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  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, GA Delft, 2600, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Determinants of traveler satisfaction: Evidence for non-linear and asymmetric effects2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 66, s. 339-356Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 2.
    Adolphson, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Impact on urban form by the localization of railway stations: Evidence from Sweden2019Ingår i: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 95, artikel-id 102362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s a number of new railway stations have been established in Sweden on new or rerouted lines, while other stations have been reconstructed at their original locations. Some stations were located in urban surroundings, others in semi-urban or peripheral locations depending on the trade of between regional speed, and local urban circumstances. The urban form consequences depending on station localisation of these transport infrastructure investments are nonetheless unknown. In order to provide a basis for future planning, this research aims to provide knowledge on urban form consequences of relocating railway stations. 13 stations were selected in a case study. Changes in urban densities from 1993 to 2013 were analysed by a combination of kernel techniques and estimation of monocentric density models. Stations within an urban and semi-urban environments show strong agglomeration tendencies. Within peripheral environments, the urban development was unclear or even negative. In an urban environment, the location of the station still attracted more urban resources compared to the location of the urban density centre. These findings should be understood in the light of a market-oriented socio-economic context since 1990th influencing the planning system and the development of urban form.

  • 3. Ait Ali, A.
    et al.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Eliasson, J.
    Pricing commercial train path requests based on societal costs2020Ingår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 132, s. 452-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    On deregulated railway markets, efficient capacity allocation is important. We study the case where commercial trains and publicly controlled traffic (“commuter trains”) use the same railway infrastructure and hence compete for capacity. We develop a method that can be used by an infrastructure manager trying to allocate capacity in a socially efficient way. The method calculates the loss of societal benefits incurred by changing the commuter train timetable to accommodate a commercial train path request, and based on this calculates a reservation price for the train path request. If the commercial operator's willingness-to-pay for the train path exceeds the loss of societal benefits, its request is approved. The calculation of these benefits takes into account changes in commuter train passengers’ travel times, waiting times, transfers and crowding, and changes in operating costs for the commuter train operator(s). The method is implemented in a microscopic simulation program, which makes it possible to test the robustness and feasibility of timetable alternatives. We show that the method is possible to apply in practice by demonstrating it in a case study from Stockholm, illustrating the magnitudes of the resulting commercial train path prices. We conclude that marginal societal costs of railway capacity in Stockholm are considerably higher than the current track access charges.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Farkostteknik och Solidmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teknisk mekanik, Farkostteknik och Solidmekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Varför behövs Nya Stambanor i Sverige?2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora investeringar och omdaningar planeras i vårt transportsystem. Transporterna väntas öka starkt i framtiden och mera kapacitet måste skapas på ett hållbart sätt. Diskussionerna om vilka transportmedel som ska prioriteras, såväl som vilka objekt som vi ska satsa på, är livliga.

    En viktig fråga är satsningen på Nya Stambanor avsedda för snabba persontransporter i de redan idag hårt belastade stråken Stockholm‒Göteborg och Stockholm‒Malmö, med ett stort antal mellanliggande orter. Denna typ av järnvägar finns redan eller planeras i de flesta av världens ledande ekonomier. Syftet med att bygga nya stambanor är att öka den totala kapaciteten för person- och godstrafik på järnväg, öka punktligheten och öka tillgängligheten genom korta restider. Det ger också förutsättningar för större regionala arbetsmarknader och ökat bostadsbyggande utanför storstäderna samt en bättre miljö. Nuvarande stambanor avlastas och lämnar plats för bl a effektivare godstransporter.

    Denna rapport behandlar först järnvägens egenskaper. Järnvägen är det energieffektivaste transportmedel vi känner till, den tar liten plats och är mycket trafiksäker. Moderna tåg på modern bana är vårt snabbaste transportmedel till lands. Tåg kan bereda plats och komfort för arbete och avkoppling under resan. Enligt författarnas uppfattning bör dessa egenskaper göra järnvägen till ett förstahandsalternativ för effektiva och hållbara transporter i de segment där järnvägen är eller kan bli konkurrenskraftig.

    Prognoser och analys, samt erfaren­heter från utlandet, visar att trafikunderlaget i Sverige är tillräckligt för nya stambanor. Med de förslagna banorna väntas järnvägens totala kapacitet öka till mer än det dubbla i de mest belastade stråken. En viktig faktor är att den snabba och långsamma tågtrafiken separeras. Denna åtgärd ger ökad kapacitet, utöver vad de dubblerade spåren ger, eftersom tågen kan köra tätare efter varandra och störningarna i tågtrafiken minskar.

    Restiderna för orterna längs de nya stambanorna minskar kraftigt, i regel mellan 30 och 65%. Tillsammans med ökad turtäthet och minskade störningar ger det stora ökningar av tågtrafiken. De officiella prognoserna lider dock av ett antal allvarliga brister, varför både trafikökningen och den samhällsekonomiska lönsamheten beräkningsmässigt framstår som mindre än vad den enligt KTH:s prognoser och internationell erfarenhet borde vara.

    Författarna anser att anläggningskostnaderna är rimliga i relation till nyttorna och jämfört med vad andra omställningar i samhällets transportsystem kostar. Detsamma gäller den engångs ”klimatskuld” som uppkommer vid de flesta satsningar för framtiden inom alla trafikslag. Nya transportslag i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede (elflyg, magnettåg, Hyperloop etc) är mycket osäkra beträffande när eller om de överhuvudtaget kommer att bli tillgängliga för användning i stor skala. I flera fall skulle krävas stora tekniska genombrott som vi idag inte känner till. Vi anser att man rimligen inte idag kan besluta att satsa på helt nya tekniska system för vilka framtiden är mycket osäker. Vi kan inte heller ”vänta och se”, eftersom ytterligare kapacitet behövs redan idag och ledtiderna är långa.

    Sammanfattningsvis är de nya stambanorna ett samhällsbyggnadsprojekt och en del i transportsektorns nödvändiga omställning. De ger korta restider och effektiva transporter mellan våra största städer, liksom till och från ett stort antal mellanliggande orter, med omnejd. Godstransporterna kan också få plats på spåren och de kan utvecklas och effektiviseras. Det handlar om hållbar mobilitet för människor och gods i framtiden.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Andersson, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Simuleringsbaserad analys av pendelbåtstrafik i Stockholm2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an agent-based simulation model of Stockholm can be used for water transitplanning. A new route for commuters by boat was added to the model of Stockholm’s existingtransport system and evaluated. By comparing results from the model and statistic data fromTrafikförvaltningen Region Stockholm during the morning rush-hour, a scale factor was calculated.The scale factor was later used to adjust the number of travelers on the added new water transit routeas the model underestimate the number of persons who use the available public transport by boat. Thelarge size of the calculated factor made the results uncertain when trying to predict any effects the newroute would have, e.g. on congestion in the system. Simulations of the new transit line resulted in amajority of short trips, between stations were the other public transit options took longer routes. Thetransit stops close to the city centre were used the most and most trips were conducted between them.To gain an improved ability to simulate water transit, continued studies of people’s preferencesregarding mode choice appear to be crucial.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Arian Far, Farhad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Adopting Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)in Metro-Manila Railway system: Considering Sweden’s Experience and Learning2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit-oriented development (TOD) or as it is referred to in Sweden ABC (Arbete, Bostad,och Centrum which means work, housing, and city center) is the highly prevailing and excitingconcept of integrating urban communities, activities, people, buildings and public places together.This idea is primarily focused upon the creation of walkable, pedestrian-oriented communities andcycling connections, which are centered among the high-quality train systems.This research has been conducted to provide a comprehensive analysis related to theimplementation of the TOD model within Metro-Manila, by enhancing its railway network toreduce the problem of high traffic congestion and to provide a better service to a larger number ofpassengers. To carry out this research, various ideas were taken from the TOD projects that havebeen implemented within the metro system of Stockholm as an example to be used for Metro-Manila.In order to conduct this study, both quantitative and qualitative research approaches wereutilized to conduct an in-depth analysis of the current conditions of the railway transportationsystem in Metro-Manila. Within the qualitative part of this research, a SWOT analysis and adetailed comparison was also carried out to determine the efficiency of Metro-Manila and the areaswhere it needed significant improvements. Whereas, for the quantitative analysis, a survey wasconducted from both the people of Metro-Manila and Stockholm (i.e., 226 respondents) tounderstand the current situations of these railway networks more appropriately. The survey wasdesigned based on close-ended five (5) points Likert Scale questions. The results of the surveysrevealed that the respondents were mostly satisfied with the metro system in Stockholm andimplementation of the TOD concepts but usually dissatisfied with Metro-Manila railway system.An interview was also conducted with the officials of the Stockholm transport organization (SL)to gather more insight related to the problems within the railway networks.It was revealed from the analysis that Metro-Manila railway network has been facingsevere problems in terms of limited capacity, poor facilities, unavailability of trains, andmismanagement. The analysis also revealed a few problems within the Stockholm metro systemas well. However, to eradicate or mitigate these problems, several strategies and recommendationshave been proposed within this research. Based from the facts the researcher has gathered and ispresented in this research paper, it was evident that implementation of transit-orienteddevelopment, even if its limited to just the basic concepts, will highly be beneficial in botheconomic and societal aspects and its effectively and efficiently is enough to satisfy the needs ofthe daily commuters and would result in a dramatical reduction of traffic congestions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Babicheva, Tatiana
    et al.
    VEDECOM, 23 Bis Allee Marronniers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Empty vehicle redistribution in autonomous taxi services2019Ingår i: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 745-767Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate empty vehicle redistribution algorithms for Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) or autonomous station-based taxi services, from a passenger service perspective. We present a new index-based redistribution (IBR) algorithm that improves upon existing nearest neighbour and indexing algorithms by incorporating expected passenger arrivals and predicted waiting times into the surplus/deficit index. We evaluate six variations of algorithms on a test case in Paris Saclay, France. The results show that especially the combination of Simple Nearest Neighbours + Index Based Redistribution provides promising results for both off-peak and rush-hour demand, outperforming the other methods tested, in terms of passenger waiting time (average and maximum) as well as station queue lengths.

  • 8.
    Babicheva, Tatiana
    et al.
    VEDECOM, 77 Rue Chantiers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. VEDECOM, 77 Rue Chantiers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Andreasson, Ingmar
    LogistikCtr Goteborg AB, Osbergsgatan 4 A, S-42677 Vastra Frolunda, Sweden..
    Faul, Nadege
    VEDECOM, 77 Rue Chantiers, F-78000 Versailles, France..
    Empty vehicle redistribution and fleet size in autonomous taxi systems2019Ingår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 677-682Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates empty vehicle redistribution algorithms for personal rapid transit and autonomous taxi services. The focus is on passenger service and operator cost. A new redistribution algorithm is presented in this study: index-based redistribution (IBR). IBR is a proactive method, meaning it takes into account both current demand and anticipated future demand, in contrast to reactive methods, which act based on current demand only. From information on currently waiting for passengers, predicted near-future demand and projected arrival of vehicles, IBR calculates an index for each vehicle station, and redistribution is done based on this index. Seven different algorithm combinations are evaluated using a test case in Paris Saclay, France (20 stations and 100 vehicles). A combination of simple nearest neighbours and IBR is shown to be promising. Its results outperform the other methods tested in peak and off-peak demand, in terms of average and maximum passenger waiting times as well as station queue length. The effect of vehicle fleet size on generalised cost is analysed. Waiting times, mileage and fleet size are taken into account while assessing this generalised cost.

  • 9.
    BERG WINCENT, BOEL
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Gångavstånd för resor med elsparkcykel: En studie baserat på elsparkcykelaktören Voi Technology i Stockholm2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric scooters, or e-scooters as they also are called, were launched in California in USA as a bike share system, in 2017. A year later, in September 2018, the Swedish company Voi Technology launched the first e-scooters in Stockholm, Sweden. Bike share systems has been around since the 1960s but has grown substantially in the past 15 years. New technical solutions have solved past problems with theft and payment in bike shares. Since e-scooters are new, there is a lack of research and knowledge about practical use. The study aims to examine how long users of e-scooters walk to utilize the service. Travel data from Voi Technology is used to determine walking distance. The distance from the location where the app was opened to the location where the e-scooter trip begun was measured. The result was also compared the walking distance of other bike share systems and travelers of public transportation. The majority of e-scooter users walk less than 100 meters and 38 per cent walk less than 50 meters. The users have the shortest walking distance in the morning and the longest in the afternoon. During the weekend's users walk further than in weekdays. The users who travel longer distances with the e-scooters don’t walk further than other users. About a third of the users walk in the opposite direction of travel, to some extent, to catch an e-scooter. That indicates that the aim of the user in general seems to be to always have the shortest possible walking distance to the e-scooter.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Short-Term Traffic Prediction in Large-Scale Urban Networks2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    City-wide travel time prediction in real-time is an important enabler for efficient use of the road network. It can be used in traveler information to enable more efficient routing of individual vehicles as well as decision support for traffic management applications such as directed information campaigns or incident management. 3D speed maps have been shown to be a promising methodology for revealing day-to-day regularities of city-level travel times and possibly also for short-term prediction. In this paper, we aim to further evaluate and benchmark the use of 3D speed maps for short-term travel time prediction and to enable scenario-based evaluation of traffic management actions we also evaluate the framework for traffic flow prediction. The 3D speed map methodology is adapted to short-term prediction and benchmarked against historical mean as well as against Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA). The benchmarking and analysis are made using one year of travel time and traffic flow data for the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The result of the case study shows very promising results of the 3D speed map methodology for short-term prediction of both travel times and traffic flows. The modified version of the 3D speed map prediction outperforms the historical mean prediction as well as the PPCA method. Further work includes an extended evaluation of the method for different conditions in terms of underlying sensor infrastructure, preprocessing and spatio-temporal aggregation as well as benchmarking against other prediction methods.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    short_term_traffic_prediction_in_large_scale_urban_networks
  • 11.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Gundlegård, David
    Department of Science and Technology,Linköping University.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    3D Speed Maps and Mean Observations Vectors for Short-Term Urban Traffic Prediction2019Ingår i: TRB Annual Meeting Online, Washington DC, US, 2019, s. 1-20Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    City-wide travel time prediction in real-time is an important enabler for efficient use of the road network. It can be used in traveler information to enable more efficient routing of individual vehicles as well as decision support for traffic management applications such as directed information campaigns or incident management. 3D speed maps have been shown to be a promising methodology for revealing day-to-day regularities of city-level travel times and possibly also for short-term prediction. In this paper, we aim to further evaluate and benchmark the use of 3D speed maps for short-term travel time prediction and to enable scenario-based evaluation of traffic management actions we also evaluate the framework for traffic flow prediction. The 3D speed map methodology is adapted to short-term prediction and benchmarked against historical mean as well as against Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA). The benchmarking and analysis are made using one year of travel time and traffic flow data for the city of Stockholm, Sweden. The result of the case study shows very promising results of the 3D speed map methodology for short-term prediction of both travel times and traffic flows. The modified version of the 3D speed map prediction outperforms the historical mean prediction as well as the PPCA method. Further work includes an extended evaluation of the method for different conditions in terms of underlying sensor infrastructure, preprocessing and spatio-temporal aggregation as well as benchmarking against other prediction methods.

  • 12.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Integrated framework for real-time urban network travel time prediction on sparse probe data2018Ingår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems, ISSN 1751-956X, E-ISSN 1751-9578, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 66-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents the methodology and system architecture of an integrated urban road network travel time prediction framework based on low-frequency probe vehicle data. Intended applications include real-time network traffic management, vehicle routing and information provision. The framework integrates methods for receiving a stream of probe vehicle data, map matching and path inference, link travel time estimation, calibration of prediction model parameters and network travel time prediction in real time. The system design satisfies three crucial aspects: computational efficiency of prediction, internal consistency between components and robustness against noisy and missing data. Prediction is based on a multivariate hybrid method of probabilistic principal component analysis, which captures global correlation patterns between links and time intervals, and local smoothing, which considers local correlations among neighbouring links. Computational experiments for the road network of Stockholm, Sweden and probe data from taxis show that the system provides high accuracy for both peak and off-peak traffic conditions. The computational efficiency of the framework makes it capable of real-time prediction for large-scale networks. For links with large speed variations between days, prediction significantly outperforms the historical mean. Furthermore, prediction is reliable also for links with high proportions of missing data.

  • 13.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Spatio-Temporal Partitioning of Large Urban Networks for Travel Time Prediction2018Ingår i: 2018 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC), IEEE , 2018, s. 1390-1395Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores the potential of spatiotemporal network partitioning for travel time prediction accuracy and computational costs in the context of large-scale urban road networks (including motorways/freeways, arterials and urban streets). Forecasting in this context is challenging due to the complexity, heterogeneity, noisy data, unexpected events and the size of the traffic network. The proposed spatio-temporal network partitioning methodology is versatile, and can be applied for any source of travel time data and multivariate travel time prediction method. A case study of Stockholm, Sweden considers a network exceeding 11,000 links and uses taxi probe data as the source of travel times data. To predict the travel times the Probabilistic Principal Component Analysis (PPCA) is used. Results show that the spatio-temporal network partitioning provides a more appropriate bias-variance tradeoff, and that prediction accuracy and computational costs are improved by considering the proper number of clusters towards robust large-scale travel time prediction.

  • 14.
    Eltayeb, Alaa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Implementing crowding in SL’s transit assignment model: Case study: Stockholm Public Transport Network2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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    fulltext
  • 15.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Swedish Transport Adm Planning & Market, SE-17154 Solna, Sweden..
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Econ, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Scheduling preferences and the value of travel time information2020Ingår i: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 134, s. 256-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we derive the value of a signal obtained by a traveller prior to the choice of departure time. The signal does not have to be a perfect prediction of the travel time. It is sufficient that it carries information about the travel time. The traveller may then consider the distribution of travel time conditional on the signal to increase her expected utility by making a better informed choice of departure time. We show that a signal always increases the expected utility compared to the situation without any signal. For a broad class of signals, the expected utility is monotone with respect to signal strength. Furthermore, we demonstrate that even perfect travel time information does not necessarily eliminate the cost of travel time variability and we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for when it does. We find that the predictable part of travel time variability may or may not be costly, depending on the shape of the traveller's scheduling utility at the origin of the trip. Using estimates of scheduling preferences from the literature, we show that the cost of predictable travel time variability may constitute a substantial part of the total cost of travel time variability. In a particular case of scheduling preferences, travel time distribution and noise distribution, we establish an analytic relationship between the strength of the signal and the expected utility of the trip and evaluate the marginal cost of signal weakness. This knowledge may facilitate design and cost-benefit analysis of traveller information systems and policies decreasing travel time variability. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 16.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Farkost och flyg, Spårfordon.
    Framtida trafikeringskostnader och utveckling av persontågsparken: Slutrapport2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet och rapporten är att beräkna och redovisa trafikeringskostnader med typtåg som underlag för ASEK 7.0 i Trafikverkets kommande nationella trafik- och infrastrukturplanering, och att göra en bedömning av vilka framtida tågtyper som kan rulla på spåren.

    Projektets resultat är främst val av typtåg och de trafikeringskostnader för typtågen som presenteras i rapporten.

    En äldre modell för att beräkna trafikeringskostnader i persontrafik har uppdaterats och vidareutvecklats vid KTH till Costmodel PT. Denna modell har använts att beräkna kostnader för framtida typtåg. I vissa fall saknas motsvarande tågtyp i Sverige idag och det har också varit svårt att få tillgång till aktuella data genom kommersiell sekretess. Trots det har den kalibrering som gjorts mot tillgängliga verkliga värden visat på en relativt god överensstämmelse.

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  • 17.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Transition Towards Fixed-Line Autonomous Bus Transportation Systems2020Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste årens framsteg inom autonom körteknik har lett till mer mogna autonoma fordon. Dessa fordon har setts tillämpas i flera pilotprojekt över hela världen, oftast i form av små bussar. Samtidigt växer mängden människor som reser, särskilt i stadsområden, kontinuerligt vilket resulterar i fler resor i transportsystemet. Därför krävs ett effektivt transportsystem för att tillgodose det växande antalet passagerare. Autonoma bussar (AB) antas ha lägre driftskostnader och därmed kan system för kollektivtrafik (public transport, PT) potentiellt utformas mer effektivt för att underlätta den ökade efterfrågan bättre. I denna studie föreslås ett AB-specifikt simuleringsbaserat optimeringsramverk som gör det möjligt att analysera effekterna AB har på linjebaserade PT-system. Avhandlingen fokuserar på övergången från befintliga PT-system till linjebaserade PT-system som delvis eller uteslutande drivs av AB.

    Befintligt arbete med PT-tjänstdesign utvidgas så att realistiska AB-system kan undersökas. Detta uppnås genom att (i) använda AB-specifika operatörskostnadsformuleringar, (ii) integrera infrastrukturkostnader som krävs för AB-verksamhet, (iii) använda en dynamisk, stokastisk och schemabaserad modell för att tilldela passagerare vid simulering av PT-nät samt genom att (iv) formulera ett multifunktionellt optimeringsproblem som gör det möjligt att undersöka AB: s intressespecifika effekter.

    I artikel I undersöks effekterna av AB, med avseende på servicefrekvens och fordonskapacitet, på fasta linjer i PT-nät. Förändringar utvärderas bland annat utifrån skillnader i servicenivå och passagerarflöde. Dessutom studeras den sekventiella introduktionen av AB i befintliga PT-system. Det föreslagna ramverket tillämpas på en fallstudie i Kista, Sverige. Studien bekräftade den initiala hypotesen att utplaceringen av AB leder till en ökning av servicefrekvensen och en marginell minskning av fordonens kapacitet. Vidare kunde man se att utplaceringen av AB ökar passagerarbelastningen på AB-linjer och att passagerare kan skifta från andra PT-former mot AB-tjänsterna.

    Artikel II integrerar en multifunktionell heuristisk optimeringsalgoritm i ramverket för simuleringen. Studien undersöker förändringar i transportnätverkets design baserat på implementeringen av AB. Skillnaderna i användarfokuserad och operatörsfokuserad nätverksdesign analyseras och AB: s inverkan på dessa kvantifieras. Denna studie tillämpas på en fallstudie i Barkarby, Sverige, där ett fullstort linjebaserat PT-nät är utformat för att exklusivt driva AB. Vi visar bland annat att den autonoma tekniken reducerar antalet använda busshållplatser och reducerar den totala PT-nätstorleken. Dessutom kan implementeringen av AB på användarfokuserade PT-nät ytterligare förbättra servicenivån främst genom att minska den genomsnittliga väntetiden per passagerare.

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  • 18.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Fixed-line network design in light of autonomous busesIngår i: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The maturing of autonomous driving technology in recent years has led to several pilot projects and the initial integration of autonomous pods and buses into the public transport (PT) system. An upcoming field of interest is the induced demand level and changes in network design for public transport system operating autonomous buses. In this work a multi-objective optimization-based multi-agent simulation framework is developed to study potential changes in the network design and frequency settings when autonomous vehicles (AV) systems are deployed on fixed-route networks in addition to existing PT systems. During the optimization process multiple deployment scenarios (network configurations and service frequency) are evaluated and optimized concerning the operator cost, user cost and infrastructure preparation costs of the system. User-focused network design and operator-focused network design are studied for a real-world network in Sweden. The results provide insights into the network design and level of service implications brought about by the deployment of autonomous bus (AB) when those are integrated in route-based PT systems.

  • 19.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Transitioning towards the deployment of line-based autonomous buses: Consequences for service frequency and vehicle capacityIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of autonomous buses (AB) is expected to have consequences for service design facilitated by its cost function structure. We study the impacts of AB deployment in line-based public transport (PT) systems. In particular, we examine the transition phase where AB is sequentially deployed, involving the selection of lines for which AB will be introduced. To this end, we develop a modeling framework using a dynamic public transportation assignment and operations simulation model that captures users' adaptive path choices. An analytical model is used to determine the initial solutions in terms of service frequency and vehicle capacity for the simulation framework. Due to their different cost function structures, the deployment of AB may be accompanied by changes in the service frequency and vehicle capacity settings and consequently also on passenger flow distribution across the network. Both the simultaneous and the sequential deployment of AB on multiple lines are investigated. Deployment solutions are assessed in terms of the both total operator and user cost. The decision variables are vehicle capacity per line, service frequency per line and vehicle technology per line - i.e. either manually driven or fully automated buses. The framework is applied to a case study in Kista, Stockholm. The study shows that AB service have the potential to attract passengers through improved service provision. A sensitivity analysis is carried out concerning the effects of different cost parameters and demand levels on the deployment of AB in fixed line operations.

  • 20.
    Högdahl, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    A Simulation-Optimization Approach for Improved Robustness of Railway Timetables2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    För järnvägen har tidtabellen en central roll, och dess kvalité har stor betydelse för kapacitet och tillförlitlighet. Processen att konstruera en tidtabell är ofta en uppgift som utförs manuellt med begränsat datorstöd och på grund av beroenden mellan enskilda tåg är det ofta ett tidskrävande och svårt arbete.

    Dessa tågberoenden gör det svårt att manuellt konstruera konfliktfria tidtabeller samtidigt som det också är svårt att manuellt förbättra en given tidtabell, vilket beror på att de är svårt att förutsäga vad effekten av en given ändring blir.

    Eftersom efterfrågan på järnväg fortsatt förväntas öka, finns det ett behov av att kunna köra fler tåg. Samtidigt pågår det redan i många europeiska länder en offentlig debatt om järnvägen punktlighet, vilken riskeras att försämras vid högre kapacitetsanvändning. Därför finns det även ett behov av att förbättra tidtabellernas robusthet, där robusthet syftar till en tidtabells möjlighet att stå emot och återhämta mindre förseningar. För att hantera denna målkonflikt kommer det behövas ökad precision vid både planering och drift, vilket kan uppnås med en högre grad av automation.

    Forskningen i denna avhandling syftar till att förbättra robustheten för tågtidtabeller genom att kombinera mikro-simulering med matematisk optimering, två metoder som redan används i hög grad av både yrkesverksamma trafikplanerare och forskare men som sällan kombineras. I den här avhandlingen förslås en sekventiell metod baserad på att simulera en given tidtabell och optimera den för att minska den viktade summan av planerad restid och predikterad medelförsening. Metoden har visat på lovande resultat i simuleringsstudier, där det har varit möjligt att uppnå en väsentligt bättre punktlighet och minskad medelförsening, genom att endast förlänga de planerade restiderna marginellt. Även förbättrad samhällsekonomisk nytta har observerats av att tillämpa den föreslagna metoden. Sammantaget visar detta metodens potentiella nytta och motiverar även fortsatt forskning.

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  • 21.
    Högdahl, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Delay Prediction with Flexible Train Order in a MILP Simulation-Optimization Approach for Railway Timetabling2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the problem of minimizing travel times and maximizing travel time reliability, which are important socio-economic properties of a railway transport service, for a given set of departures on a double-track line. In this paper travel time reliability is measured as the average delay, and a delay prediction model for MILP timetable optimization is presented. The average delay prediction model takes into consideration time supplements, buffer times and propagation of delays in the railway network and is not restricted to a fixed order of the trains. Validation of the average delay prediction model, and an evaluation of the approach with combined simulation-optimization for improving railway timetables, are conducted by a simulation study on a part of the Swedish Southern Main Line. Results from the simulation study show that the average delays are reduced by up to approximately 40% and that the punctuality is improved by up to approximately 8%.

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  • 22.
    Högdahl, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    A combined simulation-optimization approach for minimizing travel time and delays in railway timetables2019Ingår i: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 126, s. 192-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Minimal travel time and maximal reliability are two of the most important properties of a railway transportation service. This paper considers the problem of finding a timetable for a given set of departures that minimizes the weighted sum of scheduled travel time and expected delay, thereby capturing these two important socio-economic properties of a timetable. To accurately represent the complex secondary delays in operational railway traffic, an approach combining microscopic simulation and macroscopic timetable optimization is proposed. To predict the expected delay in the macroscopic timetable, a surrogate function is formulated, as well as a subproblem to calibrate the parameters in the model. In a set of computational experiments, the approach increased the socio-economic benefit by 2-5% and improved the punctuality by 8-25%.

  • 23.
    Högdahl, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. SICS Swedish ICT Västerås AB, Kopparbergsvägen 10, SE-722 13 Västerås, Sweden.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Combining Optimization and Simulation to Improve Railway Timetable Robustness2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Train Timetabling Problem (TTP) is the problem of finding the timetable that utilizes the infrastructure as efficient as possible, while satisfying market demands and operational constraints. As reliability is important to passengers it is important that timetables are robust. In this paper we propose a method that combines optimization and simulation to find the timetable that minimizes the travel times and maximizes the expected punctuality. The core method consists of iteratively re-optimizing a bi-objective mixed integer sequencing timetable model, where both planned travel time and simulated delays are taken into account. Each generated timetable is validated and re-evaluated using the micro-simulation tool RailSys. The advantage of the method is that it captures both the uncertainty of a timetable at the planning stage and the validity of the generated timetable. The method is evaluated on a unidirectional track section of the Western Main Line in Sweden and shows promising results for future research.

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  • 24.
    Iscan, Neval
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Evaluation the level of service at a roundabout: A case study on Al-Ibrahimeya roundabout in Alexandria, Egypt2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of today’s transportation network in Alexandria cannot handle the increasing number of vehicles. The root of traffic congestion in Alexandria is most likely as result of urban planning failure, an inadequate public transportation network, strong population growth, lack of enforcement of traffic laws, complex spatial street network and poor road quality.The aim with this thesis is to simulate various traffic scenarios for the purpose of studying, evaluating and improving the traffic conditions on the intersection Al-Ibrahimeya, however, for long-term efficiency and improvement in Al-Ibrahimeya, the traffic conditions in the entire system be improved.In this thesis, a model was built in the microscopic software VISSIM and macroscopic software SYNCHRO. The model is calibrated based on data collected from video recording. Two alternative solutions to overcome the congested traffic conditions were tested. Signalization has been the main alternative solution performed for intersection Al- Ibrahimeya.The simulation results showed some improvements in terms of delay and travel time. Roundabouts are usually suitable for under low to mid traffic conditions. When there is a heavy traffic flow, as in this case, roundabouts are not suitable and may cause problem in the network. Implementing signals led to some decrease in the entering and exiting flows because the total network became more controlled. However, an organized and well-functioning signalization program helped to reduce delay and travel time in most of routes.

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  • 25.
    Jegenberg, Minna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Lundström, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Utredning om ökad tillgänglighet och säkerhet för resenärer vid järnvägsstationer på mindre orter: En undersökning med en fallstudie i Fagersta som inkluderar resenärers och ansvariga aktörers syn på stationsmiljöer samt samarbetet mellan aktörerna2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the use of public transport and to increase the safety for the travelers, two aspects thatare included in the goals regarding the Swedish transport system, the design of railway stations isimportant. When planning stations, many stakeholders are involved and therefore there is a risk thatproblems may occur, especially in smaller municipalities where there might be a lack of resources.Moreover, it is the travelers’ needs that should be in focus when planning stations.This thesis was carried out with the objective to investigate measures to solve problems regardingthe travelers’ accessibility and safety at railway stations in Sweden. In addition, problems that mightoccur due to that many stakeholders are responsible for the station environment and whether thetravelers’ needs are reflected in the planning were investigated. To fulfill the objective, a case studywas performed at two small railway stations: Fagersta centralstation and Fagersta Norra. The casestudy included visual inspections of the stations, surveys among the travelers and interviews withresponsible stakeholders and with experts in these subjects.In the interviews with the stakeholders, many problems with the stations are mentioned but fewmeasures are suggested. In comparison between the answers from the stakeholders and the experts,the experts identified additional problems and suggested other measures and they should thereforebe consulted when planning station environments. In addition, additional problems were observedduring the visual inspections, mainly concerning conflicts between different traffic modes whichcould be both accessibility and safety problems. Based on this, visual inspections should beperformed when planning stations to observe problems that otherwise are forgotten.To increase the safety and the accessibility at the stations in Fagersta, measures to decrease thenumber of conflicts and their severity through e.g. hinders for vehicles and reorganization of thestation area are recommended. In the survey, the travelers pointed out the perceived safety and thewaiting area as important aspects at the stations. Since both of these aspects are insufficient,measures to improve these, through e.g. improved lighting and shelters, should be prioritized.The stakeholders’ perception of the travelers’ needs varied both between the stations and thestakeholders. Also, since the experts have a different focus, they do not observe the travelers’ needswhich makes it important to involve the travelers to find their actual needs. The stakeholders thattake initiative to consult the travelers however do not handle the station environments which meansthat no traveler dialogues are held about this at smaller stations. However, no clear connectionbetween whether the stakeholders keep regular dialogues with the travelers and if they have a clearview of the travelers’ needs were found. One benefit with consulting the travelers when planningstations could be that the responsible stakeholders receive guidance in prioritizing measures.Moreover, the shared responsibility for the station environments do not lead to that any part of thestation is forgotten in the assessment. Problems may however arise when objects are located inbetween different responsibility areas. Finally, the cooperation between stakeholders variesdepending on who are involved, and more problems might occur if private property owners areinvolved. A reorganization that suggests that one stakeholder has an overall responsibility over thestation could decrease these problems. The stakeholders that handles the traffic are positive towardsthis type of reorganization and the stakeholders that have a larger responsibility at the stations didnot give their view on this. The question regarding a reorganization needs further investigation.Key words: Accessibility, safety, railway station, stakeholder, traveler, cooperationEnglish title: An investigation regarding increased accessibility and safety for travelers at railwaystations in smaller municipalities – An evaluation with a case study in Fagersta that includes travelers’and responsible stakeholders’ view of the stations and the cooperation between stakeholders

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  • 26.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Data-driven metro train crowding prediction based on real-time load data2019Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Jin, Junchen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Enjoyor Co Ltd, Hangzhou 310030, Zhejiang, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    A Multi-Objective Agent-Based Control Approach With Application in Intelligent Traffic Signal System2019Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 20, nr 10, s. 3900-3912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Agent-based approaches have gained popularity in engineering applications, but its potential for advanced traffic controls has not been sufficiently explored. This paper presents a multi-agent framework that models traffic control instruments and their interactions with road traffic. A constrained Markov decision process (CMDP) model is used to represent agent decision making in the context of multi-objective policy goals, where the policy goal with the highest priority becomes the single optimization objective and the other goals are transformed as constraints. A reinforcement learning-based computational framework is developed for control applications. To implement the multi-objective decision model, a threshold lexicographic ordering method is introduced and integrated with the learning-based algorithm. Moreover, a two-stage hybrid framework is established to improve the learning efficiency of the model. While the proposed approach is potentially applicable for different road traffic operations, this paper applies the framework for traffic signal control in a network of Stockholm based on traffic simulation. The computational results show that the proposed control approach can handle a complex case of multiple policy requirements. Meanwhile, the agent-based intelligent control has shown superior performance when compared to other optimized signal control methods.

  • 28.
    Jin, Junchen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Enjoyor Co Ltd, Hangzhou 310030, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Xiaoliang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    A non-parametric Bayesian framework for traffic-state estimation at signalized intersections2019Ingår i: Information Sciences, ISSN 0020-0255, E-ISSN 1872-6291, Vol. 498, s. 21-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An accurate and practical traffic-state estimation (TSE) method for signalized intersections plays an important role in real-time operations to facilitate efficient traffic management. This paper presents a generalized modeling framework for estimating traffic states at signalized intersections. The framework is non-parametric and data-driven, without any requirement on explicit modeling of traffic flow. The Bayesian filter (BF) approach is the core of the framework and introduces a recursive state estimation process. The required transition and measurement models of the BFs are trained using Gaussian process (GP) regression models with respect to a historical dataset. In addition to the detailed derivation of the integration of BFs and GP regression models, an algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter is presented for real-time traffic estimation. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is demonstrated through several numerical experiments using data generated in microscopic traffic simulations. Both fixed-location data (i.e., loop detector) and mobile data (i.e., connected vehicle) are examined with the framework. As a result, the method shows good performance under the different traffic conditions in the experiment. In particular, the approach is suitable for short-term estimation, a challenging task in traffic control and operations.

  • 29. Johari, M.
    et al.
    Keyvan-Ekbatani, M.
    Ngoduy, D.
    Badia, Hugo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Effects of Near-Side and Far-Side Bus Stops on NMFD of Bi-Modal Urban Network2019Ingår i: 2019 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference, ITSC 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019, s. 746-751, artikel-id 8917127Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies through simulation and empirical data have shown that a Network Macroscopic Fundamental Diagram (NMFD or MFD) exists for multi-modal urban networks. However, more investigation should be conducted to explore the properties of multi-modal NMFD. In particular, the effects of operational characteristics of public transit like the number of lines, bus stop type, and bus stop location on multi-modal NMFD needs to be discussed. This paper discusses the effects of the near-side bus stop (those located before the intersection) and far-side bus stop (i.e. located after the intersection) on the NMFD of a bi-modal urban network in which cars and buses share the same space, i.e. there is no dedicated lane for buses. Results show that the NMFD in case of having far-side bus stops leads to a bigger range of critical density (density corresponded to maximum flow) for the car, while network capacity is almost the same. This results in a bigger optimal operational regime. Our findings, which are consistent with previous studies, yield that the far-side bus stop is superior to the near-side bus stop from the network operation perspective.

  • 30.
    Langbroek, Joram H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Malmsten, Jon
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Solkompaniet Sverige AB, Vastbergavagen 4, S-12630 Hagersten, Sweden..
    Electric vehicle rental and electric vehicle adoption2019Ingår i: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 73, s. 72-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study describes the project Elbilsiandet (The Electric Vehicle Country) in Gotland, Sweden, where the island Gotland is made "ready for electric vehicles" by providing a network of charging infrastructure and electric vehicle rental during several summer seasons. The influence of the electric vehicle (EV) rental scheme on the process towards electric vehicle adoption is investigated using the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM). Moreover, the travel patterns of electric rental cars are compared with those of conventional rental cars. The main results of this study are the following: Firstly, people renting an EV are on average closer to electric vehicle adoption than people renting a conventional vehicle. Secondly, people who rent an EV are at the time of rental associated with more positive attitudes towards EVs, have more knowledge about EVs and would feel more secure driving an EV. Thirdly, EV-rental does not seem to have a large additional effect on the stage-of-change towards EV-adoption of the participants. Lastly, the driving patterns of EVs do not seem to indicate serious limitations regarding driving distance, parking time and the destinations that have been visited, as compared to the driving patterns of conventional rental cars.

  • 31.
    Leffler, David
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Simulation based evaluation of flexible transit2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportmyndigheter står inför utmaningen att effektivt utnyttja befintlig transportinfrastruktur under växande behov av tillgänglighet, hållbarhet och säkerhet. Den pågående tillväxten och anammandet av delad mobilitet, förväntningarna på automatiserade fordon, samt den ökade tillgången till realtidsdata tack vare utvecklingen av Intelligenta Transportsystem, har inspirerat många innovationer inom kollektivtrafikdesign. Att integrera dessa tekniker inom befintliga kollektivtrafiksystem innebär en stor potential för operativ planering och styrning, men effekterna av dessa satsningar är notoriskt svåra att utvärdera. De inkluderade uppsatserna utvecklar flexibla operativa strategier som utnyttjar realtidsdata och uppkopplade fordon, och utvärderar dessa genom en utvidgning av ett existerande simuleringsramverk för kollektivtrafik, BusMezzo.

    Uppsats I utforskar en utökning av flexibilitet inom kollektivtrafik i tätort med fasta rutter och tidtabeller genom realtids-kortvändning, en strategi för att samordna fordon som inte ofta studeras inom en realtidskontext. I artikeln utvecklas en beslutsregel för när och var en kortvändning ska ske baserad på förväntade passagerarkostnader. Beslutsregeln utvärderas i en fallstudie av en befintlig busslinje i Stockholm.

    Uppsats II fokuserar på design och analys av en automatiserad matartjänst. I artikeln presenteras en utvidgning av BusMezzo i form av en modul för att simulera olika varianter av flexibel operativ styrning. Förväntade sänkningar av bemanningskostnader genom automatisering av fordon motiverar en fallstudie av två fordonsflottor, där en fullt efterfrågestyrd operativ strategi jämförs med drift enligt fast rutt och tidtabell.

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  • 32.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Simulation of fixed versus on-demand station-based feeder operationsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by lower predicted operational costs, and opportunities for efficient real-time control, automated, centrally coordinated vehicles have in many studies shown great potential as a shared resource within public transit. One particular use case that has grown in popularity over recent years is the application of smaller, automated shuttles as an on-demand feeder to mass transit solution. To investigate differences in fixed versus on-demand operational policies, this paper discusses the operational design and analysis of an automated feeder solution. To this end, a simulation model of demand-responsive transit is developed and incorporated into the transit simulation model BusMezzo. An estimation of operational cost reductions with vehicle automation motivates the case study of two fleets that are deemed comparable with respect to service capacity and operational cost per hour. Results from simulation studies of varying levels of demand indicate that the on-demand policy reduces average total passenger travel times and, for the larger fleet, lowers average vehicle-kilometers traveled per passenger relative fixed service operations. Without achieving a competitive reduction in waiting times, however, on-demand coordination often underperforms with respect to level-of-service and reliability when compared with fixed service operations. When there is slack in fixed service capacity, the performance of the on-demand service outperforms the fixed service with respect to both level-of-service and vehicle utilization only for the lowest demand level tested and the smaller fleet. Average total system costs under on-demand operations improve, however, for the lowest demand levels and the larger fleet due to a reduction in vehicle-kilometers traveled relative a fixed service. When fixed service capacity is exceeded it is found that on-demand coordination outperforms fixed operations with respect to average level-of-service, vehicle-kilometers traveled, and total system costs. Furthermore, when planned service capacity is exceeded, it is found that total passenger waiting time is more equally distributed under on-demand operations relative to fixed.

  • 33.
    LIDSTRÖM OLSSON, DANIEL
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Inlandsbanan – befintliga spår, ny trafik: Förutsättningar för regional spårtrafik i glesbebyggda områden2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When the car dependency grew under many decades in Sweden parts of the rail network was shutdown or got reduced traffic due to the diminishing demand for rail travel. The railway lines affectedwere primarily those in rural areas with an already low number of travellers. One of these linesthreatened to be shut down was the line called Inlandsbanan (Inland line). Inlandsbanan was savedby the municipalities located along the line who now manage the railway by a co-owned company.Since the railway became managed by the co-owned company the railway has mostly been used fortourist-oriented traffic and freight traffic.Today the conditions are different, the demand for rail travel has increased due to a general highertransport demand and an increased environmental awareness. This study has been carried out tofind out if there is possibility to re-establish regional rail traffic for passengers on Inlandsbanan.The study has been carried out using statistics of current travel volumes and inhabitants in thepopulation centres along the line. This data has been analysed with support from earlier studiesregarding regional rail traffic and public transport in rural areas. As an extra tool in the study asimulation program has been used to estimate the travel demand for the line.The study found that the current low speed on Inlandsbanan is the biggest obstacle for implementingan attractive regional rail service on the line. The train is too slow in comparison to the car andtherefore it is not able to gain any considerable share of the total amount of travellers. It is possibleto replace regional bus service at some parts of the line since the train has some minor time gaincompared to the current bus service and the train could also offer a higher level of comfort.

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  • 34.
    LLORET CENDALES, KEVIN
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Robustness simulation ofbus crew schedules: Case Study Frihamnen Depot (Stockholm)2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops a model aimed at predicting the performance of bus crew schedules and study their operational capacity to face disruptions, that is, its robustness. It is based on the relation among schedule deviation, passengers and slack times, considered as non-productive times before trips.Optimization of Public Transport is a challenge that main cities are facing since this type of transport is the backbone of mobility. New powerful versions of transport planning software are providing more optimal schedules to operators, therefore decreasing their costs, but increasing the risk of delays due to more gathered schedules that can cause fines and passengers’ dissatisfaction.A trade-off between production and fines costs is needed to find the optimal slack times. To reach that goal, the Frihamnen bus depot in Stockholm (Sweden) was selected as case study, having historical data of all their lines for last year. A regression model for schedule deviation was calculated which served to create a computer tool in Microsoft Excel, giving the possibility to checking the performance of new schedules based on that historical data.The results showed an inverse relation between schedule deviation and slack times. Moreover, short non-productive times before trips also mean high delays on departures. A positive output is that adding a stop of at least 10% of the total trip time, the first departure would be on time or 2 minutes late as maximum. Several software developers are applying similar studies to their products to keep optimizing bus schedules while taking an economic and social approach.

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  • 35.
    Lukose, Abraham P
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Bridging the gap between Innovation and Value Creation in Public Services: Case Study of a Public Transport Authority2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, left to themselves, private sector companies have developed the field of operations management using a Goods-Dominant Logic (GDL). These developments were adapted by the public sector as a means to improve their service delivery. This has predominantly led to a Goods-Dominant Logic in the approach to governance in Public Sector Organisations (PSO’s). However, in the pursuit of equality of opportunity, it is the responsibility of a PSO to provide an array of services to users irrespective of their access to resources, capabilities and skills. To this end, it is necessary for PSO’s to transition to a Service-Dominant Logic (SDL). The transition of Public Service Organisations to a SDL promotes a bottom-up approach to delivering services to users. Academics of SDL have concluded that the way forward is to co-create value between service provider and customer. The literature review has identified that the field of public service management is lacking in being able to define value. Currently, the concept of value in Public Service Organisations is monitored conceptually and explained vaguely. This thesis adapts that the concept of value creation in a system is a result of the innovation within it. Value creation for the service provider and user is the result of innovating from these respective perspectives. The literature review makes the case that for the formal acceptance of innovation in PSO’s a stakeholder inclusive, systemic, structured and function oriented methodology of innovation is necessary. The literature review outlines that the innovation approach used by SAVE International, referred to as the ‘Value Methodology’ (VM), satisfies all the prerequisites necessary to accept an innovation approach for PSO’s. Through the functional representation of a system from the perspective of the service provider and the user, PSO’s can begin to create value within the organisation and co-create value with its users. To explain how the Value Methodology can be employed by PSO’s illustrative case study of a Public Transport Organisation, Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) is used as the research approach. Using functions, the case study successfully represents the public transport system from the perspective of the service provider and service user. Data collection was done through one-on-one interviews with Subject Matter Experts. This paper intends to share the first steps to engage PSO’s with the Value Methodology approach and begin to create value through innovation.

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  • 36.
    Mitrovic, Branko
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    The effects of emerging technologies in rail yards and intermodal terminals2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the effects of emerging technologies in intermodal terminals and marshallingyards, based on “Intelligent Video Gate” project within the H2020 – Shift2Rail initiative. Projectaim is to initiate the next logical step to a higher level of automation in terminals and to reduce thelead-time needed for the identification/verification process of freight trains. Thesis projectexamine different emerging technologies that could be applied in intermodal terminal automationand possibilities for their application in different processes. Technologies considered in researchare RFID, cameras, scanners, sensors, GPS and scales. Marshalling yard as important freight nodeon railway network is included in research, where departing processes are examined, andtechnology proposed for automation of brake test procedures.Qualitative research is used as a method to investigate current processes in intermodal terminaland marshalling yards. This research included all the processes from train arrival to the terminal,through transshipment processes and train departure from the terminal. Research also conducteddifferent steps which Intermodal Transport Units go through during operations in intermodalterminal. Knowing processes enabled next step in qualitative research, finding the opportunitiesfor improvements in operations. Third step in qualitative research investigated different emergingtechnologies and as a result gave opportunities and obstacles behind each of technologies.Complementing findings from qualitative research, model simulation is performed, based onoperations in Malmö Kombiterminal. Intermodal terminal operations are simulated in Planimate®software. Addition to the qualitative research is finding the opportunities for improvements inmarshalling yards and proposing emerging technology that could be applied.Master thesis successfully accomplished the task of finding the effects of emerging technologiesin intermodal terminals and marshalling yards. The methodology concluded to be appropriate onefor building task solution. The project is viewed as a breakthrough in this domain but theexpectations for Intelligent Video Gate should stay realistic and proceeded carefully. Eliminationof brake test in marshalling yards is also very optimistic goal but should be followed by appropriatesafety rules and regulations. Simulation of complex systems such as intermodal terminals andmarshalling yards is the task that should be supported by accurate and detailed data, in order tokeep the model and results more realistic.

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  • 37.
    Monte Malveira, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Analysis of Walking and Route-Choice Behavior of Pedestrians inside Public Transfer Stations: A Study on how pedestrians behave in the approaching vicinity of level-change facilities,and how it affects their walking and route-choice behavior2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrian walking and choice behavior presented was first studied by Fruin in 1971, and since then a lot of research have been carried out in order to understand how humans move and what does make them make choices and obtain certain patterns. In relation to pedestrians, a significant bottleneck inside public stations evaluated by research are the level-change facilities, as Stair Walks and Escalators. The aim of this research is studying how pedestrian behave in the vicinity to stairways and escalators, and how does that affect pedestrian choice, speed and acceleration when choosing one of the two facilities. Also, with a need for more data on pedestrian traffic, further data collection is a big requirement to analyze their behavior and use as tools in future measures. At last, how to optimize the movement of pedestrians in relation to level changes, considering the effects of the movements observed. Two case studies were analysed, Stockholm Central Station and Uppsala Central Station.The study compares data collection methods, tracking methods and previous studies to better fit the scope of this research. The data is backed up from previous research and explains which method better fitted the options available. As a result, video data collection was chosen to collect the data, a semi-automatic tracking software called T-analyst was used to extract speed, trajectories and acceleration from the videos, and microsimulation modelling from VISSIM further investigated different design options to optimize the overall performance and improve travel time in the same area. The analysis found out that there was a possibility to increase the overall performance of the location in higher flow levels, where the most significant queues could be seen, since there was the possibility to achieve higher speeds by modifying the width and position of the stair walks, which allow for a smaller queue in both directions.

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  • 38.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Höghastighetsbanor: En investering för hållbart resande och godstrafik2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med att bygga nya stambanor är att öka den totala kapaciteten för gods- och persontrafik på järnväg, öka punktligheten och öka tillgängligheten genom korta restider. Det ger också förutsättningar för större regionala arbetsmarknader för ökat bostadsbyggande. Dessutom körs tågen helt elektriskt med möjlighet till att vara helt koldioxidneutrala.

    Trafiken med höghastighetståg är eldriven och fossilfri i Sverige från början. Bil och flyg drar flera gånger mer energi per resenär och km. Även om vägtrafiken elektrifieras kan den inte bli lika energieffektiv som spårtrafik eftersom den har högre rullmotstånd. Självkörande bilar kan inte korta restiderna och inte heller nämnvärt minska energianvändning, miljöbelastning och trängsel. Ännu mera gäller detta om elflyg skulle komma till stånd, vilket dock är inte troligt för stora flygplan på längre sträckor. Utsläppen från tågtrafik är en bråkdel av de från bil och flyg. Därför blir det en miljövinst när fler väljer tåg i stället för bil och flyg.Bygget av nya banor ger upphov till utsläpp som kompenseras när banan trafikeras genom minskade utsläpp från andra färdmedel.

    Trafikverket har gjort kalkyler av ”break-even” som sträcker sig från 27 år ner till 5 år. Fossilfri bil- och flygtrafik kan minska miljöeffekten bara under förutsättning att el, batterier eller biobränslen kan produceras i tillräcklig mängd och med små koldioxidutsläpp. Detta är osannolikt under överskådlig framtid. Om man inte bygger höghastighetsbanorna kommer resandet med bil och flyg öka. Då måste vägarna och flygplatserna byggas ut med ökade utsläpp som följd.

    Som vi pekat på tidigare så fungerar inte Trafikverkets prognosmodell i dag för att utvärdera stora banprojekt. Det är ett stort problem då stora investeringar diskuteras samtidigt som utmaningen med att minska trafikens klimatpåverkan blir alltmer akut. Det är inte bara de samhällsekonomiska kalkylerna som är viktiga. Prognosen i sig har också stor betydelse för planeringen av höghastighets-banorna och utbudet, för bedömning av möjligheterna till medfinansiering och för analys av behovet av utbyggda flygplatser och vägar.

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  • 39.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Andersson, Josef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Resandeflöden på Sveriges järnvägsnät: Analys av utbud och efterfrågan på tågresor2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom den utbudsdatabas som KTH:s Järnvägsgrupp successivt har byggt upp finns en detaljerad beskrivning av hur utbudet av tåg, flyg och buss ser ut och också tidsseriedata för perioden 1990-2017. Däremot saknas detaljerad information av efterfrågan. Syftet med projektet ”Resandeflöden” är att ta fram data så att efterfrågan av tågtrafik kan beskrivas på ett bättre sätt.

    Genom att kombinera efterfrågedata med detaljerade utbudsdata och går det att få en bra bild över persontrafiken på järnväg i Sverige. Kompletterat med databaser över trafik- och fordon under en mätdag kan man beräkna nyckeltal och dygnsvärden kan skrivas upp till årsvärden. Tågtrafiken i Sverige kan då beskrivas t.ex. i form av antalet tågkilometer, personkilometer och beläggningsgrader för olika typer av trafik t.ex. lokaltrafik, regionaltrafik, Intercity-trafik och snabbtåg. I projektet visas att modellen har en god överensstämmelse mellan verkligt resande ner på linje- och produktnivå.

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  • 40.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Andersson, Josef
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Fastigheter och byggande.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Järnvägsgruppen, JVG.
    Utveckling av utbud och priser på järnvägslinjer i Sverige 1990-2019: Avreglering och konkurrens mellan tåg, flyg och buss samt jämförelse mellan tåg- och resenärspunktlighet2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Samband mellan den ekonomiska utvecklingen och transporterna

    • Det finns ett starkt samband mellan den privata konsumtionen och resandet
    • Efter 1990 har inrikesresandet ökat långsammare än den privata konsumtionen
    • Per invånare har resandet med bil stagnerat, med tåg ökat och med inrikesflyg varit konstant
    • Utrikesresorna med flyg har dock ökat dubbelt så snabbt som den privata konsumtionen
    • Tar man hänsyn till svenskarnas resor med utrikes flyg har resandet per invånare ökat

    Järnvägens utveckling i ett långsiktigt perspektiv

    • Privatbilens expansion 1950-1970 och minskad tågtrafik
    • Energikriserna 1974 och 1979 ledde till ökad tågtrafik
    • Flygets expansion under 1980-talet medförde stagnerande tågtrafik
    • Investeringar i järnvägar och nya tåg 1990-2010 gav fördubblad tågtrafik
    • Kvalitetsproblem från 2010 som följd av ökad trafik och eftersatt underhåll

    Järnvägsnätets utnyttjande och järnvägens produktivitet

    • Antalet körda persontåg har ökat från 18 till 37 per km bana och dag 1990-2018
    • Det åker i genomsnitt 3900 personer per km bana och dag 2018 vilket motsvarar 155 bussar
    • Oförändrat 10 godståg per km bana och dygn 1990-2018, godsmängden har ökat med 17 %
    • Det transporteras 6300 ton per km bana och dag 2018 motsvarande 210 lastbilar

    Utvecklingen 1990-2018

    • Det går 105 % fler tåg som går 20 % snabbare 2018 än 1990
    • Priserna har varit stabila men prisdifferentieringen har ökat
    • Tågresandet har ökat med 105 % från 1990 till 2018
    • Resandet med regionaltåg har ökat med 226 % och med fjärrtåg 53 %

    Utveckling av punktligheten 2001-2018

    • Punktligheten för alla tåg var högst 2004 med 93 %, lägst 2011 med 89 % och var 90 % 2018
    • Punktligheten har ännu inte kommit upp i samma nivå som före kvalitetskrisen 2010-2011
    • Punktligheten är beroende på linjelängd men förseningen per tågkilometer är konstant
    • Punktlighetsmålet på 95 % blir svårt att uppnå med dagens infrastruktur och trafik

    Effekter av konkurrensen mellan transportmedel

    • Hård konkurrens inom inrikesflyget sedan 1994 – stabil på de största linjerna
    • Konkurrens mellan flygbolag och flygplatser ger labilt utbud på de mindre linjerna
    • Flygskatten på 60 kr utgör ca 4 % på en inrikes flygresa
    • Konkurrens i långväga busstrafik sedan 1997 huvudsakligen med lågt pris
    • Flixbus (f.d. Swebus) har ökat utbudet, sänkt priserna och kör flygbuss Arlanda-Stockholm

    Utveckling av tågutbud 2018-2019

    • Fortsatt konkurrens Göteborg−Stockholm mellan SJ och MTR, Blå tåget har gått i konkurs
    • Snälltåget Malmö−Stockholm med 2-3 avgångar per dag konkurrerar med SJ
    • SJ har utökat utbudet Sundsvall−Stockholm till ett tåg per timme i samarbete med X-trafik
    • I Mälardalen har periodkortet Movingo och bättre utbud Uppsala−Stockholm ökat resandet
    • SJ:s nattåg till Jämtland går nu dagligen sedan hösten 2018 med hjälp av statligt stöd
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  • 41.
    ODHIAMBO, EVANS OTIENO
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Evaluation of Signal Optimization Software: Comparison of Optimal Signal Pans from TRANSYT and LinSig – A Case Study2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of traffic signal control plan is directly related to the level of traffic congestion experienced both at the junction level and the network particularly in urban areas. Ensuring signals are well designed is one of the most cost-effective ways of tackling urban congestion problems. Signal time plans are designed with the help of signal optimization models. Optimization can either be done for multiple or single objectives and is formulated as a problem of finding the appropriate cycle lengths, green splits, and offsets. Some of these objective functions include; better mobility, efficient energy use, and environmental sustainability. LinSig and TRANSYT are two of the most widely used traffic signal optimization tools in Sweden. Each of them has an inbuilt optimization function which differs from the other. LinSig optimizes based on delay or maximum reserve capacity while TRANSYT optimization is based on performance index (P.I) involving delay, progression, stops and fuel consumption.This thesis compared these optimization models through theoretical review and application to a case study in Norrköping. The theoretical review showed that both TRANSYT and LinSig have objective functions based on delay and its derivatives. The review also showed that these models suffer from the inability to accurately model block back as they are based on the assumption of vertical queuing of traffic at the stop line. Apart from these similarities, these two models also have significant variations with respect to modeling short congested sections of the network as well as modeling mixed traffic including different vehicle classes, pedestrians, and cyclists.From the case study, TRANSYT showed longer cycle time compared to LinSig in both scenarios as its optimization objectives include both delay and stops while LinSig accounts for only delay. The Allocation of phase green splits and individual junction delay was comparable for undersaturated junctions while congested network sections had significant differences. Total network delay was, however, less in LinSig compared to TRANSYT. This could be attributed to different modeling criteria for mixed traffic and congested network in addition to the fact that cyclists were not modeled in TRANSYT. VISSIM simulation of the two-signal time plans showed that network delay and queue lengths from TRANSYT signal timings are much less compared to LinSig time plans. A strong indication of better signal coordination.

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  • 42.
    Ounsi, Karim
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Geographically Weighted Regression as a Predictive Tool for Station-Level Ridership: The Case of Stockholm2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies a new regression method, Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR)to predict ridership at the station level for future stations. The case study of Stockholm’s blue lineis used as new stations will be built by 2030. This paper is written in English.Historically, linear regression methods, independent of the geographical location of theobservations, was and is still used as the Ordinary Least Square regression method. With the riseof GIS-softwares these last decades, geographically dependent regression can be used and previouspreliminary studies have shown a dependency between ridership and location of the station withinthe network.GWR equations for new stations are determined and used to predict their respectiveridership. GIS-data was collected using Geodata and Traffikverket (Traffic Authority) andridership as well as socio-economic related material for the base year of 2016 was used in order todetermine, first, significant variables from a group of candidate ones (Workers, number of buslines and type of change were chosen) and, second the OLS and GWR equations. Significances ofboth models were compared and the OLS equation was used in order to determine the hypotheticalridership of the new stations if they were present in 2016. GWR equations were then determinedusing these calculated ridership of these new stations. Having all GWR equations (each stationhaving its own equation), ridership was thus predicted for the new stations for 2030 usingassumptions and planned, programmed development around the stations (population, apartment tobe built…) and compared with the official predictions.The results show that the GWR method, generally, overpredicts ridership when comparedto the official predictions. Many reasons can explain this overprediction like the assumptions madewith regards to the number of buses as well as the method followed to calculate the number ofworkers around each station.Three main conclusions were drawn for this case study. One main conclusion, specific forthis study and two other, more general, conclusions were deduced from this study. First, GWR isa good predicting tool for future stations that are close to most currently available stations. Second,GWR is a good predicting method for stations where limited changes in the future environmentwill occur.

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  • 43.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Rail On-board Crowding2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med att efterfrågan på resor ökar i många storstadsområden har överbelastning i kollektivtrafiksystemen blivit en viktig fråga. Trängseln kan vara ojämnt fördelad längs plattformar och i tåg med flera vagnar. Det ojämna kapacitetsutnyttjandet i tåget resulterar i att resenärer upplever större trängsel ombord. Dessutom uppstår det högre krav på fler fordon för att tillgodose efterfrågan, vilket leder till högre driftskostnader. Kollektivtrafikoperatörerernas främsta åtgärd är ofta att minska negativa trängseleffekter genom investeringar. Det finns därför ett behov av mer kostnadseffektiva åtgärder. Det kan göras genom att öka kunskaperna om hur resenärer fördelar sig mellan vagnarna och analysera trängseln ombord på ett mer realistiskt sätt genom att hänsyn tas till att resenärer fördelar sig ojämnt mellan tågetsvagnar.

    Artikel I undersöker användandet av automatiskt insamlade data om kollektivtrafik för att analysera resenärers ombordstigning och undersöka avvägningarna mellan trängsel och förflyttning längs plattformen när passagerare väljer en vagn. Det föreslagna ramverket tillämpas i en fallstudie av ett linjesegment i Stockholms tunnelbanenät. Under trånga förhållandet har passagerare visat sig att välja en mindre trång vagn.

    Artikel II fokuserar på utvidgning av det befintliga modellverktyget BusMezzo för att kunna modellera trängseln i varje vagn. Det utvecklade analysverktyget tillämpas i en fallstudie i Stockholms tunnelbanenät. Effekterna av passagerarvolymer och stationsutformningar på trängsel i vagnar utvärderas. Ökad efterfrågan resulterar i en jämnare fördelning av passagerare på de mest trånga stationerna. Detta beror på mindre återstående kapacitet som leder till låg flexibilitet i hur passagerare fördelas mellan vagnar. Stängningen aven populär ingångspunkt vid en utvald station leder till jämnare lastade tåg och lägre upplevda körtider per passagerare.

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  • 44.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: A Stockholm case studyIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a methodology based on multiple automated data sources for evaluating the effects of station layout, arriving traveler flows, and platform and on-board crowding on the distribution of boarding passengers between individual cars of metro trains. The methodology is applied to a case study for a sequence of stations in the Stockholm metro network. While train car loads at the analyzed stations are generally skewed towards the leading cars, results indicate that a crowded front car of the arriving train is associated with increasing boarding shares of the middle car. Moreover, higher platform crowding is found to have a positive effect on the boarding share of the middle cars. These findings suggest that passengers opt for less crowded train cars in crowded situations, trading-off walking and in-vehicle crowding while waiting and riding. We find that the boarding car distribution is also affected by the locations of platform access points and the distribution of entering traveler flows. These insights may be used by transit planners and operators to increase the understanding of how passengers behave under varying crowding conditions, identify the factors that affect travelers' choice of metro car and eventually reduce experienced on-board crowding and increase the capacity utilization of the trains through investments in infrastructure or operational interventions.

  • 45.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: a Stockholm case study2020Ingår i: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 529-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a methodology based on multiple automated data sources for evaluating the effects of station layout, arriving traveler flows, and platform and on-board crowding on the distribution of boarding passengers among individual cars of metro trains. The methodology is applied to a case study for a sequence of stations in the Stockholm metro network. The findings suggest that passengers opt for less crowded train cars in crowded situations, trading-off walking and in-vehicle crowding while waiting and riding. We find that the boarding car distribution is also affected by the locations of platform access points and the distribution of entering traveler flows. These insights may be used by transit planners and operators to increase the understanding of how passengers behave under varying crowding conditions, identify the factors that affect travelers' choice of metro car and eventually reduce experienced on-board crowding and increase the capacity utilization of the trains through investments in infrastructure or operational interventions.

  • 46.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Evaluating crowding in individual train cars using a dynamic transit assignment modelIngår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowding is one of the major issues of public transport systems and has many negative effects for both users and operators. Passengers can be highly unevenly distributed between individual cars of a train even when the total passenger load exceeds the practical capacity.

    Transit assignment models (TAM) are widely used for describing and evaluating crowding in the vehicle. However, these models usually do not capture how passengers are distributed across the vehicle. To this end, this study introduced to an agent-based simulation model the capability to analyze the effective capacity utilization of the train, by considering passengers' distribution among individual train cars.

    The developed model is validated and applied to a case study for the Stockholm metro network, evaluating three scenarios. The findings suggest that an increase in peak hour demand leads to a more even passenger distribution among individual cars upon train departure from the most crowded stops, where passengers' choices are less flexible. The closure of the most popular entrance point at Danderyds sjukhus stop, where passenger distribution is highly skewed, is found to lead to lower crowding unevenness at the specific stop but also upon departure from the downstream stops.

  • 47.
    Rickardsson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Olofsson, Josefin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Att utforma en gång- och cykelbana: En analys av utrymmesbehovet på ytbegränsade gång- och cykelbanor i Stockholm2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Region Stockholm recently set a goal to highly increase the bicycle traffic share the comingdecade. Bicycles as a means of transport has grown in popularity and current trends showa steady yearly increase. The ambitiously set goal puts high demands on the currentpedestrian and bicycle paths in the city. More often than not, pedestrians and cyclists sharethe same space, and thus creating a source for conflicts. Accident statistics show these twogroups are particularily vulnerable, and as a result there is a considerable need for gooddesign of pedestrian and bicycle paths.The aims of this study are to examine the current guiding manuals for design; to developand use a method of analysing the interactions between pedestrians and cyclists; andfinally to explore how the design recommendations from the guiding manuals are followedthroughout routes in the city. The study’s purpose could be summarised as investigatingwhich widths of the pedestrian and bicycle paths result in the smallest amount of conflictsbetween the two groups. The project is split into one part literature study, one part fieldstudy.The literature study scrutinises the guiding manuals for design published by RegionStockholm, The Swedish Transport Administration ( Trafikverket ), The City of Stockholm,and The Swedish Authority of Local Authorities and Regions ( SKL ). Other works, such asreports and papers, or guiding design manuals from Denmark, a country in the frontier ofbicycle planning, are included in the analysis. In the field study, nine suitable locations inStockholm are chosen for data collection. The number of interactions and conflictsbetween pedestrians and cyclists are analysed for each location with intention of findingconnections between the conflicts and the design of the pedestrian and bicycle paths.Ultimately the study concludes that pedestrian paths should have a minimum width of 210centimetres. A satisfying interval of 220 - 230 centimetres is shown to be sufficient as thewidth of the bicycle path, which in total adds up to about 4.3 metres.

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  • 48.
    Rosing, Joel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Study of Traffic Conditions in the Victor Emmanuel Roundabout, through the use of simulations2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of a greater project to alleviate the traffic congestion along the Fawzi Moaz arterial road astudy of the Victor Emmanuel roundabout was conducted. The study has as a goal to increasecapacity and decrease congestion in the Victor Emmanuel roundabout. To do this a data wascollected, analysed, and used to create two models. One in PTV Vissim and one in trafficwaresSynchro 10 with the simtraffic application. Two scenarios where developed, one where theroundabout is signalized, and one where the roundabout is redeveloped into a flower roundabout,where the right turns are separated from the main circulating traffic. During the model developmentissues with missing information had to be address with the help of an iterative fitting process tomodel the route choices made inside the roundabout. The models where then calibrated to considerlocal conditions such as driver behaviour. No direct conclusions could be drawn from the simulationsas the results gave way for multiple interpretations, but the results are that neither of the twotested scenarios gave a clear advantage over the do-nothing scenario. This as the traffic flow anddelay data for both of the develop scenarios where less than in the do-nothing scenario for all exceptone movement

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  • 49.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Urban Planning & Environm, Teknikringen, Stockholm 11428, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak
    Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci BOKU, Inst Transport Studies IVe, Vienna, Austria..
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Transport Planning, Stockholm, Sweden.;Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Is flat fare fair?: Equity impact of fare scheme change2020Ingår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 91, s. 48-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When Public Transport Administrations propose changes in fare schemes or increased fares, they are often met with concerns regarding the proposed fare schemes fairness. Implicit in these concerns is an understanding of relations governing land use and public transport, impacting equity. In this paper, we use socio-economic statistics of census areas in conjunction with public transport travel data from a transport forecast model to assess the geographical and distributional fairness of alternative fare schemes: flat, zone-based and distance-based. We discuss our result in relation to both the scientific literature and the known "truths" in the public debate. The method is applied to the Case study of Stockholm public transport. We find that high-income travelers benefit from all three fare schemes considered but, in contrast to much of the literature, least by flat fares. A strong distance-dependent fare could be horizontally equitable but has poor vertical equity.

  • 50. Saadallah, Amal
    et al.
    Moeira-Matias, Luis
    Sousa, Ricardo
    Khiari, Jihed
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Gama, João
    BRIGHT - Drift-Aware Demand Predictions for Taxi Networks2018Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, ISSN 1041-4347, E-ISSN 1558-2191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive data broadcast by GPS-equipped vehicles provide unprecedented opportunities. One of the main tasks in order to optimize our transportation networks is to build data-driven real-time decision support systems. However, the dynamic environments where the networks operate disallow the traditional assumptions required to put in practice many off-the-shelf supervised learning algorithms, such as finite training sets or stationary distributions. In this paper, we propose BRIGHT: a drift-aware supervised learning framework to predict demand quantities. BRIGHT aims to provide accurate predictions for short-term horizons through a creative ensemble of time series analysis methods that handles distinct types of concept drift. By selecting neighborhoods dynamically, BRIGHT reduces the likelihood of overfitting. By ensuring diversity among the base learners, BRIGHT ensures a high reduction of variance while keeping bias stable. Experiments were conducted using three large-scale heterogeneous real-world transportation networks in Porto (Portugal), Shanghai (China) and Stockholm (Sweden), as well as controlled experiments using synthetic data where multiple distinct drifts were artificially induced. The obtained results illustrate the advantages of BRIGHT in relation to state-of-the-art methods for this task. 

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