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  • 1.
    Lander, Sanna
    et al.
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden; BillerudKorsnäs Gruvön, Grums, SE-664 33, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Korhonen, Leena
    BillerudKorsnäs Frövi, Frövi, SE-718 80, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Crispin, Xavier
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes: Physicochemical Properties and Ionic Transport versus Degree of Sulfonation2022In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, E-ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 2200275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of green ion selective membranes is foreseen to be based on cellulosic nanomaterials with controllable properties. The introduction of ionic groups into the cellulose structure via chemical modification is one strategy to obtain desired functionalities. In this work, bleached softwood fibers are oxidatively sulfonated and thereafter homogenized to liberate the cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from the fiber walls. The liberated CNFs are subsequently used to prepare and characterize novel cellulose membranes. It is found that the degree of sulfonation collectively affects several important properties of the membranes via the density of fixed charged groups on the surfaces of the CNFs, in particular the membrane morphology, water uptake and swelling, and correspondingly the ionic transport. Both ionic conductivity and cation transport increase with the increased level of sulfonation of the starting material. Thus, it is shown that the chemical modification of the CNFs can be used as a tool for precise and rational design of green ion selective membranes that can replace expensive conventional fluorinated ionomer membranes.

  • 2.
    Lander, Sanna
    et al.
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden; BillerudKorsnäs Gruvön, SE-664 33, Grums, Sweden.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Boissard, Yselaure
    BillerudKorsnäs Frövi, SE-718 80, Frövi, Sweden.
    Korhonen, Leena
    BillerudKorsnäs Frövi, SE-718 80, Frövi, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Technology, SE-100 44, Stockholm, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Centre, Fibre and polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. Laboratory of Organic Electronics, Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, SE-601 74, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes Improve the Stability of Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries2022In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, E-ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 2200016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The drawbacks of current state-of-the-art selective membranes, such as poor barrier properties, high cost, and poor recyclability, limit the large-scale deployment of electrochemical energy devices such as redox flow batteries (RFBs) and fuel cells. In recent years, cellulosic nanomaterials have been proposed as a low-cost and green raw material for such membranes, but their performance in RFBs and fuel cells is typically poorer than that of the sulfonated fluoropolymer ionomer membranes such as Nafion. Herein, sulfonated cellulose nanofibrils densely cross-linked to form a compact sulfonated cellulose membrane with limited swelling and good stability in water are used. The membranes possess low porosity and excellent ionic transport properties. A model aqueous organic redox flow battery (AORFB) with alizarin red S as negolyte and tiron as posolyte is assembled with the sulfonated cellulose membrane. The performance of the nanocellulose-based battery is superior in terms of cyclability in comparison to that displayed by the battery assembled with commercially available Nafion 115 due to the mitigation of crossover of the redox-active components. This finding paves the way to new green organic materials for fully sustainable AORFB solutions.

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