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  • 1.
    Almualla, Mouza
    et al.
    Amer Univ Sharjah, Dept Phys, POB 26666, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Anand, Shreya
    CALTECH, Div Phys Math & Astron, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Coughlin, Michael W.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Dietrich, Tim
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Guessoum, Nidhal
    Amer Univ Sharjah, Dept Phys, POB 26666, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Carracedo, Ana Sagues
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Phys, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ahumada, Tomas
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Andreoni, Igor
    CALTECH, Div Phys Math & Astron, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Antier, Sarah
    Univ Paris, Astroparticule & Cosmol, CNRS, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Bellm, Eric C.
    Univ Washington, DIRAC Inst, Dept Astron, 3910 15th Ave NE, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Bulla, Mattia
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Astron, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Singer, Leo P.
    NASA, Astrophys Sci Div, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, MC 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA.;Univ Maryland, Joint Space Sci Inst, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Optimizing serendipitous detections of kilonovae: cadence and filter selection2021In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 504, no 2, p. 2822-2831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of multimessenger astronomy has brought with it the need to exploit all available data streams and learn more about the astrophysical objects that fall within its breadth. One possible avenue is the search for serendipitous optical/near-infrared counterparts of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and gravitational-wave (GW) signals, known as kilonovae. With surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), which observes the sky with a cadence of similar to 3 d, the existing counterpart locations are likely to be observed; however, due to the significant amount of sky to explore, it is difficult to search for these fast-evolving candidates. Thus, it is beneficial to optimize the survey cadence for realtime kilonova identification and enable further photometric and spectroscopic observations. We explore how the cadence of wide field-of-view surveys like ZTF can be improved to facilitate such identifications. We show that with improved observational choices, e.g. the adoption of three epochs per night on a similar to nightly basis, and the prioritization of redder photometric bands, detection efficiencies improve by about a factor of two relative to the nominal cadence. We also provide realistic hypothetical constraints on the kilonova rate as a form of comparison between strategies, assuming that no kilonovae are detected throughout the long-term execution of the respective observing plan. These results demonstrate how an optimal use of ZTF increases the likelihood of kilonova discovery independent of GWs or GRBs, thereby allowing for a sensitive search with less interruption of its nominal cadence through Target of Opportunity programs.

  • 2.
    Coughlin, Michael W.
    et al.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA.;CALTECH, Div Phys Math & Astron, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Antier, Sarah
    APC, UMR 7164, 10 Rue Alice Domon & Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris, France..
    Dietrich, Tim
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Haus 28,Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany.;Nikhef, Sci Pk 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Foley, Ryan J.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Heinzel, Jack
    Univ Cote dAzur, Artemis, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.;Carleton Coll, Phys & Astron, Northfield, MN 55057 USA..
    Bulla, Mattia
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Christensen, Nelson
    Univ Cote dAzur, Artemis, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.;Carleton Coll, Phys & Astron, Northfield, MN 55057 USA..
    Coulter, David A.
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Astron & Astrophys, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    Issa, Lina
    Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Paris Saclay, Dept Phys, ENS Paris Saclay, F-91190 Gif Sur Yvette, France.;Nordita SU.
    Khetan, Nandita
    Gran Sasso Sci Inst GSSI, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Measuring the Hubble constant with a sample of kilonovae2020In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 4129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kilonovae produced by the coalescence of compact binaries with at least one neutron star are promising standard sirens for an independent measurement of the Hubble constant (H-0). Through their detection via follow-up of gravitational-wave (GW), short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) or optical surveys, a large sample of kilonovae (even without GW data) can be used for H-0 contraints. Here, we show measurement of H-0 using light curves associated with four sGRBs, assuming these are attributable to kilonovae, combined with GW170817. Including a systematic uncertainty on the models that is as large as the statistical ones, we find H0=73.8-5.8+6.3</mml:msubsup><mml:mspace width="0.33em"></mml:mspace>km<mml:mspace width="0.33em"></mml:mspace>s-1<mml:mspace width="0.33em"></mml:mspace>Mpc-1 and <mml:msub>H0=71.2-3.1+3.2<mml:mspace width="0.33em"></mml:mspace>km<mml:mspace width="0.33em"></mml:mspace>s-1<mml:mspace width="0.33em"></mml:mspace>Mpc-1 for two different kilonova models that are consistent with the local and inverse-distance ladder measurements. For a given model, this measurement is about a factor of 2-3 more precise than the standard-siren measurement for GW170817 using only GWs. Kilonovae observations can be used to out constraints on the Hubble constant (H0). Here, the authors show H0 measurements by combining light curves of four short gamma-ray burts with GW170817 are about a factor of 2-3 more precise than the standard-siren measurements using only gravitational-waves.

  • 3.
    Coughlin, Michael W.
    et al.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Phys & Astron, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA..
    Dietrich, Tim
    Univ Potsdam, Inst Phys & Astron, Haus 28,Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Antier, Sarah
    Univ Paris, CNRS, Astroparticule & Cosmol, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Almualla, Mouza
    Univ Sharjah, Phys Dept, POB 26666, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Anand, Shreya
    CALTECH, Div Phys Math & Astron, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Bulla, Mattia
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Stockholm Univ, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Foucart, Francois
    Univ New Hampshire, Dept Phys & Astron, 9 Lib Way, Durham, NH 03824 USA..
    Guessoum, Nidhal
    Univ Sharjah, Phys Dept, POB 26666, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Hotokezaka, Kenta
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Kumar, Vishwesh
    Univ Sharjah, Phys Dept, POB 26666, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Raaijmakers, Geert
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Nissanke, Samaya
    Univ Amsterdam, Anton Pannekoek Inst Astron, GRAPPA, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst High Energy Phys, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Nikhef, Sci Pk 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Implications of the search for optical counterparts during the second part of the Advanced LIGO's and Advanced Virgo's third observing run: lessons learned for future follow-up observations2020In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 497, no 1, p. 1181-1196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint multimessenger observations with gravitational waves and electromagnetic (EM) data offer new insights into the astrophysical studies of compact objects. The third Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observing run began on 2019 April 1; during the 11 months of observation, there have been 14 compact binary systems candidates for which at least one component is potentially a neutron star. Although intensive follow-up campaigns involving tens of ground and space-based observatories searched for counterparts, no EM counterpart has been detected. Following on a previous study of the first six months of the campaign, we present in this paper the next five months of the campaign from 2019 October to 2020 March. We highlight two neutron star-black hole candidates (S191205ah and S200105ae), two binary neutron star candidates (S191213g and S200213t), and a binary merger with a possible neutron star and a `MassGap' component, S200115j. Assuming that the gravitational-wave (GW) candidates are of astrophysical origin and their location was covered by optical telescopes, we derive possible constraints on the matter ejected during the events based on the non-detection of counterparts. We find that the follow-up observations during the second half of the third observing run did not meet the necessary sensitivity to constrain the source properties of the potential GW candidate. Consequently, we suggest that different strategies have to be used to allow a better usage of the available telescope time. We examine different choices for follow-up surveys to optimize sky localization coverage versus observational depth to understand the likelihood of counterpart detection.

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