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  • 1. Almroth, Andreas
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Canella, Olivier
    Flötteröd, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Further development of SAMPERS and modeling of urban congestion2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to more precisely represent the consequences of congestion mitigation policies in urban transport systems calls for replacement of the static equilibrium assignment by DTA in the integrated travel demand and traffic assignment models. Despite of the availability of DTA models and despite of the conceptual clarity of how such integration should take place, only few operational model systems have been developed for large-scale applications. We report on replacement of the static traffic assignment by two different DTAs in the four stage demand model for the Greater Stockholm region: the macroscopic analytic Visum DUE and microscopic simulation Transmodeler. First results show that even without systematic calibration the DTA is in reasonable agreement with observed traffic counts and travel times. The presented experiments did not reveal striking difference between using macroscopic and microscopic assignment package. However, given the clear trend to microscopic modeling and simulation on the travel demand side, the use of micro-simulation-based DTA package appears more natural from system integration perspective.

  • 2.
    Almström, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modelling the effect of transit supply and price structure on mode choice and route choice2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a new mode choice and transit route choice model for work trips by either car or transit. In contrast to the conventional regional traffic models used for transportation planning in Sweden, the model accounts for the fact that the value of time varies within a population of travellers making a trip with the same purpose and the fact that the price can differ between different transit lines (bus, regional trains, etc.). A mixed binomial logit (MXL) model with a lognormally distributed cost parameter has been estimated for the mode choice. The MXL specification makes it possible to capture some of the variation in the value of time. The transit route choice model rests on the assumption that transit commuters purchase travel passes that are valid for a certain time period, e.g. a month. The travel pass then allows the traveller to use a certain set of transit lines, while others are not available. For the mode choice, the traveller compares travel cost and time with the chosen pass with the travel cost and time by car. The results from performed analyses indicate that if the interest is in overall mode share and overall travel flows, the conventional method in Swedish transport modelling will suffice. However, if the interest is more detailed, for example concerning boardings and ticket income from a certain transit line, or the total benefit of a price change, the model developed in this paper will give more reliable results.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Canella, Olivier
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Flötteröd, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Integration of dynamic traffic assignment with a travel demand model for the Stockholm region2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    de Palma, André
    et al.
    Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Network market conduct with atomic and non-atomic players2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a non-atomic network game, there is a continuum of selfish users, independently choosing routes from the origins to thedestinations of their trips. In the static version of the game, each link of the network is endowed by a continuous increasing costfunction of the total flow of agents on the link. It is well known that a Nash equilibrium when no user can decrease own route costby unilaterally changing their route exists and is generally less efficient than the system optimum. In the last decade, a considerableamount of literature was devoted to designing Stackelberg routing in order to reduce the cost of anarchy, i.e. the ratio between thetotal cost of Nash and the system optimum cost, see e.g. Harks (2011) for overview. Apart from the non-atomic users theStackelberg routing assumes an atomic player - a leader - that can unilaterally and consciously influence the cost for thenon-atomic users – the followers - by partially controlling their route choice for a fraction of users. It is usually assumed that thecontrolled users perceive the same cost on each link as the uncontrolled ones.In our paper, we assume that there are two types of agents, which have different cost functions. As an example of such situation,one could consider a continuum of cars and a fleet of trucks. Indeed, the truck speed is normally lower than that of the cars and isless influenced by the congestion. Moreover, the truck route choice may be controlled by a common agency that pursues a strategyof minimising the total cost forof truck (private agency) or the total cost for all vehicles (governmental agency). The costs of usingthe routes areis route specific and vehicle type specific and isare given as specified as a linear functions of the total number ofusers on the route. Each car is atomic and ignores the impact of his decision on congestion. On the contrary, the coordinator of thefleet may take into account the total congestion cost of the trucks and of the cars. We consider several market situations:Stackelberg equilibrium with trucks controlled by the private agency(Stackelberg), the social system optimum, the second-bestoptimum with trucks controlled by the governmental agency, as well as the benchmark (Nash) with no coordination at all. Despitethe simple formulation, all scenarios beside the Nash lead to non-convex minimisation problems. Each of these problems alwayshas a non-interior solution although interior solutions may exist too.Without the coordination, the trucks and the cars choose their routes according to the deterministic user equilibrium. In the socialoptimum, the total cost for cars and trucks is minimised, and it is almost always possible to obtain a non-interior solution withlower total cost than in the user equilibrium.In the network consisting of two identical (i.e. with similar cost functions) parallel routes the trucks cannot benefit from thecoordination and the Stackelberg equilibrium coincides with Nash equilibrium. However, if there are more trucks (car equivalents)than cars and if the car cost function is steeper than the truck cost function, then the governmental agency can improve the socialwelfare compared to the user equilibrium scenario. In this case, moving a truck from the route that accumulates all cars increasethe total cost for trucks but decreases the total cost for the whole collection of vehicles.If the two routes are not identical then the coordination of trucks may actually worsen the situation by reducing the cost for trucksbut increasing the cost for cars and the total cost compared to the Nash equilibrium. On the other side, the governmental agencycontrolling the trucks may decrease the total cost to a value which is lower than the total cost in the Nash equilibrium at the sametime increasing the cost for trucks.In the Stackelberg game, the fleet of trucks is coordinated in order to minimise their total cost. We show that there is always anon-interior solution. However, in the case of identical routes neither cars nor trucks benefit from the coordination of the truck fleetsince equilibrium and optimum coincides. SAY WHAT COULD HAPPEN IN A NON SYMETRIC Finally, in the second bestscenario we envisage, we assume that the trucks choose routes so that the total cost over all vehicles (cars and trucks) is minimised.In the symmetric case, but with different cost functions for trucks and for cars, we have shown that no benefit can be obtained bythe coordination if the number of cars exceeds the number of trucks. However, with more trucks than cars, there is always apossibility to improve the social welfare compared to the user equilibrium scenario. PROVIDE SOME HINT WHY HEREWe finally examine the coordination game, when two fleets of trucks are competingcompeting for what. And the so what?Add the reference that I asked you to add.

  • 5. Ekström, J.
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Rydergren, C.
    A heuristic method for finding congestion pricing schemes in transportation networks with modal choice2008In: International conference of Hong Kong society for transportation studies, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Society of Transportation Studies Ltd. , 2008, p. 773-782Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Ekström, J.
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Rydergren, C.
    Heuristic algorithms for a second-best congestion pricing problem2009In: Netnomics, ISSN 1385-9587, E-ISSN 1573-7071, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 85-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing a congestion pricing scheme involves a number of complex decisions. Focusing on the quantitative parts of a congestion pricing system with link tolls, the problem involves finding the number of toll links, the link toll locations and their corresponding toll level and schedule. In this paper, we develop and evaluate methods for finding the most efficient design for a congestion pricing scheme in a road network model with elastic demand. The design efficiency is measured by the net social surplus, which is computed as the difference between the social surplus and the collection costs (i.e. setup and operational costs) of the congestion pricing system. The problem of finding such a scheme is stated as a combinatorial bi-level optimization problem. At the upper level, we maximize the net social surplus and at the lower level we solve a user equilibrium problem with elastic demand, given the toll locations and toll levels, to simulate the user response. We modify a known heuristic procedure for finding the optimal locations and toll levels given a fixed number of tolls to locate, to find the optimal number of toll facilities as well. A new heuristic procedure, based on repeated solutions of a continuous approximation of the combinatorial problem is also presented. Numerical results for two small test networks are presented. Both methods perform satisfactorily on the two networks. Comparing the two methods, we find that the continuous approximation procedure is the one which shows the best results.

  • 7. Ekström, J.
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Rydergren, C.
    Towards optimal locations and toll levels in congestion pricing schemes2009In: 16th ITS World Congress, World Congress on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of designing a road congestion pricing scheme with link tolls. The problem involves decisions on where to locate the toll collecting facilities and what tolls to charge the road users. We formulate this problem as a bi-level program, with the objective to maximize the net social surplus, which include the cost of setting up and operate the toll collection system. A previously developed heuristic method is applied to find close to optimal toll locations and charges for a traffic network representing the Stockholm region. The result is compared with the current congestion pricing scheme in Stockholm.

  • 8. Ekström, J.
    et al.
    Rydergren, C.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    A heuristic method for finding congestion pricing schemes in traffic networks with modal choice2008In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference of Hong Kong Society for Transportation Studies: Transportation and Management Science, 2008, p. 773-782Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend a previously developed heuristic procedure, with a modal choice model, to solve the congestion pricing problem of simultaneously finding the optimal number of toll facilities, their corresponding location and toll levels. When considering a congestion pricing scheme the cost of collecting the tolls can not be disregarded. The objective is wherefore to maximize the net social surplus, which is the social surplus minus the cost of collecting the tolls. The heuristic method is an iterative solution procedure, in which the integer part of the objective function is approximated by a continuous function. A version of the Sioux Falls network (76 links) is used to demonstrate the solution procedure. The solution is a congestion pricing scheme which divide the network into four zones, by locating tolls on 27 links. This solution yields a social surplus which is only 13.5% lower than the marginal social cost pricing solution.

  • 9. Ekström, Joakim
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Rydergren, Clas
    Decision support for finding locations and toll levels within a congestion pricing scheme2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing a congestion pricing scheme involves a number of complex decisions. Focusing on the quantitative parts of a congestion pricing system with link tolls, the problem involves finding the number of tolled links, the link toll locations and their corresponding toll level and schedule. In this paper, we develop and evaluate methods for finding a most efficient design of a congestion pricing scheme in a road network with elastic demand. The design efficiency is measured by the net social surplus, which is computed as the difference between the social surplus and the collection costs (i.e. setup and operation cost) of the congestion pricing system. The problem of finding such a scheme is stated as a combinatorial bilevel optimization problem. On the upper level we maximize the net social surplus and on the lower level we solve a user equilibrium problem with elastic demand, given the toll locations and toll levels, to simulate the user response. We modify a known heuristic procedure for finding the optimal locations and toll levels given a fixed number of tolls to locate, to find the optimal number of tolls to locate as well. A new heuristic procedure is also presented which is based on repeated solutions of a continuous approximation of the combinatorial problem. Numerical results for two small scale test networks are presented. Both methods perform satisfactory on the two networks. Comparing the two methods, the iterative approximation procedure is the one which shows the best results. The results are compared to solutions obtained by an exhaustive search.

  • 10. Ekström, Joakim
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Optimal toll locations and toll levels in congestion pricing schemes: a case study of Stockholm2014In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 333-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As congestion pricing has moved from theoretical ideas in the literature to real-world implementation, the need for decision support when designing pricing schemes has become evident. This paper deals with the problem of finding optimal toll levels and locations in a road traffic network and presents a case study of Stockholm. The optimisation problem of finding optimal toll levels, given a predetermined cordon, and the problem of finding both optimal toll locations and levels are presented, and previously developed heuristics are used for solving these problems. For the Stockholm case study, the possible welfare gains of optimising toll levels in the current cordon and optimising both toll locations and their corresponding toll levels are evaluated. It is shown that by tuning the toll levels in the current congestion pricing cordon used in Stockholm, the welfare gain can be increased significantly, and furthermore improved by allowing a toll on a major bypass highway. It is also shown that, by optimising both toll locations and levels, a congestion pricing scheme with welfare gain close to what can be achieved by marginal social cost pricing can be designed with tolls being located on only a quarter of the tollable links.

  • 11.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    van Amelsfort, Dirk
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Accuracy of congestion pricing forecasts2013In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 52, p. 34-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares forecast effects of the Stockholm congestion charges with actual outcomes. The most important concerns during the design of the congestion charging scheme were the traffic reduction in bottlenecks, the increase in public transport ridership, the decrease of vehicle kilometres in the city centre, and potential traffic effects on circumferential roads. Comparisons of forecasts and actual outcomes show that the transport model predicted all of these factors well enough to allow planners to draw correct conclusions regarding the design and preparations for the scheme. The one major shortcoming was that the static assignment network model was unable to predict the substantial reductions of queuing times. We conclude that the transport model worked well enough to be useful as decision support, performing considerably better than unaided "experts' judgments", but that results must be interpreted taking the model's limitations into account. The positive experiences from the Stockholm congestion charges hence seem to be transferable to other cities in the sense that if a charging system is forecast to have beneficial effects on congestion, then this is most likely true.

  • 12.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    EXISTENCE OF TOLL EQUILIBRIUM IN TRAFFIC NETWORK WITH DRIVERS HAVING DIFFERENT TIME VALUES2006In: PRO CEED INGS OF THE LAT VIAN ACAD EMY OF SCI ENCES. Sec tion B,, ISSN 1407-009X, Vol. 60, no 2/3, p. 55-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the purpose of traffic management is formulated as a set of constraints imposed on traffic flows along some links in the road network. The discussed problem is: what charges should be inflicted to the drivers on the links so that the traffic volumes on these links satisfy certain upper bounds. While well investigated in the situation when all drivers have the same time value, the problem with drivers having different time values, although more realistic, has not received much attention. The paper presents a proof that a solution to this problem exists under a natural condition that the whole travel demand can be served by the road network within the imposed constraints.

  • 13.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    On dynamics of traffic queues in a road network with route choice based on real time traffic information2003In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 161-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing real time traffic information into transportation network makes it necessary to consider development of queues and traffic flows as a dynamic process. This paper initiates a theoretical study of conditions under which this process is stable. A model is presented that describes within-one-day development of queues when drivers affected by real-time traffic information choose their paths en route. The model is reduced to a system of differential equations with delay. Equilibrium points of the system correspond to constant queue lengths. Stability of the system is investigated using characteristic values of the linearised minimal face flow. A traffic network example illustrating the method is provided.

  • 14.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Properties of expected travel cost function with uncertain travel time2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Properties of Expected Travel Cost Function with Uncertain Travel Time2011In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2254, p. 151-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of travelers' scheduling preferences and the resulting form of the expected utility that includes travel time reliability measures. A series of research papers and reports used the mean standard deviation approach to evaluate policies that improve travel time reliability. Recently, this approach was theoretically substantiated under the conventional assumptions of constant marginal utility of time (MUT) at the origin, two discrete MUT values at the destination, and constant standardized travel time distribution. In this paper, properties of the minimal expected travel cost are investigated with smooth MUTs at the origin and destination of the trip. The influence of small variations in travel time on travel cost is well approximated by a term proportional to the travel time variance and independent of the distribution form of travel time. Two examples of MUT functions are provided: the minimal expected travel cost can be analytically expressed through moments or through a moment generating function of travel time, and conditions are stated guaranteeing that the expected travel cost is exactly additive by independent parts of the trip. These results provide justification in particular for the mean variance approach to modeling drivers' decisions under uncertain travel times. This formulation is convenient especially for scheme evaluation in large road networks because it allows the use of conventional network assignment routines by just modifying the volume delay functions to include the travel time variability term.

  • 16.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Integration of travel demand model with dynamic traffic assignment2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    Additive measures of travel time variability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Additive measures of travel time variability2011In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 1560-1571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway.

  • 19.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    DTU.
    Nytta av tidig information2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    DTU.
    The cost of travel time variability: Three measures with properties2016In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 91, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationships between three types of measures of the cost of travel time variability: measures based on scheduling preferences and implicit departure time choice, Bernoulli type measures based on a univariate function of travel time, and mean-dispersion measures. We characterise measures that are both scheduling measures and mean-dispersion measures and measures that are both Bernoulli and mean-dispersion. There are no measures that are both scheduling and Bernoulli. We consider the impact of requiring that measures are additive or homogeneous, proving also a new strong result on the utility rates in an additive scheduling measure. These insights are useful for selecting cost measures to use in applications.

  • 21.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Ourobóros in transport modeling2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Saifuzzaman, Mohammad
    de Palma, André
    Motamedi, Kiarash
    Comparison of two dynamic transportation models: The case of Stockholm congestion charging2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the transportation models used for predicting impacts of congestion charging in European cities and carries out in-depth comparison of two such models, METROPOLIS and SILVESTER. Both are mesoscopic dynamic models involving modal split and departure time choice calibrated for the Stockholm baseline situation without charges and applied for modeling effects of congestion charging. The results obtained from the two models are mutually compared and validated against actual outcome of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme.  Both models provide significant improvement in realism over static models. However results of cost benefit analysis differ substantially

  • 23.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Congestion Pricing of Road Networks with Users Having Different Time Values2006In: Mathematical and Computational Models for Congestion Charging / [ed] Lawphongpanich, Hearn, Smith, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2006, p. 81-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study congestion pricing of road networks with users differing onlyin their time values. In particular, we analyze the marginal social cost (MSC) pricing,a tolling scheme that charges each user a penalty corresponding to the value of thedelays inflicted on other users, as well as its implementation through fixed tolls. Weshow that the variational inequalities characterizing the corresponding equilibria canbe stated in symmetric or nonsymmetric forms. The symmetric forms correspondto optimization problems, convex in the fixed-toll case and nonconvex in the MSCcase, which hence may have multiple equilibria. The objective of the latter problemis the total value of travel time, which thus is minimized at the global optima of thatproblem. Implementing close-to-optimal MSC tolls as fixed tolls leads to equilibriawith possibly non-unique class specific flows, but with identical close-to-optimalvalues of the total value of travel time. Finally we give an adaptation, to the MSCsetting, of the Frank-Wolfe algorithm, which is further applied to some test cases,including Stockholm.

  • 24.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Convexification of the Traffic Equilibrium Problem with Social Marginal Cost Tolls2004In: Operations Research Proceedings 2003: Selected Papers of the International Conference on Operations Research (OR 2003) Heidelberg, September 3–5, 2003, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, p. 141-148Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier paper, we have demonstrated that traffic equilibria under social marginal cost tolls can be computedas a local optima of a nonconvex optimization problem. The nonconvexity of this problem implies in particular that linearizations, e.g. the Frank-Wolfe method, do not give underestimates of the optimal value. In this paper we derive the convex hull of nonconvex arc cost functions of BPR type. These convexifications can be used to get underestimates of the optimal value, or get better search directions in the initial phase of the Frank-Wolfe method. Computational results for the Sioux Falls and Stockholm networks are reported.

  • 25.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Multi-Class User Equilibria under Social Marginal Cost Pricing 2003In: Operations Research Proceedings 2002, 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    van Amelsfort, Dirk
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The role of volume-delay functions in forecast and evaluation of congestion charging schemes, application to Stockholm2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Engelson, Leonid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    van Amelsfort, Dirk
    WSP Analys & Strategi.
    The role of volume-delay functions in forecasting and evaluating congestion charging schemes: the Stockholm case2015In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 684-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This paper uses observations from before and during the Stockkholm congestion charging trial in order to validate and improve a transportation model for Stockholm. The model overestimates the impact of the charges on traffic volumes while at the same time it substantially underestimates the impact on travel times. These forecast errors lead to considerable underestimation of economic benefits which are dominated by travel time savings. The source of error lies in the static assignment that is used in the model. Making the volume-delay functions (VDFs) steeper only marginally improves the quality of forecast but strongly impacts the result of benefit calculations. We therefore conclude that the dynamic assignment is crucial for an informed decision on introducing measures aimed at relieving congestion. However, in the absence of such a calibrated dynamic model for a city, we recommend that at least a sensitivity analysis with respect to the slope of VDFs is performed.

  • 28. Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    The value of travel time variance2011In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the value of travel time variability under scheduling preferences that are defined in terms of linearly time varying utility rates associated with being at the origin and at the destination. The main result is a simple expression for the value of travel time variability that does not depend on the shape of the travel time distribution. The related measure of travel time variability is the variance of travel time. These conclusions apply equally to travellers who can freely choose departure time and to travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway. Depending on parameters, travellers may be risk averse or risk seeking and the value of travel time may increase or decrease in the mean travel time.

  • 29.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    Tecnical University of Denmark.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Endogenous scheduling preferences and random travel time2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Commuting for meetings2014In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 81, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban congestion causes travel times to exhibit considerable variability, which leads to coordination problems when people have to meet. We analyze a game for the timing of a meeting between two players who must each complete a trip of random duration to reach the meeting, which does not begin until both are present. Players prefer to depart later and also to arrive sooner, provided they do not have to wait for the other player. We find a unique Nash equilibrium, and a continuum of Pareto optima that are strictly better than the Nash equilibrium for both players. Pareto optima may be implemented as Nash equilibria by penalty or compensation schemes.

  • 31. Hjorth, Katrine
    et al.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Fosgerau, Mogens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Estimating exponential scheduling preferences2015In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 230-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily distributed independent random variables: Assuming smooth preferences, this holds only for specifications with a constant marginal utility of time at the origin and an exponential or affine marginal utility of time at the destination. We apply a generalized version of this model to stated preference data of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability is proportional to the variance of travel time.

  • 32. Kristoffersson, I.
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Efficiency vs equity: Conflicting objectives of congestion charges2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 60, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the trade-off between equity and efficiency in the design of the Stockholm congestion charging systems. Comparing different designs for Stockholm, the paper shows that the most efficient system is the least equitable. Indeed, we show that moving towards a more efficient system design favours high-income-users most. The reason is the uneven distribution of workplaces and residential areas, combined with richer socio-economic groups living in areas with more workplaces. Hence, the conflict between efficiency and equity of this policy arises from the spatial mismatch of residential areas and locations of employment, and the spatial separation between low-income and high-income groups that characterise most cities. This paper shows that these spatial patterns have a large effect on the distribution effects of the congestion charges and that the system design can have a major impact on equity.

  • 33.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    A Dynamic Transportation Model for the Stockholm Area: Implementation Issues Regarding Departure Time Choice and OD-pair Reduction2009In: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 551-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road traffic congestion is an increasing problem in urban areas. Building new roads often attracts latent demand and turns parts of the city into building sites for several years. Policy measures that stimulate more effective use of the existing network, such as variable road pricing, are therefore becoming increasingly popular among policy makers and citizens. These measures are often aimed at changing the temporal distribution of traffic. Yet transportation models taking departure time choice into account are rare. This paper describes the implementation of an urban transportation application for Stockholm, which includes departure time choice, mode choice and time dependent network assignment. Through iterations between demand and supply the objective of the transportation model is to forecast effects of congestion charges, intelligent transport systems and infrastructure investments on departure time choice. The complexity of large-scale departure time choice modelling and dynamic traffic assignment is high, which results in very long run times. Therefore, research on how to increase model efficiency is needed. This paper describes choices made in the implementation for a more efficient model.

  • 34.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Alternativa vägavgiftssystem och individers resval2011Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Alternative Congestion Charging Schemes and their Equity Effects: Results of Simulations for Stockholm2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Alternative road pricing schemes and their equity effects: Results of simulations for Stockholm2011In: Proceedings of the TRB 90th Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses a newly developed transport model to analyze effects of alternative road pricing schemes. The responses to road pricing included in the model are departure time, mode and route choice. Traffic analysis is performed on a large urban network of Stockholm using mesoscopic simulation. The compared pricing schemes differ in toll location and charged amount. Through calculation of consumer surplus per geographical zone, effects of the road pricing schemes are analyzed per income group and geographical area in order to study equity effects. Simulation results suggest that road pricing can be both regressive and progressive depending on the design of the pricing scheme, this even before the use of revenues to compensate users. Results also indicate that there can be a disagreement between which pricing scheme is preferable from a congestion mitigating point of view and which is preferable when looking at equity effects.

  • 37.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. VTI.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Estimating preferred departure times of road users in a large urban network2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 767-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reliably predict and assess effects of congestion charges and other congestion mitigating measures, a transportation model including dynamic assignment and departure time choice is important. This paper presents a transport model that incorporates departure time choice for analysis of road users’ temporal adjustments and uses a mesoscopic traffic simulation model to capture the dynamic nature of congestion. Departure time choice modelling relies heavily on car users’ preferred times of travel and without knowledge of these no meaningful conclusions can be drawn from application of the model. This paper shows how preferred times of travel can be consistently derived from field observations and conditional probabilities of departure times using a reverse engineering approach. It is also shown how aggregation of origin–destination pairs with similar preferred departure time profiles can solve the problem of negative solutions resulting from the reverse engineering equation. The method is shown to work well for large-scale applications and results are given for the network of Stockholm.

  • 38.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Estimating preferred departure times of road users in a real-life network2008In: Proceedings of the  European Transport Conference 2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for travel continues to increase in European cities of today, which results in long car travel times and highly congested road networks, especially during the morning and afternoon peak periods. The congested car system gives rise to high emissions of particles and greenhouse-gases, which is negative for both the local and global environment. Congestion also causes an uncertain travel time, something that in the latest years has been recognised as a major factor in car-users perception of trip disutility. Congestion is time-dependent in nature. Therefore, not only the spatial distribution of trips over the network is important in analysis and prediction, but also the temporal distribution of trips. A traditional congestion-relieving strategy such as a capacity expansion often has an impact on when people travel, since shorter travel times during the peak hour can attract traffic from the peak shoulders. The temporal effects are even more pronounced for the new policy measures gaining ground today, e.g. variable road pricing. Most variable road pricing systems aim at moving traffic from the peak hour to the peak shoulders, so called peak spreading. The means by which this is done is by charge differentiation: it is most expensive to travel at the most congested point in time. However, most large-scale transport planning models in use today are static and changes in the temporal distribution of trips are not considered. It is therefore likely that false conclusions are drawn when using these models to evaluate the ability of different pricing schemes or infrastructure investments to alleviate congestion.SILVESTER – A Dynamic Transport ModelTo better model the temporal distribution of traffic has been the basis in the development of SILVESTER (SImuLation of choice betWEen Sarting TimEs and Routes), which is a dynamic transport model for the Stockholm area. In SILVESTER road network conditions during the extended morning peak period (06:30-09:30) are modelled. The morning is divided into twelve 15-minute time intervals and a departure time choice model allocates trips to each interval depending on their attractiveness. The attractiveness of a time interval is determined by its corresponding travel time, travel time uncertainty, monetary cost and how close it is to the preferred time interval (PDT) of the traveller. The travellers can also choose to start before 06:30 or after 09:30. Mode choice is partially modelled by introducing the possibility for car-users to switch to public transport if it is perceived as a better option than any of the time intervals. It is distinguished between three trip purposes: business trips, trips with fixed schedule and school trips, and trips with flexible schedule and other trips. In SILVESTER iteration towards a general equilibrium between supply and demand is performed. The supply quantities (travel times, uncertainties etc.) are calculated with the mesoscopic dynamic traffic assignment model CONTRAM, whereas the demand for each time interval and public transport alternative is calculated with a mixed logit discrete choice model. A calibrated origin-destination-matrix (OD-matrix) for the Stockholm CONTRAM network exists and is based mainly on traffic counts but also on travel times for some selected OD-pairs. Calibration of Preferred Departure TimesEven though many trip-timing models use the concept of schedule delay, which is defined as the deviation from a preferred departure/arrival time, little work has been done on how to find the PDT-distribution when applying the model. For estimation the survey respondents can be asked to state their preferred time of travel, but for large-scale applications similar studies are expensive and time consuming. Previous work has often assumed a simplified distribution, such as all travellers in a market segment having the same PDT. Without calibration of PDT’s, e.g. using only a simplified exogenous assumption, the predictive capability of the transport model is questionable. Instead of making an exogenous assumption about the PDT-distribution this paper uses a reverse engineering approach to reveal PDT’s from the observed departure times of the reference situation. It is the combination of the estimated departure time choice model, the travel conditions and the observed departure times that can be used to get information about the PDT’s. Once the PDT’s have been calibrated for the reference situation they can be used in the evaluation of a congestion relieving strategy. This paper will present calibration methodology, obstacles overcome on the way and calibration results. It will also discuss future work in which the calibrated departure time choice model will be used to improve the design (charge levels and time periods) of a pricing scheme.

  • 39.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Revealing Preferred Departure Times for Large-Scale Transport Modelling2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Symposium on Travel Demand Management, Vienna-Semmering, Austria, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Lindberg, Per Olov
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Tolled multi-class traffic equilibria and toll sensitivities2015In: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 197-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review properties of tolled equilibria in road networks, with users differing in their time values, and study corresponding sensitivities of equilibrium link flows w.r.t. tolls. Possible applications include modeling of individual travellers that have different trip purposes (e.g. work, business, leisure, etc.) and therefore perceive the relation between travel time and monetary cost in dissimilar ways. The typical objective is to reduce the total value of travel time (TVT) over all users. For first best congestion pricing, where all links in the network can be tolled, the solution can be internalized through marginal social cost (MSC) pricing. The MSC equilibrium typically has to be implemented through fixed tolls. The MSC as well as the fixed-toll equilibrium problems can be stated as optimization problems, which in general are convex in the fixed-toll case and non-convex in the MSC case. Thus, there may be several MSC equilibria. Second-best congestion pricing, where one only tolls a subset of the links, is much more complex, and equilibrium flows, times and TVT are not in general differentiable w.r.t. tolls in sub-routes used by several classes. For generic tolls, where the sets of shortest paths are stable, we show how to compute Jacobians (w.r.t positive tolls) of link flows and times as well as of the TVT. This can be used in descent schemes to find tolls that minimize the TVT at least locally. We further show that a condition of independent equilibrium cycles, together with a natural extension of the single class regularity condition of strict complementarity, leads to genericity, and hence existence of said Jacobians.

  • 41. Saifuzzaman, Mohammad
    et al.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    de Palma, Andre
    Stockholm congestion charging: an assessment with METROPOLIS and SILVESTER2016In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 653-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews and compares the performance of two dynamic transportation models - METROPOLIS and SILVESTER - which are used to predict the impacts of congestion charging for Stockholm. Both are mesoscopic dynamic models treating accumulation and dissipation of traffic queues, route choice, modal split and departure time choice. The models are calibrated independently for the baseline situation without charges and applied to forecast the effects of congestion charging. The results obtained from the two models are mutually compared and validated against the actual outcome of the Stockholm congestion charging scheme. Both models successfully predict the outcomes of the congestion charging trial at both aggregate and disaggregate levels. Results of welfare analysis, however, differ substantially due to differences in model specification.

  • 42.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Accuracy of the Gothenburg congestion charges2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 94, p. 266-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the accuracy of the transport model forecast of the Gothenburg congestion charges, implemented in 2013. The design of the charging system implies that the path disutility cannot be computed as a sum of link attributes. The route choice model is therefore implemented as a hierarchical algorithm, applying a continuous value of travel time (VTT) distribution. The VTT distribution was estimated from stated choice (SC) data. However, based on experience of impact forecasting with a similar model and of impact outcome of congestion charges in Stockholm, the estimated VTT distribution had to be stretched to the right. We find that the forecast traffic reductions across the cordon and travel time gains were close to those observed in the peak. However, the reduction in traffic across the cordon was underpredicted off-peak. The necessity to make the adjustment indicates that the VTT inferred from SC data does not reveal the travellers’ preferences, or that there are factors determining route choice other than those included in the model: travel distance, travel time and congestion charge.

  • 43.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Engelsson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Ex-post evaluation of national transport model: Gothenburg congestion charges application2014Report (Other academic)
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