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  • 1.
    Bouchouireb, Hamza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    The inclusion of vehicle shape and aerodynamic drag estimations within the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2019In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 84, p. 902-907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work describes a widening of the scope of the Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology with the addition of shape-related design variables. They describe the curvature of a vehicle which impacts its aerodynamic drag and therewith its operational energy demand. Aerodynamic drag is taken into account through the estimation of the drag coefficient of the vehicle body shape using computational fluid dynamics simulations. Subsequently, the aforementioned coefficient is used to calculate the operational energy demand associated with the vehicle. The methodology is applied to the design of the roof of a simplified 2D vehicle model which is both mechanically and geometrically constrained. The roof is modelled as a sandwich structure with its design variables consisting of the material compositions of the different layers, their thicknesses as well as the shape variables. The efficacy of the LCEO methodology is displayed through its ability to deal with the arising functional conflicts while simultaneously leveraging the design benefits of the underlying functional alignments. On average, the optimisation process resulted in 2.5 times lighter and 4.5 times less life cycle energy-intensive free shape designs. This redesign process has also underlined the necessity of defining an allocation strategy for the energy necessary to overcome drag within the context of vehicle sub-system redesign.

  • 2.
    Bouchouireb, Hamza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Towards holistic energy-efficient vehicle product system design: The case for a penalized continuous end-of-life model in the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2019In: 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED19, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 2901-2910Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Life Cycle Energy Optimisation (LCEO) methodology aims at finding a design solution that uses a minimum amount of cumulative energy demand over the different phases of the vehicle's life cycle, while complying with a set of functional constraints. This effectively balances trade-offs, and therewith avoids sub-optimal shifting between the energy demand for the cradle-to-production of materials, operation of the vehicle, and end-of-life phases. The present work describes the extension of the LCEO methodology to perform holistic product system optimisation. The constrained design of an automotive component and the design of a subset of the processes which are applied to it during its life cycle are simultaneously optimised to achieve a minimal product system life cycle energy. A subset of the processes of the end-of-life phase of a vehicle’s roof are modelled through a continuous formulation. The roof is modelled as a sandwich structure with its design variables being the material compositions and the thicknesses of the different layers. The results show the applicability of the LCEO methodology to product system design and the use of penalisation to ensure solution feasibility.

  • 3.
    Jank, Merle-Hendrikje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Göransson, Peter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Baumgartner, Rupert J.
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Schöggl, Josef-Peter
    University of Graz, Institute of Systems Sciences Innovation & Sustainability Research, Austria.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Netherlands.
    Advancing energy efficient early-stage vehicle design through inclusion of end-of-life phase in the life cycle energy optimisation methodology2017In: 12th International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies Conference, EVER, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally-friendly energy-efficient vehicles are an important contributor to meet future global transportation needs. To minimise the environmental impact of a vehicle throughout its entire life cycle, the life cycle energy optimisation (LCEO) methodology has been proposed. Using the proxy of life cycle energy, this methodology balances the energy consumption of vehicle production, operation and end-of-life scenarios. The overall aim is to design a vehicle where life cycle energy is at a minimum. While previous work only included vehicle production and operation, this paper aims at advancing the LCEO methodology by including an end-of-life phase. A simplified design study was conducted to illustrate how vehicle design changes when end-of-life treatment is included. Landfilling, incineration and recycling have been compared as end-of-life treatments, although the focus was put on recycling. The results reveal that the optimal design not only changes with the inclusion of an end-of-life phase but it changes with specific end-of-life treatment. 

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