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  • 1.
    Gensch, Marc
    et al.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Schwartzkopf, Matthias
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Brett, Calvin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Schaper, Simon J.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kreuzer, Lucas P.
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Li, Nian
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Chen, Wei
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Liang, Suzhe
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Drewes, Jonas
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Inst Mat Wissensch, Lehrstuhl Mat Verbunde, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Polonskyi, Oleksandr
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Inst Mat Wissensch, Lehrstuhl Mat Verbunde, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Strunskus, Thomas
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Inst Mat Wissensch, Lehrstuhl Mat Verbunde, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Faupel, Franz
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Inst Mat Wissensch, Lehrstuhl Mat Verbunde, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter
    Tech Univ Munich, Phys Dept, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibniz Zentrum MLZ, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Fiber & Polymer Technol, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Selective Silver Nanocluster Metallization on Conjugated Diblock Copolymer Templates for Sensing and Photovoltaic Applications2021In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 4245-4255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer-metal composite films with nanostructured metal and/or polymer interfaces show a significant perspective for optoelectronic applications, for example, as sensors or in organic photovoltaics (OPVs). The polymer components used in these devices are mostly nanostructured conductive polymers with conjugated pi-electron systems. Enhanced OPV's power conversion efficiencies or sensor sensitivity can be achieved by selective metal deposition on or into polymer templates. In this study, we exploit time-resolved grazing-incidence X-ray scattering to observe the metal-polymer interface formation and the cluster crystallite size in situ during silver (Ag) sputter deposition on a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-b-P3HT) template. We compare the arising nanoscale morphologies with electronic properties, determine Ag growth regimes, and quantify the selective Ag growth for the diblock copolymer (DBC) template using the corresponding homopolymer thin films (P3HT and PMMA) as a reference. Hence, we are able to describe the influence of the respective polymer blocks and substrate effects on the Ag cluster percolation: the percolation threshold is correlated with the insulator-to-metal transition measured in situ with resistance measurements during the sputter deposition. The Ag cluster percolation on PMMA-b-P3HT starts already on the network of the hexagonal P3HT domain before a complete metal film covers the polymer surface, which is complemented by microscopic measurements. In general, this study demonstrates a possible method for the selective Ag growth as a scaffold for electrode preparation in nanoelectronics and for energy harvesting applications.

  • 2.
    Gensch, Marc
    et al.
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Schwartzkopf, Matthias
    DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Brett, Calvin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;.
    Schaper, Simon J.
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Li, Nian
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Chen, Wei
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Liang, Suzhe
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Drewes, Jonas
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Lehrstuhl Mat Verbunde, Inst Mat Wissensch, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Polonskyi, Oleksandr
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Gordon Lab, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Strunskus, Thomas
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Lehrstuhl Mat Verbunde, Inst Mat Wissensch, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Faupel, Franz
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Lehrstuhl Mat Verbunde, Inst Mat Wissensch, D-24143 Kiel, Germany..
    Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibniz Zentrum MLZ, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Correlating Optical Reflectance with the Topology of Aluminum Nanocluster Layers Growing on Partially Conjugated Diblock Copolymer Templates2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 47, p. 56663-56673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale fabrication of metal cluster layers for usage in sensor applications and photovoltaics is a huge challenge. Physical vapor deposition offers large-scale fabrication of metal cluster layers on templates and polymer surfaces. In the case of aluminum (Al), only little is known about the formation and interaction of Al clusters during sputter deposition. Complex polymer surface morphologies can tailor the deposited Al cluster layer. Here, a poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(3-hexylthiophen-2,5-diyl) (PMMA-b-P3HT) diblock copolymer template is used to investigate the nanostructure formation of Al cluster layers on the different polymer domains and to compare it with the respective homopolymers PMMA and P3HT. The optical properties relevant for sensor applications are monitored with ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) measurements during the sputter deposition. The formation of Al clusters is followed in situ with grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), and the chemical interaction is revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) yield topographical information about selective wetting of Al on the P3HT domains and embedding in the PMMA domains in the early stages, followed by four distinct growth stages describing the Al nanostructure formation.

  • 3.
    Guan, Tianfu
    et al.
    Tech Univ Munich, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Chair Funct Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Chen, Wei
    Tech Univ Munich, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Chair Funct Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Shenzhen Technol Univ, Ctr Adv Mat Diagnost Technol, Shenzhen Key Lab Ultraintense Laser & Adv Mat Tech, Shenzhen 518118, Peoples R China.;Shenzhen Technol Univ, Coll Engn Phys, Shenzhen 518118, Peoples R China..
    Tang, Haodong
    Shenzhen Technol Univ, Coll Integrated Circuits & Optoelect Chips, Shenzhen 518118, Peoples R China..
    Li, Dong
    Soochow Univ, Inst Funct Nano & Soft Mat FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Lab Carbon Based Funct Mat & Devices, Suzhou 215123, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xiao
    Shenzhen Technol Univ, Ctr Adv Mat Diagnost Technol, Shenzhen Key Lab Ultraintense Laser & Adv Mat Tech, Shenzhen 518118, Peoples R China.;Shenzhen Technol Univ, Coll Engn Phys, Shenzhen 518118, Peoples R China..
    Weindl, Christian L.
    Tech Univ Munich, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Chair Funct Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Wang, Yawen
    Soochow Univ, Inst Funct Nano & Soft Mat FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Lab Carbon Based Funct Mat & Devices, Suzhou 215123, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Zhiqiang
    Soochow Univ, Inst Funct Nano & Soft Mat FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Lab Carbon Based Funct Mat & Devices, Suzhou 215123, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Suzhe
    Tech Univ Munich, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Chair Funct Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Xiao, Tianxiao
    Tech Univ Munich, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Chair Funct Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Tu, Suo
    Tech Univ Munich, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Chair Funct Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fiberprocesser. Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Jiang, Lin
    Soochow Univ, Inst Funct Nano & Soft Mat FUNSOM, Jiangsu Key Lab Carbon Based Funct Mat & Devices, Suzhou 215123, Peoples R China..
    Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter
    Tech Univ Munich, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Chair Funct Mat, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zent MLZ, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Decoding the Self-Assembly Plasmonic Interface Structure in a PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Solid for a Photodetector2023In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 17, no 22, p. 23010-23019Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid plasmonic nanostructures have gained enormous attention in a variety of optoelectronic devices due to their surface plasmon resonance properties. Self-assembled hybrid metal/quantum dot (QD) architectures offer a means of coupling the properties of plasmonics and QDs to photodetectors, thereby modifying their functionality. The arrangement and localization of hybrid nanostructures have an impact on exciton trapping and light harvesting. Here, we present a hybrid structure consisting of self-assembled gold nanospheres (Au NSs) embedded in a solid matrix of PbS QDs for mapping the interface structures and the motion of charge carriers. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering is utilized to analyze the localization and spacing of the Au NSs within the hybrid structure. Furthermore, by correlating the morphology of the Au NSs in the hybrid structure with the corresponding differences observed in the performance of photodetectors, we are able to determine the impact of interface charge carrier dynamics in the coupling structure. From the perspective of architecture, our study provides insights into the performance improvement of optoelectronic devices.

  • 4.
    Heger, Julian E.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Chen, Wei
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Shenzhen Technol Univ SZTU, Coll Engn Phys, Lantian Rd 3002, Shenzhen 518118, Peoples R China..
    Zhong, Huaying
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Xiao, Tianxiao
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Harder, Constantin
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Apfelbeck, Fabian A. C.
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Weinzierl, Alexander F.
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Boldt, Regine
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Inst Polymerwerkstoffe, Hohe Str 6, D-01069 Dresden, Germany..
    Schraa, Lucas
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Inst Polymerwerkstoffe, Hohe Str 6, D-01069 Dresden, Germany..
    Euchler, Eric
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Inst Polymerwerkstoffe, Hohe Str 6, D-01069 Dresden, Germany..
    Sambale, Anna K.
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Inst Polymerwerkstoffe, Hohe Str 6, D-01069 Dresden, Germany..
    Schneider, Konrad
    Leibniz Inst Polymerforsch Dresden eV, Inst Polymerwerkstoffe, Hohe Str 6, D-01069 Dresden, Germany..
    Schwartzkopf, Matthias
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Mueller-Buschbaum, P.
    Tech Univ Munich, Chair Funct Mat, TUM Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Tech Univ Munich, Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zent MLZ, Lichtenbergstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Superlattice deformation in quantum dot films on flexible substrates via uniaxial strain2023In: Nanoscale Horizons, ISSN 2055-6764, E-ISSN 2055-6756, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 383-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The superlattice in a quantum dot (QD) film on a flexible substrate deformed by uniaxial strain shows a phase transition in unit cell symmetry. With increasing uniaxial strain, the QD superlattice unit cell changes from tetragonal to cubic to tetragonal phase as measured with in situ grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The respective changes in the optoelectronic coupling are probed with photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The PL emission intensity follows the phase transition due to the resulting changing inter-dot distances. The changes in PL intensity accompany a redshift in the emission spectrum, which agrees with the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) theory. The results are essential for a fundamental understanding of the impact of strain on the performance of flexible devices based on QD films, such as wearable electronics and next-generation solar cells on flexible substrates.

  • 5.
    Kluge, Regina M.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Saxena, Nitin
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Chen, Wei
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Koerstgens, Volker
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Schwartzkopf, Matthias
    DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Zhong, Qi
    Zhejiang Sci Tech Univ, Key Lab Adv Text Mat & Mfg Technol, Minist Educ, Hangzhou 310018, Peoples R China..
    Roth, Stephan V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. DESY, Notkestr 85, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter
    Tech Univ Munich, Lehrstuhl Funkt Mat, Phys Dept, James Franck Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Heinz Maier Leibnitz Zentrum, Lichtenbergstr 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Doping Dependent In-Plane and Cross-Plane Thermoelectric Performance of Thin n-Type Polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) Films2020In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 30, no 28, article id 2003092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoelectric generators pose a promising approach in renewable energies as they can convert waste heat into electricity. In order to build high efficiency devices, suitable thermoelectric materials, both n- and p-type, are needed. Here, the n-type high-mobility polymer poly[N,N '-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5 '-(2,2 '-bithiophene) (P(NDI2OD-T2)) is focused upon. Via solution doping with 4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-N,N-diphenylaniline (N-DPBI), a maximum power factor of (1.84 +/- 0.13) mu W K-2 m(-1) is achieved in an in-plane geometry for 5 wt% dopant concentration. Additionally, UV-vis spectroscopy and grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering are applied to elucidate the mechanisms of the doping process and to explain the discrepancy in thermoelectric performance depending on the charge carriers being either transported in-plane or cross-plane. Morphological changes are found such that the crystallites, built-up by extended polymer chains interacting via lamellar and pi-pi stacking, re-arrange from face- to edge-on orientation upon doping. At high doping concentrations, dopant molecules disturb the crystallinity of the polymer, hindering charge transport and leading to a decreased power factor at high dopant concentrations. These observations explain why an intermediate doping concentration of N-DPBI leads to an optimized thermoelectric performance of P(NDI2OD-T2) in an in-plane geometry as compared to the cross-plane case.

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