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  • 1.
    Jansson, Emil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Olsson, Nils O.E.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Challenges of replacing train drivers in driverless and unattended railway mainline systems—A Swedish case study on delay logs descriptions2023In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 21, p. 100875-100875, article id 100875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the challenges of driverless or unattended train operation have not been described in detail and are often grouped into one category. This paper contributes to filling a knowledge gap regarding the roles of the train driver about the potential use of automatic train operation (ATO) on high grade of automation (GoA) levels. The results contribute to a better understanding of the challenges with driverless or unattended train operation to support strategies on how to utilize ATO on a wider range of trains than is presently the case. We use the Swedish railway network as a case study and delay logs written by train dispatchers for 2019. Our research quantifies how often unplanned events occur in which the train driver is needed, and the role of the train driver in solving these problems. In addition to this we elaborate on existing GoA levels definitions and propose a revised model that highlights more aspects of the train drivers’ roles. We have identified six categories in which an action by the driver is required: Detect, Report, Inspect, Adjust, Manage passengers, and Respond to train orders. The study illustrates some of the challenges with driverless or unattended train operation, and points to the need to develop strategies not only for the driving aspects of ATO but also for the more general technical operational management of rolling stock in high GoA levels.

  • 2.
    Jansson, Emil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Olsson, Nils O.E.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    The use of human senses by train drivers to detect abnormalities2023In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena, Elsevier BV , 2023, Vol. 72, p. 3650-3655Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driverless and unattended train operation is a foreseeable future. While many functions of the driver can be automatized and replaced but detecting abnormalities is more difficult to automate. This study investigates how train drivers detect abnormalities. The objective is to prepare the way for unattended train operation also for remote areas. Using disruption descriptions, written by train dispatchers, we have identified which senses are used by the train drivers and in which situations. Four of the human senses are used by train drivers to detect abnormalities: the visual, the auditory, the somatosensory, and the olfactory systems. The most used sense by the train drivers to detect abnormalities is the visual system. Before introducing driverless and unattended train operation, alternative tools for detecting abnormalities should be included based on the human senses.

  • 3.
    Jansson, Emil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Olsson, Nils O.E.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Trackside sensors in unattended train mainline systems: A case study of alarm logs from Sweden2024In: 25th Euro Working Group on Transportation Meeting, Elsevier BV , 2024, Vol. 78, p. 151-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing unattended train operation on the mainline could make the railway more competitive by reducing operating costs since there will be no staff onboard the train. This will, however, lead to new challenges. One of those challenges is how to deal with manually controlling trackside sensor alarms. In this paper, we study all trackside sensor alarms (hotbox/hotwheel and wheel damage) in Sweden for one year (2019) to study their frequency and context. The results show that freight trains have 10 times higher frequency for alarms per train kilometer than passenger trains. There are statistically significant seasonal and climate zone differences. The highest frequency of trackside alarms occurs in wintertime in the colder climate zone. The results can be used in the development of unattended train operation support systems on the mainline.

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