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  • 1.
    Adriaens, Florian
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wang, Hongliang
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Gionis, Aristides
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Minimizing hitting time between disparate groups with shortcut edges2023Inngår i: KDD 2023: Proceedings of the 29th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2023, s. 1-10Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural bias or segregation of networks refers to situations where two or more disparate groups are present in the network, so that the groups are highly connected internally, but loosely connected to each other. Examples include polarized communities in social networks, antagonistic content in video-sharing or news-feed platforms, etc. In many cases it is of interest to increase the connectivity of disparate groups so as to, e.g., minimize social friction, or expose individuals to diverse viewpoints. A commonly-used mechanism for increasing the network connectivity is to add edge shortcuts between pairs of nodes. In many applications of interest, edge shortcuts typically translate to recommendations, e.g., what video to watch, or what news article to read next. The problem of reducing structural bias or segregation via edge shortcuts has recently been studied in the literature, and random walks have been an essential tool for modeling navigation and connectivity in the underlying networks. Existing methods, however, either do not offer approximation guarantees, or engineer the objective so that it satisfies certain desirable properties that simplify the optimization task. In this paper we address the problem of adding a given number of shortcut edges in the network so as to directly minimize the average hitting time and the maximum hitting time between two disparate groups. The objectives we study are more natural than objectives considered earlier in the literature (e.g., maximizing hitting-time reduction) and the optimization task is significantly more challenging. Our algorithm for minimizing average hitting time is a greedy bicriteria that relies on supermodularity. In contrast, maximum hitting time is not supermodular. Despite, we develop an approximation algorithm for that objective as well, by leveraging connections with average hitting time and the asymmetric k-center problem.

  • 2.
    Backlund, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Elektronik och inbyggda system.
    Ngo, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Elektronik och inbyggda system.
    Gärtner, Joel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Matematik (Avd.).
    Dubrova, Elena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Elektronik och inbyggda system.
    Secret Key Recovery Attack on Masked and Shuffled Implementations of CRYSTALS-Kyber and Saber2023Inngår i: Applied Cryptography and Network Security Workshops - ACNS 2023 Satellite Workshops, ADSC, AIBlock, AIHWS, AIoTS, CIMSS, Cloud S and P, SCI, SecMT, SiMLA, Proceedings, Springer Nature , 2023, s. 159-177Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shuffling is a well-known countermeasure against side-channel attacks. It typically uses the Fisher-Yates (FY) algorithm to generate a random permutation which is then utilized as the loop iterator to index the processing of the variables inside the loop. The processing order is scrambled as a result, making side-channel attacks more difficult. Recently, a side-channel attack on a masked and shuffled implementation of Saber requiring 61,680 power traces to extract the long-term secret key was reported. In this paper, we present an attack that can recover the long-term secret key of Saber from 4,608 traces. The key idea behind the 13-fold improvement is to recover FY indexes directly, rather than by extracting the message Hamming weight and bit flipping, as in the previous attack. We capture a power trace during the execution of the decryption algorithm for a given ciphertext, recover FY indexes 0 and 255, and extract the corresponding two message bits. Then, we modify the ciphertext to cyclically rotate the message, capture a power trace, and extract the next two message bits with FY indexes 0 and 255. In this way, all message bits can be extracted. By recovering messages contained in k∗ l chosen ciphertexts constructed using a new method based on error-correcting codes of length l, where k is the module rank, we recover the long-term secret key. To demonstrate the generality of the presented approach, we also recover the secret key from a masked and shuffled implementation of CRYSTALS-Kyber, which NIST recently selected as a new public-key encryption and key-establishment algorithm to be standardized.

  • 3.
    Boon, Wietse M.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Numerisk analys, NA.
    Nordbotten, J. M.
    Center for Modeling of Coupled Subsurface Dynamics, Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Mixed-dimensional poromechanical models of fractured porous media2023Inngår i: Acta Mechanica, ISSN 0001-5970, E-ISSN 1619-6937, Vol. 234, nr 3, s. 1121-1168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We combine classical continuum mechanics with the recently developed calculus for mixed-dimensional problems to obtain governing equations for flow in, and deformation of, fractured materials. We present models in both the context of finite and infinitesimal strain, and discuss nonlinear (and non-differentiable) constitutive laws such as friction models and contact mechanics in the fracture. Using the theory of well-posedness for evolutionary equations with maximal monotone operators, we show well-posedness of the model in the case of infinitesimal strain and under certain assumptions on the model parameters.

  • 4.
    Caputi, Luigi
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Matematica “Giuseppe Peano”, Universitá di Torino, 10124, Torino, Italy.
    Riihimaki, Henri
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.).
    Hochschild homology, and a persistent approach via connectivity digraphs2023Inngår i: Journal of Applied and Computational Topology, ISSN 2367-1726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a persistent Hochschild homology framework for directed graphs. Hochschild homology groups of (path algebras of) directed graphs vanish in degree i≥ 2. To extend them to higher degrees, we introduce the notion of connectivity digraphs, and analyse two main examples; the first, arising from Atkin’s q-connectivity, and the second, here called n-path digraphs, generalising the classical notion of line graph. Based on a categorical setting for persistent homology, we propose a stable pipeline for computing persistent Hochschild homology groups. This pipeline is also amenable to other homology theories; for this reason, we complement our work with a survey on homology theories of directed graphs.

  • 5.
    Cowgill, John
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, SciLifeLab, Stockholm University, 17121 Solna, Sweden.
    Fan, Chen
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, SciLifeLab, Stockholm University, 17121 Solna, Sweden.
    Haloi, Nandan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biofysik. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tobiasson, Victor
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, SciLifeLab, Stockholm University, 17121 Solna, Sweden.
    Zhuang, Yuxuan
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, SciLifeLab, Stockholm University, 17121 Solna, Sweden.
    Howard, Rebecca J.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, SciLifeLab, Stockholm University, 17121 Solna, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Erik
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Biofysik.
    Structure and dynamics of differential ligand binding in the human ρ-type GABAA receptor2023Inngår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 111, nr 21, s. 5-3450Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) drives critical inhibitory processes in and beyond the nervous system, partly via ionotropic type-A receptors (GABAARs). Pharmacological properties of ρ-type GABAARs are particularly distinctive, yet the structural basis for their specialization remains unclear. Here, we present cryo-EM structures of a lipid-embedded human ρ1 GABAAR, including a partial intracellular domain, under apo, inhibited, and desensitized conditions. An apparent resting state, determined first in the absence of modulators, was recapitulated with the specific inhibitor (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid and blocker picrotoxin and provided a rationale for bicuculline insensitivity. Comparative structures, mutant recordings, and molecular simulations with and without GABA further explained the sensitized but slower activation of ρ1 relative to canonical subtypes. Combining GABA with picrotoxin also captured an apparent uncoupled intermediate state. This work reveals structural mechanisms of gating and modulation with applications to ρ-specific pharmaceutical design and to our biophysical understanding of ligand-gated ion channels.

  • 6.
    Deng, Yucheng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Guo, Qiang
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Xiang, Yan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Fang, Di
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Komlev, Andrei A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Bechta, Sevostian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Ma, Weimin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    An experimental study on the effect of coolant salinity on steam explosion2024Inngår i: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 201, artikkel-id 110420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The steam explosion plays an essential role in the safety analysis of light water reactors (LWRs). Some studies have demonstrated that the occurrence of steam explosions is dependent on many factors such as melt and coolant temperatures, melt and coolant properties, non -condensable gases, etc. After the Fukushima accident, seawater as an emergency coolant and its impact on fuel coolant interactions are receiving attention. However, there is still little knowledge on the impact of seawater on steam explosion. The present study is intended to examine the effect of coolant salinity on steam explosion through a series of tests with single molten droplet falling in different coolant pools (DI water, and seawater at different salinities from 7.7 g/kg to 35 g/kg). The experimental results reveal that the salinity of coolant significantly influences the probability of spontaneous steam explosion of molten tin droplets. The probability of steam explosion generally increases with increasing salinity from 0 to 17.5 g/kg. The molten droplet in seawater experiences more pronounced deformation at same depth before the vapor film of the droplet collapses. What's more, the peak pressure generated by steam explosion in seawater is notably higher than that in DI water. The fragmentation of molten tin droplet after the explosion is enhanced accordingly.

  • 7.
    Faj, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Beräkningsvetenskap och beräkningsteknik (CST).
    Peng, Ivy Bo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Beräkningsvetenskap och beräkningsteknik (CST).
    Wahlgren, Jacob
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Beräkningsvetenskap och beräkningsteknik (CST).
    Markidis, Stefano
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Beräkningsvetenskap och beräkningsteknik (CST).
    Quantum Computer Simulations at Warp Speed: Assessing the Impact of GPU Acceleration2023Inngår i: Proceedings 2023 IEEE 19th International Conference on e-Science, e-Science 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum computer simulators are crucial for the development of quantum computing. This work investigates GPU and multi-GPU systems' suitability and performance impact on a widely used simulation tool - the state vector simulator Qiskit Aer. In particular, we evaluate the performance of both Qiskit's default Nvidia Thrust backend and the recent Nvidia cuQuantum backend on Nvidia A100 GPUs. We provide a benchmark suite of representative quantum applications for characterization. For simulations with a large number of qubits, the two GPU backends can provide up to 14× speedup over the CPU backend, with Nvidia cuQuantum providing a further 1.5-3× speedup over the default Thrust backend. Our evaluation on a single GPU identifies the most important functions in Nvidia Thrust and cuQuantum for different quantum applications and their compute and memory bottlenecks. We also evaluate the gate fusion and cache-blocking optimizations on different quantum applications. Finally, we evaluate large-number qubit quantum applications on multi-GPU and identify data movement between host and GPU as the limiting factor for the performance.

  • 8.
    Forsström, Malin Palö
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Matematik (Avd.).
    Lenells, Jonatan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Matematik (Avd.).
    Viklund, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Matematik (Inst.), Matematik (Avd.).
    Wilson loops in the Abelian lattice Higgs model2023Inngår i: Probability and Mathematical Physics, ISSN 2690-0998, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 257-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the lattice Higgs model on ℤ4 in the fixed length limit, with structure group given by ℤn for n ⩾ 2. We compute the expected value of the Wilson loop observable to leading order when the inverse temperature and hopping parameter are both sufficiently large compared to the length of the loop. The leading order term is expressed in terms of a quantity arising from the related but much simpler ℤn model, which reduces to the usual Ising model when n = 2. As part of the proof, we construct a coupling between the lattice Higgs model and the ℤn model.

  • 9.
    Frauenfelder, Arno
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS).
    Wiltz, Adrian
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Decentralized Vehicle Coordination and Lane Switching without Switching of Controllers2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a controller for safe lane change manoeuvres of autonomous vehicles using high-order control barrier and Lyapunov functions. The inputs are calculated using a quadratic program (CLF-CBF-QP) which admits short calculation times. The controller allows for adaptive cruise control, lane following, lane switching and ensures collision avoidance at all times. The novelty of the controller is the decentralized approach to the coordination of vehicles without switching of controllers. In particular, vehicles indicate their manoeuvres which influences their own safe region and that of neighboring vehicles. This is achieved by introducing so-called coordination functions in the design of control barrier functions. In a relevant simulation example, the controller is validated and its effectiveness is demonstrated.

  • 10.
    Giorgini, L. T.
    et al.
    Nordita, Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden.
    Eichhorn, Ralf
    KTH, Centra, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Das, M.
    Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Kamand, Himachal Pradesh 175075, India, Himachal Pradesh.
    Moon, W.
    Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Pukyong National University, 48513 Pusan, South Korea.
    Wettlaufer, John
    KTH, Centra, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA.
    Thermodynamic cost of erasing information in finite time2023Inngår i: Physical Review Research, E-ISSN 2643-1564, Vol. 5, nr 2, artikkel-id 023084Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Landauer principle sets a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the minimum amount of heat that must be dissipated to erase one logical bit of information through a quasistatically slow protocol. For finite time information erasure, the thermodynamic costs depend on the specific physical realization of the logical memory and how the information is erased. Here we treat the problem within the paradigm of a Brownian particle in a symmetric double-well potential. The two minima represent the two values of a logical bit, 0 and 1, and the particle's position is the current state of the memory. The erasure protocol is realized by applying an external time-dependent tilting force. We derive analytical tools to evaluate the work required to erase a classical bit of information in finite time via an arbitrary continuous erasure protocol, which is a relevant setting for practical applications. Importantly, our method is not restricted to the average work, but instead gives access to the full work distribution arising from many independent realizations of the erasure process. Using the common example of an erasure protocol that changes linearly with time acting on a double-parabolic potential, we explicitly calculate all relevant quantities and verify them numerically.

  • 11.
    Gulshan, Samina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Shafaghat, Hoda
    Division of Bioeconomy and Health, Department of Biorefinery and Energy, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SE-941 28 Piteå, Sweden, AB.
    Yang, Hanmin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    Department of System Transition and Service Innovation, Unit of Resources from Waste, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, SE-114 86 Stockholm, Sweden, AB.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Tillämpad termodynamik och kylteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Performance analysis and production of aromatics for ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered WEEE2024Inngår i: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 179, artikkel-id 106510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ex situ catalytic pyrolysis of engineered waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) was conducted in a two-stage reactor using HZSM-5 catalyst. The effect of the catalysis temperature and the catalyst-to-feedstock (C/F) ratio on products yield, gas and oil composition, and products characterization were investigated in this study. Results indicated that lower reforming temperature and C/F ratio favored organic fractions production. The highest yield of organic fraction was obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and at a C/F ratio of 0.15, corresponding to 28.5 and 27.4 wt %, respectively. The highest selectivity toward aromatic hydrocarbons and the lowest TAN value of the organic fraction were obtained at a catalysis temperature of 450 °C and a C/F ratio of 0.2, respectively. Most of the alkali and transition metals and 23 % of Br remained in the solid residue after the catalytic pyrolysis of low-grade electronic waste (LGEW).

  • 12.
    Gyger, Samuel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Quantum and Nanostructure Physics.
    Zeuner, Katharina
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Quantum and Nanostructure Physics.
    Lettner, Thomas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Carlnäs, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik. Ericsson AB, Torshamnsgatan 21, 164 40 Stockholm, Sweden, Torshamnsgatan 21.
    Bensoussan, Sandra
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik. Ericsson AB, Torshamnsgatan 21, 164 40 Stockholm, Sweden, Torshamnsgatan 21.
    Ekemar, Liselott
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik. Ericsson AB, Torshamnsgatan 21, 164 40 Stockholm, Sweden, Torshamnsgatan 21.
    Schweickert, Lucas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Reuterskiöld Hedlund, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Elektronik och inbyggda system.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektroteknik, Elektronik och inbyggda system.
    Nilsson, Tigge
    Ericsson AB, Torshamnsgatan 21, 164 40 Stockholm, Sweden, Torshamnsgatan 21.
    Almlöf, Jonas
    Ericsson AB, Torshamnsgatan 21, 164 40 Stockholm, Sweden, Torshamnsgatan 21.
    Steinhauer, Stephan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Quantum and Nanostructure Physics.
    Llosera, Gemma Vall
    Ericsson AB, Torshamnsgatan 21, 164 40 Stockholm, Sweden, Torshamnsgatan 21.
    Zwiller, Val
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Quantum and Nanostructure Physics.
    Metropolitan Single-Photon Distribution at 1550 nm for Random Number Generation2023Inngår i: CLEO: Fundamental Science, CLEO:FS 2023, Optica Publishing Group , 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum communication networks are used for QKD and metrological applications. We present research connecting two nodes ≈ 20 kilometers apart over the municipal fiber network using semiconductor quantum dots emitting at 1550 nm.

  • 13.
    Hou, Yandong
    et al.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.
    Chen, Tianbo
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.
    Li, Weichao
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.
    Gao, Chuntian
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.
    Chen, Bowen
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.
    Zhang, Chao
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin, China.
    Xiang, Yan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Numerical study on surface corrosion deposition of fuel elements and its influence on flow heat transfer2024Inngår i: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 201, artikkel-id 110458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of pressurized water reactors (PWR) in nuclear power plants can lead to serious safety hazards. This study aims to analyze the deposition of corrosion products using FLUENT software. Deposition models and thermal resistance models were developed, and the effects of deposits on the reactor's thermal–hydraulic characteristics were evaluated. Additionally, the impact of various parameters on deposition and thermal–hydraulic characteristics was examined. Results show that deposits accumulate extensively in the inlet section of the fuel cladding, while appearing as spot deposits in the outlet section. For deposit thicknesses below 30 μm, the surface temperature of the cladding gradually increases. However, when the thickness exceeds 30 μm, the surface temperature rapidly rises. Furthermore, the study reveals that the deposition amount decreases with increasing inlet flow velocity, exhibits an upward trend with higher inlet temperature, and increases with a higher wall heat flux density. This research provides important insights for understanding core deposition and thermal–hydraulic characteristics in nuclear reactor systems. It offers valuable guidance for enhancing safety and operational efficiency in nuclear power plants.

  • 14.
    Li, Yucheng
    et al.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    Zhu, Liyu
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    Zhao, Jingyang
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    Qiu, Mengjie
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    Liu, Jing
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    He, Jing
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    Wang, Luying
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    Lei, Jiandu
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 P. R. China.
    Tian, Weiqian
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Fiberteknologi. Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 P. R. China.
    Rong, Long
    Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 P. R. China.
    Facile synthesis of a high-efficiency NiFe bimetallic catalyst without pre-reduction for the selective hydrogenation reaction of furfural2022Inngår i: Catalysis Science & Technology, ISSN 2044-4753, E-ISSN 2044-4761, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 457-467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A high-efficiency nickel-iron bimetallic catalyst (Ni3Fe1 alloy) was synthesized by a facile solvothermal reaction and directly used in furfural hydrogenation without pre-reduction. When the total metal acetate was 6 mmol (Ni : Fe = 4 : 2) with 2 mmol sodium acetate under reaction conditions of 1 MPa H2 pressure at 130 °C for 1 h, the conversion for furfural and selectivity for furfuryl alcohol were both more than 98%. XRD, BET, H2-TPD, SEM, HRTEM, EDS, ICP-MS and ex/in situ XPS were used to characterize the catalysts. Compared to the monometallic Ni catalyst, the introduction of Fe not only enhanced the hydrogen adsorption capacity of Ni but also forms NiFe2O4 on the surface of the catalyst to protect the internal crystals from further oxidation and maintain hydrogenation ability. Moreover, the introduction of Na increased the purity of the Ni3Fe1 crystal of the catalyst and reinforced the interaction between Ni and Fe, resulting in an improvement in hydrogenation performance. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the reaction mechanism was systematically investigated. The results of five recycling tests show excellent catalyst stability. The environmentally friendly synthetic process, high stability, catalytic efficiency and the ability to function without a pre-reduction step make the nickel-iron bimetallic catalyst an ideal, commercial candidate for the furfural hydrogenation reaction.

  • 15.
    Liguori, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Xu, Huan
    School of Materials Science and Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, 221116 Xuzhou, China.
    Hazarika, Doli
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymerteknologi.
    Simple Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Plasma Post-Treatment Strategy for Surface Coating of Digital Light Processed 3D-Printed Vanillin-Based Schiff-Base Thermosets2023Inngår i: ACS Applied Polymer Materials, E-ISSN 2637-6105, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 8506-8517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma post-treatment strategy was developed for the surface coating of three-dimensional (3D) structures produced by digital light processing 3D printing. The influence of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma on the chemical and physical properties of vanillin-derived Schiff-base thermosets and the dip-coating process was investigated and compared to the influence of traditional post-treatment with UV-light. As a comparison, thermosets without post-treatment were also subjected to the coating procedure. The results document that UV post-treatment can induce the completion of the curing of the printed thermosets if complete curing is not reached during printing. Conversely, the plasma post-treatment does not contribute to the curing of the thermoset but causes some opening of the imine bonds and the regeneration of aldehyde functions. As a consequence, no great differences are observed between the not post-treated and plasma post-treated samples in terms of mechanical, thermal, and solvent-resistant properties. In contrast to the UV post-treatment, the plasma post-treatment of the thermosets induces a noticeable increase of the thermoset hydrophilicity ascribed to the reformation of amines on the thermoset surface. The successful coating process and the greatest uniformity of the lignosulfonate coating on the surface of plasma post-treated samples are considered to be due to the presence of these amines and aldehydes. The investigation of the UV shielding properties and antioxidant activities documents the increase of both properties with the increasing amount and uniformity of the formed coating. Interestingly, evident antioxidant properties are also shown by the noncoated thermosets, which are deduced to their chemical structures.

  • 16.
    Lindén, Pär A.
    et al.
    Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology, and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 56-58, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Teknikringen 56-58.
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi. Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adapting the kraft cooking process in glycerol media. Studies of impregnation kinetics2023Inngår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 9-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although organosolv processes using high-boiling solvents have been investigated in recent decades for developing novel industrial processes, there are potential benefits of using high-boiling point solvents for traditional sulphate-based cooking processes, both from an industrial perspective and from a laboratory perspective. Using high-boiling solvents, experiments can be done under atmospheric conditions, thus making it easier to continually monitor laboratory experiments and extracting aliquots at desired intervals. Using such a system, alkaline consumption was monitored during impregnation of spruce chips in glycerol media using chemical charges of 1 M NaOH and 0.1 M NaHS, i. e., kraft pulping conditions, and compared to a similar investigation of alkaline consumption in water media using steel autoclaves. The resulting data was fitted to a first order kinetic model, with an apparent activation energy of 22 kJ mol-1 in glycerol media. Finally, a "normal quality pulp"of kappa number 28 and a viscosity of 1113 ml g-1 was successful produced using a cooking process with an impregnation step at 140 °C for 3 h and a cooking step at 160 °C for 4 h. A nuclear magnetic resonance study on the dissolved lignin produced for said experiment showed characteristics typical of other kraft lignins.

  • 17.
    Litter, Marta Irene
    et al.
    Universidad Nacional de San Martín: San Martin, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Vatten- och miljöteknik.
    Industrial applications of nanoparticles: A prospective overview2023Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanotechnology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science, with great potential to solve the developmental challenges in a wide range of industries such as aerospace, agriculture, bioengineering, cosmetics, chemicals, electronics, energy, renewables, surface coatings, textiles, medicine, materials manufacturing, military equipment, etc. To compile this book, distinguished scientists, engineers, and industrial professionals from different parts of the world have been invited. An array of 17 high-quality science-based chapters covering recent advancements, challenges, and future trends in industrial applications of nanotechnology is presented. The book is aimed at industrial professionals and graduate-level students and researchers.

  • 18.
    Mai, Vien V.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Stability and Convergence of Stochastic Gradient Clipping: Beyond Lipschitz Continuity and Smoothness2021Inngår i: Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Machine Learning, ICML 2021, ML Research Press , 2021, s. 7325-7335Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stochastic gradient algorithms are often unstable when applied to functions that do not have Lipschitz-continuous and/or bounded gradients. Gradient clipping is a simple and effective technique to stabilize the training process for problems that are prone to the exploding gradient problem. Despite its widespread popularity, the convergence properties of the gradient clipping heuristic are poorly understood, especially for stochastic problems. This paper establishes both qualitative and quantitative convergence results of the clipped stochastic (sub)gradient method (SGD) for non-smooth convex functions with rapidly growing subgradients. Our analyses show that clipping enhances the stability of SGD and that the clipped SGD algorithm enjoys finite convergence rates in many cases. We also study the convergence of a clipped method with momentum, which includes clipped SGD as a special case, for weakly convex problems under standard assumptions. With a novel Lyapunov analysis, we show that the proposed method achieves the best-known rate for the considered class of problems, demonstrating the effectiveness of clipped methods also in this regime. Numerical results confirm our theoretical developments.

  • 19.
    Mishchenko, Yulia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, Centrum för kärnenergiteknik, CEKERT. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Strukturer.
    Patnaik, Sobhan
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik.
    Wallenius, Janne
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnkraftssäkerhet.
    Lopes, Denise Adorno
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik. Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Thermophysical properties and oxidation behaviour of the U0.8Zr0.2N solid solution2023Inngår i: Nuclear Materials and Energy, E-ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 35, artikkel-id 101459Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermophysical properties and oxidation behaviour of the composite pellet UN–20 vol%ZrN were investigated experimentally and compared with the behaviour of the pure UN pellet. A compound of a single phase, a solid solution of the average composition U0.8Zr0.2N, was obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of the powders UN and ZrN. Crystallographic and microstructural characterisation of the composite was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), standardised Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). Nano hardness and Young's modulus were also measured by the nanoindentation method. High-Temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) was applied to obtain the lattice expansion as a function of temperature (room temperature to 673 K). Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was applied to evaluate oxidation behaviour in air. Results demonstrate that the fabrication method results in a matrix of solid solution with homogeneous composition averaged to U0.8Zr0.2N. The mechanical properties of such solution are uniform, with variation only due to the crystallographic orientation of the grains of the solution phase, similar to pure UN. The obtained value for the average linear thermal expansion coefficient is α¯ = 7.94 × 10-6/K, which compares well to UN (α¯ = 7.95 × 10-6/K) for the same temperature range. The degradation behaviour of the composite pellet UN-20 vol%ZrN in air shows a lower oxidation onset temperature, compared to pure UN, with the final product of oxidation being mainly U3O8. Smaller crystallites in the product of corrosion of the composite pellet indicate that the mechanism of degradation of the solid solution phase U0.8Zr0.2N is accompanied by the formation of two distinct oxides and their interaction.

  • 20.
    Oettershagen, Lutz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Wang, Hongliang
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Gionis, Aristides
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Finding Densest Subgraphs with Edge-Color Constraints2024Inngår i: WWW 2024 - Proceedings of the ACM Web Conference, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2024, s. 936-947Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a variant of the densest subgraph problem in networks with single or multiple edge attributes. For example, in a social network, the edge attributes may describe the type of relationship between users, such as friends, family, or acquaintances, or different types of communication. For conceptual simplicity, we view the attributes as edge colors. The new problem we address is to find a diverse densest subgraph that fulfills given requirements on the numbers of edges of specific colors. When searching for a dense social network community, our problem will enforce the requirement that the community is diverse according to criteria specified by the edge attributes. We show that the decision versions for finding exactly, at most, and at least h colored edges densest subgraph, where h is a vector of color requirements, are NP-complete, for already two colors. For the problem of finding a densest subgraph with at least h colored edges, we provide a linear-time constant-factor approximation algorithm when the input graph is sparse. On the way, we introduce the related at least h (non-colored) edges densest subgraph problem, show its hardness, and also provide a linear-time constant-factor approximation. In our experiments, we demonstrate the efficacy and efficiency of our new algorithms.

  • 21.
    Praveena, Rangasamy
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638401, India.
    Balasankar, Athinarayanan
    Department of Physics, Gobi Arts & Science College, Gobichettipalayam 638453, India.
    Aruchamy, Kanakaraj
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Oh, Taehwan
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Polisetti, Veerababu
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Polymera material. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.
    Anbazhakan, Kandasamy
    Department of Physics, Gobi Arts & Science College, Gobichettipalayam 638453, India.
    Structural Activity and HAD Inhibition Efficiency of Pelargonidin and Its Glucoside—A Theoretical Approach2022Inngår i: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 27, nr 22, artikkel-id 8016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthocyanins are an important pharmaceutical ingredient possessing diet regulatory, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Pelargonidin is an important anthocyanin-based orange-red flavonoid compound used in drugs for treating hypoglycemia, retinopathy, skeletal myopathy, etc. The main sources of pelargonidin are strawberries and food products with red pigmentation. There is a lack of evidence for supporting its use as an independent supplement. In the present study, pelargonidin and pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside are studied for their structural properties using quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory. The results confirmed that the parent compound and its glycosylated derivative acted as good electron donors. Electrostatic potential, frontier molecular orbitals, and molecular descriptor analyses also substantiated their electron donating properties. Furthermore, based on the probability, a target prediction was performed for pelargonidin and pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside. Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase was chosen as an enzymatic target of interest, since the presence work focuses on glucuronidated compounds and their efficacy over diabetes. Possible interactions between these compounds and a target with nominable binding energies were also evaluated. Further, the structural stability of these two compounds were also analyzed using a molecular dynamics simulation.

  • 22.
    Raghavan, Aneesh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Sartori, Giacomo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Motion Planning for The Estimation of Functions2023Inngår i: 2023 62nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, s. 7150-7155Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of estimation of an unknown real valued function with real valued input by an agent. The agent exists in 3D Euclidean space. It is able to traverse in a 2D plane while the function is depicted in a 2D plane perpendicular to the plane of traversal. By viewing the function from a given position, the agent is able to collect a data point lying on the function. By traversing through the plane while paying a control cost, the agent collects a finite set of data points. The set of data points are used by the agent to estimate the function. The objective of the agent is to find a control law which minimizes the control cost while estimating the function optimally. We formulate a control problem for the agent incorporating an inference cost and the control cost. The control problem is relaxed by finding a lower bound for the cost function. We present a kernel based linear regression model to approximate the cost-to-go and use the same in a control algorithm to solve the relaxed optimization problem. We present simulation results comparing the proposed approach with greedy algorithm based exploration.

  • 23.
    Saafi, Salwa
    et al.
    Brno University of Technology, Department of Telecommunications, Brno, Czech Republic, 61600; Tampere University, Unit of Electrical Engineering, Tampere, Finland, 33720.
    Vikhrova, Olga
    Brno University of Technology, Department of Telecommunications, Brno, Czech Republic, 61600.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hosek, Jiri
    Brno University of Technology, Department of Telecommunications, Brno, Czech Republic, 61600.
    Andreev, Sergey
    Tampere University, Unit of Electrical Engineering, Tampere, Finland, 33720.
    Cost- and Delay-Efficient Backhaul Selection for Time-Sensitive Maritime Communications2023Inngår i: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 1235-1239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending the existing near-shore terrestrial infrastructure with non-terrestrial network capabilities helps maritime operators alleviate the high costs of communication and meet the requirements imposed by time-sensitive applications. Recognizing that the deployment of terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks necessitates selecting from the available wireless backhaul solutions, which have dissimilar data transmission costs and communication link qualities, it is essential to propose an appropriate backhaul selection policy. Specifically, in this letter, we coin a backhaul selection policy that manages the inherent trade-off between data transmission expenses and timely throughput guarantees for maritime communications. We formulate the backhaul selection problem as a Markov decision process and show that the proposed solution is not only more cost-efficient, but also satisfies the timely throughput requirements in contrast to the currently used greedy strategies.

  • 24.
    Schäbitz, A.
    et al.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Medicine Solna, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hillig, C.
    Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1.
    Mubarak, M.
    Center for Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University and Helmholtz Center Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Jargosch, M.
    Center for Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University and Helmholtz Center Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29; Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technical University of Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Farnoud, A.
    Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1.
    Scala, E.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Medicine Solna, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Kurzen, N.
    Center for Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University and Helmholtz Center Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Pilz, A. C.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technical University of Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29; Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
    Bhalla, Nayanika
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Genteknologi.
    Thomas, J.
    Center for Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University and Helmholtz Center Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Stahle, M.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Medicine Solna, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biedermann, T.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technical University of Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Schmidt-Weber, C. B.
    Center for Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University and Helmholtz Center Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Theis, F.
    Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1.
    Garzorz-Stark, N.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Medicine Solna, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Technical University of Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Eyerich, K.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Medicine Solna, and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Unit of Dermatology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Menden, M. P.
    Institute of Computational Biology, Helmholtz Zentrum München—German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1; Department of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Goßhadernerstrasse 2, Martinsried, 82152, Germany, Goßhadernerstrasse 2; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD e.V.), Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1.
    Eyerich, S.
    Center for Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Technical University and Helmholtz Center Munich, Biedersteinerstrasse 29, 80802, Munich, Germany, Biedersteinerstrasse 29.
    Spatial transcriptomics landscape of lesions from non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases2022Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 7729Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abundant heterogeneous immune cells infiltrate lesions in chronic inflammatory diseases and characterization of these cells is needed to distinguish disease-promoting from bystander immune cells. Here, we investigate the landscape of non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases (ncISD) by spatial transcriptomics resulting in a large repository of 62,000 spatially defined human cutaneous transcriptomes from 31 patients. Despite the expected immune cell infiltration, we observe rather low numbers of pathogenic disease promoting cytokine transcripts (IFNG, IL13 and IL17A), i.e. >125 times less compared to the mean expression of all other genes over lesional skin sections. Nevertheless, cytokine expression is limited to lesional skin and presented in a disease-specific pattern. Leveraging a density-based spatial clustering method, we identify specific responder gene signatures in direct proximity of cytokines, and confirm that detected cytokine transcripts initiate amplification cascades of up to thousands of specific responder transcripts forming localized epidermal clusters. Thus, within the abundant and heterogeneous infiltrates of ncISD, only a low number of cytokine transcripts and their translated proteins promote disease by initiating an inflammatory amplification cascade in their local microenvironment.

  • 25.
    Sterling, Cody M.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kamal, Chinnathambi
    Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden; Theory and Simulations Laboratory, Theoretical and Computational Physics Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013, India; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094, India, Anushakti Nagar.
    Garcia Fernandez, Alberto
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi.
    Man, Gabriel J.
    Condensed Matter Physics of Energy Materials, Division of X-ray Photon Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden, Box 516; GJM Scientific Consulting, Fort Lee, New Jersey 07024, United States.
    Svanström, Sebastian
    Condensed Matter Physics of Energy Materials, Division of X-ray Photon Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden, Box 516.
    Nayak, Pabitra K.
    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 36/P, Gopanpally Village, Serilingampally Mandal, Ranga Reddy District, Hyderabad 500046, India, 36/P, Gopanpally Village, Serilingampally Mandal, Ranga Reddy District.
    Butorin, Sergei M.
    Condensed Matter Physics of Energy Materials, Division of X-ray Photon Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden, Box 516.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Condensed Matter Physics of Energy Materials, Division of X-ray Photon Science, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden, Box 516.
    Cappel, Ute B.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Tillämpad fysikalisk kemi. Division of Applied Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odelius, Michael
    Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Electronic Structure and Chemical Bonding in Methylammonium Lead Triiodide and Its Precursor Methylammonium Iodide2022Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 126, nr 47, s. 20143-20154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed examination of the electronic structures of methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPI) and methylammonium iodide (MAI) is performed with ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations based on density functional theory, and the theoretical results are compared to experimental probes. The occupied valence bands of a MAPI single crystal and MAI powder are probed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the conduction bands are probed from the perspective of nitrogen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Combined, the theoretical simulations and the two experimental techniques allow for a dissection of the electronic structure unveiling the nature of chemical bonding in MAPI and MAI. Here, we show that the difference in band gap between MAPI and MAI is caused chiefly by interactions between iodine and lead but also weaker interactions with the MA+counterions. Spatial decomposition of the iodine p levels allows for analysis of Pb-I σ bonds and πinteractions, which contribute to this effect with the involvement of the Pb 6p levels. Differences in hydrogen bonding between the two materials, seen in the AIMD simulations, are reflected in nitrogen valence orbital composition and in nitrogen K-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

  • 26.
    Tahmasebi, Shirin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Programvaruteknik och datorsystem, SCS.
    Payberah, Amir H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Programvaruteknik och datorsystem, SCS.
    Soylu, Ahmet
    Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway.
    Roman, Dumitru
    SINTEF AS, Norway.
    Matskin, Mihhail
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Programvaruteknik och datorsystem, SCS.
    TRANSQLATION: TRANsformer-based SQL RecommendATION2023Inngår i: Proceedings - 2023 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, BigData 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, s. 4703-4711Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The exponential growth of data production emphasizes the importance of database management systems (DBMS) for managing vast amounts of data. However, the complexity of writing Structured Query Language (SQL) queries requires a diverse range of skills, which can be a challenge for many users. Different approaches are proposed to address this challenge by aiding SQL users in mitigating their skill gaps. One of these approaches is to design recommendation systems that provide several suggestions to users for writing their next SQL queries. Despite the availability of such recommendation systems, they often have several limitations, such as lacking sequence-awareness, session-awareness, and context-awareness. In this paper, we propose TRANSQLATION, a session-aware and sequence-aware recommendation system that recommends the fragments of the subsequent SQL query in a user session. We demonstrate that TRANSQLATION outperforms existing works by achieving, on average, 22% more recommendation accuracy when having a large amount of data and is still effective even when training data is limited. We further demonstrate that considering contextual similarity is a critical aspect that can enhance the accuracy and relevance of recommendations in query recommendation systems.

  • 27.
    Troubitsyna, Elena
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Teoretisk datalogi, TCS.
    Utilising Redundancy to Enhance Security of Safety-Critical Systems2023Inngår i: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: SAFECOMP 2023 Workshops, Springer Nature , 2023, s. 188-196Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For many safety-critical systems, implementing modern cybersecurity protection mechanisms is hindered by legacy design and high re-certification costs. Since such systems are typically designed to be highly reliable, they usually contain a large number of redundant components used to achieve fault tolerance. In this paper, we discuss challenges in utilising redundancy inherently present in the architectures of safety-critical systems to enhance system cybersecurity protection. We consider classic redundant architectures and analyse their ability to protect against cyberattacks. By evaluating the likelihood of a successful cyberattack on a redundant architecture under different implementation conditions, we conclude that redundancy in combination with diversity has better potential to be utilised for cybersecurity protection.

  • 28.
    Wang, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Chen, Wei
    Peking University, State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Beijing, China.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Phase of Multivariable Systems: A Revisit via H2T-Dissipativity2023Inngår i: 2023 62nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2023, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, s. 691-696Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new notion of phase of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems was recently defined and studied, leading to new understandings in various fronts including a formulation of small phase theorem, a performance criterion named H∞ phase sector, and a sectored real lemma, etc. In this paper, we define a new notion of H2T-dissipativity and show the connection between the phase of a multivariable linear time-invariant (LTI) system and the H2T-dissipativity. The H2T-dissipativity, roughly speaking, is dissipativity restricted to the time-domain H2 space which consists of L2 signals with only positive frequency components. In addition, by exploiting the newly defined H2T- dissipativity, we also study the phase of a feedback system and provide a physical interpretation of the sectored real lemma.

  • 29.
    Wong, Kin Wing
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik.
    Mickus, Ignas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik.
    Vasudevan, Sumathi
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik.
    Li, Haipeng
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik.
    Grishchenko, Dmitry
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik.
    Kudinov, Pavel
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnenergiteknik.
    CFD STUDIES OF SEPARATE EFFECT FLOW ACCELERATED CORROSION AND EROSION (SEFACE) FACILITY FOR HEAVY LIQUID METAL2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering "Nuclear, Thermal, and Renewables: United to Provide Carbon Neutral Power", ICONE 2023, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2023Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term material compatibility in heavy liquid metal (HLM) remains a challenge for the successful deployment of HLM-based technologies. Flow-accelerated corrosion and erosion (FACE) phenomena can lead to continual material deterioration, which needs to be considered throughout the reactor design stage. Nonetheless, known experimental data are inadequate to cover all the prototypical flow regimes during LFR's operation. Modelling of the FAC/FACE phenomena remains mostly in lumped parameter/subchannel scales, where the FAC model is coupled to the bulk flow of the pipe or subchannel. These methodologies might produce a sufficient prediction for the core internals; however, this might not be suitable for the pump impeller due to comparatively greater relative velocity and the occurrence of transient flow patterns near the rotating impeller. To establish an understanding of the connection between turbulence and FACE, the liquid lead-based Separate Effect Flow Accelerated Corrosion and Erosion (SEFACE) facility is currently under design at KTH in the framework of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Research In Sweden (SUNRISE) project. SEFACE attempts to investigate FACE phenomena in the liquid lead and produce quantifiable validation data for model development. The paper divides itself into two parts. Part I refers to the study of operational conditions in SEFACE via Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulation, while Part II deals with the recent attempt on modelling time-dependent flow shear on rotating disks based on large eddy simulation (LES). The paper begins with a brief review of prior studies on flow-accelerated corrosion. Following that, the SEFACE facility's design concept is laid out considering several physical and operational constraints. A periodic wedge of the SEFACE test chamber is chosen to examine the facility's time-averaged behaviour. The k-ω shear stress transport (SST) model was employed for the simulations. The torque prediction on the rotating disk system is verified with the empirical frictional factor prediction. The latest hydrodynamic design enables SEFACE to be spun at 1200 revolutions per minute (corresponding to a maximum velocity of 21 m/s) without causing free surface deformation or excessive pressure. SEFACE permits the collecting of experimental data under the effect of various relative velocities in a single experiment round. The second part of the paper focuses on a recent attempt to determine the wall shear stress distribution on a rotating disk using wall-modelled large eddy simulation (WMLES S-Omega). The obtained amplitude and frequency of wall shear stress fluctuations will aid model development in future.

  • 30.
    Wu, Xuyang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Reglerteknik.
    Magnússon, Sindri
    Department of Computer and System Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.
    Distributed safe resource allocation using barrier functions2023Inngår i: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 153, artikkel-id 111051Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Resource allocation plays a central role in networked systems such as smart grids, communication networks, and urban transportation systems. In these systems, many constraints have physical meaning and infeasible allocations can result in a system breakdown. Hence, algorithms with asymptotic feasibility guarantees can be insufficient since they cannot ensure that an implementable solution is found in finite time. This paper proposes a distributed feasible method (DFM) for resource allocation based on barrier functions. In DFM, every iterate is feasible and safe to implement since it does not violate the physical constraints. We prove that, under mild conditions, DFM converges to an arbitrarily small neighborhood of the optimum. Numerical experiments demonstrate the competitive performance of DFM.

  • 31.
    Xu, Xiangxing
    et al.
    Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Ning, Xianzhou
    School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Xinjiang Institute of Engineering, Xinjiang 830023, China.
    Dong, Faqin
    Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Yang, Xiaoyong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap. Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm SE-100 44, Sweden.
    Zhang, Wei
    Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Ye, Bin
    Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Yang, Zhiguo
    Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Zhao, Guoqiang
    Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Zeng, Chuan
    School of National Defense & Nuclear Science and Technology, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Yang, Yushan
    Fundamental Science on Nuclear Wastes and Environmental Safety Laboratory, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.
    Low temperature fabrication of Ba0.9Cs0.3Cr2.1Ti5.9O16 ceramic waste form for cesium immobilization using Bi2O3 as sintering aid2024Inngår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 492, artikkel-id 152166Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a productive low-temperature fabrication of Cs-hollandite ceramics by adding Bi2O3 as a sintering aid to achieve high cesium retention. The effects of Bi2O3 addition on the phase composition, crystal structure and aqueous stability of the stoichiometric Ba0.9Cs0.3Cr2.1Ti5.9O16 ceramic waste form were investigated. It was found that adding Bi2O3 can effectively reduce the sintering temperature and promote densification of Cs-containing hollandite products. The Cs-hollandite ceramic with 2 wt% Bi2O3 sintered at 1000 °C showed a single phase with > 98 % cesium retention, which was ∼ 200 °C lower and ∼ 11 % retention rate higher than those of reported Cs-bearing hollandite. Moreover, the leached sample remained stable tetragonal structure, the LRCs was in the order of 10-3 g·m-2·d-1 after 28 days and the leaching indexes > 8, exhibiting good aqueous stability. This route can be considered as a promising solution to prevent cesium loss for incorporating the cesium waste in ceramic hosts.

  • 32.
    Yang, Hanmin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Zaini, Ilman Nuran
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Pan, Ruming
    School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001, Harbin, China.
    Jin, Yanghao
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Wang, Yazhe
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM).
    Li, Lengwan
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Bolívar Caballero, José Juan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Shi, Ziyi
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Subasi, Yaprak
    Department of Chemistry - Ångström Laboratory, Structural Chemistry, Uppsala University, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, 751 21, Uppsala, Sweden, Lägerhyddsvägen 1.
    Nurdiawati, Anissa
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation (Inst.), Hållbarhet, Industriell dynamik & entreprenörskap.
    Wang, Shule
    International Innovation Center for Forest Chemicals and Materials, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Longpan Road 159, 210037, Nanjing, China, Longpan Road 159; Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Materials, Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF), No. 16, Suojin Five Village, 210042, Nanjing, China, No. 16, Suojin Five Village.
    Shen, Yazhou
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ, London, UK.
    Wang, Tianxiang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsmaterial.
    Wang, Yue
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Byggnadsmaterial.
    Sandström, Linda
    Department of Biorefinery and Energy, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, Box 726, SE-941 28, Piteå, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Han, Tong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Distributed electrified heating for efficient hydrogen production2024Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikkel-id 3868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study introduces a distributed electrified heating approach that is able to innovate chemical engineering involving endothermic reactions. It enables rapid and uniform heating of gaseous reactants, facilitating efficient conversion and high product selectivity at specific equilibrium. Demonstrated in catalyst-free CH4 pyrolysis, this approach achieves stable production of H2 (530 g h−1 L reactor−1) and carbon nanotube/fibers through 100% conversion of high-throughput CH4 at 1150 °C, surpassing the results obtained from many complex metal catalysts and high-temperature technologies. Additionally, in catalytic CH4 dry reforming, the distributed electrified heating using metallic monolith with unmodified Ni/MgO catalyst washcoat showcased excellent CH4 and CO2 conversion rates, and syngas production capacity. This innovative heating approach eliminates the need for elongated reactor tubes and external furnaces, promising an energy-concentrated and ultra-compact reactor design significantly smaller than traditional industrial systems, marking a significant advance towards more sustainable and efficient chemical engineering society.

  • 33.
    Yu, Liangcheng
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Komlev, Andrei A.
    Ma, Weimin
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Fysik, Kärnvetenskap och kärnteknik.
    Bechta, Sevostian
    Villanueva, Walter
    Bangor University, UK.
    Rangavittal, Bharath Vasudev
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Glaser, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Processer.
    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen
    East Tehran Branch of Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    An experimental study on the impact of particle surface wettability on melt infiltration in particulate beds2024Inngår i: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 206, artikkel-id 110664Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt infiltration into porous media is an intriguing phenomenon that holds immense significance across various sciences and technologies. In this work, the problem of metallic melt infiltration in particulate beds is investigated for understanding and prediction of severe accident progression associated with a molten pool penetrating through an underlying debris bed which may form in the reactor core or in the lower head of a light water reactor. The present study aims to quantify the effect of particle surface's wettability on melt infiltration kinetics. For this purpose, two categories of experiment are conceived and carried out to measure the wettability of different material surfaces by melt and to characterize melt infiltration kinetics in one-dimensional particulate beds, respectively. The melt material is tin–bismuth eutectic alloy with a melting point of 139 °C. Copper (Cu), stainless steel (SS), Tin (Sn) and tin-coated stainless steel (Sn-coated SS) are chosen as materials of substrates and particles in wettability measurement and melt infiltration study. The particulate beds, packed with 1.5 mm spheres, are preheated to 200 °C before the melt infiltration begins. The experimental data of wettability measurement shows that the contact angles of liquid Sn-Bi eutectic on the above-mentioned material surfaces range from 79° to 135°. The results of melt infiltration tests confirm the significant effect of wettability on melt penetration kinetics. The capillary force plays a significant role in the initial infiltration of particulate beds. Specifically, a wettable particulate bed enhances the initial melt infiltration, whereas non-wettable beds hinder it.

  • 34.
    Zaugg, Judith Barbara
    et al.
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlén, Pelin
    KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersson, Robin
    Section for Computational and RNA Biology, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Genomic Mechanisms of Disease, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell
    Department of Hemato-oncology, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the CAS, Prague, Czech Republic; Childhood Leukaemia Investigation Prague, Department of Pediatric Haematology and Oncology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
    de Laat, Wouter
    Hubrecht Institute-KNAW, Oncode Institute and University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrech, Netherlands.
    Deplancke, Bart
    Laboratory of Systems Biology and Genetics, Institute of Bio-engineering, School of Life Sciences, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Ferrer, Jorge
    Centre for Genomic Regulation, the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en red Diabetes y enfermedades metabólicas asociadas (CIBERDEM), Madrid, Spain; Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Mandrup, Susanne
    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Genomic Mechanisms of Disease, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA; Functional Genomics and Metabolism Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Natoli, Gioacchino
    IEO, European Institute of Oncology – IRCCS, Milan, Italy.
    Plewczynski, Dariusz
    Laboratory of Functional and Structural Genomics, Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro
    Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC/University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Spicuglia, Salvatore
    TAGC, UMR 1090, Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, Marseille, France; Equipe Labellisée, LIGUE Contre le Cancer, Marseille, France.
    Current challenges in understanding the role of enhancers in disease2022Inngår i: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, ISSN 1545-9993, E-ISSN 1545-9985, Vol. 29, nr 12, s. 1148-1158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhancers play a central role in the spatiotemporal control of gene expression and tend to work in a cell-type-specific manner. In addition, they are suggested to be major contributors to phenotypic variation, evolution and disease. There is growing evidence that enhancer dysfunction due to genetic, structural or epigenetic mechanisms contributes to a broad range of human diseases referred to as enhanceropathies. Such mechanisms often underlie the susceptibility to common diseases, but can also play a direct causal role in cancer or Mendelian diseases. Despite the recent gain of insights into enhancer biology and function, we still have a limited ability to predict how enhancer dysfunction impacts gene expression. Here we discuss the major challenges that need to be overcome when studying the role of enhancers in disease etiology and highlight opportunities and directions for future studies, aiming to disentangle the molecular basis of enhanceropathies.

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