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  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, GA Delft, 2600, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Determinants of traveler satisfaction: Evidence for non-linear and asymmetric effects2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 66, p. 339-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 2.
    Abenoza, Roberto F.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Romero-Torres, J.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Y. O.
    User experiences and perceptions of women-only transport services in Mexico2020In: Gendering Smart Mobilities, Taylor and Francis , 2020, p. 188-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal safety perceptions impact upon not only travellers’ behaviour and satisfaction but may also diminish their general well-being and health. These effects are particularly negative among female travellers, a group which feels especially vulnerable from certain types of aggression. To tackle women’s personal safety problems several cities around the world introduced transport for women only. Data from Mexico City and its metropolitan area is used to examine how the characteristics of female travellers and of their trips impact upon travel satisfaction with public transport for women only for different travel modes (metro, city bus, and metropolitan BRT) and users based on their previous victimisation. This chapter demonstrates that female travellers’ appreciation of public transport for women only services varies as a function of some of their socio-demographic and travel characteristics (some age groups, trip purposes, and travel frequency). Considering the strength of the marginal effect’s coefficient from a number of ordered logit models three travel attributes should be prioritised: (1) level of satisfaction with travelling with women only, (2) reducing exposure to verbal aggressions, (3) and meeting travellers’ waiting time expectations. This study may help stakeholders identify, target, and prioritise female travellers’ groups which are least satisfied with the service. In addition, this chapter provides some policy recommendations and highlights the role of infrastructure that may help improve the overall travel experience. 

  • 3.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Impact on urban form by the localization of railway stations: Evidence from Sweden2019In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 95, article id 102362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s a number of new railway stations have been established in Sweden on new or rerouted lines, while other stations have been reconstructed at their original locations. Some stations were located in urban surroundings, others in semi-urban or peripheral locations depending on the trade of between regional speed, and local urban circumstances. The urban form consequences depending on station localisation of these transport infrastructure investments are nonetheless unknown. In order to provide a basis for future planning, this research aims to provide knowledge on urban form consequences of relocating railway stations. 13 stations were selected in a case study. Changes in urban densities from 1993 to 2013 were analysed by a combination of kernel techniques and estimation of monocentric density models. Stations within an urban and semi-urban environments show strong agglomeration tendencies. Within peripheral environments, the urban development was unclear or even negative. In an urban environment, the location of the station still attracted more urban resources compared to the location of the urban density centre. These findings should be understood in the light of a market-oriented socio-economic context since 1990th influencing the planning system and the development of urban form.

  • 4. Ait Ali, A.
    et al.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Eliasson, J.
    Pricing commercial train path requests based on societal costs2020In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 132, p. 452-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On deregulated railway markets, efficient capacity allocation is important. We study the case where commercial trains and publicly controlled traffic (“commuter trains”) use the same railway infrastructure and hence compete for capacity. We develop a method that can be used by an infrastructure manager trying to allocate capacity in a socially efficient way. The method calculates the loss of societal benefits incurred by changing the commuter train timetable to accommodate a commercial train path request, and based on this calculates a reservation price for the train path request. If the commercial operator's willingness-to-pay for the train path exceeds the loss of societal benefits, its request is approved. The calculation of these benefits takes into account changes in commuter train passengers’ travel times, waiting times, transfers and crowding, and changes in operating costs for the commuter train operator(s). The method is implemented in a microscopic simulation program, which makes it possible to test the robustness and feasibility of timetable alternatives. We show that the method is possible to apply in practice by demonstrating it in a case study from Stockholm, illustrating the magnitudes of the resulting commercial train path prices. We conclude that marginal societal costs of railway capacity in Stockholm are considerably higher than the current track access charges.

  • 5.
    Ait Ali, Abderrahman
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Malvinas väg 6, 114 28, Stockholm, Sweden; Linköping University, Luntgatan 2, 602 47, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Luntgatan 2, 602 47, Norrköping, Sweden; Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket), Solna strandväg 98, 17 154, Solna, Sweden.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Are commuter train timetables consistent with passengers’ valuations of waiting times and in-vehicle crowding?2022In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 116, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social cost-benefit analysis is often used to analyse transport investments, and can also be used for transport operation planning and capacity allocation. If it is to be used for resolving capacity conflicts, however, it is important to know whether transit agencies' timetable requests are consistent with the cost-benefit framework, which is based on passenger preferences. We show how a public transport agency's implicit valuations of waiting time and crowding can be estimated by analysing timetables, apply the method to commuter train timetables in Stockholm, and compare the implicit valuations to the corresponding passenger valuations in the official Swedish cost-benefit analysis guidelines. The results suggest that the agency puts a slightly lower value on waiting time and crowding than the passenger valuations codified in the official guidelines. We discuss possible reasons for this and implications for using cost-benefit analysis for capacity allocation. We also find that optimal frequencies are more sensitive to the waiting time valuation than to that of crowding.

  • 6.
    Ali, Taha
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Analysis of traveler’s behaviorusing electric scooters based on surveys2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, travel behavior for the users of E-scooter is analyzed based on survey questions. The main purpose of the study is to understand the nature of E-scooters users and their preferences as well as analyzing their trip parameters. The survey was designed to cover most ofthe behavioral influential factors. To represent the motives and barriers towards E-scooter adoption in greater Stockholm. it was sectioned into demographic data, general travel preferences, E-scooter choice preferences, last trip parameters and general discussion questions. Findings of this study suggested that E-scooters are mainly used by residents aged between 18-24. In Stockholm, public transportation facilities are very accessible and affordable than other private transportation modes. Travel time and travel cost were highly evaluated by the users and were considered as deciding criteria prior to making any trip in Stockholm. Findings suggested that trips made by E-scooters are mainly for fun and leisure rather than commuting and services. However, regarding normal trips, it was found that walking replaced the use of E-scooters more often. Historical data was used to validate and support the survey findings. Survey questions did not consider questions regarding impacts of COVID-19 on travel behaviours as well as the changes in travel patterns. Furthermore, the absence of highlights on research areas such as safety which covers the adoption of risky behaviours (i.e., driving on sidewalks, driving opposing traffic flow) and helmet use. The tool was used for research purposes was ‘Questionpro’.

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  • 7.
    Almlöf, Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jenelius, Erik (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    PSSST – Policies for sustainable, shared and self-drivingtransportation2022Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 8.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Will leisure trips be more affected than work trips by autonomous technology? Modelling self-driving public transport and cars in Stockholm, SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-driving technology may lead to a paradigm shift for the transport industry with shared cars available to everyone. However, this vision has increasingly been challenged as too optimistic and unsubstantiated. In this study we explore societal impacts of using this technology for both cars and public transport and investigate differences depending on geography and trip purpose. Four scenarios were designed through workshops with 130 transport experts, modelled using a conventional four-step model for Stockholm, Sweden and evaluated in terms of changes to mode choice, number of trips and person kilometres. 

    We find larger increases for non-commuting trips, i.e. service and leisure trips, than for commuting trips, questioning the view of the ‘productive work trip’ as self-driving technology’s main impact on society. As these trips are primarily made outside of rush hours, this may lead to a changed transport system. Geographic differences are substantial and heavily dependent on the cost model for car alternatives, even indicating a reduction in car travel in rural areas if private ownership would be replaced by shared cars. Furthermore, walking and cycling levels decreased in all scenarios while enhancing public transport using self-driving technology has a limited impact on ridership. 

    These results show that the impacts of self-driving technology may have varied societal impacts even within a region and may lead to increased car travel, especially off-peak. These conclusions stress the need for policies that are sensitive to both geography and time. 

  • 9.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Will leisure trips be more affected than work trips by autonomous technology?: Modelling self-driving public transport and cars in Stockholm, Sweden2022In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 165, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-driving technology may lead to a paradigm shift for the transport industry with shared cars available to every-one. However, this vision has increasingly been challenged as too optimistic and unsubstantiated. In this study we explore societal impacts of using this technology for both cars and public transport and investigate differences depending on geography and trip purpose. Four scenarios were designed through workshops with 130 transport experts, modelled using a conventional four-step model for Stockholm, Sweden and evaluated in terms of changes to mode choice, number of trips and person kilometres.We find larger increases for non-commuting trips, i.e. service and leisure trips, than for commuting trips, questioning the view of the 'productive work trip' as self-driving technology's main impact on society. As these trips are primarily made outside of rush hours, this may lead to a changed transport system. Geographic differences are substantial and heavily dependent on the cost model for car alternatives, even indicating a reduction in car travel in rural areas if private ownership would be replaced by shared cars. Furthermore, walking and cycling levels decreased in all scenarios while enhancing public transport using self-driving technology had a limited impact on ridership.These results show that the impacts of self-driving technology may have varied societal impacts even within a region and may lead to increased car travel, especially off-peak. These conclusions stress the need for policies that are sensitive to both geography and time.

  • 10.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Rubensson, Isak
    Reg Stockholm, Traf Forvaltningen Publ Transport Adm, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Who continued travelling by public transport during COVID-19?: Socioeconomic factors explaining travel behaviour in Stockholm 2020 based on smart card data2021In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 31Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The COVID-19 pandemic has changed travel behaviour and reduced the use of public transport throughout the world, but the reduction has not been uniform. In this study we analyse the propensity to stop travelling by public transport during COVID-19 for the holders of 1.8 million smart cards in Stockholm, Sweden, for the spring and autumn of 2020. We suggest two binomial logit models for explaining the change in travel pattern, linking socioeconomic data per area and travel data with the probability to stop travelling. Modelled variables The first model investigates the impact of the socioeconomic factors: age; income; education level; gender; housing type; population density; country of origin; and employment level. The results show that decreases in public transport use are linked to all these factors. The second model groups the investigated areas into five distinct clusters based on the socioeconomic data, showing the impacts for different socioeconomic groups. During the autumn the differences between the groups diminished, and especially Cluster 1 (with the lowest education levels, lowest income and highest share of immigrants) reduced their public transport use to a similar level as the more affluent clusters. Results The results show that socioeconomic status affect the change in behaviour during the pandemic and that exposure to the virus is determined by citizens' socioeconomic class. Furthermore, the results can guide policy into tailoring public transport supply to where the need is, instead of assuming that e.g. crowding is equally distributed within the public transport system in the event of a pandemic.

  • 11.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Who is still travelling by public transport during COVID-19?: Socioeconomic factors explaining travel behaviour in Stockholm based on smart card data2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has changed travel behaviour and reduced the use of public transport throughout the world, but the reduction has not been uniform. In this study we analyse the propensity to stop travelling by public transport during COVID-19 for the holders of 1.8 million smart cards in Stockholm, Sweden. We suggest two models for explaining the change in travel pattern, linking socioeconomic data with the probability to stop travelling. We find that education level, income and age are strong predictors, but that workplace type also substantially affect the propensity of public transport travel. Furthermore, we use clustering to divide the population into five separate social groups, serving as a more intuitive understanding of how the pandemic has affected different citizens’ propensity to use public transport. The results can guide policy makers on how to better tail e.g. bus supply to local demand, either through an increased understanding of differences based on the results or by further incorporating the results into a transport simulation models.

  • 12.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Frameworks for assessing societal impacts of automated driving technology2022In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 545-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have studied the impacts of automated driving (AD) technology on e.g. accident rates or CO2 emissions using various frameworks. In this paper we present an overview of previous frameworks used for societal impacts and review their advantages and limitations. Additionally, we introduce the Total Impact Assessment (TIA) framework developed by the Swedish Transport Administration and use this framework to evaluate three scenarios for AD bus services in Stockholm. We conclude that the reviewed frameworks cover different aspects of AD technology, and that e.g. cybersecurity and biodiversity are areas largely neglected. Furthermore, most frameworks assume effects to be homogenous, when there may be large variation in e.g. perceived security. The TIA framework does not manage to include all societal aspects of AD technology, but has great benefits and manages to provide important insights of the societal impacts of AD technology, especially how effects may wary for different actors. 

  • 13.
    Almlöf, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Zhao, Xiaoyun
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Frameworks for assessing societal impacts of self-driving technologyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have studied the impacts of self-driving technology on e.g. accident rates or CO2 emissions using various frameworks. In this paper we present an overview of previous frameworks used for societal impacts, and review their advantages and limitations. Additionally, we introduce the Total Impact Assessment (TIA) framework developed by the Swedish Transport Administration and use this framework to evaluate three scenarios for self-driving bus services in Stockholm. We conclude that the reviewed frameworks cover different aspects of self-driving technology, and that e.g. cybersecurity and biodiversity are areas neglected by most frameworks. Furthermore, most frameworks assume effects to be homogenous, when there may be large variation in e.g. perceived security. The TIA framework does not manage to include all societal aspects of self-driving technology, but has great benefits and manages to provide important insights of the societal impacts of self-driving technology, especially how effects may wary for different actors.

  • 14.
    Al-Mousa, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Capacity Allocation of Unmonitored Railway Yards2023In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena (TRA Lisbon 2022),14th-17th November 2022, Lisboa, Portugal, Elsevier B.V. , 2023, p. 4041-4048Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for railway service facilities in Europe has been rapidly increasing, prompting for more conflicts in capacity requests by railway undertakings. In Sweden, many of these facilities do not have any automatic monitoring possibilities and the infrastructure manager does not have accurate or real-time information about vehicles occupying the tracks. This introduces challenges in having efficient capacity utilization in such facilities. This paper proposes a framework for capacity allocation for facilities which are currently unmonitored in general and for railway yards in specific. The framework is proposed upon abessment of the feasibility of emerging technologies in monitoring railway service facilities, as well as evaluating the current capacity allocation process and the suitability of different pricing principles as a basis for a charging scheme for capacity reservation.

  • 15.
    Alvelöv, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Hellblom, Elin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Möjligheter till ökad punktlighet med hjälp av förändringar i tågtidtabell: En studie av Västra stambanan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an initiative to increase the punctuality on Swedish railways in the short term, this study on potential for increased punctuality by adjustments in the train time schedule on The Western Main Line was initiated. This was done by examining alternatives with different adjustments based on today’s timetable. The goal with the study was to increase the punctuality for the highspeed trains on The Western Main Line by five percentage points. Additionally, the study had a purpose of testing if the Swiss concept of Taktfahrplan could be applicable on a Swedish railway. The adjustments of the timetable were based on three parameters that have impact on the robustness of a timetable; dwell time, allowance and headway between trains. Those were the parameters that were tested. Based on a literature study and data on today’s delays, punctuality and dwell times for the highspeed trains, the current situation could be analyzed. The analysis showed that the trains of today’s timetable departed densely in the mornings, the biggest amounts of trains were near the big cities, punctuality had improved from 2019 to 2020, problematic points with large delays existed around Hallsberg and Falköping and the performed dwell times were longer than the planned ones for every station. Based on the analysis of today’s situation, three case alternatives as well as an alternative for comparison were created. In case alternative 1, dwell times were extended for the highspeed trains stops, in alternative 2, allowance was added and in alternative 3, headway was extended at the start stations. Time schedules for the alternatives were created in RailSys and were then simulated on a selected stretch with a disturbance filter that was based on real distributions of delay. The results did not show considerable difference in punctuality for the case alternatives. However, alternative 1 and 2 showed improvement, while the punctuality was reduced in alternative 3. A fourth alternative was created, where the two cases that had led to improvement were combined. After simulation of alternative 4, it could be established that it was the case that provided the highest improvement in punctuality. A Taktfahrplan (regular departures and station meetings) was made in RailSys that showed how well such a timetable was applicable for the highspeed trains on The Western Main Line. The results turned out well because meeting spots for these trains, at half hour traffic and the selected stopping patterns, occurred most evidently at Katrineholm C, but also at Södertälje syd, Skövde C and Herrljunga. The conclusions of the study were that none of the alternatives led to a 5-percentage increase in punctuality. However, three cases led to increased punctuality, while one case produced decreased punctuality. The parameters that produced the highest increase in punctuality was the combination of dwell time and allowance adjustments. The consequences of the adjustments were longer planned driving times for the trains and lower capacity utilization on the track. Lastly, it was established that Taktfahrplan was applicable for the highspeed trains on The Western Main Line, but further analysis would be required before implementation, especially with consideration to planning for practical introduction.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Varför behövs Nya Stambanor i Sverige?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora investeringar och omdaningar planeras i vårt transportsystem. Transporterna väntas öka starkt i framtiden och mera kapacitet måste skapas på ett hållbart sätt. Diskussionerna om vilka transportmedel som ska prioriteras, såväl som vilka objekt som vi ska satsa på, är livliga.

    En viktig fråga är satsningen på Nya Stambanor avsedda för snabba persontransporter i de redan idag hårt belastade stråken Stockholm‒Göteborg och Stockholm‒Malmö, med ett stort antal mellanliggande orter. Denna typ av järnvägar finns redan eller planeras i de flesta av världens ledande ekonomier. Syftet med att bygga nya stambanor är att öka den totala kapaciteten för person- och godstrafik på järnväg, öka punktligheten och öka tillgängligheten genom korta restider. Det ger också förutsättningar för större regionala arbetsmarknader och ökat bostadsbyggande utanför storstäderna samt en bättre miljö. Nuvarande stambanor avlastas och lämnar plats för bl a effektivare godstransporter.

    Denna rapport behandlar först järnvägens egenskaper. Järnvägen är det energieffektivaste transportmedel vi känner till, den tar liten plats och är mycket trafiksäker. Moderna tåg på modern bana är vårt snabbaste transportmedel till lands. Tåg kan bereda plats och komfort för arbete och avkoppling under resan. Enligt författarnas uppfattning bör dessa egenskaper göra järnvägen till ett förstahandsalternativ för effektiva och hållbara transporter i de segment där järnvägen är eller kan bli konkurrenskraftig.

    Prognoser och analys, samt erfaren­heter från utlandet, visar att trafikunderlaget i Sverige är tillräckligt för nya stambanor. Med de förslagna banorna väntas järnvägens totala kapacitet öka till mer än det dubbla i de mest belastade stråken. En viktig faktor är att den snabba och långsamma tågtrafiken separeras. Denna åtgärd ger ökad kapacitet, utöver vad de dubblerade spåren ger, eftersom tågen kan köra tätare efter varandra och störningarna i tågtrafiken minskar.

    Restiderna för orterna längs de nya stambanorna minskar kraftigt, i regel mellan 30 och 65%. Tillsammans med ökad turtäthet och minskade störningar ger det stora ökningar av tågtrafiken. De officiella prognoserna lider dock av ett antal allvarliga brister, varför både trafikökningen och den samhällsekonomiska lönsamheten beräkningsmässigt framstår som mindre än vad den enligt KTH:s prognoser och internationell erfarenhet borde vara.

    Författarna anser att anläggningskostnaderna är rimliga i relation till nyttorna och jämfört med vad andra omställningar i samhällets transportsystem kostar. Detsamma gäller den engångs ”klimatskuld” som uppkommer vid de flesta satsningar för framtiden inom alla trafikslag. Nya transportslag i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede (elflyg, magnettåg, Hyperloop etc) är mycket osäkra beträffande när eller om de överhuvudtaget kommer att bli tillgängliga för användning i stor skala. I flera fall skulle krävas stora tekniska genombrott som vi idag inte känner till. Vi anser att man rimligen inte idag kan besluta att satsa på helt nya tekniska system för vilka framtiden är mycket osäker. Vi kan inte heller ”vänta och se”, eftersom ytterligare kapacitet behövs redan idag och ledtiderna är långa.

    Sammanfattningsvis är de nya stambanorna ett samhällsbyggnadsprojekt och en del i transportsektorns nödvändiga omställning. De ger korta restider och effektiva transporter mellan våra största städer, liksom till och från ett stort antal mellanliggande orter, med omnejd. Godstransporterna kan också få plats på spåren och de kan utvecklas och effektiviseras. Det handlar om hållbar mobilitet för människor och gods i framtiden.

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Simuleringsbaserad analys av pendelbåtstrafik i Stockholm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an agent-based simulation model of Stockholm can be used for water transitplanning. A new route for commuters by boat was added to the model of Stockholm’s existingtransport system and evaluated. By comparing results from the model and statistic data fromTrafikförvaltningen Region Stockholm during the morning rush-hour, a scale factor was calculated.The scale factor was later used to adjust the number of travelers on the added new water transit routeas the model underestimate the number of persons who use the available public transport by boat. Thelarge size of the calculated factor made the results uncertain when trying to predict any effects the newroute would have, e.g. on congestion in the system. Simulations of the new transit line resulted in amajority of short trips, between stations were the other public transit options took longer routes. Thetransit stops close to the city centre were used the most and most trips were conducted between them.To gain an improved ability to simulate water transit, continued studies of people’s preferencesregarding mode choice appear to be crucial.

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  • 18.
    Andreolli, Raphael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Falkgrim, Eric
    Scania.
    Energy Consumption Evaluation of Emerging and Current Vehicle Fleets in Urban Logistics2024In: 10th Transportation Research Arena, Dublin, Ireland, 15-18 April 2024, 2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driverless multipurpose vehicles (DMVs) are an emerging vehicle concept for urban heavy-duty transport. However, little is known about their effect on urban road transport systems. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyse the total fleet energy consumption of DMVs for specific transport operations in urban logistics compared to heavy- duty battery and combustion vehicles. A novel electric vehicle routing problem was used to simulate in total 96 case-studies of operations with varying network and vehicle fleet properties. We found that the combustion vehicle fleets consumed significantly more energy for the same operation compared to the electric vehicle fleets. Although the DMV fleet and battery electric vehicle fleet showcased similar energy consumption for most case-studies, there were several operations where the DMV fleet consumed less energy and required a smaller fleet size. This study highlights the potential benefits of DMV fleets in urban logistics operations in terms of reducing total fleet energy consumption and fleet size.

  • 19.
    Andreolli, Raphael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Falkgrim, Eric
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    A review on real vehicle usage modelling of driverless multipurpose vehicles in vehicle routing problems2023In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 2023, Cambridge University Press (CUP) , 2023, p. 385-394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real vehicle usage rarely matches the predictions made during early phases of vehicle development and sales processes at commercial road vehicle manufacturers. The automotive industry needs multidisciplinary vehicle design methods to predict real-world vehicle operations by considering the vehicle level and the transport system level simultaneously, in a more holistic approach. The aim of this study was to analyse how realistic vehicle usage of driverless multipurpose vehicles can be modelled in Vehicle Routing Problems (VRPs) by conducting a systematic literature review. We found that real vehicle usage modelling of driverless multipurpose vehicles in VRPs mainly depended on the following elements: VRP variant, energy consumption model, energy consumption rate class, number of vehicle-specific design variables and transport system-level factors. Furthermore, we identified in the literature five classes of energy consumption rate edge behaviour in VRPs. These findings can support decision-making in the modelling process to select the most suitable combination of elements, and their level of detail for the overall modelling aim and purpose.

  • 20.
    Arefin, Shamsul
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Application of formal verification and validation on modern multi-functional signalling system2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for rail transport is increasing day by day. Rail is popular in public transport due to punctuality, regularity, and safety. However, we hear daily that rail traffic still has many problems to solve about incidents, near misses, and signal errors. One of the most important challenges is that upgrading signal systems into an automated process, which minimizes maintenance, requires less time for the application process and finds errors in the system with the support of mathematical proof before implementation. The challenge is still to prove that the system is safe in parallel with the introduction of much more functionality when using more traditional relay-based signalling systems or newer, computer-based signalling systems. Both safety-critical and non-safety-critical segments need to be verified according to the application process before the train begins its journey with the proper identification number and movement authority. On one hand, the design process is automated and on the other hand, the functionality of the signalling system is automated, which introduces the help of various subsystems in more multifunctional signalling systems. It is therefore important to improve the accuracy in order to ensure safety. Side by side, the actual signal design is necessary to apply the process correctly and detect any errors before implementation. The computer-based software facilitates this through mathematical proof and documented results in a very short time, which is developed by formal methods. 

    The division of the track into blocks for traditional signalling systems within the railway and the functionality of different multifunctional Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) signalling systems are studied. Standards are used to understand the life cycle process, software tools for verification and validation as well as assessment and proof of security throughout the process. In the application process, the model is designed with the support of several software to include requirements specifications, to draw and convert the layout drawing into software language, and to run simulation according to code generation. The software is synchronized in the signal application process to verify and validate train movements according to specifications and principles. The virtual model architecture demands the study of the functional and building blocks of the system, which are the input functions for the subsystem of software development. The functional blocks are communication, interlocking, automatic train protection, automatic train supervision, automatic train operation and additional functions. Along with that, relay, hardware, software, interface, and requirements are building block functions. 

    The approach introduces the need to implement successful formal B methods with correct evidence and structure, which is built within ladder logic or Boolean logic system. The formal B method is used for software development in railway signalling industries because of the capability and tool design for the specification, code generation, verification, and validation process. The mathematical proof and results can be an advantage to ensure safety. The PROB animator and model checker is used for the formal development process and example during the study, which proves the necessity to know the train’s front end, rear end location and train status along with specification and requirements during movement. The approach is used as an add-on to the radio block center for the central control system. The train itself provides privacy information and position report to the central control for operation and safety. The virtual blocks act as locks by communicating the status of each section. The virtual model and scenarios from THALES have been chosen for discussion of scenarios via the PROB model, which is an example of a formal B method.

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  • 21.
    ARGYRI, VASILIKI-ROUMPINI
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Life Cycle Cost Analysis for Turnouts: A comparison between straight and bent turnouts2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world with unlimited travel options, railways play a key role in transportation. In order to serve the demand at a satisfactory level, it is important that the infrastructure quality remains high and safe. Maintenance is then the most important aspect of railway infrastructure. 

    This project’s aim is to develop a tool that would evaluate the cost differences and maintenance needs during the life cycle of turnouts, bent with different radii to straight, as a crucial part of the infrastructure, not only technically but also financially. When the cost over a life cycle is provided then design decisions can get more efficient. 

    Maintenance history of seven years of preventive and corrective maintenance data from databases Bessy and 0felia for single turnouts across the Swedish rail network were studied, analysed and evaluated.  Along with information from interviews with key informants the cost driving parameters were specified. The calculator was developed in Microsoft Excel, giving results for bent turnouts in 4 different radii categories and the respective straight turnouts. An EV-UIC60-760-1:14 turnout was used as a case study for different radii categories and 3 different scenarios were run in order to test the robustness of the tool. 

    The results showed that bent turnouts have a higher life cycle cost than straight in the order of 1 to 3 mkr depending on the radius, the bigger share of which is usually the preventive maintenance cost, with the specifics to vary between the categories and different scenarios tested. The way maintenance data are registered and classified plays an important role in the analysis.

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  • 22.
    Arian Far, Farhad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Adopting Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)in Metro-Manila Railway system: Considering Sweden’s Experience and Learning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transit-oriented development (TOD) or as it is referred to in Sweden ABC (Arbete, Bostad,och Centrum which means work, housing, and city center) is the highly prevailing and excitingconcept of integrating urban communities, activities, people, buildings and public places together.This idea is primarily focused upon the creation of walkable, pedestrian-oriented communities andcycling connections, which are centered among the high-quality train systems.This research has been conducted to provide a comprehensive analysis related to theimplementation of the TOD model within Metro-Manila, by enhancing its railway network toreduce the problem of high traffic congestion and to provide a better service to a larger number ofpassengers. To carry out this research, various ideas were taken from the TOD projects that havebeen implemented within the metro system of Stockholm as an example to be used for Metro-Manila.In order to conduct this study, both quantitative and qualitative research approaches wereutilized to conduct an in-depth analysis of the current conditions of the railway transportationsystem in Metro-Manila. Within the qualitative part of this research, a SWOT analysis and adetailed comparison was also carried out to determine the efficiency of Metro-Manila and the areaswhere it needed significant improvements. Whereas, for the quantitative analysis, a survey wasconducted from both the people of Metro-Manila and Stockholm (i.e., 226 respondents) tounderstand the current situations of these railway networks more appropriately. The survey wasdesigned based on close-ended five (5) points Likert Scale questions. The results of the surveysrevealed that the respondents were mostly satisfied with the metro system in Stockholm andimplementation of the TOD concepts but usually dissatisfied with Metro-Manila railway system.An interview was also conducted with the officials of the Stockholm transport organization (SL)to gather more insight related to the problems within the railway networks.It was revealed from the analysis that Metro-Manila railway network has been facingsevere problems in terms of limited capacity, poor facilities, unavailability of trains, andmismanagement. The analysis also revealed a few problems within the Stockholm metro systemas well. However, to eradicate or mitigate these problems, several strategies and recommendationshave been proposed within this research. Based from the facts the researcher has gathered and ispresented in this research paper, it was evident that implementation of transit-orienteddevelopment, even if its limited to just the basic concepts, will highly be beneficial in botheconomic and societal aspects and its effectively and efficiently is enough to satisfy the needs ofthe daily commuters and would result in a dramatical reduction of traffic congestions.

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  • 23.
    Aviad, Efrat
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Waiting for the Magic Bus: Unravelling the Impact of Bus Design on Station Dwell Time: A Comprehensive Analysis and Case Study2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the continuous decrease in average speed in cities, public transport operators need to think of new ways to improve operation efficiency and shorten total trip durations. This thesis investigates how bus design aspects, like door configuration and engine type, can affect the station dwell time, in this case, service time per passenger. Using Nobina’s data in Malmö as a case study, a comprehensive matching algorithm was developed, and several statistical tests were utilized to explore the relationship between dwell time and contributing factors – bus design, passenger demand and behavior, boarding procedures, stop characteristics, and temporal factors. The results show that different bus types vary in level of efficiency. Moreover, engine type has a significant effect on performance, with electric vehicles performing worse in many cases. In addition, 4-door bi-articulated buses were found to be slower in handling passengers compared to their 3-door articulated counterpart, while articulation by itself did not cause any significant difference. Passenger demand was the absolute most important aspect in determining dwell time, as expected. Stop characteristics showed, in some cases, a significant effect on performance with stops located on public transport lanes as harmful to efficiency. Although not every aspect of bus design could be tested due to data limitations, the results suggest that operators should have a more through consideration of which buses to acquire for future contracts.

     

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  • 24.
    Babicheva, Tatiana
    et al.
    VEDECOM, 23 Bis Allee Marronniers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Empty vehicle redistribution in autonomous taxi services2019In: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 745-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate empty vehicle redistribution algorithms for Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) or autonomous station-based taxi services, from a passenger service perspective. We present a new index-based redistribution (IBR) algorithm that improves upon existing nearest neighbour and indexing algorithms by incorporating expected passenger arrivals and predicted waiting times into the surplus/deficit index. We evaluate six variations of algorithms on a test case in Paris Saclay, France. The results show that especially the combination of Simple Nearest Neighbours + Index Based Redistribution provides promising results for both off-peak and rush-hour demand, outperforming the other methods tested, in terms of passenger waiting time (average and maximum) as well as station queue lengths.

  • 25.
    Babicheva, Tatiana
    et al.
    VEDECOM, 77 Rue Chantiers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. VEDECOM, 77 Rue Chantiers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    LogistikCtr Goteborg AB, Osbergsgatan 4 A, S-42677 Vastra Frolunda, Sweden..
    Faul, Nadege
    VEDECOM, 77 Rue Chantiers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Empty vehicle redistribution and fleet size in autonomous taxi systems2019In: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 677-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empty vehicle redistribution algorithms for personal rapid transit and autonomous taxi services. The focus is on passenger service and operator cost. A new redistribution algorithm is presented in this study: index-based redistribution (IBR). IBR is a proactive method, meaning it takes into account both current demand and anticipated future demand, in contrast to reactive methods, which act based on current demand only. From information on currently waiting for passengers, predicted near-future demand and projected arrival of vehicles, IBR calculates an index for each vehicle station, and redistribution is done based on this index. Seven different algorithm combinations are evaluated using a test case in Paris Saclay, France (20 stations and 100 vehicles). A combination of simple nearest neighbours and IBR is shown to be promising. Its results outperform the other methods tested in peak and off-peak demand, in terms of average and maximum passenger waiting times as well as station queue length. The effect of vehicle fleet size on generalised cost is analysed. Waiting times, mileage and fleet size are taken into account while assessing this generalised cost.

  • 26.
    Badia, Hugo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Comparison of Bus Network Structures in Face of Urban Dispersion for a Ring-Radial City2020In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 233-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends the discussion about the bus network design in face of the mobility patterns associated with different degrees of urban dispersion. Based on an analytical approach, a comparison of total costs among different network structures is made for a ring-radial city, which is the other most common regular city layout. The results clarify what structure is the best solution for different scenarios of dispersion and city and transport characteristics. Simultaneously, the effect of the street pattern on the applicability of each structure is evaluated comparing these results to a previous research for a grid city. Three basic structures are analyzed: a radial scheme, a direct-trip-based network, and a hybrid structure as a transfer-based alternative. Each structure is dominant for a specific range of dispersion: radial networks for scenarios of high concentration, direct-trip-based systems for intermediate degrees of dispersion, and transfer-based structures when the activities are decentralized. However, constraints on stop capacity modify these ranges. Each structure presents a different distribution of travel time in the transit chain and agency costs that determine the most competitive alternative. In addition, the behavior of the structures and the evolution of costs regarding urban decentralization are practically the same for both street patterns: system costs grow with increasing mobility dispersion, the range of applicability for each structure is the same, and changes in their applicability when main input parameters vary are very similar. Therefore, these results make it possible to generalize about the conclusions obtained independently of the street layout.

  • 27.
    Badia, Hugo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Design and operation of feeder systems in the era of automated and electric buses2021In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 152, p. 146-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the impact of vehicle automation and electrification on the applicability of fixed routes and door-to-door services to supply a feeder transit solution in suburban areas. These technologies will modify the current cost structure of the bus system depending on how mature they are, reducing operating costs and increasing capital costs. By means of a continuum approximation model, we evaluate the performance for users and agency of the two feeder strategies in different scenarios of technological development. The results show that automation has the main impact on the applicability between the two feeder alternatives while the effects of electrification are considerably smaller. The future applicability of door-to-door trips reaches wider ranges, although this change is especially significant under some circumstances of technology, service area and users. The expansion of this range is relevant in case the automated bus is mature enough (high reduction of operating cost and low vehicle acquisition price), the areas are small, the trips are short and the value of time is high. However, the results reveal that fixed routes will remain a competitive feeder solution in a wide range of scenarios. We identify that the demand density threshold grows sharply in front of any reduction of agency costs once its value is around 200-300 pax/km2-h. Therefore, flexible services will gain applicability especially in environments that allow reaching this threshold.

  • 28.
    Badia, Hugo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Feeder Transit Services in Different Development Stages of Automated Buses: Comparing Fixed Routes versus Door-to-Door Trips2020In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier B.V. , 2020, p. 521-528Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The arrival of automated vehicles could significantly reduce the operating cost of mobility services. This fact has encouraged researchers to propose door-to-door services instead of the current fixed routes. However, a comparison between these two alternatives is required in order to identify when (depending on the development degree of the automated vehicles) and where (depending on the characteristics of the area of service) the implementation of each service is the most competitive solution. This research compares the two types of transit services to supply first/last-mile solutions in suburban areas. By means of an analytical approach, the results show that fixed routes remain the most efficient alternative unless the new technology reaches a certain degree of development that allows a high reduction of operating costs. In this case, the applicability of door-to-door services will significantly increase under certain circumstances: small areas of service, short distance trips and high values of time.

  • 29.
    Badia, Hugo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Operation of automated buses for first/last-mile solutions: fixed routes versus door-to-door trips2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Badia, Hugo
    et al.
    Serra Hunter Fellow, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UPC – Barcelona Tech, Barcelona, Spain.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Shared e-scooter micromobility: review of use patterns, perceptions and environmental impacts2023In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 811-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, a new shared micromobility service has become popular in cities. The service is supplied by a new vehicle, the e-scooter, which is equipped with a dockless security system and electric power assistance. The relatively unregulated proliferation of these systems driven by the private sector has resulted in numerous research questions about their repercussions. This paper reviews scientific publications as well as evaluation reports and other technical documents from around the world to provide insights about these issues. In particular, we focus on mobility, consumer perception and environment. Based on this review, we observe several knowledge needs in different directions: deeper comprehension of use patterns, their function in the whole transport system, and appropriate policies, designs and operations for competitive and sustainable shared e-scooter services.

  • 31. Badia Rodriguez, Hugo
    et al.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Lansner, Eric
    Montero, Mariana
    Modelling of Micromobility (M3) - Prestudy on Knowledge Needs and Usage Patterns: Final report2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last years, a new generation of shared micromobility services has rapidly proliferated in urban areas. The distinctive characteristics of these services in comparison to previous ones are dockless security systems, electric power assistance and a new device different from bicycles, the e-scooter.These technological advances reduce implementation costs and expand potential demand for these services, factors that made their promotion by private companies easy, reinforced by the lack of regulations on e-scooters.

    This type of service consists in a floating fleet of e-scooters distributed over a service area wherecompanies conduct several tasks of collection and distribution for device relocation and battery charging. Through the company’s app, users find, unlock and lock the scooters and pay for the service. The spread of these services has opened several questions about their impacts on four main areas:mobility, environment, infrastructure and urban space, and safety. The experience from several cities shows several insights about those issues:

    Travel behavior

    ▪ The average user is a 30-35 years old man who makes an average trip of one mile and ten minutes long, running at speed below 10 km/h. According to this average trip, scooters provide an intermediate solution between walking and cycling.

    ▪ Temporal distribution shows only one main peak during the afternoon, having more users during weekends, similar behavior as casual bike sharing systems, but different from the global mobility. Spatial distribution shows a similar behavior as the rest of the modes with high concentration in city centers and other attracting zones with high densities and mixed uses.

    ▪ The main trip purpose is related to free time for social or recreational activities, ranging between 30% and 75% of the total rides. The second most common purpose is related to the job and the third is shopping and errands. Based on the description of the trip purpose, current evaluations do not observe a generalized role as a feeder solution for public transport.

    ▪ Until now, this mobility service is not enough consolidated as an everyday transport solution since most of riders use the service with a monthly frequency or even less.

    ▪ These results are coherent: leisure trips are occasional and more frequent during the afternoon/evening and weekends.

    ▪ The main displaced mode is walking, around 40% of cases. In American cities, car trips also reaches similar substitution degree. However, in European cities, public transport is the second mode more affected by the arrival of scooters.

    ▪ However, taking into account the proportion of scooter trips in the global mobility, its impact is limited.

    Environmental impact

    ▪ Although scooters are introduced as a sustainable transport solution from an environmental perspective, several studies emphasize the current limitations that these services present today: short lifetimes, low daily usage rates and kilometers traveled by auxiliary vehicles for collection and distribution tasks among others. The first two are associated to a high impact for materials and manufacturing; the last one is connected to the day-to-day operation.

    ▪ The estimations of their impacts show worse results than the rest of transport modes, only surpassed by cars. For that reason, the current mode substitution does not improve the sustainability of the transport system since the proportion of eco-friendly alliance (walking, public transport and cycling) is greater than the car displacement, for European cities more than for American ones.

    ▪ To become a mode that improves the sustainability of the transport system, shared e-scooter services should achieve certain goals: lifetimes of 12-24 months, more than 10 kilometers traveled per scooter and day, fuel-efficient auxiliary vehicles, renewable energy sources, strategies to reduce the distance traveled due to operating tasks, and focused on the substitution of car trips.

    Infrastructure and urban space

    ▪ Uncontrolled spread of scooters in cities has increased the pressure on transport infrastructure and urban space, creating conflicts with other vehicles and activities. The main frictions are the obstructions due to inappropriate parked scooters and unsafe riding on sidewalks.

    ▪ However, the most common infrastructure where users ride is bike lanes, otherwise traffic lanes are the main alternative, being sidewalks the last option. Although riders would like to increase the use of segregated lanes for micromobility showing a lack of this type of infrastructure, or at least calming traffic streets.

    ▪ In the same line, most of scooter are properly parked on sidewalks (corrals or furniture areas without obstructing other flows). However, the improperly parking takes long times up to some hours, an extra factor that explains the negative perception about these new mobility services. This seems a visual or aesthetic impact more than a real obstruction issue.

    Safety

    ▪ Medical reports evidence a growth in the number of accidents where e-scooters are involved; although most of these incidents cause minor injuries, there are a certain percentage that require hospitalization and operations, even fatalities have been reported.

    ▪ The most common accident only involves the same scooter (falls, infrastructure in bad conditions, collision with objects, vehicle malfunction). However, crashes with motorized vehicles are the accidents with severe consequences.

    ▪ Accident rate estimated in different cities ranges from 20 to 70 accidents per 100,000 trips.

    ▪ Riders using a helmet are a minority, around 10% or less, even in those cities where it is mandatory.

    ▪ Since e-scooter trips are short, the perception of risk is smaller and users accept more risky behaviors.

    Measures and Policies

    ▪ From a legislative perspective, assimilation of the e-scooter as a pre-existing vehicle either bicycle or motorized vehicle.

    ▪ Cities order the uncontrolled and chaotic implementation of these services by means of constraints on the number of operators and fleet sizes. The former moves the competition off the road since companies should compete for operating permissions through a selection process. The latter meets the number of devices to the level of demand, introducing dynamic balancing depending on the usage rate of the e-scooters.

    ▪ Different fees are introduced in order to compensate some of the externalities generated by shared e/scooter services. Additionally, several fines for operators and users try to encourage a better management, safer riding and properly parking.

    ▪ Definition of non-riding (pedestrian streets, sidewalks), non-parking zones (parks, campus) and speed limits (10-30 km/h) in order to avoid conflicts with other transport modes and urban activities. Implementation of geofencing technology and speed controllers and lock-to technology in the devices to manage these measures.

    ▪ Campaigns of education and communication promoted by cities and companies.

    ▪ Equity policies to remove barriers that limit the accessibility to shared e-scooters: pricing discount programs, lack of smart technology for managing subscriptions, location of devices in areas of disadvantaged communities, vehicle design to avoid standing riding, etc.

    ▪ Development of Mobility platforms to integrated the whole fleet of shared e-scooters in only one app, and extension to other transport modes to promote the role of feeder solution for public transport.

    ▪ Systematic evaluation for the monitoring of the services, requiring collaboration from companies sharing their mobility data with cities.

    Based on the current situation of shared e-scooter services, there are still a need of knowledge at three different levels of analysis: understanding the role of this type of mobility solutions in the global transport system, guidelines and strategies for a competitive service design and operating measures for an efficient management of the day-to-day deployment.

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  • 32.
    Berg Wincent, Boel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bus Rapid Transit design parameters and their impact on travel times: A micro-simulation study of boarding and alighting through all doors and bus lanes2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has defined a national transportation objective that aim at making public transportation the most attractive option in more situations. One way of making public transportation mote attractive is to ensure that it is rapid. BRT stands for Bus Rapid Transit and is concept that ensures speed and reliability of public transportation buses through combined priority measures. However, accessibility measures for urban buses are often compromised and not prioritized politically. If the travel time saved for these measures can be estimated, then they are more likely to be implemented. Two components that have been defined for Swedish BRT were tested on a proposed BRT corridor in the city of Södertälje through microsimulation tool VISSIM. The two components that were tested was boarding and alighting through all doors and bus lanes, both median and curb side. The components were tested on a 3,2 km long corridor using the current actuated traffic signal that was currently in use. To test the measures a sensitivity analysis was carried out with three different levels of traffic and five different passenger levels for boarding and alighting. Only the impact on travel time for the bus was studied. The travel time savings from the measure boarding and alighting through all doors was 1 to 3 percent but only significant for the higher levels of boarding with an average of 12 to 15 boarding passengers per stop. The travel time savings of the curb side bus lane with actuated traffic signals was estimated to be up to 5 percent and for the median bus lane up to 11 percent in congested traffic conditions.

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  • 33.
    BERG WINCENT, BOEL
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gångavstånd för resor med elsparkcykel: En studie baserat på elsparkcykelaktören Voi Technology i Stockholm2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electric scooters, or e-scooters as they also are called, were launched in California in USA as a bike share system, in 2017. A year later, in September 2018, the Swedish company Voi Technology launched the first e-scooters in Stockholm, Sweden. Bike share systems has been around since the 1960s but has grown substantially in the past 15 years. New technical solutions have solved past problems with theft and payment in bike shares. Since e-scooters are new, there is a lack of research and knowledge about practical use. The study aims to examine how long users of e-scooters walk to utilize the service. Travel data from Voi Technology is used to determine walking distance. The distance from the location where the app was opened to the location where the e-scooter trip begun was measured. The result was also compared the walking distance of other bike share systems and travelers of public transportation. The majority of e-scooter users walk less than 100 meters and 38 per cent walk less than 50 meters. The users have the shortest walking distance in the morning and the longest in the afternoon. During the weekend's users walk further than in weekdays. The users who travel longer distances with the e-scooters don’t walk further than other users. About a third of the users walk in the opposite direction of travel, to some extent, to catch an e-scooter. That indicates that the aim of the user in general seems to be to always have the shortest possible walking distance to the e-scooter.

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  • 34.
    Berg Wincent, Boel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Shared e-scooter usage patterns: Analysis of app and trip data2024Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need to shift the urban mode distribution towards public transportation, micromobility, and shared mobility as a critical step towards achieving sustainable cities. Micromobility, with shared e-scooters as the main driving force, has sprung up as a promising mode for cities since the late 2010s. The development has been rapid and concurrent, with many changes in policy and operations. Given the novelty of the mode, there is an evident need for planners, policymakers, e-scooter companies, and researchers to understand the usage patterns and potentials of shared e-scooters. This thesis studied shared e-scooter usage patterns by analyzing app and trip data. 

    Paper I analyses the access and walking distance to shared e-scooters. The Euclidean access distance was calculated from app and trip data. A process was then developed to estimate map-based walking distance from the Euclidean distance by removing and replacing outliers with an approximated value. Finally, a catchment area for shared e-scooters was presented. The result show that the walking distance is short, the majority walking less than 95 m and 2.1 min.

    Paper II evaluated shared e-scooters as a last-minute mode, a mode used as a way to mitigate the risk of late arrival. The study was based on the assumption of a preferred arrival time, which was tested where there was an associated risk of arriving late and when the assumed preferred arrival time shifts. Trip characteristics(speeds, distances, ride times, and trip frequency) of last-minute trips were analyzed and identified. The result show a peak in the number of trips ending before the full hour of the morning. These trips are infrequent on the user level and have lower average ride duration and higher average speeds, indicating an larger share of last-minute trips.

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  • 35.
    Berg Wincent, Boel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Access distance to e-scooters: Analysis of app use and trip data in Stockholm2023In: Journal of Cycling and Micromobility Research, ISSN 2950-1059, p. 100004-100004, article id 100004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Users’ access distance to shared micromobility services is an important component of travel patterns, a determinant of travel choices, and input to determining service catchment areas. Users’ willingness to walk to shared micromobility vehicles is increasingly relevant as policymakers regulate shared free-floating e-scooters to designated parking zones. This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze access distances of e-scooters users based on e-scooter app use and trip data for Stockholm, Sweden. Euclidean access and map-based walking distances are derived from the distances between the location where the users opens the app to search for an e-scooter and the trip’s origin. Variations in access and walking distances are analyzed based on time of day, day of week, proximity to public transportation, and geographical distribution. Users walk on average 185 m and have an active walking time of 2.3 min with a median value of 95 m and 2.1 min. Shorter walking distances are observed for trips during the morning and lunch hours compared to the afternoon and at night. Furthermore, users walk slightly longer during the weekend compared to weekdays. Access distances are shortest within a 0–100 m radius to the nearest public transportation station. The suggested catchment area radius for shared e-scooters ranges from 128 m to 203 m, based on the 75th percentile of access distances. A policy implication is the importance of planning parking zones for e-scooters very close to public transportation to encourage multimodal trips.

  • 36.
    Berg Wincent, Boel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Attitudes and perceptions of shared e-scooter parking in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37. Berg Wincent, Boel
    et al.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Parkering av elsparkcyklar: Enkätundersökning av effekter och åsikter kring parkeringsförbudet i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 1 september 2022 infördes ett nationellt parkeringsförbud för elsparkcyklar i Sverige. Parkeringsförbudet innebar att delade elsparkcyklar enbart fick parkeras på särskilda platser för elsparkcyklar eller på cykelparkeringar. Stockholms stad och Malmö stad valde två olika utformningar av parkeringssystem för elsparkcyklar medan Göteborgs stad valde att skjuta upp införandet med hjälp av lokala trafikföreskrifter. Den här enkätstudien undersöker effekter och åsikter kring parkeringsförbudet hos delade elsparkcykelanvändare i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö. Syftet med enkätundersökningen är att förstå vad användarna har för önskemål och attityder relaterat till parkering av elsparkcyklar.

    Enkäten togs fram under hösten 2022 och skickades ut till elsparkcykeloperatören Vois användare i Stockholm, Malmö och Göteborg den 17 november 2022. Totalt inkom 1584 svar. 965 användare från Stockholm, 145 användare från Göteborg och 159 användare från Malmö ingick i det slutliga urvalet som låg till grund för resultatet. Majoriteten av användarna från alla tre städer var heltidsanställda, boende inom Vois driftzon, hade minst en eftergymnasial utbildning och var av manligt kön. Ålder och årsinkomst varierade något mellan städerna. Användare i Stockholm hade i genomsnitt använt 2,7 elsparkcykeloperatörer senaste sex månaderna medan användare i Göteborg hade använt 2,6 och i Malmö 2,2. I Stockholm och Göteborg var den vanligaste användarfrekvensen en eller flera gånger per vecka medan det i Malmö var en eller flera gånger per månad.

    Användarna i Stockholm och Malmö uppgav att deras användarfrekvens, gångtid och åktid för resor med elsparkcyklar hade påverkats efter 1 september. Användarna i Göteborg rapporterade i lägre utsträckning att deras användning hade påverkats efter 1 september 2022. Mest positiva till parkeringsförbudet var användarna i Stockholm medan användarna i Malmö var mest negativt inställda. Användarna upplevde att införandet av parkeringsförbudet inneburit mer ordning och reda i stadsmiljön men att tillgången till elsparkcyklar och möjligheten att parkera nära destination hade blivit sämre. Täthet och placering av parkeringszonerna för elsparkcyklar var de aspekterna som användarna i Stockholm och Malmö var mest missnöjda med samtidigt som det var de aspekterna som användarna i Göteborg ansåg som viktigast.

    Utöver täthet och placering frågades även användarna om storlek, tydlighet och enkelhet i parkeringssystemet samt hur operatörens app användes för att hitta parkering. Genomgående var användarna i Stockholm mindre missnöjda med utformningen av parkeringssystemet i jämförelse med användarna i Malmö. Det tolkas som att Stockholms stad har lyckats bättre med elsparkcykelparkering ur ett användarperspektiv. Fler än hälften av användarna i alla tre städer hade gjort en kombinerad resa med elsparkcykel och kollektivtrafik. Användarna i Malmö hade i högst utsträckning gjort multimodala resor med elsparkcykel och kollektivtrafik, men uppgav i lägst utsträckning att det var lätt att parkera vid en hållplats eller station. Möjligheten att parkera vid kollektivtrafik är viktigt att beakta om uppmuntran till multimodala resor med elsparkcyklar och kollektivtrafik är av prioritet.

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  • 38.
    Berg Wincent, Boel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Shared e-scooters: A last-minute mode?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Berg Wincent, Boel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Shared E-Scooters: The Last-Minute Mode2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Berrada, Jaafar
    et al.
    Institut VEDECOM.
    Andréasson, Ingmar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Leurent, Fabien
    Demand modelling of autonomous shared taxis mixed with scheduled transit2019In: Proceedings of the 98th Transportation Research Board (TRB) Annual Meeting, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous taxis (aTaxis) are promising to restructure the urban mobility universe: dispatching vehicles on roads to minimize congestion, reducing accidents and thus increasing savings of travel time, improving the transit level of service and reducing operating costs of public modes, thus limiting public subsidies. The simulation of demand and supply for on-demand services while considering the interaction with other modes has not yet been sufficiently investigated.

    This paper proposes a framework for simulating on-demand aTaxi services, while considering interactions with scheduled transit. In particular, it is coupling an agent-based aTaxi model (VIPSIM) and the four-step model of VISUM. The framework is applied to a network in the Paris metropolitan area where aTaxis are implemented to replace a BRT service. Transfers between aTaxis and BRT are considered and a combined utility for public modes is calculated. The convergence between the two models is then performed. Results of the application case show that aTaxis improve the mobility performances of public transit. A supply management analysis proved that 20 aTaxis provides high service efficiency and increase the service profitability. Using 10 more vehicles attracts 15 more passengers. With 65 aTaxis, the demand is 10% higher with the same profit as the BRT.

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  • 41.
    Bexhorn, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kvarnefalk, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Wi-Fi fingerprinting as a mean to measure building occupancy: A case study in an office environment2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The task of collecting visitor data in an indoor environment and therein determining the occupancy of a building is an extensive task. Conventional methods are expensive, time-consuming, and often lack the ability to produce data in longer time series. Further, they often require disruption of the studied area as equipment must be deployed. The use-case for such data sets is often also limited as it can only reflect a certain state-of-time in the studied space.The thesis seeks to investigate if using a Wi-Fi tracking system as a methodology to measure building occupancy through passive data collection is a viable method. Through continuous monitoring over an extended period, it seeks to do a trend analysis over a limited time. The collected data reveals insights into peak usage periods and commonly used areas. Although not used in this study, this methodology could leverage existing Wi-Fi infrastructure eliminating the need of installing additional equipment.In the case study, temporary wireless access points were deployed in the office which was studied. Data was then gathered after a month-long measurement period. This data was analyzed, and patterns were discovered showing higher occupation in the beginning of weeks and declining towards weekends. The focus of the study was to see if the technology would work in this context as it had previously not been tested in office environments.The results showed that there were some differences between data predicted by the Wi-Fi tracking system and that observed by the authors while conducting manual counts for validation during certain hours in the office. This may stem from faulty calibration of the model or settings affecting the signal strength required for the system to register devices as visitors. Mainly the conclusions are bound to the thesis subject and not placed in a larger context, however applications in public transport are suggested.The study displays the possibilities offered by using Wi-Fi tracking systems as a method to collect and analyze data in indoor environments. Further study of the subject would likely find a better model calibration able to predict more accurate results. Such results could be used and integrated with HVAC control systems to contribute to energy savings.

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  • 42.
    Bexhorn, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Tägtström, Ninnie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Framtagning av en generisk databas för trafikdata: En analys av olycksbilden kring trafikplatser2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the analysis and investigation of traffic-related topics users must be responsible for locating relevant and current data. There are no guarantees that all necessary information can be combined in the requested way. This puts higher demand on knowledge in data management when it comes to preventing accidents in traffic.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility to combine different data to create a generic database that can be used in work with road safety. With the help of this database, the accident statistics for traffic locations in Region Västmanland have been examined in an attempt to identify contributing causes of accidents.

    The focus has been on developing and using a generic database. By collecting and adapting data from NVDB and STRADA, different types of analyzes have been made in the programs QGIS and R, with the aim of finding connections between parameters and traffic accidents. In addition, three interviews were conducted with relevant experts.

    The result was that today it is not realistic to be able to create a generic database containing the large amount of information that is requested. It is because the structure of the data needs to be updated and adapted. But also because there is a lack of technical knowledge in the field to automate the process sought.

    The results showed that regarding the it was not possible to find statistical correlations with traffic accidents. The wide spread in traffic accidents make it difficult to find specific correlations between individual factors and accidents. Therefore the study suggests that more interchanges get integrated into the database or an extended statistical analysis of the current database.

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  • 43.
    Beza, Abebe Dress
    et al.
    Bahir Dar Univ, Fac Civil & Water Resources Engn, Bahir Dar Inst Technol, POB 26, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.;Univ Mons, Fac Engn, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Zefreh, Mohammad Maghrour
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Torok, Adam
    Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Dept Transport Technol & Econ, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.;KTI Inst Transport Sci, Dept Transport Policy & Econ, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary..
    Impacts of Different Types of Automated Vehicles on Traffic Flow Characteristics and Emissions: A Microscopic Traffic Simulation of Different Freeway Segments2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 6669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different types of automated vehicles (AVs) have emerged promptly in recent years, each of which might have different potential impacts on traffic flow and emissions. In this paper, the impacts of autonomous automated vehicles (AAVs) and cooperative automated vehicles (CAVs) on capacity, average traffic speed, average travel time per vehicle, and average delay per vehicle, as well as traffic emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM10) have been investigated through a microsimulation study in VISSIM. Moreover, the moderating effects of different AV market penetration, and different freeway segments on AV's impacts have been studied. The simulation results show that CAVs have a higher impact on capacity improvement regardless of the type of freeway segment. Compared to other scenarios, CAVs at 100% market penetration in basic freeway segments have a greater capacity improvement than AAVs. Furthermore, merging, diverging, and weaving segments showed a moderating effect on capacity improvements, particularly on CAVs' impact, with merging and weaving having the highest moderating effect on CAVs' capacity improvement potential. Taking average delay per vehicle, average traffic speed, and average travel time per vehicle into account, simulation results were diverse across the investigated scenarios. The emission estimation results show that 100% AAV scenarios had the best performance in emission reductions in basic freeway and merging sections, while other scenarios increased emissions in diverging and weaving sections.

  • 44.
    Beza, Abebe Dress
    et al.
    Bahir Dar Univ, Bahir Dar Inst Technol, Fac Civil & Water Resources Engn, POB 26, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Zefreh, Mohammad Maghrour
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Torok, Adam
    Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Dept Transport Technol & Econ, BME, Muegyetem rkp 3, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary.;KTI, Inst Transport Sci, Directorate Strategy Res & Dev & Innovat, Than Karoly str 3 5, Budapest, Hungary..
    Mekonnen, Anteneh Afework
    Budapest Univ Technol & Econ, Dept Transport Technol & Econ, BME, Muegyetem rkp 3, H-1111 Budapest, Hungary..
    How PTV Vissim Has Been Calibrated for the Simulation of Automated Vehicles in Literature?2022In: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, Vol. 2022, article id 2548175Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, in the literature, microscopic simulation is one of the most attractive methods in impact assessment of automated vehicles (AVs) on traffic flow. AVs can be divided into different categories, each having different driving characteristics. Hence, calibrating microscopic simulators for different AV categories could be challenging in AVs' impact assessment. The PTV Vissim microscopic traffic simulation software has been calibrated for simulating diverse types of AVs in a large body of literature. There are two main streams of studies in literature adapting AVs' driving behaviors in Vissim following either internal (i.e., adjusting the parameters of the Vissim's default driving behavior models) or external (i.e., adapting AVs' behavior through external VISSIM interfaces) modeling approaches. The current paper investigates how the PTV Vissim has been internally calibrated for the simulation of different types of AVs and compares the calibrated values in the literature with default values introduced in the recent version of PTV Vissim. In the present paper, the reviewed studies are partitioned into two main categories according to the characteristics of the studied AVs, the studies focused on autonomous automated vehicles (AAVs) and the ones focused on cooperative automated vehicles (CAVs). Our findings indicate that the literature expects a lower value for parameters including standstill distance (CC0), headway time (CC1), following variation (CC2), the threshold for entering "following" (CC3), negative/positive following thresholds (CC4/CC5), speed dependency of oscillation (CC6), oscillation acceleration (CC7), safety distance reduction factor (SDRF), and minimum headway front/rear (MinHW) for AVs than conventional vehicles (CVs). Besides, the literature expects higher values for parameters including standstill acceleration (CC8), acceleration at 80 km/h (CC9), looking distances, and maximum deceleration for cooperative braking (MaxDCB) for AVs. When cautious AVs are introduced, deterring effects are expected in the literature (e.g., higher CC0). Moreover, CAVs can have higher looking distance values compared with AAVs.

  • 45.
    Bjärkmar, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Bicyclists' speeds: An evaluation of how bicycle facilities' geometric factors affect bicyclists' speeds2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increase of cycling in cities has many positive effects: increased traffic safety, better public health, decreased noise, and air, and climate impact. All these effects contribute to reach the set sustainability goals, both on global and national and local level. The attractiveness of cycling affects whether to choose the bicycle as a transport mode or not. One way to increase the attractiveness of cycling is to improve the mobility of cyclists. The aim of this study was to improve methods that evaluates mobility of cyclists, methods that contributes to understand how bicycle facilities with good mobility are best designed, which thus increases the attractiveness of cycling.

    In this study a method that combines a visual analysis and a statistical analysis has been developed. The method compare bicycle facilities’ geometric factors with cyclists’ deviations from their desired speeds, which in this study is assumed to be every cyclists’ mean speed of each trip. This method gives a visual picture of how cyclists’ mobility differs between different streets in the city, and the big amount of data allows results with high significance level. An improvement of the method, that would better combine speeds’ exact location with the street segments, could improve the level of description of geometric factors’ effects on cyclists’ speeds.

    The results from this method, which evaluates cyclists’ mobility on bicycle facilities, shows that there are significant relations between bicycle facilities’ geometric factors and cyclists’ mobility. Down slope seem to have the biggest positive effect, where cyclists allows to drive closer to their desired speed. Whether bicycle facilities are single or double directional also seem to affect cyclists’ speed. However, the reason to the different speeds might be the width combined with the actual use of direction of these bicycle facilities.

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  • 46.
    Boström, Carl Vilhelm
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Walking into the Future: Exploring WiFi fingerprinting in pedestrian-oriented planning2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate what place WiFi fingerprinting has in pedestrian-oriented planning, an interview study was carried out by conducting 12 semi-structured interviews with different actors working in pedestrian-related fields. The actors represent both the private and the public sector, and work in various geographical scales. The interviews investigate what pedestrian-related questions actors work with, what data their work requires and what methods they use to gather the data. For each of these three categories, topics that appeared in over half of the interviews were analyzed qualitatively. With this analysis, relevant applications of WiFi fingerprinting in pedestrian-oriented planning today are identified, namely determining capacity and dimensions, determining the spatial layout of small-scale environments, measuring congestion and providing validation data. The data needs not filled by WiFi fingerprinting are found to be spot-specific information suitable for qualitative analysis, visitor composition and network level flows and movements. Lastly, WiFi fingerprinting can be combined with other data sources to complement its drawbacks as a piece in a puzzle, such as using spot visits to better understand the reasons behind the flow data.

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  • 47.
    Bramberga, Katrina Aleksandra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Teleworking in Four-Step Transport Demand Models2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The opportunity of teleworking has impacted people travel habits, especially work-related trips. In most cases the existing transport demand models lack the consideration of teleworking. This thesis investigates the characteristics of teleworkers based on earlier studies about teleworking and is aiming to improve the understanding of those characteristics to determine the living and work locations of teleworkers. The result of this thesis is a simple approach of teleworking probability for trip generation in transport demand models. The method is then applied on a case study of Uppsala municipality. The main findings suggest that it is important to consider both ability and willingness to telework in transport demand models. One of the challenges in modelling teleworking, is to find data on the most basic factors that affect the probability. In addition, an important conclusion is that more knowledge is needed about the weight of each factor on the probability of telework.

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  • 48.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköping University.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköping University.
    Multimodal Traffic Management: Project Report2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New systems for combining modes of transport, for example Mobility as a Service (MaaS), provide new opportunities for road users to switch between different means of transport. At the same time, large amounts of data from both the public transport network and the road traffic network as well as multimodal data from mobile networks in combination with new methods for estimating travel patterns divided by means of transport provide opportunities for a completely new understanding of multimodal travel patterns in a city. Understanding how multimodal travel patterns develop over time provides new opportunities to develop effective tools for multimodal traffic management.

    The overall goal of the project is to enable improved accessibility in the transport systems through more efficient traffic management. More specifically, the project aims to develop new methods for estimating multimodal demand as well as mode of transport and route selection for multimodal traffic management. Furthermore, potential effects of multimodal traffic management should be analysed.

    The project includes a literature survey for analysis of potential and challenges of multimodal traffic management. An explorative analysis based on unsupervised learning is performed for identification of typical network-wide mobility patterns. Route and mode choice is predicted using statistical models. A five-week multimodal dataset for Stockholm including large-scale mobility data for the road network and smartcard data for the public transport network is compiled for the explorative analysis as well as evaluation of the route and mode choice models in the context of traffic management.

    Based on the literature survey, we can conclude that simultaneous management of road and public transport has the potential to reduce congestion and ensure efficient movement of travelers in an urban area. There are several motives for integrated management of multiple modes, where the most important are potential demand shifts to public transport, improved robustness for the transport system, and better prioritization of traffic management actions. The main challenges are collaboration between stakeholders, information sharing, and data fusion.

    The results of the explorative analysis based on unsupervised learning indicate that day clustering can be useful in scenario evaluation, but also serve as input to short-term prediction providing a simple and robust prediction method with a MAPE prediction error of 10-15%.

    The route choice analysis showed that a model based on a route set with generated routes is more responsive to travel time changes than a model based on only observed routes, which is useful for predicting the effect of traffic management actions. A route choice model with only travel time is a common simplification to use for prediction route choices. However, the result in this study shows that including more attributes significantly improves the performance of the models.

    The analysis of network-wide multimodal data for 5 weeks in Stockholm indicates that it is possible to estimate how mode share between public transport and other modes of transport varies in space and time. A better understanding of spatiotemporal variation of mode share is an important input to improved decision support in multimodal traffic management.

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  • 49. Campisi, T.
    et al.
    Tesoriere, G.
    Skoufas, Anastasios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Zeglis, D.
    Andronis, C.
    Basbas, S.
    Perceived Pedestrian Level of Service: The case of Thessaloniki, Greece2022In: Transportation Research Procedia, Elsevier BV , 2022, p. 124-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Level of Service (LOS) is one of the most crucial components for the assessment of pedestrian facilities by mainly concerning the effective width as well as pedestrians’ flows. However, current research reveals that qualitative characteristics can also contribute to LOS estimation as perceived by pedestrians. Specifically, socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender) as well as characteristics related with perceived comfort and safety can be related with perceived LOS. A Revealed Preference (RP) face to face questionnaire-based survey (including 301 interviewees) was realized during October 2019 at a central pedestrian facility in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. RP questionnaire survey assisted in gaining valuable knowledge concerning the factors that mainly affect pedestrians’ perceived LOS across the pedestrian facility. The examined pedestrian facility is one of the most important in Thessaloniki since it facilitates high pedestrian flows within the city center daily. The present survey considered pedestrians’ general mobility characteristics such as walking frequency along the facility and trip purpose. Additionally, the evaluation of the greater facility’ area in terms of land use attractiveness, comfort, personal and road safety, public transport, parking conditions and traffic delays, accessibility, pedestrians and bicycles were concerned as well. Ordinal regression was the main tool for the development of the ordinal regression model, and therefore, for the conclusions’ drawing of the present research. The findings regarding perceived LOS can pave the way towards the design of sustainable policy concerning pedestrian facilities as well as the encouragement of active transport in urban areas.

  • 50.
    Campisi, Tiziana
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna Korre, Cittadella Universitaria, 94100 Enna, Italy.
    Basbas, Socrates
    School of Rural & Surveying Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Skoufas, Anastasios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kaltsidis, Alexandros
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Tesoriere, Giovanni
    Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, University of Enna Korre, Cittadella Universitaria, 94100 Enna, Italy.
    The impact of COVID-19 is not gender neutral: regional scale changes in modal choices in Sicily2023In: AIIT 3rd International Conference on Transport Infrastructure and Systems,TIS ROMA 2022: Conference Proceedings, Elsevier BV , 2023, p. 584-591Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality is a fundamental human right and is part of one of the goals of the 2030 Agenda (Goal 5), which promotes a more equitable and sustainable way of life. A gender imbalance still exists in the transport sector. Over the years, the reasons why women travel have changed, as have their modal preferences, thanks to the introduction of concessions (pink parking, pregnant seats) but also thanks to the introduction of new forms of mobility and multimodality. However, several works in the literature point out that women's journeys are in many cases more difficult than those of men because there are several factors that influence this imbalance. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to a widening this gap. Through the administration of an online questionnaire, it was possible to find data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, travel habits and finally to analyze the main problems and feelings (feeling of safety on board, perception of a possible contagion and overall evaluation of gender equity both as passengers and as drivers of vehicles) related to the different modes of transport present in the Sicilian context. A statistical comparison of the results was defined considering the different pandemic phases from January 2020 to December 2021. The results show the basis for a better mobility planning starting from the resolution of the COVID-19 crisis that represents an opportunity to change the status quo.

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