaking processes based on the direct reduction of iron ore by hydrogen produced via water electrolysis powered by renewable electricity have been suggested. Here we present a novel variant of hydrogen-based steelmaking incorporating methanol as a hydrogen and carbon carrier together with high-temperature co-electrolysis of water and carbon dioxide and biomass oxy-fuel combustion. The energy and mass balances of the process are analyzed. It is found that this methanol-based direct reduction process may potentially offer a number of process-related advantages over a process based on pure hydrogen, featuring several process integration options. Notably, the electricity and total energy use of the steelmaking process could be reduced by up to 25% and 8% compared to a reference pure-hydrogen process, respectively. The amount of high-temperature (>200 °C) heat that must be supplied to the process could also be reduced by up to approximately 34%, although the demand for medium-temperature heat is substantially increased. Furthermore, the suggested process could allow for the production of high-quality direct reduced iron with appropriate carburization to alleviate downstream processing in an electric arc furnace, which is not the case for a process based on pure hydrogen.

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  • 11. Bai, Q.
    et al.
    Guo, Z.
    Li, H.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Jin, L.
    Yan, Jerry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Experimental investigation on the solidification behavior of phase change materials in open-cell metal foams2017In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2017, Vol. 142, p. 3703-3708Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presented an experimental investigation on solidification behavior of fluid saturated in highly porous open-cell copper foams. Particular attention has been made on the effect of pore parameters (pore density and porosity) on the solidification behavior. A purposely-designed apparatus was built for experimental observations. Results showed that the copper foam had a great effect on solidification and the full solidification time can be saved up to 50%, especially preventing the decrease in solidification rate during the later stage of phase change. The smaller the porosity is, the faster the solidification rate will be. Pore density was found to have little influence upon the solidification rate. In addition, the local natural convection does exist but it has a slight effect on solidification, leading to the slant of the solid-liquid interface.

  • 12.
    Bao, Minglei
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Yi
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Sang, Maosheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Li, Daqing
    Beihang Univ, Sch Reliabil & Syst Engn, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China..
    Shao, Changzheng
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310058, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, Västerås, Sweden.
    Modeling and evaluating nodal resilience of multi-energy systems under windstorms2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 270, article id 115136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the growing frequency and extent of extreme weather events, the resilient operation of multi-energy systems (MESs) has drawn attention nowadays. However, there is little study on the methodology with a set of key indicators to quantify the resilience of MESs with the consideration of the impacts of extreme weather. To address the problem, this paper proposes a framework to evaluate the time-dependent resilience of MESs considering energy interactions during extreme weather events, such as windstorms. Firstly, the multi-phase performance curve is utilized to describe the response behavior of MESs at different phases under the impacts of windstorms. Secondly, a service-based optimal energy flow model is developed to minimize the consequences caused by windstorms through the coordination among different energy subsystems. In order to model the chaotic failures and restoration of components, the Monte-Carlo simulation technique is applied. Furthermore, nodal resilience metrics for different energy carriers are proposed to quantify the resilience in MESs. Numerical studies demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique to quantify the resilience of MESs under windstorms. The results show that the resilience performance level of MESs can differ in different regions with the impacts of windstorms. The findings can provide a useful reference for system operators to constitute targeted resilience improvement measures.

  • 13. Barbarelli, S.
    et al.
    Castiglione, T.
    Zupone, G. L.
    Bova, S.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    CFD Investigation of the Open Center on the Performance of a Tidal Current Turbine2019In: Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 159, p. 28-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, a revision of the layout of an innovative open center self-balancing tidal turbine is presented. Initially, the design was characterized by a central deflector, responsible for the machine equilibrium, hosted in the central part of the machine; the presence of this device, however, affected the size of the opening. Moreover, the turbine was conceived as connected to a steel rope subject to tensile stress. These peculiarities brought some critical issues due to the excessive length of the rope and to the size of the deflector, which constrained the diameters ratio. The new design involves the possibility of reducing the anchoring line length by substituting the rope with a series of tubular elements connected by alternate heavy and light nodes. The heavy nodes can gather the anchoring line when the tides stops acting. Moreover, the light nodes are floating deflectors, which develop the same action of the central deflector, whose size, in this configuration, does not affect the equilibrium. In the new machine configuration, the main deflector is located out of the center so that it can counterbalance the torque exerted by the rotor during its rotation. Finally, by means of CFD simulations, some criteria for assessing the best diameter ratio are defined.

  • 14. Bellamy, R.
    et al.
    Fridahl, M.
    Lezaun, J.
    Palmer, J.
    Rodriguez, E.
    Lefvert, Adrian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Hansson, A.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Haikola, S.
    Incentivising bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) responsibly: Comparing stakeholder policy preferences in the United Kingdom and Sweden2021In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 116, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) plays a central role in scenario pathways that limit global warming in line with the objectives of the Paris Agreement. Yet deliberate policy efforts to incentivise BECCS—whether through amending existing climate policies or introducing entirely new ones—remain rare. In this paper, we contend that BECCS must be incentivised responsibly, through policy-making processes which account for diverse and geographically varying societal values and interests. More specifically, we make the case for responsible incentivisation by undertaking a comparative analysis of stakeholder attitudes to four idealised policy scenarios for BECCS, including representatives of government, business, nongovernmental and academic communities, in the UK and Sweden. The scenarios were: business as usual; international policy reform; national BECCS policy; and national policy for negative emissions technologies. Based on our findings, we recommend that policymakers 1) recognise the need to develop new incentives and make enabling reforms to existing policy instruments; 2) consider the risk of mitigation deterrence in their real world (and not abstracted) contexts; 3) employ multi-instrument approaches to incentivisation that do not overly rely on carbon pricing or 4) force a choice between technology specific or technology neutral policies; and 5) attend to the diversity of stakeholder and wider public perspectives that will ultimately determine the success—or failure—of their policy designs.

  • 15.
    Benavente Araoz, Fabian Andres
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Cabrerae, Saúl
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia:Considering the suppressed demand effect2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural electrification programs usually do not consider the impact that the increment of demand has on thereliability of off-grid photovoltaic (PV)/battery systems. Based on meteorological data and electricity consumptionprofiles from the highlands of Bolivian Altiplano, this paper presents a modelling and simulationframework for analysing the performance and reliability of such systems. Reliability, as loss of power supplyprobability (LPSP), and cost were calculated using simulated PV power output and battery state of chargeprofiles. The effect of increasing the suppressed demand (SD) by 20% and 50% was studied to determine howreliable and resilient the system designs are. Simulations were performed for three rural application scenarios: ahousehold, a school, and a health centre. Results for the household and school scenarios indicate that, toovercome the SD effect, it is more cost-effective to increase the PV power rather than to increase the batterycapacity. However, with an increased PV-size, the battery ageing rate would be higher since the cycles areperformed at high state of charge (SOC). For the health centre application, on the other hand, an increase inbattery capacity prevents the risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system.These results provide important insights for the application design of off-grid PV-battery systems in ruralelectrification projects, enabling a more efficient and reliable source of electricity.

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  • 16.
    Bolin, Bert
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Azar, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Climate Risk Management: Are we ignoring the obvious?2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate problem can be characterized by a curious concurrence of phenomena: universal agreement that something bad or even catastrophic might be happening, and universal inability to manage risks ex ante. This dilemma can, in a nutshell, be attributed to the fact that substantial costs of reducing human forcing of climate change would start biting now, but evidence of benefits from early action will remain cloudy for decades and worst effects might not be felt for centuries. We argue that due to ignorance about Abrupt Climate Change (ACC) and Negative Emission Technologies (NET) in the assessment of climate risk management strategies, the scientific and political discussion has so far been socially constructed.

    We show that the only GHG concentration policy in conformity to the UNFCCC is to bring concentrations back to its stable bounds within which it oscillated for the past 420 thousand years. A low GHG concentration target will not only minimize the risk of irreversible extreme weather and abrupt climate events, but also reduce the associated uncertainties. We will illustrate this point by simulations of ecosystem collapse and economic underdevelopment induced by events of ACC.

    Despite enormous efforts in building emission scenarios, the attainability of such an obvious concentration target has never been assessed. We are able to show that NET, that have been so far ignored in GHG control assessments, are an additional option that could enable reduction of atmospheric CO2 concentrations to levels lower than what could otherwise have been achieved within certain time frames. In addition, NET can substantially reduce the cost of low-emission scenarios. NET can, thus, as a preventive mitigation technology help to control risk exposure and improve mankind’s ability to manage climate risks ex ante.

  • 17.
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Biferale, L.
    Lanotte, A. S.
    Rate of breakup of small inertial aggregates in homogeneous turbulence2015In: Proceedings - 15th European Turbulence Conference, ETC 2015, TU Delft , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrodynamic breakup of small inertial aggregates in homogenous and isotropic turbulence is studied through numerical simulations. Small inertial aggregates are subject to shear stress caused by the local velocity gradient and drag stress caused by the relative velocity of the aggregate and the fluid flow. In our simulations, we follow aggregates moving through the flow and record the total stress acting on them. Breakup is assumed to occur when the total stress overcomes a predefined threshold representing the aggregate strength. By determining how long it takes for an aggregate to reach a stress exceeding its strength for the first time, we are able to derive a breakup rate. It is found that with increasing aggregate inertia, the drag stress rapidly becomes the dominant stress resulting in an increase of the breakup rate with increasing the aggregate inertia.

  • 18.
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Biferale, Luca
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Feudel, Ulrike
    Theoretical Physics, Complex Systems, ICBM, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Guseva, Ksenia
    Theoretical Physics, Complex Systems, ICBM, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
    Lanotte, A. S.
    Marchioli, C.
    Pecile, Eros
    University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Picano, Francesco
    University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Soldati, Alfredo
    University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Toschi, Federico
    Dept. Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Breakup of small aggregates in bounded and unbounded turbulent flows2020In: ETC 2013 - 14th European Turbulence Conference, Zakon Group LLC , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breakup of small tracer-like aggregates is studied by means of numerical simulations in four different flows, namely homogeneous isotropic turbulence, smooth stochastic flow, turbulent channel flow, and developing boundary layer flow. Aggregate breakup occurs when the local hydrodynamic stress σ ∼ ε1/2, where ε is the local energy dissipation, overcomes a given threshold value σcr [or equivalently εcr ∼ σcr2 ] characteristic for a given type of aggregates. Following the aggregate trajectory upon release and detecting the first occurrence of local energy dissipation exceeding the predefined threshold allows for estimating the breakup rate as a function of εcr. Results show that the breakup rate decreases with increasing threshold. For small values of the threshold, this decrease assumes consistent scaling among the different flows which is explained by universal small scale flow properties. 

  • 19.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, S-72123 Vastereis, Sweden..
    Cioccolanti, Luca
    Univ Telemat eCampus, Ctr Ric Energia Ambiente & Terr, Novedrate, CO, Italy..
    Francois, Baptiste
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Amherst, MA 01003 USA..
    Jurasz, Jakub
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, S-72123 Vastereis, Sweden.;AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Management, PL-30059 Krakow, Poland.;Wroclaw Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Environm Engn, PL-50370 Wroclaw, Poland..
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Varini, Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, S-72123 Vastereis, Sweden..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, S-72123 Vastereis, Sweden..
    Li-ion batteries for peak shaving, price arbitrage, and photovoltaic self-consumption in commercial buildings: A Monte Carlo Analysis2021In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 234, article id 113889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the benefits of introducing Li-ion batteries as energy storage unit in the commercial sector by considering a representative building with a photovoltaic system. Only the costs and revenues related to the installation and operation of the battery are considered in this study. The operational strategy of the battery consists in balancing the following processes through day-ahead forecasts for both electricity consumption and photovoltaic production: shaving a targeted peak, performing price arbitrage, and increasing photovoltaic selfconsumption. By reviewing the electricity price cost for commercial buildings from several companies around the world, a general electricity price structure is defined. Afterwards, a Monte Carlo Analysis is applied for three locations with different solar irradiation levels to study the impact of climate, electricity price components, and other seven sensitive parameters on the economic viability of Li-ion batteries. The Monte Carlo Analysis shows that the most sensitive parameters for the net present value are the battery capacity, the battery price, and the component of the electricity price that relates to the peak power consumption. For Stockholm, one of the investigated locations, the corresponding Pearson correlation coefficients are -0.67, -0.66, and 0.19 for the case were no photovoltaic system is installed. For the considered battery operational strategies, the current investment and annual operation costs for the Li-ion battery always lead to negative net present values independently of the location. Battery prices lower than 250 US$/kWh start to manifest positive net present values when combining peak shaving, price arbitrage, and photovoltaic self-consumption. However, the integration of a photovoltaic system leads to a reduced economic viability of the battery by reducing the revenues generated by the battery while performing peak shaving.

  • 20.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Wästhage, Louise
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, Future Energy Ctr, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, Future Energy Ctr, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Tan, Yuting
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Optimization and assessment of floating and floating-tracking PV systems integrated in on- and off-grid hybrid energy systems2019In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 177, p. 782-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the targets of Thailand in terms of renewable energy exploitation and decarbonization of the shrimp farming sector, this work evaluates several scenarios for optimal integration of hybrid renewable energy systems into a representative shrimp farm. In particular, floating and floating-tracking PV systems are considered as alternatives for the exploitation of solar energy to meet the shrimp farm electricity demand. By developing a dynamic techno-economic simulation and optimization model, the following renewable energy systems have been evaluated: PV and wind based hybrid energy systems, off-grid and on-grid PV based hybrid energy systems, ground mounted and floating PV based hybrid energy systems, and floating and floating-tracking PV based hybrid energy systems. From a water-energy nexus viewpoint, floating PV systems have shown significant impacts on the reduction of evaporation losses, even if the energy savings for water pumping are moderate due to the low hydraulic head. Nevertheless, the study on the synergies between water for food and power production has highlighted that the integration of floating PV represents a key solution for reducing the environmental impacts of shrimp farming. For the selected location, the results have shown that PV systems represent the best renewable solution to be integrated into a hybrid energy system due to the abundance of solar energy resources as compared to the moderate wind resources. The integration of PV systems in off-grid configurations allows to reach high renewable reliabilities up to 40% by reducing the levelized cost of electricity. Higher renewable reliabilities can only be achieved by integrating energy storage solutions but leading to higher levelized cost of electricity. Although the floating-tracking PV systems show higher investment costs as compared to the reference floating PV systems, both solutions show similar competiveness for reliabilities up to 45% due to the higher electricity production of the floating-tracking PV systems. The higher electricity production from the floating-tracking PV systems leads to a better competitiveness for reliabilities higher than 90% due to lower capacity requirements for the storage systems.

  • 21.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Zhang, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Yao, T.
    Sci Syst & Applicat Inc SSAI, Lanham, MD 20706 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Andersson, S.
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Landelius, T.
    Swedish Meteorol & Hydrol Inst, SE-60176 Norrkoping, Sweden..
    Melton, F.
    NASA ARC CREST, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA.;Calif State Univ Monterey Bay, Sch Nat Sci, Seaside, CA 93955 USA..
    Yan, Jerry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Future Energy Ctr, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Chem Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Managing agricultural drought in Sweden using a novel spatially-explicit model from the perspective of water-food-energy nexus2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, p. 1382-1393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a multi-disciplinary approach, this paper integrated spatial analysis with agricultural and energy system modelling to assess the impacts of drought on crop water demand, water availability, crop yield, and electricity requirements for irrigation. This was done by a novel spatially-explicit and integrated water-food-energy nexus model, using the spatial climatic data generated by the mesoscale MESAN and STRANG models. In this study, the model was applied to quantify the effects of drought on the Swedish irrigation sector in 2013, a typical drought year, for a specific crop. The results show that drought can severely affect the crop yield if irrigation is not applied, with a peak yield reduction of 18 t/ha, about 50 % loss as compared to the potential yield in irrigated conditions. Accordingly, the water and energy requirements for irrigation to halt the negative drought effects and maintain high yields are significant, with the peaks up to 350 mm and 700 kWh per hectare. The developed model can be used to provide near real-time guidelines for a comprehensive drought management system. The model also has significant potentials for applications in precision agriculture, especially using high-resolution satellite data.

  • 22.
    Cantore, Nicola
    et al.
    UNIDO United Nations Ind Dev Org, Dept Policy Res & Stat, Vienna, Austria..
    Schlor, Holger
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy & Climate Res IEK STE, Julich, Germany..
    Voegele, Stefan
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy & Climate Res IEK STE, Julich, Germany..
    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Energy & Climate Res IEK STE, Julich, Germany..
    Haraguchi, Nobuya
    UNIDO United Nations Ind Dev Org, Dept Policy Res & Stat, Vienna, Austria..
    Nussbaumer, Patrick
    UNIDO United Nations Ind Dev Org, Climate Technol & Innovat Div, Vienna, Austria..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Mälardalen Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Inclusive and sustainable industrial development: Measurement approaches for energy transformation2021In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 299, article id 117277Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Chou, S. K.
    et al.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore, Singapore..
    Costanza, Robert
    Australian Natl Univ, Crawford Sch Publ Policy, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Earis, Philip
    Joule Publicat Dept, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Univ Maryland, Dept Geog, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Li, B. Larry
    Univ Calif Riverside, Dept Bot & Plant Sci, Riverside, CA 92521 USA..
    Lu, Yonglong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Res Ctr Ecoenvironm Sci, State Key Lab Urban & Reg Ecol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Span, Roland
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fac Mech Engn, Thermodynam, Bochum, Germany..
    Wang, Hao
    China Inst Hydraul & Hydropower Res, Joule Publicat Dept, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Jianping
    Tsinghua Univ, Sch Civil Engn, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Yegang
    Beijing Bold Inst Ecocity Planning & Design, Joule Publicat Dept, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Priority areas at the frontiers of ecology and energy2018In: ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AND SUSTAINABILITY, ISSN 2096-4129, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 243-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of economic development and humanitarian crises means that energy science and technology should be involved in actions that address almost every major challenges of ecosystem health and sustainability. Energy is the engine of the world economy and the key to ecosystems' functioning, which also has a great impact on global warming. The energy crisis, environmental pollution, overuse of natural resources, water supply shortages, global climate disruption, and deteriorating ecosystems are major challenges to address in order to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In light of the frontiers in energy sciences and disruptive innovation in eco-tech, we recognize the need to review and establish working mechanisms that identify and examine issues that are critical to future sustainable development, to offer advice to decision-makers in different social sectors (public and private), to secure a shared future for mankind, and to achieve shared prosperity and common interests through international communications and collaborations.

  • 24. Cloete, Schalk
    et al.
    Khan, Mohammed Nazeer
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Amini, Shahriar
    Cost-effective clean ammonia production using membrane-assisted autothermal reforming2021In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia is a widely produced industrial chemical, primarily for use in the fertilizer industry. Recently, interest has also grown in ammonia as a carbon-free energy carrier because it is easier to store and transport than hydrogen. However, ammonia is primarily produced from natural gas with a considerable carbon footprint if the produced CO2 is not captured and stored. This work therefore presents a new ammonia production method based on membrane-assisted autothermal reforming (MA-ATR) for hydrogen production from natural gas with integrated CO2 capture. The MA-ATR reactor offers great process intensification benefits, leading to considerable efficiency gains as well as a simpler and cheaper plant. In the base case, MA-ATR achieves 10.7% greater efficiency, 14.9% lower NH3 production costs and 16.5%-points greater CO2 avoidance than a conventional ammonia plant where captured CO2 is compressed for transport and storage. This economic advantage of MA-ATR increases with higher natural gas prices, lower electricity prices, lower membrane costs and higher CO2 prices. All elements of the proposed plant are mature technologies aside from the membranes and the oxygen carrier material. Further development and demonstration of these two elements is therefore recommended to realize the promising techno-economic performance reported in this study.

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  • 25.
    Ding, Jing
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Du, Lichan
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Gechuanqi
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Jianfeng
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wei, Xiaolan
    South China Univ Technol, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jiang
    Natl Supercomp Ctr Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Weilong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Energy, Vasteras, Sweden.
    Molecular dynamics simulations of the local structures and thermodynamic properties on molten alkali carbonate K2CO32018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 220, p. 536-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molten carbonate salts have received particular attention for high-temperature thermal energy storage and heat Molecular dynamics simulation transfer applications due to desirable thermal characteristics, such as wide operating temperature range, low Molten alkali carbonates causticity and excellent thermal stability. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed Local structures on molten alkali carbonate K2CO3 based on an effective pair potential model, a Born-Mayer type combined with Thermodynamic properties a Coulomb term. The radial distribution functions (RDF) and coordination number curves of the molten salt were characterized to explore the temperature dependences of macroscopic properties from microscopic view. The results suggest that the distance between K2CO3 particles is getting larger with temperature increasing, resulting in the increase of molar volume and the diminished ability of resistance to shear deformation and heat transfer by vibration between ions. Besides, it can be concluded that the structure of CO32- is inferred reasonably to be ortho-triangular pyramid from the comprehensive analysis of local structures including the angular distribution functions (ADF). Moreover, the thermodynamic properties were simulated in detail from 1200 to 1600 K including the density, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat capacity, sheer viscosity, thermal conductivity and ion self-diffusion coefficient, which was hard to be measured from experiments under high-temperature extreme conditions, All the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data with high accuracy, and the minimum simulation error is as low as 1.42%.

  • 26.
    Ding, Lijie
    et al.
    Shandong Sport Univ, Sch Sport Social Sci, Div Hlth Management, Room 1415,10600 Shijidadao Rd, Jinan 250102, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Yajun
    Karolinska Inst KI, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tan, Edwin C. K.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Pharm, Fac Med & Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Aging Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;Monash Univ, Fac Pharm & Pharmaceut Sci, Ctr Med Use & Safety, Parkville, Vic, Australia..
    Hu, Yin
    Södertälje Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Chi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Liu, Yanxun
    Shandong Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Box 100,44 Wenhua Xi Rd, Jinan 250012, Peoples R China..
    Xue, Fuzhong
    Shandong Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Box 100,44 Wenhua Xi Rd, Jinan 250012, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Rui
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Aging Res Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, GIH, Lidingovagen 1,Box 5626, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Wisconsin, Sch Med & Publ Hlth, Dept Med, Madison, WI USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Sch Med & Publ Hlth, Wisconsin Alzheimers Dis Res Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, and obesity among middle-aged and older adults in China: cross-sectional findings from the baseline survey of CHARLS 2011-20122020In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Prevention and control of cardiometabolic conditions and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in China may contribute to sustainable CVD reduction globally, given the fact that one-fifth of the worldwide population is in China. Knowing the distribution of behavioral risk factors (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity), especially at a national level in China, would be extremely relevant to the field of public health and CVD prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate the nationwide prevalence of obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity in Chinese adults, and further explore whether cardiometabolic conditions would modify the distribution of behavioral risk factors. Methods This population-based study is based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2011-2012), including 17,302 adults (>= 45 years, mean age 59.67 years, female 51.66%) from 25 provinces in China. Data on demographics, lifestyle factors, health status and history of diseases were collected via structured interviews and laboratory tests. Smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, and physical inactivity were defined following standard guidelines. We performed descriptive analysis and logistic regressions in this study. Results The overall prevalence of heavy drinking, obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity among middle-aged and older adults was 7.23% (95% confidence interval 6.53-7.29%), 11.53% (10.43-12.62%), 27.46% (26.30-28.62%), and 44.06% (41.19-46.92%), respectively. The prevalence varied between rural and urban areas as well as among geographic areas, with higher prevalence in the Northern and Northeastern regions. Heavy drinking and obesity were significantly associated with incident hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol; while current smoking was significantly associated with incident hypertension. Compared with healthy individuals, participants who self-reported a diagnosis of hypertension, high cholesterol, or diabetes were less likely to smoke currently and drink alcohol heavily, but more likely to be physically inactive and obese. Conclusions Among Chinese middle-aged and older adults, the prevalence of behavioral risk factors varies by geographic region. Further effort is required to improve physical activity and fitness for Chinese adults, especially those with cardiometabolic conditions.

  • 27. Ding, Y.
    et al.
    Shao, C.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, SE-72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Song, Y.
    Zhang, C.
    Guo, C.
    Economical flexibility options for integrating fluctuating wind energy in power systems: The case of China2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 426-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inherent stochastic nature of wind power requires additional flexibility during power system operation. Traditionally, conventional generation is the only option to provide the required flexibility. However, the provision of the flexibility from the conventional generation such as coal-fired generating units comes at the cost of significantly additional fuel consumption and carbon emissions. Fortunately, with the development of the technologies, energy storage and customer demand response would be able to compete with the conventional generation in providing the flexibility. Give that power systems should deploy the most economic resources for provision of the required operational flexibility, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the economic characteristics of these key flexibility options. The concept of “balancing cost” is proposed to represent the cost of utilizing the flexible resources to integrate the variable wind power. The key indicators are proposed respectively for the different flexible resources to measure the balancing cost. Moreover, the optimization models are developed to evaluate the indicators to find out the balancing costs when utilizing different flexible resources. The results illustrate that exploiting the potential of flexibility from demand side management is the preferred option for integrating variable wind power when the penetration level is below 10%, preventing additional fuel consumption and carbon emissions. However, it may require 8% of the customer demand to be flexible and available. Moreover, although energy storage is currently relatively expensive, it is likely to prevail over conventional generation by 2025 to 2030, when the capital cost of energy storage is projected to drop to approximately $ 400/kWh or lower. 

  • 28.
    Eltigani, Amna
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Vegetable & Ornamental Crops IGZ, Programme area Next Generat Hort Syst HORTSYS, DE-14979 Grossbeeren, Germany..
    Olsson, Alexander
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Krause, Ariane
    Leibniz Inst Vegetable & Ornamental Crops IGZ, Programme area Next Generat Hort Syst HORTSYS, DE-14979 Grossbeeren, Germany..
    Ernest, Baraka
    Univ Dar es Salaam, Inst Resource Assessment, POB 35091, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.;Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Inst Tradit Med ITM, Dept Med Bot Plant Breeding & Agron, POB 65001, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Fridahl, Mathias
    Linköping Univ, Ctr Climate Sci & Policy Res CSPR, Dept Themat Studies, Unit Environm Change, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Yanda, Pius
    Univ Dar es Salaam, Inst Resource Assessment, POB 35091, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping Univ, Ctr Climate Sci & Policy Res CSPR, Dept Themat Studies, Unit Environm Change, SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Exploring lessons from five years of biochar-producing cookstoves in the Kagera region, Tanzania2022In: Energy for Sustainable Development, ISSN 0973-0826, E-ISSN 2352-4669, Vol. 71, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochar-producing cookstoves can supply fuel-efficient heat for cooking in developing countries. The produced biochar can be used as a soil amendment, providing a range of environmental and agronomic benefits and serve to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Despite these advantages, many stove initiatives have not been sustained in the long term, but very little attention has been devoted to understanding the reasons be-hind this. The present study contributes to filling this knowledge gap, by identifying key factors affecting the level of stove adoption and use, as well as biochar utilization. Based on a follow-up survey of 50 households in north-western Tanzania that received microgasifier stoves in 2015, only 12 still made use of their stove 5 years later. One of the main reasons for this relates to the inadequate quality of stove material. Declining or inconsistent availability of feedstocks was also identified as a major challenge. Furthermore, the households generally did not embrace the idea of amending soils with biochar, due to a combination of local practices and perceptions, and a lack of education and awareness programs. We conclude that, under the conditions of the studied project, three factors are required to scale dissemination: improvement of the stove design, provision of training pro-grams on biochar management and subsidies or microloans that would make more durable stoves affordable. Sustained stove deployment can only be achievable by institutionalizing financing structures that are indepen-dent from short-term grant-based initiatives.

  • 29.
    Firmansyah, Husni
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Tan, Yuting
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Power and methanol production from biomass combined with solar and wind energy: analysis and comparison2018In: RENEWABLE ENERGY INTEGRATION WITH MINI/MICROGRID / [ed] Yan, J Wang, C Yu, J Jia, H Wu, J Xu, T Zhang, Y, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2018, p. 576-581Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the techno-economic analysis and comparison of systems for power and methanol production from biomass combined with solar and wind energy, from both technical and economic perspectives. Three different systems, based on Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC), Oxy-fuel combustion, and syngas gasification, were evaluated. The hydrogen required for methanol production comes from water electrolysis driven by solar and wind energy. In addition, the effect of location was discussed.

  • 30.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    et al.
    The Department for Thematic Studies, unit of Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Schenuit, Felix
    German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Research Division EU/Europe, Berlin, Germany.
    Lundberg, Liv
    Research Institute of Sweden (RISE), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Böttcher, Miranda
    German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP), Research Division EU/Europe, Berlin, Germany; Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Rickels, Wilfried
    Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Kiel, Germany.
    Hansson, Anders
    The Department for Thematic Studies, unit of Environmental Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Novel carbon dioxide removals techniques must be integrated into the European Union’s climate policies2023In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison to its emissions reductions policy, the European Union’s (EU) policy for achieving carbon dioxide (CO2) removals is underdeveloped. Only in forestry and land usemanagement does current EU law allow its Member States to use removals to comply with their climate policy commitments. This excludes the potential role that novel removals could play for effectively and efficiently addressing climate policy objectives. Novel removals with significantEuropean potential include bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, enhanced weathering, marine removal options like alkalinity enhancement, and direct air carbon captureand storage.Emissions reductions are crucial to mitigating climate change. However, in the past decade, the world community’s failure to reduce emissions at a sufficient speed to avoid dangerous climate change has become obvious. This reality acutely necessitates the development of innovative sets of policies to spur the deployment of novel CO2 removals, an urgency that is further underlined by the long lead time for many novel removal methods. Disregarding the potential of novel removals is incommensurate with the scale of the challenge of achieving EU’s commitment to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. We argue that the current policy framework neither provides Union-wide economic incentives for novel CO2 removals, nor does it encourage EU Member States to develop national policy incentives. Our proposed solutions includes incentivizing removals through a conditional integration into the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), expanding the portfolio of removal methods in the Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Regulation, and to manage anticipations regarding which residual emissions that need to be counterbalanced by removals.

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  • 31.
    Frungieri, Graziano
    et al.
    Politecn Torino, Dept Appl Sci & Technol, I-10129 Turin, Italy..
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Vanni, Marco
    Politecn Torino, Dept Appl Sci & Technol, I-10129 Turin, Italy..
    Shear-Induced Heteroaggregation of Oppositely Charged Colloidal Particles2020In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 36, no 36, p. 10739-10749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates numerically the shear-induced aggregation of mixed populations of colloidal particles leading to the formation of clusters. Suspensions with different amounts of positively and negatively charged colloidal particles are simulated. To resolve the aggregation kinetics and structural properties of the formed clusters, we resort to a mixed deterministic-stochastic simulation method. The method is built on a combination of a Monte Carlo algorithm to sample a statistically expected sequence of encounter events between the suspended particles and a discrete element method built in the framework of Stokesian dynamics to simulate the encounters in a fully predictive manner. Results reveal a strong influence of the composition of the population on both the aggregation kinetics and the aggregate structure. In particular, we observe a size-stabilization phenomenon taking place in the suspension when the relative concentration of the majority particles lies in the range 80-85%; i.e., starting from primary particles, after a short growth period, we observed a cessation of aggregation. Inspection of the aggregate morphology shows that the formed clusters are composed of few minority particles placed in the inner region, while the aggregate surface is covered by majority particles, acting to provide a shielding effect against further growth.

  • 32.
    Gao, Ge
    et al.
    Beijing Inst Technol, Ctr Energy & Environm Policy Res, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.;Beijing Inst Technol, Sch Management & Econ, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Ke
    Beijing Inst Technol, Ctr Energy & Environm Policy Res, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.;Beijing Inst Technol, Sch Management & Econ, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.;Sustainable Dev Res Inst Econ & Soc Beijing, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.;Beijing Key Lab Energy Econ & Environm Management, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Chi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Wei, Yi-Ming
    Beijing Inst Technol, Ctr Energy & Environm Policy Res, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.;Beijing Inst Technol, Sch Management & Econ, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.;Sustainable Dev Res Inst Econ & Soc Beijing, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China.;Beijing Key Lab Energy Econ & Environm Management, Beijing 100081, Peoples R China..
    Synergistic effects of environmental regulations on carbon productivity growth in China's major industrial sectors2019In: Natural Hazards, ISSN 0921-030X, E-ISSN 1573-0840, Vol. 95, no 1-2, p. 55-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is crucial that the implementation of environmental regulations have a positive synergistic effect on carbon productivity growth (i.e., environmentally adjusted productivity growth with the consideration of carbon emissions) for China to realize its sustainable development goals because the country is currently under tripartite pressures of economic growth, carbon emissions control, and environmental pollution reduction. This paper investigates the impact of changes in environmental regulation stringency on industrial-level carbon productivity growth in China. Through utilizing the information entropy method, a new index of environmental regulation stringency is established by taking into account the effects of both pollution reduction consequences and pollution reduction measures. In addition, based on the data envelopment analysis method, a Malmquist carbon productivity index is proposed to estimate the industrial carbon productivity growth of 21 major industrial sectors in China's 30 provinces over 2004-2014. Finally, an econometric regression model is applied to test the synergistic effects of environmental regulations on carbon productivity in China's major industrial sectors. The results show that (1) a stringent environmental regulation is associated with an increase in overall industrial carbon productivity growth in China; (2) there exist significant pass-through effects in China's major industrial sectors that technology can transmit effectively from leader to follower; (3) there also exist obvious follow-up effects in China's major industrial sectors, i.e., the industrial sectors that have larger technological gaps with the leaders catch up faster than others; and (4) the environmental regulations have different effects on industrial sectors with different polluting levels, i.e., there is a positive linear relationship between environmental regulation stringency and industrial-level carbon productivity growth in low-polluting industrial sectors, a parabolic nonlinear relationship between them in high-polluting industrial sectors, and an inverted U-shaped relationship between them in moderate-polluting industrial sectors.

  • 33. Gao, X.
    et al.
    Wei, P.
    Xie, Y.
    Zhang, S.
    Niu, Z.
    Lou, Y.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    KTH.
    Jin, L.
    Yan, Jerry
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Experimental investigation of the cubic thermal energy storage unit with coil tubes2017In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2017, p. 3709-3714Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presented experimental investigations on the thermal performance of a thermal energy storage (TES) unit with coil tubes. A designed test rig was built and the melting heat transfer characteristics (melting front and temperature distribution) inside the TES unit were examined. The effects of charging flow rate on the overall phase change process were examined. The results showed that natural convection accelerated the thermal energy transport in the melt phase in the top region, but weakened the heat transfer in the bottom region; this resulted in the unmelt PCM at the bottom. The melting heat transfer was overall enhanced by the increase in inlet flow rate, indicating that the full charging time can be shortened by a larger flow rate.

  • 34. Guo, S.
    et al.
    Liu, Q.
    Zhao, J.
    Jin, G.
    Wu, W.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, 721 23 Västerås, Sweden.
    Li, H.
    Jin, H.
    Mobilized thermal energy storage: Materials, containers and economic evaluation2018In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 177, p. 315-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transportation of thermal energy is essential for users who are located far away from heat sources. The networks connecting them achieve the goal in efficient heat delivery and reasonable cost, especially for the users with large heat demands. However, it is difficult to satisfy the heat supply of the detached or emergent users with the existing pipelines. Therefore, a promising alternative, called mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES), was proposed to deliver the heat flexibly without the restriction of networks. In this paper, a review of studies on M-TES is conducted in terms of materials, containers and economic evaluation. The potential candidates of materials, such as sugar alcohols, hydrated salts, alkalies and zeolite are reviewed and compared based on their thermophysical properties, price, advantages and disadvantages. Various containers, including the shell-and-tube, encapsulated, direct-contact, detachable and sorptive types, are discussed from the aspects of configuration, performance and utilization. Furthermore, the studies on the economic evaluation of M-TES systems are summarized and discussed based on the analysis of the economic indicators, including initial cost, operating cost, revenue, subsidy and energy cost. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives for developing M-TES are presented.

  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Kåre
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering. Stockholm Exergi, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sadegh-Vaziri, Ramiar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Levihn, Fabian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.). Stockholm Exergi, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Energy & Technol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    BECCS with combined heat and power: Assessing the energy penalty2021In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 108, article id 103248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is widely recognised as an important carbon dioxide removal technology. Nevertheless, BECCS has mostly failed to move beyond small-scale demonstration units. One main factor is the energy penalty incurred on power plants. In previous studies, this penalty has been determined to be 37.2 %?48.6 % for the amine capture technology. The aim of this study is to quantify the energy penalty for adding the hot potassium carbonate (HPC) capture technology to a biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant, connected to a district heating system. In this context, the energy driving the capture process is partly recovered as useful district heating. Therefore, a modified energy penalty is proposed, with the inclusion of recovered heat. This inclusion is especially meaningful if the heat has a substantial monetary value. The BECCS system is examined using thermodynamic analysis, coupled with modelling of the capture process in Aspen PlusTM. Model validation is performed with data from a BECCS test facility. The results of this study show that the modified energy penalty is in the range of 2%?4%. These findings could potentially increase the attractiveness of BECCS as a climate abatement option in a district heating CHP setting.

  • 36. Hao, Y.
    et al.
    Li, W.
    Tian, Z.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, SE 72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Li, H.
    Jin, H.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. School of Business, Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, SE 72123 Västerås, Sweden.
    Integration of concentrating PVs in anaerobic digestion for biomethane production2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 231, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion processes is considered as an important alternative to natural gas and plays a key role in the emerging market for renewable energy. Aiming at achieving a more sustainable and efficient biomethane production, this work proposed a novel energy system, which integrates concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (C-PV/T) hybrid modules into a biogas plant with chemical absorption for biogas upgrading. The investigated energy system was optimized based on the data from an existing biogas plant, and its techno-economic feasibility was evaluated. Results show that about 7% of the heat consumption and 12% of the electricity consumption of the biogas plant can be covered by solar energy, by using the produced heat in a cascade way according to the operating temperature of different processes. The production of biomethane can also be improved by 25,800 N m3/yr (or 1.7%). The net present value of the integrated system is about 2.78 MSEK and the payback period is around 10 years. In order to further improve the economic performance, it is of great importance to lower the capital cost of the C-PV/T module. 

  • 37. Huang, C.
    et al.
    Li, Y.
    Li, X.
    Wang, H.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Wang, X.
    Wu, J.
    Li, F.
    Understanding the water-energy nexus in urban water supply systems with city features2018In: CLEANER ENERGY FOR CLEANER CITIES, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 152, p. 265-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water-energy nexus has been introduced into urban water supply systems (WSSs) to improve the current plight of scarce resources and greenhouse effect in recent years. Urban water-energy integrated management is limited by the characteristics and reality of each city. In this paper, we characterize the comprehensive influence factors of energy use in China urban WSSs including geographic differences and city forms. The results indicate that the pressure of pipeline network and plain area ratio restricted by geomorphology would significantly impact the energy consumption during conveyance and distribution stage. For the city form aspect, the total volume of urban water supply and the leakage rate of pipeline networks play important roles in energy consumption of urban WSSs in China. In this study, the specific electricity consumption in WSSs was quantified, and several factors affected by city features which show strong correlation with energy use were determined. The results are of great significance to the energy saving in water supply systems in urban areas.

  • 38.
    Hui, Hongxun
    et al.
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China..
    Ding, Yi
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China..
    Shi, Qingxin
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA..
    Li, Fangxing
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Knoxville, TN 37996 USA..
    Song, Yonghua
    Zhejiang Univ, Coll Elect Engn, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China.;Univ Macau, State Key Lab Internet Things Smart City, Macau 519000, Peoples R China.;Univ Macau, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Macau 519000, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    5G network-based Internet of Things for demand response in smart grid: A survey on application potential2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 257, article id UNSP 113972Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demand response (DR) has been widely regarded as an effective way to provide regulation services for smart grids by controlling demand-side resources via new and improved information and communication technologies. Emerging 5G networks and 5G-based Internet of Things (IoTs) can doubtless provide better infrastructure for DR, owing to 5G's advantages of fast transfer speed, high reliability, robust security, low power consumption, and massive number of connections. However, nearly none of the existing studies have applied 5G technology to DR, which will be the subject surveyed in this paper. First, the concept of DR and recent practical advances are investigated, especially the application of communication technologies to DR. Then, a comprehensive review of the cyber security, consumer privacy, and reliability of DR is presented. These topics received little attention in the past, but they will be among the most crucial factors in the future. In addition, the essential features and typical application scenarios of 5G communication are investigated. On this basis, the advantages, methods, recent advances, and implementation planning of 5G on DR are studied. Finally, the future work that must urgently be conducted in order to achieve the application of 5G to DR is discussed. This paper's application survey of 5G on DR is carried out before 5G technology enters the large-scale commercial stage, so as to provide references and guidelines for developing future 5G networks in the smart grid paradigm.

  • 39.
    Jayawickrama, T. R.
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Div Energy Sci, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Haugen, N. E. L.
    SINTEF Energy Res, N-7465 Trondheim, Norway..
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Umeki, K.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Div Energy Sci, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Effect of Stefan flow on drag coefficient of reactive spherical particles in gas flow2018In: Turbulence Heat And Mass Transfer 9 (THMT-18), Begell House , 2018, p. 1089-1092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle laden flows with reactive particles are common in industrial applications. Chemical reactions inside the particle or deposition at the surface can generate additional flow phenomena that affect the heat, mass and momentum transfer between the particle and bulk flow. This work aims at investigating the effect of Stefan flow on the drag coefficient of a spherical particle immersed in a uniform flow. Fully resolved 3D simulations were carried out for particle Reynolds numbers based on the free stream velocity ranging from 0.5 to 3. Simulations are carried out in foam-extend CFD software, using the Immersed Boundary(IB) method for treating fluid-solid interactions. The simulations were validated against data for particles without reactive flow, and against the analytical solution for Stefan flow around a particle in a quiescent fluid. We found that in the considered range of Reynolds number the drag coefficient decreases linearly with in increase in Stefan flow velocity.

  • 40.
    Jayawickrama, Thamali R.
    et al.
    Luled Univ Technol, Div Energy Sci, Energy Engn, S-97187 Luled, Sweden..
    Haugen, Nils Erland L.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, Kolbjern Hejes Vei 1 B, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.;SINTEF Energy Res, Dept Thermal Energy, Kolbjern Hejes Vei 1 A, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Chishty, M. A.
    Luled Univ Technol, Div Energy Sci, Energy Engn, S-97187 Luled, Sweden..
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luled Univ Technol, Div Energy Sci, Energy Engn, S-97187 Luled, Sweden..
    The effect of Stefan flow on Nusselt number and drag coefficient of spherical particles in non-isothermal gas flow2021In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 140, article id 103650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Stefan flow can be generated during a phase change or reactions of a particle immersed in a fluid. This study investigates the effect of Stefan flow on the exchange of momentum (drag coefficient (C-D)) and heat transfer (Nusselt number (Nu)) between the particle and bulk-fluid. Fully resolved simulations were carried out for a flow near a spherical particle immersed in a uniform bulk flow. The immersed boundary method is used for implementing fluid-solid interactions and the particle is considered as a static boundary with fixed boundary conditions. In a non-isothermal flow, the changes in thermophysical properties at the boundary layer played a role in the variation of C-D and Nu by a Stefan flow further. The previously developed model for the drag coefficient of a spherical particle in a uniform isothermal flow was modified for a uniform non-isothermal flow. The model is developed based on physical interpretation. A new model is developed for the Nusselt number for a spherical particle with a uniform Stefan flow combining available models in literature. The models are validated for Stefan Reynolds number - 8 <= Re-sf,Re- p <= 25 and particle Reynolds number of 2 <= Re-f <= 30 in gas flow (i.e. Pr approximate to 0.7).

  • 41. Jiang, M.
    et al.
    Lv, Y.
    Wang, T.
    Sun, Z.
    Liu, J.
    Yu, X.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Performance analysis of a photovoltaics aided coal-fired power plant2019In: Energy Procedia, Elsevier Ltd , 2019, p. 1348-1353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, integration of photovoltaics (PV) into a coal-fired power plant was proposed. The performance including economic analysis and environmental impact was conducted by a case study in the northwest area of China. The results show that the PV system can replace part of auxiliary power consumption using renewable electricity to reduce internal power consumption and the emissions. Due to the feature of the integration into a power plant, the curtailment of solar PV electricity does not occur compared to stand-alone PV system. The investment cost, operation and maintenance (O&M) expenditure were feasible compared with other PV power generation plants. 

  • 42.
    Jin, Ming
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Ind Engn & Operat Res, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jain, Rishee
    Stanford Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Spanos, Costas
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Elect Engn & Comp Sci, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jia, Qingshan
    Tsinghua Univ, Dept Automat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Norford, Leslie K.
    MIT, Dept Architecture, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Kjaergaard, Mikkel
    Univ Southern Denmark, Maersk McKinney Moller Inst, Odense, Denmark..
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Malardalen Univ, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Energy-cyber-physical systems2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 256, article id 113939Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Johnsson, Filip
    et al.
    Chalmers institute of technology.
    Zetterberg, Lars
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mot nettonollutsläpp: hur kan koldioxidavskiljningbidra?2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Avskiljning och lagring av koldioxid från fossila (CCS) och biogena (BECCS)utsläppskällor är av central betydelse för att nå Parisavtalets mål. Trots detta harincitament för koldioxidavskiljning hittills varit bristfälliga. EU:s utsläppshandelssystem(EU ETS) är huvudstyrmedlet för CCS, men tidigare låga priser påutsläppsrätter har begränsat teknikens tillämpning. BECCS saknar ännu styrmedel.Andra utmaningar när det gäller att få CCS och BECCS på plats inkluderar högauppstartskostnader, behov av samverkan kring infrastruktur och risk för bristandetrovärdighet som klimatlösning.För att öka trovärdigheten för CCS och BECCS krävs en tillräckligt starkklimatpolitik, så att de kompletterar – snarare än ersätter – utfasning av fossilabränslen. För att skapa bättre förutsättningar för CCS och BECCS kan det varaviktigt med statliga stöd i ett inledningsskede. Men på sikt behöver andrafinansieringsformer komma på plats, för att minska kostnaderna för staten och fåupp volymerna. Detta kan ske genom bland annat kvotplikt, EU ETS ochinternationell handel med negativa utsläpp, vilket kan kompletteras med frivilligklimatkompensation. För att kunna utforma väl fungerande styrmedel krävs enhelhetssyn på kolcykeln och att hänsyn tas till att biomassan är en begränsad resurs.

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  • 44. Johnsson, Filip
    et al.
    Zetterberg, Lars
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Towards net-zero emissions – how can carbon dioxide capture and storage contribute?2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) might play in achieving climate-change mitigation goals. The report also describes and discusses potential incentives and financing schemes for CCS, with the focus on Swedish conditions. Suggestions as to how incentives can be strengthened in Sweden are presented, as well as the challenges and obstacles for implementation and how these can be handled. The report also discusses the interactions between CCS applied to biogenic emission sources (BECCS) and alternative uses of biomass – a limited resource – and the conflicts that may arise along the way. Another area that is addressed is the way in which policies could be designed to increase incentives for CCS while minimizing dependence on fossil-based energy sources.

  • 45.
    Jurasz, Jakub
    et al.
    AGH Univ Sci & Technol, Krakow, Poland.;Malardalen Univ, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    The potential of photovoltaic systems to reduce energy costs for office buildings in time-dependent and peak-load-dependent tariffs2019In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 44, p. 871-879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical power generation across the world is facing dramatic changes for a variety of reasons related to reliability, economics and environmental concerns. Over recent years a significant increase has been observed in installed capacity of photovoltaic systems. Due to their typical seasonal and diurnal energy conversion patterns their integration into power systems creates new opportunities as well as threats. This paper intends to show how photovoltaics can contribute to reducing peak load in office buildings and thereby minimise expenditure on electricity during time- and peak-load-dependent energy prices/tariffs. An additional benefit is also provided to the national power system by reducing the need for peaking power stations. The calculations are performed for energy tariffs commonly used for commercial buildings in Poland. The simulation relies on climatic and price data for 2016. The results show significant potential for photovoltaics to reduce the peak load (from almost 60 kW to slightly over 44 kW) whilst simultaneously minimising energy costs to the building (from 1.2% up to 5.8% depending on the selected tariff). This study demonstrates the economic benefits of using PV system for reducing peak loads. A sensitivity analysis with regard to photovoltaics investment costs is carried out showing that the increasing investment costs have different impact on total energy cost depending on the considered energy tariff.

  • 46. Kabir, M. A.
    et al.
    Sunny, M. R.
    Zhang, Chi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    An approach to imbalance power management using demand response in electricity balancing market2019In: 2019 5th International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering, ICAEE 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 490-495Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imbalance power management is a key operational task for a system operator. Imbalance power is produced from the difference in electrical energy supply and demand in the real operational time which deviates power system stability. In this paper, a balancing market model using demand response is developed to mitigate imbalance power. In context, a case study of balancing market model is investigated using flexible residential load along with nord pool spot market and imbalance data Therefore, the market model is simulated in MATLAB for five weeks. The simulation result is evaluated in order to determine imbalance reduction value, flexibility benefits and demand response value. Finally, the study is concluded with the propositions of future balancing market model contribution in imbalance reduction using demand response.

  • 47.
    Karalius, Antanas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Kravchenko, Oleksandr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Elofsson, Ulla
    Bioscience and Materials division, Research Institutes of Sweden, Box 5607, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Szabo, Zoltan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Yan, Mingdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Ramström, Olof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Organic chemistry.
    Formation and Out‐of‐Equilibrium, High/Low State Switching of a Nitroaldol Dynamer in Neutral Aqueous Media2020In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 3434-3438Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Katla-Milewska, Daria
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, Gliwice 44 100, Poland, Department of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A.
    Nazir, Shareq Mohd
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Skorek-Osikowska, Anna
    Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, Gliwice 44 100, Poland, Department of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A.
    Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production with higher carbon recovery from biomass: Techno-economic assessment2024In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 300, article id 117895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the growth in the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the power generation sector worldwide and their intermittency, storage of surplus electricity is needed. The technology known as Power to X (PtX) facilitates the extended storage of excess electricity by converting it into gaseous or liquid fuels such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, or methanol. This study examines the potential of synthetic natural gas (SNG) technology as a viable energy storage solution. The paper introduces three distinct SNG production systems, all of which are based on the processes of biomass gasification and methanation. Case 1 assumes further CO2 capture from generated SNG, and Cases 2 and 3 additionally assume hydrogen production and almost complete CO2 utilization by syngas hydrogenation via the methanation process. The methanation process converts syngas and hydrogen into SNG with a high methane content (>90 vol% dry), that can be injected into the natural gas grid. The thermodynamic and economic potential of SNG production systems is presented in this work. The simulations were conducted using the AspenONE software. The methanation process was analyzed for various design conditions such as methanation temperature and pressure, and different H2:CO, and H2:CO2 ratios. The estimated cold gas efficiency of proposed SNG production systems varies from 63.27% to 77.10% and can be increased up to about 69.10–75.58% when the recovery of heat from methanation is considered. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the break-even price of SNG, considering different scenarios for the costs of feedstock, specifically biomass and electricity. The results indicate that under the most optimistic conditions, the break-even price of SNG is estimated to be 115 €/MWhSNG, 58 €/MWhSNG and 67 €/MWhSNG for Cases 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  • 49.
    Krayem, Alaa
    et al.
    Future Energy Center, Department of Energy, Building and Environment, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Future Energy Center, Department of Energy, Building and Environment, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes. Future Energy Center, Department of Energy, Building and Environment, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Open Urban Data Portal for Collaborative Research and Innovation2021In: Low Carbon Cities and Urban Energy Systems, Applied Energy Innovation Institute (AEii) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data generated in the cities have great potential to assist in studies on urban metabolism and urban energy transition. Several cities around the world have already adopted the open data portals to share data and increase their capabilities. However, much of these data are of low resolution, diverse formats, and mostly lack real energy measurements of buildings. In this paper, we address this issue by using an example of Energy Hub data portal “NRGYHUB”, an urban energy portal for open data for the city of Västerås, Sweden. Granular electricity, district heating and water consumption data were collected and matched to their corresponding buildings. The data are stored into a database and will be available for public through a GIS-driven interface. The challenges that were faced during the data access process are briefly described. The potential of NRGYHUB data portal as a tool to develop urban policies is discussed.

  • 50.
    Krüger, Andries
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Andersson, Joakim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Grönkvist, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Energy Processes.
    Cornell, Ann M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Integration of water electrolysis for fossil-free steel production2020In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 45, no 55, p. 29966-29977Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the integration of water electrolysis technologies in fossil-free steelmaking via the direct reduction of iron ore followed by processing in an electric arc furnace (EAF). Hydrogen (H2) production via low or high temperature electrolysis (LTE and HTE) is considered for the production of carbon-free direct reduced iron (DRI). The introduction of carbon into the DRI reduces the electricity demand of the EAF. Such carburization can be achieved by introducing carbon monoxide (CO) into the direct reduction process. Therefore, the production of mixtures of H2 and CO using either a combination of LTE coupled with a reverse water-gas shift reactor (rWGS-LTE) or high-temperature co-electrolysis (HTCE) was also investigated. The results show that HTE has the potential to reduce the specific electricity consumption (SEC) of liquid steel (LS) production by 21% compared to the LTE case. Nevertheless, due to the high investment cost of HTE units, both routes reach similar LS production costs of approximately 400 €/tonne LS. However, if future investment cost targets for HTE units are reached, a production cost of 301 €/tonne LS is attainable under the conditions given in this study. For the production of DRI containing carbon, a higher SEC is calculated for the LTE-rWGS system compared to HTCE (4.80 vs. 3.07 MWh/tonne LS). Although the use of HTCE or LTE-rWGS leads to similar LS production costs, future cost reduction of HTCE could result in a 10% reduction in LS production cost (418 vs. 375 €/tonne LS). We show that the use of HTE, either for the production of pure H2 or H2 and CO mixtures, may be advantageous compared to the use of LTE in H2-based steelmaking, although results are sensitive to electrolyzer investment costs, efficiencies, and electricity prices.

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