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  • 1.
    Carl, Lind
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Development and evaluation of RAMP I – apractitioner’s tool for screening of musculoskeletaldisorder risk factors in manual handling2019In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE), Vol. 25, no 2, p. 165-180, article id 10.1080/10803548.2017.1364458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RAMP I is a screening tool developed to support practitioners in screening for work-related musculoskeletal disorder riskfactors related to manual handling. RAMP I, which is part of the RAMP tool, is based on research-based studies combinedwith expert group judgments. More than 80 practitioners participated in the development of RAMP I. The tool consistsof dichotomous assessment items grouped into seven categories. Acceptable reliability was found for a majority of theassessment items for 15 practitioners who were given 1 h of training. The usability evaluation points to RAMP I beingusable for screening for musculoskeletal disorder risk factors, i.e., usable for assessing risks, being usable as a decision base,having clear results and that the time needed for an assessment is acceptable. It is concluded that RAMP I is a usable toolfor practitioners.

  • 2.
    Insanic, Jasmina
    et al.
    KTH.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Österman, Cecilia
    Kalmar Maritime Academy, Linnaeus University.
    Expert user perspectives of the Ergo-Index model for analysis of work tasks2017In: NES2017 Conference Proceedings: JOY AT WORK / [ed] Anna-Lisa osvalder, Mikael Blomé, Hajnalka Bodnar, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate an updated beta version of Ergo-Index, a digital tool for ergonomic risk assessments. The evaluation was performed with 15 expert users who assessed type, distance, height and exposure time of certain work tasks, as well as the usability of the tool. In conclusion, the users find the present state of the Ergo-Index suitable as a first screening method. Assessments of lifting work have the greatest inter-rater reliability. Further development of the digitalized version of the tool is needed to improve accuracy assessing input regarding pushing and pulling work tasks, and to increase usability.

  • 3.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Development and evaluation of RAMP I: a practitioner tool for screening for musculoskeletal disorder risk factors in manual handlingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RAMP I is a screening tool developed to support practitioners in screening for work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors related to manual handling. RAMP I, which is part of the RAMP tool, is based on research based studies combined with expert group judgments. More than 80 practitioners participated in the development of RAMP I. The tool constitutes of dichotomous assessment items grouped in seven categories. Acceptable reliability was found for a majority of the assessment items for 15 practitioners who were given 1h training. The usability evaluation points to RAMP I being usable for screening for musculoskeletal disorder risk factors, i.e., usable for assessing risks, usable as a decision base, has clear results, and the time needed for an assessment is acceptable. It is concluded that RAMP I is a valuable tool for practitioners.

  • 4.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Development and evaluation of RAMP I: a practitioner’s tool for screening of musculoskeletal disorder risk factors in manual handling2017In: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, ISSN 1080-3548, E-ISSN 2376-9130, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RAMP I is a screening tool developed to support practitioners in screening for work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors related to manual handling. RAMP I, which is part of the RAMP tool, is based on research-based studies combined with expert group judgments. More than 80 practitioners participated in the development of RAMP I. The tool consists of dichotomous assessment items grouped into seven categories. Acceptable reliability was found for a majority of the assessment items for 15 practitioners who were given 1 h of training. The usability evaluation points to RAMP I being usable for screening for musculoskeletal disorder risk factors, i.e., usable for assessing risks, being usable as a decision base, having clear results and that the time needed for an assessment is acceptable. It is concluded that RAMP I is a usable tool for practitioners.

  • 5.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SWEDEN.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Development and evaluation of RAMP II: a practitioner’s tool for assessing musculoskeletal disorder risk factors in industrial manual handlingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Facilitating improvement measures in manual handling using the RAMP-tool2016In: Preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders in a global economy - Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 137-137Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Lind, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Rose, Linda
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Shifting to proactive risk management: Risk communication using the RAMP tool2016In: Agronomy Research, ISSN 1406-894X, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 513-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic risk factors are major contributors to work-related musculoskeletaldisorders and quality deficiencies in the manufacturing industry. Due to lack of tools or systemsthat can support a systematic risk management of these production and health related factors, anew risk management tool (RAMP) was developed. In this paper, the risk communication system(the Results module) of this tool is presented along with a description of its development. Anexample of how it can be used, based on assessments performed in industry, is given. Anevaluation of its usability, which included twenty practitioners active in the industry, givessupport to the notion that the system is usable both for risk communication and as a decision base.

  • 8.
    Rose, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Beauchemin, Catherine A. A.
    Ryerson Univ, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON, Canada.;RIKEN, Interdisciplinary Theoret & Math Sci iTHES, iTHEMS, Res Grp, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Ryerson Univ, Dept Mech & Ind Engn, Human Factors Engn Lab, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Modelling endurance and resumption times for repetitive one-hand pushing2018In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 891-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study's objective was to develop models of endurance time (ET), as a function of load level (LL), and of resumption time (RT) after loading as a function of both LL and loading time (LT) for repeated loadings. Ten male participants with experience in construction work each performed 15 different one-handed repetaed pushing tasks at shoulder height with varied exerted force and duration. These data were used to create regression models predicting ET and RT. It is concluded that power law relationships are most appropriate to use when modelling ET and RT. While the data the equations are based on are limited regarding number of participants, gender, postures, magnitude and type of exerted force, the paper suggests how this kind of modelling can be used in job design and in further research.Practitioner Summary: Adequate muscular recovery during work-shifts is important to create sustainable jobs. This paper describes mathematical modelling and presents models for endurance times and resumption times (an aspect of recovery need), based on data from an empirical study. The models can be used to help manage fatigue levels in job design.

  • 9.
    Rose, Linda
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Industrial Economics and Management.
    Ortengren, R.
    Endurance time, pain and resumption in passive loading of the elbow joint2000In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 405-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated reactions in passively loaded, fully extended elbow joints in 13 men. Pain reactions during and after loading were studied, as were endurance time, T(end), and resumption time, Tr. The loading moment on the elbow joint, Mn, varied between 7 and 100% of maximum elbow moment. Discomfort/ pain was estimated with Borg's CR-10 scale. T(end) decreased with increasing load level. The opposite was found for the resumption time: the higher the load, held until T(end), the shorter the Tr. The pain limiting the working capability originated mainly from muscle tissue and not from the joint itself. It is concluded that the relation between load and endurance time for passively loaded, fully extended elbow joints resembles that for muscular loading in more 'normal' postures. Equations for estimation of endurance and resumption times (in minutes) for fully extended joints are proposed: T(end) = 20.6e(-6.04Mn) and Tr = 0.0167e(8.84/(1.46+0.346Mn)), respectively.

  • 10.
    Rose, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lind, Carl
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Introducing RAMP: A Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively2015In: The 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Rose, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lind, Carl
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Franzon, Helena
    Arla Foods.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    Scania.
    Clausén, Anne
    Scania.
    Development, Implementation and dissemination of RAMP: Risk management assessment tool for manual handling proactively2011In: 43rd Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, 2011, p. 255-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an on-going project with the main objective to develop, implement, and disseminate a freely accessible computer-based assessment tool for physical ergonomics, the Risk Management Assessment Tool for Manual Handling Proactively, RAMP. The project is conducted in seven steps, in close co-operation between researchers and key company stakeholders, using an interactive research methodology. Results include a specification of requirements that the RAMP should meet. Difficulties of developing models of this kind and possible benefits of using such a tool are discussed.

  • 12.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    RAMP: A systematic MSD risk management tool for manual handling2017Other (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    RAMP: Ett nytt riskhanteringsverktyg   – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively –: Slutrapport i projektet ”Utveckling, implementering och spridning av belastningsergonomiskt bedömningsverktyg och åtgärdsprocess” (Dnr 090168)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs riskhanteringsmetoden RAMP – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively – och dess utveckling som gjorts i projektet ”Utveckling, implementering och spridning av belastningsergonomiskt bedömningsverktyg och åtgärds-process”. Projektets mål har varit att utveckla en fritt tillgänglig metod för riskhantering för arbete med manuell hantering. Metoden ska kunna användas för att bedöma risken att utveckla belastningsbesvär och stötta det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet genom att ge en struktur för förbättringsåtgärder och utarbetande av handlingsplaner. Syftet är att användningen av verktyget ska bidra att arbetsmiljöförbättrande åtgärder genomförs, vilket förväntas leda till positiva hälsoeffekter.

    Projektet har genomförts som ett samarbetsprojekt med interaktiv metodologisk ansats mellan forskare vid KTH Skolan för Teknik och hälsa, Enheten för Ergonomi, och personer som aktivt deltagit i projektet i egenskap av professionella yrkesverksamma med olika roller på de medverkande företagen Arla Foods, Scania CV AB, Svenskt Butikskött AB och Mikael Loods Åkeri AB – exempelvis operatör, logistiker, chef, VD, skyddsombud, produktionstekniker, ergonom, och global arbetsmiljösmordnare. Till projektet har en referensgrupp och en expertgrupp varit knutna. Projektet har finansierats av i huvudsak Afa Försäkring och de medverkande företagen.

    Bland metoderna om används i projektet finns litteraturgenomgång, iterativ prototyp-utveckling, användartester och utvärdering av prototyper, work-shops, intervjuer och enkäter. RAMP baseras på vetenskapliga studier, svensk arbetsmiljölagstiftning, ergonomistandarder, andra bedömningsmetoder, expertbedömningar av projektets expertgrupp, erfarenheter och expertbedömningar från personer verksamma i industrin inom bland annat företagshälsovård, ledning och produktion, användartester samt referensgruppens feed-back.

    I rapporten presenteras RAMP-verktyget som består av fyra moduler: RAMP I - en checklista för screening av belastningsergonomiska riskfaktorer; RAMP II – som möjliggör en fördjupad analys; en Resultatmodul där resultatet kan presenteras på olika detaljnivå och med olika omfattning och en Åtgärdsmodul som ger stöd för det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet med bland annat åtgärdsförslag och en mall för att utforma handlingsplaner för att minska riskerna.

    En prototyp av RAMP har utvärderades i ett examensarbete genom validitets- och reliabilitets- och användbarhetsstudier. Utvärderingen visar på hög repeterbarhet av bedömningar genomförda av icke-experter samt att överensstämmelsen var hög mellan experter och icke-experter. Användbarhetsstudien visade att RAMP uppleveds som ganska lätt att använda och tidseffektiv.

    Digitaliseringen av RAMP förväntas bli klar under hösten 2014. RAMP kommer därefter att göras fritt tillgänglig via KTH STHs hemsida och en implementeringsstudie av metoden sker på de medverkande företagen. Metoden kommer att spridas enligt projektets kommunikationsplan som beskrivs i rapporten.

  • 14.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Risk management project for work with precast concrete shells2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 4157-4162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a project with the aim of reducing the risk of injury when using precast concrete shells in the Swedish construction industry by identifying injury risks, developing and implementing solutions. An interactive research approach was used. Three major injury risks were identified and a system consisting of three tools and a handbook was developed, evaluated, and implemented at one company and made available to the construction industry.

  • 15.
    Rose, Linda M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Seminar on the RAMP tool2017Other (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    The RAMP Tool for Risk Management in Manual Handling: A Seven Year R&D Project2017In: NES2017 Conference Proceedings:: JOY AT WORK / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé, Hajnalka Bodnar, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose

    In 2010 a research and development (R&D) project started after an initiative from a large global company. They needed a free, systematic musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk assessment and management tool, focused on manual handling. The development of the RAMP tool (Risk Assessment and Management tool for Manual Handling – Proactively) was therefore initiated, and the progress has since then been presented at several NES-conferences. The objective of this paper is to present the result of this 7 year R&D project: the digitalized RAMP tool and  courses on the tool.

     

    Methodology

    A participative methodology in close co-operation between researchers and practitioners at companies has been used. The participating companies and the methodology, including the base for the development, ranging from scientific papers to user feedback, and evaluations will be described at NES 2017.

     

    Results

    The R&D project has resulted in the freely accessible RAMP tool consisting of four parts: RAMP I, RAMP II, the Action module and the Results module. A broad range of MSD risks are assessed, the results from assessments are visualized in a novel way and risk reducing actions for risk management are supported. The digitalised version has recently been released. Further, three massive open online courses (MOOCs) for professionals on the RAMP tool are under development, and will also be presented.

     

    Discussion

    The discussion focuses on the need of and dissemination of freely accessible methods such as RAMP, and how to enable users to acquire sufficient knowledge to use them. 

     

    Conclusions

    In conclusion: The project has resulted in a new tool for MSD risk management in manual handling jobs, the RAMP tool. Evaluations of the tool show that it is regarded as usable from different usability aspects. It is argued that the upcoming online MOCCs may contribute to provide adequate knowledge for proper use of the tool.

     

    Keywords. musculoskeletal disorders, risk assessment, risk reducing measures, risk communication, digital tool.

  • 17.
    Rose, Linda M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Workshop: learn how to use the ramp tool for risk assessment and risk management of msd risks in manual handling2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Manual handling work is regarded as one of the main causes to increased risks of developing Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Several MSD risk assessment tools have been developed, but have been found to have insufficiencies for managing MSD risks in manual handling. The RAMP tool (Risk Assessment and Management tool for Manual Handling – Proactively), was developed to support the whole process of risk management of MSD risks in manual handling: from identification and assessment of risks to developing risk reducing suggestions and systematic risk management.

     

    What will you learn?

    In this workshop you will learn how to use the RAMP tool by participating in applying the tool on an example.

     

    RAMP consists of four parts:

    -        The checklist based RAMP I for screening of MSD risks in manual handling,

    -        RAMP II for a more in depth analysis of such risks,

    -        The Action module to support development of risk reducing measures and support systematic risk management, and

    -        The Results module, for communicating the results. It enables presentation of the results at different level of detail and scope, ranging from a work station to the whole company.

     

    In the workshop you will get experience from using the four parts of the RAMP tool, based on a film-based example. Bring your laptop to download and use the RAMP tool on your computer!

  • 18.
    Rose, Linda M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Barman, Linda
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    RAMP -  A new tool for MSD risk management in manualhandling2017In: Conference Proceedings 48th Annual Conference of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists  & 12th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management "Organizing for High Performance ": Organizing for High Performance, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summative Statement: In this conference contribution RAMP (Risk Assessment and Management tool for Manual Handling - Proactively) will be presented. It is developed for managing MSD risks in manual handling jobs. The presentation will include a demonstration of the digitalised tool and information about upcoming Massive Open Online Courses about it.

    Problem statement: Manual handling work is regarded as one of the main causes to increased risks of developing Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Several MSD risk assessment tools have been developed, but have been found to have insufficiencies in managing MSD risks in manual handling. The insufficiencies include that tools only assess certain body parts or certain types of work, are not freely accessible, assess exposure but not risks, and don´t support the whole risk management process. In 2009 there was a call from a global company, which had identified a need for a scientifically based, freely accessible, risk assessment and risk management tool. The tool should support systematic risk management of MSD risks in manual handling jobs and be able to be used by companies themselves. To meet this call the development of the RAMP tool (Risk Assessment and Management tool for Manual Handling – Proactively) was started. It has been developed in a research and development (R&D) project in close co-operation between researchers and practitioners at companies.

    Research Objective: The objective of this conference contribution is to present the results of a seven year long R&D project: to describe the RAMP tool and its development, present the digitalised version, share some experiences from its use, and inform about upcoming RAMP Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), aimed at educating and training users in the RAMP tool.

    Methodology: RAMP is scientifically based and was developed with a participative R&D methodology. The participating organisations as well as the methodology, including the base for the development, ranging from scientific publications and legislation to user testing and feed-back, will be described in the presentation.

    Results: The RAMP tool consists of four parts: RAMP I, RAMP II, The Results module and the Action module. At the conference, these will be presented and the digitalised version of RAMP will be demonstrated. In addition, information about three Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) about the RAMP tool which are being developed will be presented and user experiences from applying RAMP will be shared. In addition to the oral presentation a workshop on RAMP is planned to be held at the conference.

    Discussion: The discussion focuses on how methods like RAMP, which are freely accessible, can be spread after the R&D project is finished. Another question is how to secure updates in the future for methods which do not bring any profit for the developers/owners.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that RAMP, a scientifically based new tool for risk management of MSD risks in manual handling, is freely available via KTH’s homepage and that a MOOC-package for disseminating knowledge and training on how to use the tool will be accessible from the autumn 2017.

  • 19.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Jonsson, Christina
    On the IEA Strategy: Mapping HFE Performance Knowledge2014In: Proceedings 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organistional Design and management. 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference. Volume 1 / [ed] Broberg, O, Fallentin, N, Hasle, P, Jensen, P L, Kabel, A, Larsen, M E, Weller, T, 2014, p. 273-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to support the implementation of the IEA strategy of Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) the objective of this pilot-project is to map the current awareness, knowledge and strategies regarding how HFE can be used in optimizing system performance and how and to what extent such strategies are applied in organisations today. The methodology used is that each board member of the Nordic Ergonomics Society´s national boards has a talk with a key stakeholder, using a semi-structured question area guide during the spring 2014. The gist of the results from each talk regarding four core areas will be summarised and analysed and will be presented at the ODAM-NES 2014 conference.

  • 20.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lind, Carl
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Användarmanual för riskhanteringsverktyget RAMP©   – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively –2017Other (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Lind, Carl
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    User Manual for the Risk Management Tool RAMP©   – Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively –2017Other (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Hägg, Göran M.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Kentta, Göran
    Fatigue and recovery during and after static loading2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1696-1710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjectively assessed endurance time (ET), resumption time (RT) and perceived discomfort, pain or fatigue (PD), and objectively measured maximum force-exerting capacity were investigated for varying loads and durations of a pushing task with two repeated trials. Beyond the main results quantifying how the load scenario affected ET, RT and PD, three additional results are of note: (1) although the maximum pushing force did not change between trials, shorter ET, longer RT and higher PD indicated accumulation of fatigue in Trial 2; (2) the PD ratings showed a trend with a linear increase during loading and a curvilinear decrease during recovery; and (3) the RT and the load level for different relative loading times were found to have an unexpected U-shaped relationship, indicating lowest fatigue at the intermediate load level. These results can be used to model a more sustainable and productive work-recovery ratio.

  • 23.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Orrenius, Ulf E.
    ERAK Ergonomi & Akustik HB.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    Ryerson University, Canada .
    Work Environment and the Bottom Line: Survey of Tools Relating Work Environment to Business Results2013In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 368-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insufficient knowledge of how the working environment (WE) impacts company performance leads to a poor basis for managerial decision making. The objective of this study was to survey and evaluate available tools relating WE to business results. Nine tools were identified and qualitatively evaluated using 11 criteria. The tools were clustered into three categories, ranging from analysis of WE risks as well as calculation of their economic impact to solely investment analysis. Shortcomings in the tools include insufficient attention to quality and productivity issues and insufficient guidance for users. Although further methodological development is indicated, researchers should also attend to the factors affecting tool uptake and application as well as the potential to integrate such analysis into companies' regular accounting systems.

  • 24.
    Rose, Linda M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Scania.
    RAMP - Ett verktyg för hantering av belastningsergonomiska risker vid manuell hantering2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Kalmar Maritime Academy, Linnaeus University.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Assessing financial impact of maritime ergonomics on company level: a case study2015In: Maritime Policy & Management, ISSN 0308-8839, E-ISSN 1464-5254, Vol. 42, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a case study examining a conceptual framework for assessing financial impact of occupational maritime ergonomics in a Swedish shipping company. Specifically, the aim was to study the availability and applicability of suggested determinants for operational performance, routines for estimating the effects of ergonomics and the customer’s (sea transport buyer’s) demands for ergonomics management on the case company. The results show that the determinants and subcategories for operational performance in terms of productivity, efficiency and quality are present and applicable, albeit not measured to any large extent. No routines or specific methods for measuring or estimating cost and effects of ergonomics investments, accidents and operational disturbances were found. Further, the results show that the sea transport buyers increasingly express interest for and place demands related to maritime ergonomics, for instance, through compliance of specific standards and guiding principles linked to maritime ergonomics. It is concluded that in order to support and enable managers’ ability to make well-informed decisions and prioritizations, between investments, ergonomic or other, increased knowledge is needed of the financial effects of ergonomics on company core value processes. There is also a need to develop and implement usable tools to simplify these measuring procedures.

  • 26.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Chalmers ChalmersUniversity of Technology,Shipping and Marine Technology,.
    Rose, Linda M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Ergonomics (Closed 20130701).
    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Product and Production Development.
    Exploring Maritime Ergonomics from a Bottom Line Perspective2010In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 153-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper reports a study composed of three research activities exploring the economics of ergonomics in a shipping context. First, a literature study aimed to review previous studies on the economics of ergonomics in general and within the maritime domain in particular; and moreover, to ascertain the key ergonomic factors addressed in contemporary maritime ergonomic research. Second, the concept of ergonomics was probed from a stakeholder perspective through nine semi-structured qualitative  interviews. Third, structured interviews were held with representatives of ten Swedish shipping companies to investigate if the shipowners are aware of and calculate the economic effects of ergonomics. The results show that severalmodels and methods have been developed to estimate costs and benefits of ergonomics in other industries, but no studies were found from the shipping industry.Whether these methods can be readily adapted to the shipping industry has to be investigated further. While contemporary maritime ergonomic literature showed a focus on physical ergonomic and health and safety issues, the results of the stakeholder interviews indicated a focus on organizational ergonomics. The Swedish shipowners calculate the costs of sick-leave, but do not estimate the economic effects of ergonomics on a regular basis.

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