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  • 1.
    Alander, B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Capezza, A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Department of Plant Breeding, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 101, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Johansson, E.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    A facile way of making inexpensive rigid and soft protein biofoams with rapid liquid absorption2018In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 119, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel and facile method to produce inexpensive protein biofoams suitable for sponge applications is presented. The protein used in the study was wheat gluten (WG), readily available as a by/co-product, but the method is expected to work for other cross-linkable proteins. The foams were obtained by high-speed stirring of pristine WG powder in water at room temperature followed by drying. Glutaraldehyde was used to crosslink the foam material in order to stabilize the dispersion, reduce its tackiness and improve the strength of the final foam. The foams were of medium to high density and absorbed readily both hydrophobic and hydrophilic liquids. The foam structure, consisting primarily of an open pore/channel system, led to a remarkably fast capillary-driven (pore-filling only) uptake of a hydrophobic liquid (limonene). Essentially all uptake occurred within the first second (to ca. 90% of the dry weight). In a polar liquid (water), the rapid pore-filling occurred in parallel with a more time-dependent swelling of the foam matrix material. Further improvement in the foam strength was achieved by making a denser foam or adding TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibres. Soft foams were obtained by adding glycerol.

  • 2.
    Alipour, Nazanin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Interactions between polymers and the environment2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation addresses the structure and properties of a number of polymer-based materials when they come into contact with specific environments. The first part describes the migration and depletion of active substances from insecticide-impregnated polyethylene sheets in water and air at different humidity levels and higher temperatures. 

      In the second part, the structure, crystallization kinetics, and mechanical and transport properties of multilayer polymer films, consisting of metallocene (mPE) and low-density (LDPE) polyethylene layers, and in some cases also with layers of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) and a polyethylene compatibilizer were investigated. Furthermore, inhomogeneous swelling was observed in the 2-layer films containing mPE and LDPE due to differences in the uptake of n-hexane (and limonene) in the respective film layers. These differences caused a bending/curvature of the film upon exposure to the vapour. This effect was further evaluated to determine whether solvent-induced bending could be used as a passive sensor to detect the presence and content of volatile organic compounds in air (VOC). 

      The third part of this thesis describes the possibility of producing biopolymer materials based on larvae from the black soldier fly. After adding a plasticizer to the degreased larval material, protein-based biopolymer films were prepared via compression-moulding. The lipid extracted from the degreasing operation could potentially be used in various applications, such as those involving lubricants. 

      In the last part of this work the release of micro- and nano-particles were determined from a polypropylene nanoclay-composite in a commonly occurring environment for plastics (air at elevated temperature). A prototype exposure chamber was built, and a method was developed to allow aging (degradation) of the sample in this chamber and analyze the effects of aging on the sample.

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  • 3.
    Alipour, Nazanin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Enebro, Jonas
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Release of micro- and nanoparticles from a polypropylene/claynanocomposite, a methodology for controlled degradation and evaluation2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 319, p. 128761-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology was developed for qualitative assessment and characterisation of particle lossesfrom nanocomposites during service life. The methodology can be generalised to other systemswhere the material fragments during ageing and can be extended to quantitative analysis. Achamber was constructed for ageing of selected materials, which enabled effective collectionand subsequent analysis of released particles. A combination of scanning and transmissionelectron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was found to be suitable forcharacterising particles in terms of size, shape and content. The methodology was tested on acommon nanoclay composite with polypropylene as the matrix. There was no need forphysical/mechanical wear to generate particles, slow flow of air and elevated temperature ledto cracking and fragmentation of the material, and subsequent release of nanocompositeparticles containing embedded or protruding clay. The release of pure clay particles andpolypropylene particles was also detected. Using the methodology, it was observed that evenin ‘mild’ degradation conditions (pure thermo-oxidation with no wear), fillers andnanocomposite particles can be released to the environment, which is an environmental andhealth concern.

  • 4.
    Alipour, Nazanin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Vinneras, Bjorn
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, POB 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gouanve, Fabrice
    Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, Ingn Mat Polymeres, CNRS,UMR 5223, 15 Bd Andre Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Espuche, Eliane
    Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, Ingn Mat Polymeres, CNRS,UMR 5223, 15 Bd Andre Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    A Protein-Based Material from a New Approach Using Whole Defatted Larvae, and Its Interaction with Moisture2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A protein-based material created from a new approach using whole defatted larvae of the Black Soldier fly is presented. The larvae turn organic waste into their own biomass with high content of protein and lipids, which can be used as animal feed or for material production. After removing the larva lipid and adding a plasticizer, the ground material was compression molded into plates/films. The lipid, rich in saturated fatty acids, can be used in applications such as lubricants. The amino acids present in the greatest amounts were the essential amino acids aspartic acid/asparagine and glutamic acid/glutamine. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the protein material had a high amount of strongly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheets, indicative of a highly aggregated protein. To assess the moisture-protein material interactions, the moisture uptake was investigated. The moisture uptake followed a BET type III moisture sorption isotherm, which could be fitted to the Guggenheim, Anderson and de Boer (GAB) equation. GAB, in combination with cluster size analysis, revealed that the water clustered in the material already at a low moisture content and the cluster increased in size with increasing relative humidity. The clustering also led to a peak in moisture diffusivity at an intermediate moisture uptake.

  • 5.
    Aljure, Mauricio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Becerra Garcia, Marley
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Erratum to: Aljure, M.; Becerra, M.; Karlsson, E.M. Streamer inception from ultra-sharp needles in mineral oil based nanofluids2018In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 2900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [1]: i. On pages 13 and 14, the numbering of references from 17 to 30 is incorrect. References 17 to 30 should be renumbered from the original order below: 17. Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.; Wang, Z.D.; Jarman, P.; Krause, C.; Smith, P.W.R.; Gyore, A. Partial discharge behaviour of transformer liquids and the influence of moisture content. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 18th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL), Bled, Slovenia, 29 June–3 July 2014. 18. Yamashita, H.; Yamazawa, K.; Wang, Y.S. The effect of tip curvature on the prebreakdown streamer structure in cyclohexane. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 1998, 5, 396–401. 19. Dumitrescu, L.; Lesaint, O.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.; Notingher, P. Study of streamer inception in cyclohexane with a sensitive charge measurement technique under impulse voltage. J. Electrostat. 2001, 53, 135–146. 20. Pourrahimi, A.M.; Hoang, T.A.; Liu, D.; Pallon, L.K.H.; Gubanski, S.; Olsson, R.T.; Gedde, U.W.; Hedenqvist, M.S. Highly efficient interfaces in nanocomposites based on polyethylene and ZnO nano/hierarchical particles: A novel approach toward ultralow electrical conductivity insulations. Adv. Mater. 2016, 28, 8651–8657. 21. Li, J.; Du, B.; Wang, F.; Yao, W.; Yao, S. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. Phys. Lett. A 2016, 380, 604–608. 22. Aljure, M.; Becerra, M.; Pallon, L.K.H. Electrical conduction currents of a mineral oil-based nanofluid in needle-plane configuration. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), Toronto, ON, Canada, 16–19 October 2016; pp. 687–690. 23. Primo, V.A.; Garcia, B.; Albarracin, R. Improvement of transformer liquid insulation using nanodielectric fluids: A review. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 2018, 34, 13–26. 24. Jin, H.; Andritsch, T.; Morshuis, P.H.F.; Smit, J.J. AC breakdown voltage and viscosity of mineral oil based SiO2 nanofluids. In Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Montreal, QC, Canada, 14–17 October 2012; pp. 902–905. 25. Jin, H.; Morshuis, P.; Mor, A.R.; Smit, J.J.; Andritsch, T. Partial discharge behavior of mineral oil based nanofluids. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2015, 22, 2747–2753. 26. Du, Y.; Lv, Y.; Li, C.; Chen, M.; Zhong, Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Zhou, Y. Effect of semiconductive nanoparticles on insulating performances of transformer oil. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2012, 19, 770–776. 27. Dung, N.V.; Høidalen, H.K.; Linhjell, D.; Lundgaard, L.E.; Unge, M. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 2013, 46, 255501. 28. McCool, J.I. Using the Weibull Distribution; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2012. 29. Lesaint, O.L.; Top, T.V. Streamer initiation in mineral oil. part I: Electrode surface effect under impulse voltage. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2002, 9, 84–91. 30. Becerra, M.; Frid, H.; Vázquez, P.A. Self-consistent modeling of laminar electrohydrodynamic plumes from ultra-sharp needles in cyclohexane. Phys. Fluids 2017, 29, 123605. to the following, corrected numbering: 17. Dumitrescu, L.; Lesaint, O.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.; Notingher, P. Study of streamer inception in cyclohexane with a sensitive charge measurement technique under impulse voltage. J. Electrostat. 2001, 53, 135–146. 18. Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.; Wang, Z.D.; Jarman, P.; Krause, C.; Smith, P.W.R.; Gyore, A. Partial discharge behaviour of transformer liquids and the influence of moisture content. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 18th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL), Bled, Slovenia, 29 June–3 July 2014. 19. Yamashita, H.; Yamazawa, K.; Wang, Y.S. The effect of tip curvature on the prebreakdown streamer structure in cyclohexane. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 1998, 5, 396–401. 20. Becerra, M.; Frid, H.; Vázquez, P.A. Self-consistent modeling of laminar electrohydrodynamic plumes from ultra-sharp needles in cyclohexane. Phys. Fluids 2017, 29, 123605. 21. Pourrahimi, A.M.; Hoang, T.A.; Liu, D.; Pallon, L.K.H.; Gubanski, S.; Olsson, R.T.; Gedde, U.W.; Hedenqvist, M.S. Highly efficient interfaces in nanocomposites based on polyethylene and ZnO nano/hierarchical particles: A novel approach toward ultralow electrical conductivity insulations. Adv. Mater. 2016, 28, 8651–8657. 22. Li, J.; Du, B.; Wang, F.; Yao, W.; Yao, S. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. Phys. Lett. A 2016, 380, 604–608. 23. Aljure, M.; Becerra, M.; Pallon, L.K.H. Electrical conduction currents of a mineral oil-based nanofluid in needle-plane configuration. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), Toronto, ON, Canada, 16–19 October 2016; pp. 687–690. 24. Primo, V.A.; Garcia, B.; Albarracin, R. Improvement of transformer liquid insulation using nanodielectric fluids: A review. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 2018, 34, 13–26. 25. Jin, H.; Andritsch, T.; Morshuis, P.H.F.; Smit, J.J. AC breakdown voltage and viscosity of mineral oil based SiO2 nanofluids. In Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Montreal, QC, Canada, 14–17 October 2012; pp. 902–905. 26. Jin, H.; Morshuis, P.; Mor, A.R.; Smit, J.J.; Andritsch, T. Partial discharge behavior of mineral oil based nanofluids. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2015, 22, 2747–2753. 27. Du, Y.; Lv, Y.; Li, C.; Chen, M.; Zhong, Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Zhou, Y. Effect of semiconductive nanoparticles on insulating performances of transformer oil. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2012, 19, 770–776. 28. Dung, N.V.; Høidalen, H.K.; Linhjell, D.; Lundgaard, L.E.; Unge, M. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 2013, 46, 255501. 29. McCool, J.I. Using the Weibull Distribution; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2012. 30. Lesaint, O.L.; Top, T.V. Streamer initiation in mineral oil. part I: Electrode surface effect under impulse voltage. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2002, 9, 84–91. ii. On the last paragraph of page 9, the last sentence should be changed from: However, the results in [11] also show the consistent increase in the initiation voltage of prebreakdown phenomena in both polarities, as reported in Figure 11. to the following, corrected version: However, the results in [26] also show the consistent increase in the initiation voltage of prebreakdown phenomena in both polarities, as reported in Figure 11. iii. On the last paragraph of page 10, the third sentence should be changed from: Even though the existing hypotheses of the dielectric effect of NPs [8–10] were proposed for blunter electrodes (where charge generation before streamer initiation is less important [30]), they should still apply under the experimental conditions here reported. to the following, corrected version: Even though the existing hypotheses of the dielectric effect of NPs [5,6,16] were proposed for blunter electrodes (where charge generation before streamer initiation is less important [30]), they should still apply under the experimental conditions here reported. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes. The changes do not affect the scientific results. The manuscript will be updated and the original will remain online on the article webpage, with a reference to this Correction.

  • 6.
    Aljure, Mauricio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Becerra Garcia, Marley
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Streamer Inception from Ultra-Sharp Needles in Mineral Oil Based Nanofluids2018In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive and negative streamer inception voltages from ultra-sharp needle tips (with tip radii below 0.5 m) are measured in TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3, ZnO and C-60 nanofluids. The experiments are performed at several concentrations of nanoparticles dispersed in mineral oil. It is found that nanoparticles influence positive and negative streamers in different ways. TiO2, SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles increase the positive streamer inception voltage only, whilst ZnO and C-60 nanoparticles augment the streamer inception voltages in both polarities. Using these results, the main hypotheses explaining the improvement in the dielectric strength of the host oil due to the presence of nanoparticles are analyzed. It is found that the water adsorption hypothesis of nanoparticles is consistent with the increments in the reported positive streamer inception voltages. It is also shown that the hypothesis of nanoparticles reducing the electron velocity by hopping transport mechanisms fails to explain the results obtained for negative streamers. Finally, the hypothesis of nanoparticles attaching electrons according to their charging characteristics is found to be consistent with the results hereby presented on negative streamers.

  • 7.
    Antonio, Capezza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Sacchi, Benedetta
    Univ Milan, Dept Chem, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Farris, Stefano
    Univ Milan, DeFENS, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, Packaging Div, Via Celoria 2, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Preparation and Comparison of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes as Fillers in Conductive Natural Rubber for Flexible Electronics2019In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were prepared by solvent-casting suspensions of reduced graphene oxide(rGO) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by vulcanization of the rubber composites. Both rGO and CNT were compatible as fillers in the NR as well as having sufficient intrinsic electrical conductivity for functional applications. Physical (thermal) and chemical reduction of GO were investigated, and the results of the reductions were monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for establishing a reduction protocol that was useful for the rGO nanocomposite preparation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed that both nanofillers were adequately dispersed in the main NR phase. The CNT composite displays a marked mechanical hysteresis and higher elongation at break, in comparison to the rGO composites for an equal fraction of the carbon phase. Moreover, the composite conductivity was always ca. 3-4 orders of magnitude higher for the CNT composite than for the rGO composites, the former reaching a maximum conductivity of ca. 10.5 S/m, which was explained by the more favorable geometry of the CNT versus the rGO sheets. For low current density applications though, both composites achieved the necessary percolation and showed the electrical conductivity needed for being applied as flexible conductors for a light-emitting diode. 

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  • 8.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Shanker, R.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Riazanova, Anastasiia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Järn, M.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Photoresponsive and Polarization-Sensitive Structural Colors from Cellulose/Liquid Crystal Nanophotonic Structures2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 36, p. 2101519-, article id 2101519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) possess the ability to form helical periodic structures that generate structural colors. Due to the helicity, such self-assembled cellulose structures preferentially reflect left-handed circularly polarized light of certain colors, while they remain transparent to right-handed circularly polarized light. This study shows that combination with a liquid crystal enables modulation of the optical response to obtain light reflection of both handedness but with reversed spectral profiles. As a result, the nanophotonic systems provide vibrant structural colors that are tunable via the incident light polarization. The results are attributed to the liquid crystal aligning on the CNC/glucose film, to form a birefringent layer that twists the incident light polarization before interaction with the chiral cellulose nanocomposite. Using a photoresponsive liquid crystal, this effect can further be turned off by exposure to UV light, which switches the nematic liquid crystal into a nonbirefringent isotropic phase. The study highlights the potential of hybrid cellulose systems to create self-assembled yet advanced photoresponsive and polarization-tunable nanophotonics.

  • 9.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560054, India, Karnataka.
    Singha, Shuvra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Banerjee, Debashree
    Linköping University, Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Dept. of Science and Technology, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Dept. of Science and Technology, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Synthetic Plant Cuticle Coating as a Biomimetic Moisture Barrier Membrane for Structurally Colored Cellulose Films2023In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2202112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic films based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are sustainable candidates for sensors, structurally colored radiative cooling, and iridescent coatings. Such CNC-based films possess a helicoidal nanoarchitecture, which gives selective reflection with the polarization of the incident light. However, due to the hygroscopic nature of CNCs, the structural colored material changes and may be irreversibly damaged at high relative humidity. Thus, moisture protection is essential in such settings. In this work, hygroscopic CNC-based films are protected with a bioinspired synthetic plant cuticle; a strategy already adopted by real plants. The protective cuticle layers altered the reflected colors to some extent, but more importantly, they significantly reduced the water vapor permeance by more than two orders of magnitude, from 2.1 × 107 (pristine CNC/GLU film) to 12.3 × 104 g µm m−2 day−1 atm−1 (protected CNC/GLU film). This expands significantly the time window of operation for CNC/GLU films at high relative humidity.

  • 10.
    Arumughan, Vishnu
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; AvanCell, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Özeren, Hüsamettin Deniz
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. FibRe Vinnova Competence Center, KTH .
    Skepö, Marie
    Division of Theoretical Chemistry, Lund University, P. O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Nypelö, Tiina
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hasani, Merima
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; AvanCell, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; AvanCell, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; FibRe Vinnova Competence Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anion-Specific Adsorption of Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Cellulose2023In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 39, no 42, p. 15014-15021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of fiber modification step with a modern pulp mill is a resource efficient way to produce functional fibers. Motivated by the need to integrate polymer adsorption with the current pulping system, anion-specific effects in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) adsorption have been studied. The QCM-D adsorption experiments revealed that CMC adsorption to the cellulose model surface is prone to anion-specific effects. A correlation was observed between the adsorbed CMC and the degree of hydration of the co-ions present in the magnesium salts. The presence of a chaotropic co-ion such as nitrate increased the adsorption of CMC on cellulose compared to the presence of the kosmotropic sulfate co-ion. However, anion-specificity was not significant in the case of salts containing zinc cations. The hydration of anions determines the distribution of the ions at the interface. Chaotropic ions, such as nitrates, are likely to be distributed near the chaotropic cellulose surface, causing changes in the ordering of water molecules and resulting in greater entropy gain once released from the surface, thus increasing CMC adsorption.

  • 11. Asem, H.
    et al.
    Zheng, W.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Zhang, Y.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hassan, M.
    Malmström, E.
    Functional Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery by Surface Engineering of Polymeric Nanoparticle Post-Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly2021In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1045-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been comprehensively explored as potential platforms for diagnosis and targeted therapy for several diseases including cancer. Herein, we designed functional poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PAA-b-PBA) NPs using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT)-mediated emulsion polymerization via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). The hydrophilic PAA-macroRAFT, forming a stabilizing shell (i.e., corona), was chain-extended using the hydrophobic monomer n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), resulting in stable, monodisperse, and reproducible PAA-b-PBA NPs, typically having a diameter of 130 nm. The surface engineering of the PAA-b-PBA NP post-PISA were explored using a two-step approach. The hydrophilic NP-shell corona was modified with allyl groups under mild conditions, using allylamine in water, which resulted in stable allyl-functional NPs (allyl-NPs) suitable for further bioconjugation. The allyl-NPs were subsequently conjugated with a thiol-functional fluorescent dye (BODIPY-SH) to the allyl groups using "thiol-ene"-click chemistry, to mimic the attachment of a thiol-functional target ligand. The successful attachment of BODIPY-SH to the allyl-NPs was corroborated by UV-vis spectroscopy, showing the characteristic absorbance of the BODIPY-fluorophore at 500 nm. Despite modification of NPs with allyl groups and attachment of BODIPY-SH, the NPs retained their colloidal stability and monodispersity as indicated by DLS. This demonstrates that post-PISA functionalization is a robust method for synthesizing functional NPs. Neither the NPs nor allyl-NPs showed significant cytotoxicity toward RAW264.7 or MCF-7 cell lines, which indicates their desirable safety profile. The cellular uptake of the NPs using J774A cells in vitro was found to be time and concentration dependent. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin was efficiently (90%) encapsulated into the PAA-b-PBA NPs during NP formation. After a small initial burst release during the first 2 h, a controlled release pattern over 7 days was observed. The present investigation demonstrates a potential method for functionalizing polymeric NP post-PISA to produce carriers designed for targeted drug delivery.

  • 12.
    Asem, Heba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zheng, Wenyi
    Division of Experimental Cancer Medicine (ECM), Department of Laboratory Medicine (LABMED), Karolinska Institutet, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hassan, Moustapha
    Clinical Research Centrum, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation (CAST), Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Functional nano-carriers for drug delivery by surface engineering of polymeric nanoparticles post-PISAManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been comprehensively explored as potential platforms for diagnosis and targeted therapy for several diseases including cancer. Herein, we designed functional poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PAA-b-PBA) NPs using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT)-mediated emulsion polymerization via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). The hydrophilic PAA-macroRAFT, forming a stabilizing shell (i.e. corona), was chain-extended using the hydrophobic monomer n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), resulting in stable, monodisperse and reproducible PAA-b-PBA NPs, typically having a diameter of 130 nm. Two approaches of surface engineering of the PAA-b-PBA NPs post-PISA were explored; a two-step and a one-step approach. In the two-step approach, the hydrophilic NP-shell corona was modified with allyl-groups under mild conditions using allylamine in water which resulted in stable allyl-functional NPs (allyl-NPs) suitable for further bio-conjugation. Their versatility was investigated by the subsequent conjugation of a thiol-functional fluorescent dye (BODIPY-SH) to the allyl-groups using click chemistry, in order to mimic the attachment of a thiol-functional target ligand. The average size and size distribution of the corresponding NPs did not change after BODIPY-conjugation. Neither the NPs nor allyl-NPs showed significant cytotoxicity towards RAW264.7 or MCF-7 cell lines, which indicates their desirable safety profile. A one-step approach to concurrently conjugate allyl-groups and a fluorescent dye (FITC) to the preformed PAA-b-PBA NPs was investigated. The cellular uptake of the FITC-NPs using J774A cells in vitro was found to be time- and concentration-dependent. The anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, was efficiently (90%) encapsulated into the PAA-b-PBA NPs during NP formation. After a small burst release during the first two hours, a controlled release pattern over 7 days was observed. The present investigation demonstrates a potential method to functionalize polymeric NPs post-PISA to produce targeted drug delivery carriers.

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  • 13.
    Ashour, Radwa M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, ElMaadi, Cairo 11381, Egypt.
    Abdel-Magied, Ahmed Fawzy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery. Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, ElMaadi, Cairo 11381, Egypt.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Green Synthesis of Metal-Organic Framework Bacterial Cellulose Nanocomposites for Separation Applications2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 1104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials that can be designed to act as selective adsorbents. Due to their high porosity they can possess very high adsorption capacities. However, overcoming the brittleness of these crystalline materials is a challenge for many industrial applications. In order to make use of MOFs for large-scale liquid phase separation processes they can be immobilized on solid supports. For this purpose, nanocellulose can be considered as a promising supporting material due to its high flexibility and biocompatibility. In this study a novel flexible nanocellulose MOF composite material was synthesised in aqueous media by a novel and straightforward in situ one-pot green method. The material consisted of MOF particles of the type MIL-100(Fe) (from Material Institute de Lavoisier, containing Fe(III) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) immobilized onto bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers. The novel nanocomposite material was applied to efficiently separate arsenic and Rhodamine B from aqueous solution, achieving adsorption capacities of 4.81, and 2.77 mg g‒1, respectively. The adsorption process could be well modelled by the nonlinear pseudo-second-order fitting.

  • 14.
    Ayalew, Bahiru Tsegaye
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Appl Chem, Kemivagen 10, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, FibRe Ctr Lignocellulose Based Thermoplast, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Strom, Anna
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Appl Chem, Kemivagen 10, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, FibRe Ctr Lignocellulose Based Thermoplast, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Chalmers Univ Technol, FibRe Ctr Lignocellulose Based Thermoplast, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Thermoplastic lignocellulose materials: A review on recent advancement and utilities2023In: Carbohydrate Polymer Technologies and Applications, ISSN 2666-8939, Vol. 5, article id 100319Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundantly available resource in nature. However, its potential as a replacement of oil in plastic production has not been fully exploited. To reduce the carbon footprint, the use of lignocellulose biomass to produce bio-based plastics is attracting increasing global interest. The aim of this review article is to systematically summarize the recent advancements of the development of lignocellulose materials that possess thermoplastic properties, meaning they can be processed/shaped by common plastic processing techniques. The approaches used for modification of lignocellulose biomass and the properties of the modified materials, as well as factors affecting the properties of these, are discussed. The regulatory aspects and policy directions of bio-based plastics, including thermoplastic lignocellulose, are also mentioned. Current challenges of producing thermoplastic lignocellulose and the way forward to solve this are also explored.

  • 15.
    Babu, Karthik
    et al.
    Ctr Polymer Composites & Nat Fiber Res, Chennai 625005, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Rendén, Gabriella
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Kim, Nam Kyeun
    Univ Auckland, Ctr Adv Composite Mat, Dept Mech Engn, Auckland 1142, New Zealand..
    Jiang, Lin
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Qiang
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Restas, Agoston
    Natl Univ Publ Serv, Dept Fire Protect & Rescue Control, H-1011 Budapest, Hungary..
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Hakim Sabzevari Univ, Fac Engn, Dept Mat & Polymer Engn, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Forsth, Michael
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Bystrom, Alexandra
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Engn Sci & Math, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    A Review on the Flammability Properties of Carbon-Based Polymeric Composites: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 1518-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon based fillers have attracted a great deal of interest in polymer composites because of their ability to beneficially alter properties at low filler concentration, good interfacial bonding with polymer, availability in different forms, etc. The property alteration of polymer composites makes them versatile for applications in various fields, such as constructions, microelectronics, biomedical, and so on. Devastations due to building fire stress the importance of flame-retardant polymer composites, since they are directly related to human life conservation and safety. Thus, in this review, the significance of carbon-based flame-retardants for polymers is introduced. The effects of a wide variety of carbon-based material addition (such as fullerene, CNTs, graphene, graphite, and so on) on reaction-to-fire of the polymer composites are reviewed and the focus is dedicated to biochar-based reinforcements for use in flame retardant polymer composites. Additionally, the most widely used flammability measuring techniques for polymeric composites are presented. Finally, the key factors and different methods that are used for property enhancement are concluded and the scope for future work is discussed.

  • 16.
    Bettelli, Mercedes A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hu, Qisong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Plant Breeding, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 190, SE-234 22, Lomma, Sweden.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Effects of multi-functional additives during foam extrusion of wheat gluten materials2024In: Communications Chemistry, E-ISSN 2399-3669, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To broaden the range in structures and properties, and therefore the applicability of sustainable foams based on wheat gluten expanded with ammonium-bicarbonate, we show here how three naturally ocurring multifunctional additives affect their properties. Citric acid yields foams with the lowest density (porosity of ~50%) with mainly closed cells. Gallic acid acts as a radical scavenger, yielding the least crosslinked/ aggregated foam. The use of a low amount of this acid yields foams with the highest uptake of the body-fluid model substance (saline, ~130% after 24 hours). However, foams with genipin show a large and rapid capillary uptake (50% in one second), due to their high content of open cells. The most dense and stiff foam is obtained with one weight percent genipin, which is also the most crosslinked. Overall, the foams show a high energy loss-rate under cyclic compression (84-92% at 50% strain), indicating promising cushioning behaviour. They also show a low compression set, indicating promising sealability. Overall, the work here provides a step towards using protein biofoams as a sustainable alternative to fossil-based plastic/rubber foams in applications where absorbent and/or mechanical properties play a key role.

  • 17.
    Bettelli, Mercedes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Nilsson, F.
    Johansson, E.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Sustainable Wheat Protein Biofoams: Dry Upscalable Extrusion at Low Temperature2022In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 5116-5126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten was explored for producing soft high-density biofoams using dry upscalable extrusion (avoiding purposely added water). The largest pore size was obtained when using the food grade ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) as blowing agent, also resulting in the highest saline liquid uptake. Foams were, however, also obtained without adding a blowing agent, possibly due to a rapid moisture uptake by the dried protein powder when fed to the extruder. ABC's low decomposition temperature enabled extrusion of the material at a temperature as low as 70 °C, well below the protein aggregation temperature. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC), the most common food-grade blowing agent, did not yield the same high foam qualities. SBC's alkalinity, and the need to use a higher processing temperature (120 °C), resulted in high protein cross-linking and aggregation. The results show the potential of an energy-efficient and industrially upscalable low-temperature foam extrusion process for competitive production of sustainable biofoams using inexpensive and readily available protein obtained from industrial biomass (wheat gluten). 

  • 18.
    Birdsong, Björn K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hoogendoorn, Billy W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 58 11428 Stockholm Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Mid Sweden University Sundsvall 85170 Sweden.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Farris, Stefano
    DeFENS - Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences Food Packaging Laboratory, Via Celoria 2, Milan, 20133, Italy.
    Guerrero, Antonio
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, 41011, Spain.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Large-scale synthesis of 2D-silica (SiOx) nanosheets using graphene oxide (GO) as a template material2023In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 15, no 31, p. 13037-13048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene oxide (GO) was used in this study as a template to successfully synthesize silicon oxide (SiOx) based 2D-nanomaterials, adapting the same morphological features as the GO sheets. By performing a controlled condensation reaction using low concentrations of GO (<0.5 wt%), the study shows how to obtain 2D-nanoflakes, consisting of GO-flakes coated with a silica precursor that were ca. 500 nm in lateral diameter and ca. 1.5 nm in thickness. XPS revealed that the silanes had linked covalently with the GO sheets at the expense of the oxygen groups present on the GO surface. The GO template was shown to be fully removable through thermal treatment without affecting the nanoflake morphology of the pure SiOx-material, providing a methodology for large-scale preparation of SiOx-based 2D nanosheets with nearly identical dimensions as the GO template. The formation of SiOx sheets using a GO template was investigated for two different silane precursors, (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), showing that both precursors were capable of accurately templating the graphene oxide template. Molecular modeling revealed that the choice of silane affected the number of layers coated on the GO sheets. Furthermore, rheological measurements showed that the relative viscosity was significantly affected by the specific surface area of the synthesized particles. The protocol used showed the ability to synthesize these types of nanoparticles using a common aqueous alcohol solvent, and yield larger amounts (∼1 g) of SiOx-sheets than what has been previously reported.

  • 19.
    Bishnoi, Shahana
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark DTU 202, DTU Food, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Trifol, Jon
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem & Met Engn, POB 16300, FIN-00076 Espoo, Finland..
    Moriana Torro, Rosana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Mendes, Ana C.
    Tech Univ Denmark DTU 202, DTU Food, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark..
    Adjustable polysaccharides-proteins films made of aqueous wheat proteins and alginate solutions2022In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 391, p. 133196-, article id 133196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amount of wheat proteins by-products are produced during wheat starch manufacture. This work aimed to develop edible films of cast aqueous wheat proteins (WP) and alginate (Al) solutions. The investigation of the microstructure of Al/WP films revealed a more compacted cross-section and homogeneous surface, comparatively to Al films. Those properties could be modified with the increase of WP concentration from 4 to 8 % w/v, as result of electrostatic interactions between WP and Al. Furthermore, the incorporation of WP provided UltraViolet-blocking behaviour (4-fold decrease in the Ultra-Violet-B region). Additionally, the incorporation of WP in the films reduced the water solubility of the Al films. It was also found that by incorporating different amounts of WP the mechanical and Water Vapor Transmission rate (WVTR) properties could also be modified, so the film composition could be adjusted to suit different types of foods and applications (e.g. coatings and packaging).

  • 20.
    Blomfeldt, Thomas Olof John
    et al.
    KTH.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Sci, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    CELL 176-Insulation material made from wheat gluten2008In: Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 235Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Buyuktas, Duygu
    et al.
    Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430, Gülbahçe Köyü, Urla, Izmir, Turkey; DeFENS, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Food Packaging Lab., University of Milan, via Celoria 2 – I, 20133, Milan, Italy.
    Ghaani, Masoud
    Univ Milan, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, Food Packaging Lab, DeFENS, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Rovera, Cesare
    Univ Milan, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, Food Packaging Lab, DeFENS, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Carullo, Daniele
    Univ Milan, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, Food Packaging Lab, DeFENS, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Korel, Figen
    Izmir Inst Technol, Fac Engn, Dept Food Engn, TR-35430 Izmir, Turkiye..
    Farris, Stefano
    Univ Milan, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, Food Packaging Lab, DeFENS, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy.;Univ Milan, INSTM, Natl Consortium Mat Sci & Technol, Local Unit, via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    A screen-printed electrode modified with gold nanoparticles/ cellulose nanocrystals for electrochemical detection of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diamine2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e15327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing simple, cost-effective, easy-to-use, and reliable analytical devices if of utmost importance for the food industry for rapid in-line checks of their products that must comply with the provisions set by the current legislation. The purpose of this study was to develop a new electrochemical sensor for the food packaging sector. More specifically, we propose a screen -printed electrode (SPE) modified with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for the quantification of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diamine (MDA), which is one of the most important PAAs that can transfer from food packaging materials into food stuffs. The electrochemical performance of the proposed sensor (AuNPs/CNCs/SPE) in the presence of 4,4'- MDA was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The modified AuNPs/CNCs/SPE showed the highest sensitivity for 4,4'-MDA detection, with a peak current of 9.81 mu A compared with 7.08 mu A for the bare SPE. The highest sensitivity for 4,4'-MDA oxidation was observed at pH = 7, whereas the detection limit was found at 57 nM and the current response of 4,4'-MDA rose linearly as its concentration increased from 0.12 mu M to 100 mu M. Experiments using real packaging materials revealed that employing nanoparticles dramatically improved both the sensitivity and the selectivity of the sensor, which can be thus considered as a new analytical tool for quick, simple, and accurate measurement of 4,4 '-MDA during converting operations.

  • 22.
    Buyuktas, Duygu
    et al.
    Izmir Inst Technol, Fac Engn, Dept Food Engn, TR-35430 Izmir, Turkey..
    Ghaani, Masoud
    Univ Milan, Food Packaging Lab, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, DeFENS, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Rovera, Cesare
    Univ Milan, Food Packaging Lab, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, DeFENS, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Korel, Figen
    Izmir Inst Technol, Fac Engn, Dept Food Engn, TR-35430 Izmir, Turkey..
    Farris, Stefano
    Univ Milan, Food Packaging Lab, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, DeFENS, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy.;Univ Milan, Local Unit, Natl Consortium Mat Sci & Technol, INSTM, Via Celoria 2-I, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Development of a nano-modified glassy carbon electrode for the determination of 2,6-diaminotoluene (TDA)2021In: FOOD PACKAGING AND SHELF LIFE, ISSN 2214-2894, Vol. 29, article id 100714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to improve the overall performance of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the detection of 2,6-diaminotoluene (TDA), a possibly carcinogenic primary aromatic amines (PAAs) that poses a serious risk for the consumer' health because they can transfer from multilayer food packages including adhesives based on aromatic polyurethane (PU) systems, to the food. The modification of the electrode surface was made by means of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and mesopomus carbon nanoparticles (MCNs). The MWCNTs-MCNs/GCE allowed achieving the best performance in terms of sensitivity, as revealed by cyclic voltammetry - CV, with an oxidation peak of 20.95 mu A over 0.079 mu A of the bare GCE. The pH of the medium influenced the oxidation of 2,6-TDA, with highest sensitivity at pH similar to 7. Amperometry experiments led to an estimated detection limit of 0.129 mu M, and three linear ranges were obtained for 2,6-TDA: 0.53-11.37 mu M, 11.37-229.36 mu M, and 229.36-2326.60 mu M. Chronoamperometry experiments combined with Cottrell's theory allowed estimating a diffusion coefficient of 2,6-TDA of 1.34 x 10(-4) cm(2) s(-1). The number of electrons (n similar to 1) involved in the catalytic oxidation of 2,6-TDA was determined according to the Lavimn's theory. Real sample tests demonstrated that the modification of the sensor using nanoparticls allowed to obtain a highly sensitive and selective sensor, which can possibly used as an alternative analytical device for the rapid, easy, and reliable determination of 2,6-TDA.

  • 23.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. SLU.
    Sustainable Biobased Protein Superabsorbents from Agricultural Co-Products2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The preparation of sustainable protein superabsorbents from agricultural industry side-streams is reported. Wheat gluten (WG), a co-product from the ethanol/starch industry, was processed into foams with sponge-like behavior and high liquid uptake. The materials were obtained by phase-separation of aqueous WG dispersions followed by ambient drying, or by lyophilization. The use of a natural and non-toxic cross-linker (genipin) resulted in foams with high water swelling properties (~18 g/g in 10 min). The rapid swelling may be of use in bio-based foams in e.g., sanitary pads.

    As an alternative, potato protein concentrate (PPC, side-stream from the starch industry), was functionalized and prepared as particles. The liquid swelling capacity was compared after acylation with five different agents. It is shown that the PPC can be acylated to replicate the chemistry of synthetic superabsorbent polymers (SAP), showing water swelling capacity >10 g/g. The acylation (using EDTAD) of WG suspensions resulted in protein particles with water and saline uptake of 22 and 5 g/g, respectively. Limited network stability was however observed when acylating WG in low-protein suspensions. This was addressed by mixing the acylated protein with genipin, which provided a stable protein network. The process gave functionalized particles with swelling capacity ~40 g/g and ~80 % retention of swelling in centrifuge retention tests.

    The extrusion of WG showed that porous WG with water uptake of 500 % can be produced. Further, the scalability of PPC production was pilot-tested by functionalizing potato fruit juice (PFJ), containing the potato protein in its soluble state before the industrial drying used to obtain PPC. This resulted in water swelling capacities >10 g/g, which was comparable to the PPC-functionalized materials. The results pave the way for future optimization of high-throughput production techniques using protein sources in mass production of sustainable protein-based SAPs.

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  • 24.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Bettelli, Mercedes A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Jimenez-Rosado, Mercedes
    Univ Seville, Dept Chem Engn, Seville 41012, Spain..
    Guerrero, Antonio
    Univ Seville, Dept Chem Engn, Seville 41012, Spain..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Biodegradable Fiber-Reinforced Gluten Biocomposites for Replacement of Fossil-Based Plastics2023In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1341-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites based on wheat gluten and reinforced with carbon fibers were produced in line with the strive to replace fossil-based plastics with microplastic-free alternatives with competing mechanical properties. The materials were first extruded/compounded and then successfully injection molded, making the setup adequate for the current industrial processing of composite plastics. Furthermore, the materials were manufactured at very low extrusion and injection temperatures (70 and 140 degrees C, respectively), saving energy compared to the compounding of commodity plastics. The sole addition of 10 vol % fibers increased yield strength and stiffness by a factor of 2-4 with good adhesion to the protein. The biocomposites were also shown to be biodegradable, lixiviating into innocuous molecules for nature, which is the next step in the development of sustainable bioplastics. The results show that an industrial protein coproduct reinforced with strong fibers can be processed using common plastic processing techniques. The enhanced mechanical performance of the reinforced protein-based matrix herein also contributes to research addressing the production of safe materials with properties matching those of traditional fossil-based plastics.

  • 25.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Numata, Keiji
    Lundman, Malin
    Newson, William
    Olsson, Richard
    Johansson, Eva
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    High Capacity Functionalized Protein Superabsorbents from an Agricultural Co‐Product: A Cradle‐to‐Cradle Approach2020In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of superabsorbent particles from nontoxic wheat gluten (WG) protein, as an industrial co‐product, is presented. A natural molecular cross‐linker named genipin (a hydrogenated glycoside) is used together with a dianhydride (ethylenediaminetetraacetic EDTAD), to enable the preparation of a material with a network structure capable of swelling up to ≈4000% in water and ≈600% in saline solution. This represents an increase in swelling by over 10 times compared to the already highly absorbing gluten reference material. The carboxylation (using EDTAD) and the cross‐linking of the protein result in a hydrogel with liquid retention capacity as high as 80% of the absorbed water remaining in the WG network on extensive centrifugation, which is higher than that of commercial fossil‐based superabsorbents. The results also show that more polar forms of the reacted genipin are more effectively grafted onto the protein, contributing to the swelling and liquid retention. Microscopy of the materials reveals extensive nanoporosity (300 nm), contributing to rapid capillarity‐driven absorption. The use of proteins from agricultural industries for the fabrication of sustainable protein superabsorbents is herein described as an emerging avenue for the development of the next generation daily‐care products with a minimal environmental impact.

  • 26.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Glad, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ozeren, Husamettin Deniz
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Newson, William R.
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Landscape Planning Hort & Crop Prod Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Sundsvagen 10, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Landscape Planning Hort & Crop Prod Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Sundsvagen 10, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Novel Sustainable Superabsorbents: A One-Pot Method for Functionalization of Side-Stream Potato Proteins2019In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 21, p. 17845-17854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionalization of inexpensive potato protein concentrate (PPC) is presented as a simple and easily scalable method to produce bio-based superabsorbent powders. Five nontoxic acylating agents were evaluated at different reaction temperatures for solvent-free acylation of the protein. The best results were obtained for succinic anhydride (SA) and a reaction temperature of 140 degrees C. These conditions resulted in efficient functionalization that provided formation of a useful network, which allowed high uptake of fluids and little material disintegration during the uptake, that is, due to protein hydrolysis during the functionalization. The SA-acylated PPC showed increased water and saline swelling capacities of 600 and 60%, respectively, as compared to untreated PPC. The acylated potato protein also showed a saline liquid holding capacity of approximately 50% after centrifugation at 1230 rpm for 3 min, as well as a significant blood swelling capacity of 530%. This blood swelling represents more than 50% of that of a commercial fossil-based superabsorbent (SAP) used for blood absorption in sanitary health products. The swelling properties of these inexpensive protein-based acylated materials highlight their potential as sustainable SAP materials (from industrial side-streams) in applications such as daily care products that are currently dominated by fossil-based SAPs.

  • 27.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Lundman, Malin
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Newson, William
    Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulturem and Crop Production Sciences, SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp 23053, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulturem and Crop Production Sciences, SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp 23053, Sweden.
    Carboxylated Wheat Gluten Proteins: A Green Solution for Production of Sustainable Superabsorbent Materials2020In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1709-1719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functionalized wheat gluten (WG) protein particles with the ability to absorb fluids within the superabsorbent range are presented. Ethyleneditetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD), a nontoxic acylation agent, was used for the functionalization of the WG protein at higher protein content than previously reported and no additional chemical cross-linking. The 150-550 μm protein particles had 50-150 nm nanopores induced by drying. The EDTAD treated WG were able to absorb 22, 5, and 3 times of, respectively, water, saline and blood, per gram of dry material (g/g), corresponding to 1000, 150 and 100% higher values than for the as-received WG powder. The liquid retention capacity after centrifugation revealed that almost 50% of the saline liquid was retained within the protein network, which is similar to that for petroleum-based superabsorbent polymers (SAPs). An advantageous feature of these biobased particulate materials is that the maximum swelling is obtained within the first 10 min of exposure, that is, in contrast to many commercial SAP alternatives. The large swelling in a denaturation agent (6 M urea) solution (about 32 g/g) suggests that the secondary entangled/folded structure of the protein restricts protein network expansion and when disrupted allows the absorption of even higher amounts of liquid. The increased liquid uptake, utilization of inexpensive protein coproducts, easy scalable protocols, and absence of any toxic chemicals make these new WG-based SAP particles an interesting alternative to petroleum-based SAP in, for example, absorbent disposable hygiene products.

  • 28.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Muneer, Faraz
    Prade, Thomas
    Newson, William
    Das, Oisik
    Lundman, Malin
    Olsson, Richard
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    Johansson, Eva
    Revalorization of a protein side-stream: an integrated industrial approach towards non-toxic biodegradable superabsorbentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Plant Breeding Department, SLU Alnarp, Lomma, Sweden.
    Muneer, Faraz
    SLU Alnarp, Plant Breeding Dept, Lomma, Sweden..
    Prade, Thomas
    SLU Alnarp, Biosyst & Technol Dept, Lomma, Sweden..
    Newson, William R.
    SLU Alnarp, Plant Breeding Dept, Lomma, Sweden..
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå Univ Technol, Struct & Fire Engn Div, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Luleå, Sweden..
    Lundman, Malin
    Essity Hyg & Hlth AB, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Alnarp, Plant Breeding Dept, Lomma, Sweden..
    Acylation of agricultural protein biomass yields biodegradable superabsorbent plastics2021In: Communications Chemistry, E-ISSN 2399-3669, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent materials can absorb many times their weight in water, but are commonly derived from petroleum. Here, acylation of coagulated potato protein concentrate or soluble potato protein fruit juice yields an effective, mould-resistant, and biodegradable superabsorbent polymer. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) are a central component of hygiene and medical products requiring high liquid swelling, but these SAP are commonly derived from petroleum resources. Here, we show that sustainable and biodegradable SAP can be produced by acylation of the agricultural potato protein side-stream (PPC) with a non-toxic dianhydride (EDTAD). Treatment of the PPC yields a material with a water swelling capacity of ca. 2400%, which is ten times greater than the untreated PPC. Acylation was also performed on waste potato fruit juice (PFJ), i.e. before the industrial treatment to precipitate the PPC. The use of PFJ for the acylation implies a saving of 320 000 tons as CO2 in greenhouse gas emissions per year by avoiding the industrial drying of the PFJ to obtain the PPC. The acylated PPC shows biodegradation and resistance to mould growth. The possibilities to produce a biodegradable SAP from the PPC allows for future fabrication of environment-friendly and disposable daily-care products, e.g. diapers and sanitary pads.

  • 30.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Newson, William R.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 190, SE-23422 Lomma, Sweden..
    Muneer, Faraz
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 190, SE-23422 Lomma, Sweden..
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 190, SE-23422 Lomma, Sweden..
    Cui, Yuxiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Prade, Thomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Biosyst & Technol, POB 190, SE-23422 Lomma, Sweden..
    Greenhouse gas emissions of biobased diapers containing chemically modified protein superabsorbents2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 387, article id 135830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacing the current mainly fossil-based, disposable, and non-biodegradable sanitary products with sustainable, functional alternatives is an industry priority. Suggested biobased alternatives require evaluation of their actual impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We evaluated GHG emissions of biobased baby diapers as the most consumed sanitary product, using a biodegradable functionalized protein superabsorbent polymer (bioSAP) and compared them with currently used fossil-based counterparts. Assessment of the diapers also included estimated GHG emissions from the production of the biobased components, transport, and end-of-life combustion of these items. It was shown that only a few of the biobased diaper alternatives resulted in lower GHG emissions than commercial diapers containing fossil-based materials. At the same time, it was demonstrated that the production of the bioSAP via chemical modification of a protein raw material is the primary GHG contributor, with 78% of the total emissions. Reduction of the GHG contribution of the bioSAP production was achieved via a proposed recycling route of the functionalization agent, reducing the GHG emissions by 13% than if no recycling was carried out. Overall, we demonstrated that reduced and competitive GHG emissions could be achieved in sanitary articles using biobased materials, thereby contributing to a sanitary industry producing disposable products with less environmental pollution while allowing customers to keep their current consumption patterns.

  • 31.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Robert, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Lundman, Malin
    Essity Hyg & Hlth AB, SE-40503 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Newson, William R.
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Extrusion of Porous Protein-Based Polymers and Their Liquid Absorption Characteristics2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of porous wheat gluten (WG) absorbent materials by means of extrusion processing is presented for the future development of sustainable superabsorbent polymers (SAPs). Different temperatures, formulations, and WG compositions were used to determine a useful protocol that provides the best combination of porosity and water swelling properties. The most optimal formulation was based on 50 wt.% WG in water that was processed at 80 degrees C as a mixture, which provided a porous core structure with a denser outer shell. As a green foaming agent, food-grade sodium bicarbonate was added during the processing, which allowed the formation of a more open porous material. This extruded WG material was able to swell 280% in water and, due to the open-cell structure, 28% with non-polar limonene. The results are paving the way towards production of porous bio macromolecular structures with high polar/non-polar liquid uptake, using extrusion as a solvent free and energy efficient production technique without toxic reagents.

  • 32.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Sundsvagen 10,POB 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Newson, William R.
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Sundsvagen 10,POB 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Espuche, Eliane
    Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon1, Ingn Mat Polymeres, UMR CNRS 5223, Batiment Polytech 15,Bd Andre Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Johansson, Eva
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Sundsvagen 10,POB 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Superabsorbent and Fully Biobased Protein Foams with a Natural Cross-Linker and Cellulose Nanofibers2019In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 4, no 19, p. 18257-18267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of fully natural wheat gluten foams showing rapid and high uptake of water, sheep blood, and saline solution, while maintaining high mechanical stability in the swollen state, is presented. Genipin was added as a natural and polar cross-linker to increase the polarity of the protein chains, whereas cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were added as a reinforcement/stiffener of the foams, alone or in combination with the genipin. The presence of only genipin resulted in a foam that absorbed up to 25 g of water per gram of foam and a more than 15 g uptake in only 8 min. In contrast, with CNF alone, it was not possible to maintain the mechanical stability of the foam during the water uptake and the protein foam disintegrated. The combination of CNF and genipin yielded a material with the best mechanical stability of the tested samples. In the latter case, the foam could be compressed repeatedly more than 80% without displaying any structural damage. The results revealed that a strong network had formed between the wheat gluten matrix, genipin, and cellulose in the foam structure. A unique feature of the absorbent/foam, in contrast to commercial superabsorbents, was that it was able to rapidly absorb nonpolar liquids (here, n-heptane) due to the open-cell structure. The capillary-driven absorption due to the open-cell structure, the high liquid absorption in the cell walls, and the mechanical properties (both in dry and swollen states) of these natural foams make them interesting as a sustainable replacement for a range of petroleum-based foam materials, including absorbent hygiene products such as sanitary pads.

  • 33. Ceresino, E. B.
    et al.
    Kuktaite, R.
    Sato, H. H.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, E.
    Impact of gluten separation process and transglutaminase source on gluten based dough properties2019In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 87, p. 661-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the effect of the wheat gluten (WG) separation process and transglutaminase (TG) microbial source on WG dough quality, and opportunities to use these factors to tailor dough quality. Two types of gluten (harshly and mildly separated), two types of TG (commercial and novel SB6), and three TG concentrations were evaluated for effects on dough mixing properties, protein structure and solubility. Mildly separated gluten improved dough development parameters, resulting into higher values of most compared with harshly separated gluten. Despite more strongly cross-linked proteins being found in the harshly separated gluten, both gluten types showed similar levels of cross-linking at optimum mixing time, although differences in the secondary protein structure were indicated. Thus, disulfide-sulfhydryl exchange reactions were found to be promoted by mixing, although restrictions on establishment of new bonds because of prior cross-links in the material were clearly indicated. Degree of polymerization in doughs made from mildly separated gluten increased to varying extents with TG addition depending on TG source and concentration. Thus, for the first time, we show that an appropriate combination of WG separation procedure and TG source can be used to tailor gluten dough end-use properties.

  • 34.
    Ceresino, Elaine Berger
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Kuktaite, Ramune
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Sato, Helia Harumi
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Sch Food Engn, Dept Food Sci, Campinas, Brazil..
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, Box 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Processing conditions and transglutaminase sources to "drive" the wheat gluten dough quality2020In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 65, article id 102439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gluten proteins are highly impacting the quality of various gluten-based products, and transglutaminases (TGs) are used to influence the protein cross-linking. In this study we monitored the interplay of "harsh" and "mild" gluten processing for dough mixing and pasta-like sheet production and TGs from a commercial and newly sourced bacteria (SB6). Despite the harshly separated gluten presenting strongly cross-linked proteins in the beginning of the mixing, similar levels of polymerization were achieved at the optimum mixing time but with differences in the secondary protein structure. TG addition increased polymerization in wheat doughs, possibly as a result of increased glutenin polymerization, while gliadins become more soluble with SB6. This enzyme also dramatically increased polymerization in mild gluten. These results show that an adequate investigation when using TGs and gluten from various origins is necessary to adequately predict the quality in various gluten-based products, thus, of great relevance to the food industry. Industrial relevance: Currently, there is a mounting trend towards the modification of gluten proteins to improve technological features and functionality. In breadmaking, when weak Hour (low protein content) is used or general stabilization is desired for technological purposes, additives can be used to stabilize the gluten protein matrix. The use of transglutaminase (TG) has grown in popularity as they promote specific cross-linking between residues of glutamine and lysine in proteins. Another way of improving dough functionality is by increasing the oxidation of disulfide groups by adding gluten which is a co-product of the starch industry. Industrial production of gluten includes the use of heating and shear forces, which may impact gluten dough-forming ability. Thus, increased understanding of the interplay of gluten processing and the impact of choice of the TG origin in gluten dough quality is highly applicable in food industry.

  • 35.
    Chen, Yujie
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Zhen
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Chi
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Rehman, Hafeez Ur
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Hezhou
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hua
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    A gradient-distributed liquid-metal hydrogel capable of tunable actuation2021In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 421, p. 127762-, article id 127762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although thermoresponsive hydrogels have numerous applications that range from soft robots, biomedical engineering, and actuators to sensors for artificial muscles, the existing hydrogel actuators undergo only unidirectional deformation under a single thermal stimulus and suffer from slow actuation and unstable interfacial adhesion in multiple layers. Herein, hydrogels containing gradient-distributed polydopamine-coated eutectic gallium-indium (PDA-EGaIn) nanodroplets in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) matrix and thus featuring a gradient distribution of thermal conductivity and an increased barrier towards water loss are shown to be capable of a rapid and tuneable thermoresponse. Notably, whereas hydrogels with a low content of PDAEGaIn undergo rapid one-way bending under a single thermal (45 degrees C) stimulus, those with a high content of PDAEGaIn undergo sequential bidirectional (bending) actuation. The ability of these hydrogels to undergo fast and tuneable actuation under a single thermal stimulus makes them suitable for use in grab-release instruments and soft robots.

  • 36.
    Chen, Zhen
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Yujie
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Chen, Chi
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Cai, Chao
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hua
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Hezhou
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Fu, Jun
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Minist Educ, Sch Mat Sci & Engn, Key Lab Polymer Composite & Funct Mat, 135 Xingang Rd West, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China..
    Multifunctional conductive hydrogels and their applications as smart wearable devices2021In: Journal of materials chemistry. B, ISSN 2050-750X, E-ISSN 2050-7518, Vol. 9, no 11, p. 2561-2583Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, hydrogekbased conductive materials and their applications as smart wearable devices have been paid tremendous attention due to their high stretchability, flexibility, and excellent biocompatibility. Compared with single functional conductive hydrogels, multifunctional conductive hydrogels are more advantageous to match various demands for practical applications. This review focuses on multifunctional conductive hydrogels applied for smart wearable devices. Representative strategies for conduction of hydrogels are discussed firstly: (1) electronic conduction based on the conductive fillers and (2) ionic conduction based on charged ions. Then, the common and intensive research on multiple functionahties of conductive hydrogels, such as mechanical properties, conductive and sensory properties, anti-freezing and moisturizing properties, and adhesion and self-healing properties is presented. The applications of multifunctional conductive hydrogels such as in human motion sensors, sensory skins, and personal healthcare diagnosis are provided in the third part. Finally, we offer our perspective on open challenges and future areas of interest for multifunctional conductive hydrogels used as smart wearable devices.

  • 37.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Han, Tong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Process.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Achieving carbonized minitablet-shaped structures from lignin: The importance of heating rate on shape2023In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 176, p. 106260-, article id 106260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shape-anisotropic building blocks are vital in the creation of hierarchical materials in nature, as it enables directional alignment, property anisotropy and overall functionality improvement in biological materials. Likewise, the performance of carbonized superstructures could potentially be more precisely designed by using anisotropic building blocks. Lignin represents an important and sustainable alternative in the production of carbonized materials, which is due to its abundance and high carbon content (∼60%). However, to expand its utility, for producing carbonized shape-anisotropic materials, adequate synthesis and pyrolysis-protocols are essential. Here, a fractionated and acetylated Kraft lignin was used to successfully self-assemble shape-anisotropic microcapsules. Then a carbonization procedure (slow heating at 0.6 °C min−1), that retained the original shape-anisotropy after carbonization, was developed. The formation mechanism was discussed as a function of the heating rate. The overall strategy was template-free and the attained shape-anisotropies were well-defined and narrow in size distribution. This is a scalable route for achieving shape-anisotropic carbonized building blocks from lignin.

  • 38.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    High Value Use of Technical Lignin. Fractionated Lignin Enables Facile Synthesis of Microcapsules with Various Shapes: Hemisphere, Bowl, Mini-tablets, or Spheres with Single Holes2020In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 8, no 35, p. 13282-13291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anisotropic carbon-rich microcapsule morphologies are of great value in many applications including catalysis, energy storage, biomedicine, and osmosis-triggered drug delivery, due to an observed shape effect. However, high-precision synthesis, to generate large yields of well-defined anisotropic shapes, is generally challenging. Here, we show for the first time that a modified carbon-rich waste-material, a fractionated and acetylated Kraft lignin, enables facile production of large amounts of well-defined "acorn-like" microcapsules with heterogeneous shell thicknesses. This is due to the inherent physicochemical properties of the fractionated lignin at the oil/water (O/W) interface. The acorn-shape is strongly related to two distinct lignin-molecule populations, that phase separate during microcapsule formation. Fine-tuning the post-treatment conditions (pressure or hydrothermal temperature) results in a number of different microcapsule shapes; hemisphere, bowl, mini-tablets, or spheres with single holes. Further chemical modification to their surfaces is also demonstrated. The present study provides a new library of shape-anisotropic carbon-rich building blocks that open new avenues for assembling hierarchical material with a high level of complexity.

  • 39.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Sheng, Xia
    Henan Agricultural University, Coll Sci, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Self-assembled carbon spheres prepared from abundant lignin and urea for photocatalytic and self-propelling applications2021In: Carbon Trends, ISSN 2667-0569, Vol. 3, p. 100040-, article id 100040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin is a valuable bio-resource in the manufacturing of carbon-based functional materials, because of its large carbon content (~60%), various phenolic structural units, abundancy and sustainability. Here, we explored its use in photocatalytic and self-propelling applications. First, hydroxyl-abundant lignin-based carbon precursor particles, HCLSs, were produced by hydrothermal carbonization of lignin-based microcapsules (LCs). Then, by heating urea coated HCLSs, carbon spheres with a layer of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) were produced. The presence of surface available -OH groups on the HCLSs, were critical in the formation mechanism. Under visible-light irradiation, the photocatalytic spheres exhibited enhanced activity (49% of the model pollutant remained after 60 min, at 100 mW cm−2) and possessed a three times higher average removal rate constant compared to that of g-C3N4 powder. The g-C3N4 powder was obtained when heating urea only. Additionally, by introducing a Pt/Pd coating on only one side of the composite spheres, the spheres were made self-propelling in the presence of a fuel (H2O2). This work provides new insights into the preparation principles of lignin-based photocatalytic spheres for effective solar photocatalysis applications.

  • 40.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Li, Lengwan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Han, Tong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Kang, Mina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Li, Jian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Zhao, Luyao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Hierarchical soot nanoparticle self-assemblies for enhanced performance as sodium-ion battery anodes2022In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, E-ISSN 2050-7496, Vol. 10, no 16, p. 9059-9066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The drawbacks of amorphous hard carbon are its low conductivity and structural instability, due to its large volume change and the occurrence of side reactions with the electrolyte during cycling. Here, we propose a simple and rapid method to address these disadvantages; we used an emulsion solvent-evaporation method to create hierarchically structured microparticles of hard carbon nanoparticles, derived from soot, and multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes at a very low threshold of 2.8 wt%. These shrub-ball like microparticles have well-defined void spaces between different nanostructures of carbon, leading to an increased surface area, lower charge-resistance and side reactions, and higher electronic conductivity for Na+ insertion and de-insertion. They can be slurry cast to assemble Na+ anodes, exhibiting an initial discharge capacity of 713.3 mA h g(-1) and showing long-term stability with 120.8 mA h g(-1) at 500 mA g(-1) after 500 cycles, thus outperforming neat hard carbon nanoparticles by an order of magnitude. Our work shows that hierarchical self-assembly is attractive for increasing the performance of microparticles used for battery production.

  • 41.
    Das, O.
    et al.
    Wood and Bionanocomposites, Material Science Division, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 97187, Sweden.
    Kim, N. K.
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Bhattacharyya, D.
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    Johansson, E.
    Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Crop Production Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 23053, Sweden.
    Xu, Q.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210014, China.
    Holder, Shima
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Naturally-occurring bromophenol to develop fire retardant gluten biopolymers2020In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 243, article id 118552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to impart fire retardancy in wheat gluten polymer through naturally-occurring additives such as lanosol. The fire properties of lanosol were compared with two other conventional brominated fire retardants (Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane). Samples containing fire retardants and gluten were prepared through compression moulding process and then characterised for their fire and mechanical properties. All fire retardants enhanced the reaction-to-fire and thermal properties of gluten while generating V-0 (i.e. vertical position and self-extinguished) ratings in the UL-94 test. The presence of all the fire retardants increased the modulus of the gluten polymer but the fire retardant particles were detrimental for the tensile strength. Nevertheless, lanosol addition delayed ignition and lowered peak heat release rate of gluten by the maximum amount, thereby leading to relatively higher fire performance index (compared to the other fire retardants). Lanosol also allowed the gluten to create a dense char barrier layer during burning that impeded the transfer of heat and flammable volatiles. The fact that only 4 wt% lanosol was able to cause self-extinguishment under direct flame and reduce peak heat release rate by a significant 50% coupled with its inherent occurrence in nature, raises the question if lanosol can be a potential fire retardant in polymeric systems, although it is a bromophenol.

  • 42.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Babu, Karthik
    Ctr Rajiv Gandhi Inst Petr Technol, Dept Mech Engn, Assam Energy Inst, Sivasagar 785697, Assam, India..
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Saveetha Sch Engn, Saveetha Inst Med & Tech Sci, Dept Mech Engn, Chennai 602105, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Sykam, Kesavarao
    Indian Inst Chem Technol, Polymers & Funct Mat Div, Uppal Rd, Hyderabad 500007, Telangana, India..
    Tebyetekerwa, Mike
    Univ Queensland, Sch Chem Engn, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Hakim Sabzevari Univ, Fac Engn, Dept Mat & Polymer Engn, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran..
    Forsth, Michael
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Berto, Filippo
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Mech Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Fac Engn, Ctr Nanofibres & Nanotechnol, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore 117576, Singapore..
    Natural and industrial wastes for sustainable and renewable polymer composites2022In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 158, article id 112054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By-products management from industrial and natural (agriculture, aviculture, and others) activities and products are critical for promoting sustainability, reducing pollution, increasing storage space, minimising landfills, reducing energy consumption, and facilitating a circular economy. One of the sustainable waste management approaches is utilising them in developing biocomposites. Biocomposites are eco-friendly materials because of their sustainability and environmental benefits that have comparable performance properties to the synthetic counterparts. Biocomposites can be developed from both renewable and industrial waste, making them both energy efficient and sustainable. Because of their low weight and high strength, biocomposite materials in applications such as automobiles can minimise fuel consumption and conserve energy. Furthermore, biocomposites in energy-based applications could lead to savings in both the economy and energy consumption. Herein, a review of biocomposites made from various wastes and their related key properties (e.g. mechanical and fire) are provided. The article systematically highlights the individual wastes/by-products from agriculture and materials processing industries for composites manufacturing in terms of their waste components (materials), modifications, resultant properties, applications and energy efficiency. Finally, a perspective for the future of biowastes and industrial wastes in polymer composites is discussed.

  • 43.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Engn Sci & Math, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Mårtensson, Julia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Dong, Yu
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Pelcastre, Leonardo
    Jiang, Lin
    Xu, Qiang
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    The Effect of Carbon Black on the Properties of Plasticised Wheat Gluten Biopolymer2020In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 2279-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat gluten biopolymers generally become excessively rigid when processed without plasticisers, while the use of plasticisers, on the other hand, can deteriorate their mechanical properties. As such, this study investigated the effect of carbon black (CB) as a filler into glycerol-plasticised gluten to prepare gluten/CB biocomposites in order to eliminate the aforementioned drawback. Thus, biocomposites were manufactured using compression moulding followed by the determination of their mechanical, morphological, and chemical properties. The filler content of 4 wt% was found to be optimal for achieving increased tensile strength by 24%, and tensile modulus by 268% along with the toughness retention based on energy at break when compared with those of glycerol-plasticised gluten. When reaching the filler content up to 6 wt%, the tensile properties were found to be worsened, which can be ascribed to excessive agglomeration of carbon black at the high content levels within gluten matrices. Based on infrared spectroscopy, the results demonstrate an increased amount of beta -sheets, suggesting the formation of more aggregated protein networks induced by increasing the filler contents. However, the addition of fillers did not improve fire and water resistance in such bionanocomposites owing to the high blend ratio of plasticiser to gluten.

  • 44.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Johansson, E.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Loho, T. A.
    Capezza, Antonio J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Singh Raman, R. K.
    Holder, Shima
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    An all-gluten biocomposite: Comparisons with carbon black and pine char composites2019In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 120, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different charcoals (gluten char, pine bark char and carbon black) were used to rectify certain property disadvantages of wheat gluten plastic. Pyrolysis process of gluten was investigated by analysing the compounds released at different stages. Nanoindentation tests revealed that the gluten char had the highest hardness (ca. 0.5 GPa) and modulus (7.8 GPa) followed by pine bark char and carbon black. The addition of chars to gluten enhanced the indenter-modulus significantly. Among all the charcoals, gluten char was found to impart the best mechanical and water resistant properties. The addition of only 6 wt% gluten char to the protein caused a substantial reduction in water uptake (by 38%) and increase of indenter-modulus (by 1525%). It was shown that it is possible to obtain protein biocomposites where both the filler and the matrix are naturally sourced from the same material, in this case, yielding an all-gluten derived biocomposite.

  • 45.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Prakash, Chaitra
    Univ Auckland, Ctr Adv Composite Mat, Dept Mech Engn, Auckland 1142, New Zealand..
    Lin, Richard J. T.
    Univ Auckland, Ctr Adv Composite Mat, Dept Mech Engn, Auckland 1142, New Zealand..
    Nanoindentation and flammability characterisation of five rice husk biomasses for biocomposites applications2019In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 125, article id UNSP 105566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five different rice husks (RHs) having different geographical origins were characterised for their mechanical and fire reaction properties using nanoindentation and cone calorimetry, respectively. Analyses relating to ash and extractives contents, density and morphologies were also performed. The RHs had statistically similar extractives content, nanoindentation properties and peak heat release rates (PHRRs). The polypropylene-based composites made from these RHs also had insignificant differences in their tensile moduli, elongation and PHRR values. The RH inclusion conserved the tensile/flexural strengths while enhancing the moduli of the composites, as compared to the neat polypropylene. The material characteristics being ubiquitous amongst the different RH types enable the creation of biocomposites with foreseeable performance properties. Moreover, the individual nanoindentation and fire reaction properties of the RI-Is allowed the presaging of the bulk biocomposites' properties using theoretical models. Good agreements between predicted and experimental moduli/PHRRs were achieved using rule of mixtures and Halpi-Pegano models.

  • 46.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Loho, Thomas Aditya
    Univ Auckland, Dept Chem & Mat Engn, Auckland 1142, New Zealand..
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Landscape Planning Hort & Crop Prod Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Lemrhari, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    A Novel Way of Adhering PET onto Protein (Wheat Gluten) Plastics to Impart Water Resistance2018In: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 8, no 11, article id 388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an approach to protect wheat gluten (WG) plastic materials against water/moisture by adhering it with a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film using a diamine (Jeffamine (R)) as a coupling agent and a compression molding operation. The laminations were applied using two different methods, one where the diamine was mixed with the WG powder and ground together before compression molding the mixture into plates with PET films on both sides. In the other method, the PET was pressed to an already compression molded WG, which had the diamine brushed on the surface of the material. Infrared spectroscopy and nanoindentation data indicated that the diamine did act as a coupling agent to create strong adhesion between the WG and the PET film. Both methods, as expected, yielded highly improved water vapor barrier properties compared to the neat WG. Additionally, these samples remained dimensionally intact. Some unintended side effects associated with the diamine can be alleviated through future optimization studies.

  • 47.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Structural and Fire Engineering Division, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187, Luleå Sweden.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Structural and Fire Engineering Division, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187, Luleå Sweden.
    Balasubramanian, Karthik Babu Nilagiri
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, 785697, Sivasagar, Assam, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaren
    Structural and Fire Engineering Division, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187, Luleå Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    Structural and Fire Engineering Division, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187, Luleå Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Lin, Chia Feng
    Wood Science and Engineering, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-931 77 Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Mohanty, Amar
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Functionalised biochar in biocomposites: The effect of fire retardants, bioplastics and processing methods2023In: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 11, article id 100368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants, although can impart fire-safety in polymeric composites, are detrimental to the mechanical properties. Biochar can be used, in conjunction with fire retardants, to create a balance between fire-safety and mechanical performance. It is possible to thermally dope fire retardants into the pores of biochar to make it functionalised. Thus, the current work is intended in identifying a composite having the combination of the most desirable fire retardant, bioplastic, and a suitable processing method. A comparison was made between two fire retardants (lanosol and ammonium polyphosphate), bioplastics (wheat gluten and polyamide 11), and composite processing methods (compression and injection moulding). It was found that wheat gluten containing ammonium polyphosphate-doped biochar made by compression moulding had the best fire-safety properties with the lowest peak heat release rate (186 kW/m2), the highest fire performance index (0.6 m2s/kW), and the lowest fire growth index (1.6 kW/ms) with acceptable mechanical properties compared to the corresponding neat bioplastic. Thus, for gluten-based polymers, the use of ammonium polyphosphate thermally doped into biochar processed by compression moulding is recommended to both simultaneously improve fire-safety and conserve the mechanical strength of the resulting biocomposites.

  • 48.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    George, Gejo
    St Berchmans Coll, Res & Post Grad Dept Chem, Changanacheri, Kerala, India..
    Jiang, Lin
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Qiang
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Hakim Sabzevari Univ, Dept Mat & Polymer Engn, Fac Engn, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran..
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Engn Sci & Math, Div Energy Sci, Energy Engn, SE-97198 Luleå, Sweden..
    Jose, Tomal E.
    St Berchmans Coll, Res & Post Grad Dept Chem, Changanacheri, Kerala, India..
    Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Engn Sci & Math, Div Energy Sci, Energy Engn, SE-97198 Luleå, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Restas, Agoston
    Natl Univ Publ Serv, Dept Fire Protect & Rescue Control, H-1011 Budapest, Hungary..
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Forsth, Michael
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Berto, Filippo
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Mech Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    Flammability and mechanical properties of biochars made in different pyrolysis reactors2021In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 152, article id 106197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of pyrolysis reactors on the properties of biochars (with a focus on flammability and mechanical characteristics) were investigated by keeping factors such as feedstock, carbonisation temperature, heating rate and residence time constant. The reactors employed were hydrothermal, fixed-bed batch vertical and fixed-bed batch horizontal-tube reactors. The vertical and tube reactors, at the same temperature, produced biochars having comparable elemental carbon content, surface functionalities, thermal degradation pattern and peak heat release rates. The hydrothermal reactor, although, a low-temperature process, produced biochar with high fire resistance because the formed tarry volatiles sealed water inside the pores, which hindered combustion. However, the biochar from hydrothermal reactor had the lowest nanoindentation properties whereas the tube reactor-produced biochar at 300 degrees C had the highest nanoindentation-hardness (290 Megapascal) and modulus (ca. 4 Gigapascal) amongst the other tested samples. Based on the inherent flammability and mechanical properties of biochars, polymeric composites' properties can be predicted that can include them as constituents.

  • 49.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Engn Sci & Math, Mat Sci Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden.;Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Hakim Sabzevari Univ, Fac Engn, Dept Mat & Polymer Engn, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran..
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, BOX 101, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Forsth, Michael
    Luleå Univ Technol, Dept Civil Environm & Nat Resources Engn, Struct & Fire Engn Div, S-97187 Luleå, Sweden..
    Xu, Qiang
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Jiang, Lin
    Nanjing Univ Sci & Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Nanjing 210094, Peoples R China..
    Ji, Dongxiao
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore 117575, Singapore..
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore 117575, Singapore..
    The need for fully bio-based facemasks to counter coronavirus outbreaks: A perspective2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 736, article id 139611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of coronavirus pandemic has sparked a shortage of facemasks in almost all nations. Without this personal protective equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. In light of the aforementioned, it is critical to balance the supply and demand for masks. COVID-19 will also ensure that masks are always considered as an essential commodity in future pandemic preparedness. Moreover, billions of facemasks are produced from petrochemicals derived raw materials, which are non-degradable upon disposal after their single use, thus causing environmental pollution and damage. The sustainable way forward is to utilise raw materials that are side-stream products of local industries to develop facemasks having equal or better efficiency than the conventional ones. In this regard, wheat gluten biopolymer, which is a by-product or co-product of cereal industries, can be electrospun into nanofibre membranes and subsequently carbonised at over 700 degrees C to form a network structure, which can simultaneously act as the filter media and reinforcement for gluten-based masks. In parallel, the same gluten material can be processed into cohesive thin films using plasticiser and hot press. Additionally, lanosol, a naturally-occurring substance, imparts fire (V-0 rating in vertical burn test), and microbe resistance in gluten plastics. Thus, thin films of flexible gluten with very low amounts of lanosol (<10 wt%) can be bonded together with the carbonised mat and shaped by thermoforming to create the facemasks. The carbon mat acting as the filter can be attached to the masks through adapters that can also be made from injection moulded gluten. The creation of these masks could simultaneously be effective in reducing the transmittance of infectious diseases and pave the way for environmentally benign sustainable products.

  • 50.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Rasheed, Faiza
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Kim, Nam Kyeun
    Univ Auckland, Dept Mech Engn, Ctr Adv Composite Mat, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Johansson, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Fac Landscape Planning Hort & Crop Prod Sci, Dept Plant Breeding, S-23053 Alnarp, Sweden..
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, Polymer Mat Div, Dept Fibre & Polymer Technol, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The development of fire and microbe resistant sustainable gluten plastics2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 222, p. 163-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows the improvement of fire and microbe resistance of sustainable (protein) plastics (i.e. wheat gluten, WG), by using triethylene glycol diamine and dialdehyde. In addition, an anti-microbial agent (lanosol) was also used separately and in combination with the diamine/dialdehyde. The network formed by the diamine and dialdehyde, during the production of compression-moulded plates, resulted in high fire performance index, large amount of char and low thermal decomposition rate. The best fire resistance was obtained by the combination of the dialdehyde and lanosol, which also yielded a char with the intact surface. The peak-heat-release-rate of this material was only 38% of that of the pure gluten material. This material also showed anti-bacterial (E. coli) properties. However, the diamine was more effective than the combination of dialdehyde/lanosol. Gluten materials with diamine resisted mould growth during a 22 days test at a relative humidity of 100%. The gluten material with the lanosol applied to the sample surface resisted mould growth during a three-week test at both ambient temperature and 37 degrees C. Despite the relatively high contents of the difunctional reagents used (15 wt%), leading to an increased stiffness in most cases, only the network formed with glyoxal resulted in a decrease in water uptake as compared to the pure gluten material.

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