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  • 1. Bahar, B.
    et al.
    Herting, G.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Hakkila, K.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Virta, M.
    The interaction between concrete pavement and corrosion-induced copper runoff from buildings2008In: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 140, no 1-3, p. 175-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in chemical speciation of copper and the capacity of concrete pavement to retain copper in runoff water from external buildings have been investigated at urban field conditions, and in parallel laboratory experiments simulating outdoor scenarios. The research study showed the concrete surface to form a copper rich surface layer (approximate to 50 mu m thick) upon exposure, and a high capacity to significantly reduce the bioavailable fraction of released copper (20-95%). The retention capacity of copper varied between 5 and 20% during single runoff events in the laboratory, and between 10 and 40% of the total copper release during single natural runoff events. The capacity to retain and reduce the bioavailable fraction of non-retained copper increased with increasing wetness of the concrete surfaces, increasing pH of the runoff water and decreasing flow rates. Bioassay testing with bacterial and yeast bioreporters showed the bioavailable fraction of non-retained copper to be significantly lower than the total copper concentration in the runoff water, between 22 and 40% for bacteria and between 8 and 31% for yeast. The application of generated data to simulate a fictive outdoor scenario, suggests a significant reduction of bioavailable and total copper to background values during environmental entry as a result of dilution, and the interaction with solid surfaces, organic matter and complexing agents already in the drainage system.

  • 2.
    Bahar, Babak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Corrosion-induced copper release from rain gutters2008In: Metall (Berlin. 1947), ISSN 0026-0746, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While runoff rates from copper roofs have been extensively studied during the last years, corresponding studies from copper rain gutters have been missing. A laboratory investigation has been undertaken to examine the influence of important runoff water parameters on the copper runoff from rain gutters. At a given rainfall quantity, the release rate of copper increases with decreasing runoff water intensity and decreasing degree of gutter inclination, and with increasing runoff acidity and increasing Cu2+-ion concentration in the runoff water. A comparison of the predicted long-term copper release from the gutter-system compared to the roof on a real building suggests that less than 5% of the total copper runoff originates from the gutter. However, single rain events may result in higher release rates, especially during the initial rain portion.

  • 3. Berggren, D.
    et al.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Heijerick, D.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Koundakjian, P.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Release of Chromium, Nickel and Iron from Stainless Steel Exposed under Atmospheric Conditions and The Environmental Interaction of these Metals: A Combined Field and Laboratory Investigation2004Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Degryse, F.
    Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Catholic University of Leuven.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Smolders, E.
    Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Catholic University of Leuven.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Model studies of corrosion induced copper runoff fate in soil2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 683-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments have been performed with 3-cm soil columns simulating the fate of corrosion-induced copper runoff in contact with soil. The investigation simulates approximately 30 years (assuming an infiltration surplus of 25 cm/year) of continuous percolation of copper containing runoff water of a concentration realistic at the immediate release situation (4.8 mg/L) into four soils representative of urban conditions. Two of the three investigated topsoils reached their breakthrough of copper within the simulated time, while the third topsoil did not show a breakthrough. The subsoil reached a breakthrough after approximately 10 years of simulated exposure. To simulate more realistic outdoor scenarios, the laboratory-obtained breakthrough curves were modeled with Hydrus-1D (R) using a Langmuir-Freundlich model to describe copper sorption, the parameters of which were estimated from soil properties (pH, organic carbon content). The model predicts longer breakthrough times with increasing pH and organic content of the soil and with decreasing concentrations of copper and dissolved organic carbon in the runoff water. The time span for copper in runoff water (at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L) to reach a soil depth of 50 cm varied between 170 and more than 8,000 years for the predicted field scenarios.

  • 5.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Berggren Kleja, Daniel
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Long-term corrosion-induced copper runoff from natural and artificial patina and its environmental impact2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 891-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this paper is to present an extensive set of data for corrosion-induced copper dispersion and its environmental interaction with solid surfaces in the near vicinity of buildings. Copper dispersion is discussed in terms of total copper flows, copper speciation and bioavailability at the immediate release situation, and its changes during transport from source to recipient. Presented results are based on extensive field exposures (eight years) at an urban site, laboratory investigations of the runoff process, published field data, generated predictive site-specific runoff rate models, and reactivity investigations toward various natural and manmade surfaces, such as those in soil, limestone, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of copper-containing runoff water with different soil systems through long-term laboratory column investigations. The fate of copper is discussed in terms of copper retention, copper chemical speciation, breakthrough capacities, and future mobilization based on changes in copper concentrations in the percolate water, computer modeling using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, and sequential extractions. The results illustrate that, for scenarios where copper comes in extensive contact with solid surfaces, such as soil and limestone, a large fraction of released copper is retained already in the immediate vicinity of the building. In all, both the total copper concentration in runoff water and its bioavailable part undergo a significant and rapid reduction.

  • 6.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Immobilization of copper in runoff water from roofing materials by limestone, soil and concrete2002In: 15th Internatioal Corrosion Conference: Granada, Spain, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    The capacity of limestone to immobilize copper in runoff water: a laboratory investigation2002In: 15th International Corrosion Conference: Granada, Spain, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Berggren, D.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Environmental effects of zinc runoff from roofing materials: a new multidisciplinary approach2002In: Outdoor Atmospheric Corrosion / [ed] Townsend HE, 2002, Vol. 1421, p. 200-215Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to study changes in concentration and bioavailability of zinc-containing runoff water, released from roofing materials, upon passage through soil. The experimental approach is based on simulating the interaction between zinc in artificial runoff water and soil in a column system.

    The total zinc concentration of runoff was substantially reduced when passing through the soil and suggests marked zinc retention, During a constant flow and supply of zinc into the soil, equivalent to three and a half years of precipitation in Stockholm, a zinc retention capacity of approximately 99% was recorded, Not only the total concentration, but also the bio-available portion of the total zinc concentration was reduced after passage through soil, Most of the retained zinc was located in top 3 cm of the soil core and suggests the total capacity for zinc retention of the investigated soil to be about 140 years per kilogram soil in an isolated system in real systems, changes of temperature, pH, microbial activity, weathering of minerals and deposition of new organic material must be considered.

    The results form part of the effect assessment, preceding future risk assessment of the environmental effects of dispersed zinc.

  • 9.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Berggren, Kleja D.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Occurrence and fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, no 2-3, p. 908-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comprises data from an extensive cross-disciplinary research project aiming to elucidate the environmental fate of corrosion-induced zinc release from external structures. It includes an exposure assessment that provide long-term runoff rates, concentrations and chemical speciation of zinc, from 14 zinc-based materials exposed during 5 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and an effect assessment including bioavailability and ecotoxicity measurements, both at the immediate release situation and after soil interaction.Runoff rates of total zinc ranged from 0.07 to 2.5g Znm(-2) yr(-1) with zinc primarily released as the free ion for all materials investigated. The average effect concentration, causing a 50% growth reduction after 72h to the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, was at the immediate release situation 69 mu g ZnL-1. Upon interaction of runoff water with soil, which simulated 18 to 34years of exposure, the total zinc concentration was significantly reduced, from milligram per litre to microgram per litre levels. Simultaneously, the most bioavailable fraction of zinc in runoff, the hydrated zinc(II)-ion, decreased from more than 95% to about 30%. The major fraction, 98-99%, of the introduced total zinc concentration in the runoff water was retained within the soil. As long as the soil retention capacity was not reached, this resulted in zinc concentrations in the percolate water transported through the soil layer, close to background values and below growth inhibition concentrations for the green algae investigated. Zinc retained in soil was to a large extent (85-99.9%) extractable with EDTA, and available for plant uptake after 5 to 7months of ageing.

  • 10.
    Besharat, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Wakeham, Deborah
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Johnson, C. Magnus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Göthelid, Mats
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Material Physics, MF.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Mixed monolayers of alkane thiols with polar terminal group on gold: Investigation of structure dependent surface properties2016In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 484, no 279, p. 279-290, article id j.jcis.2016.08.053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption of thiols with cationic or anionic terminal group on gold has been studied from mixed solutions of 11-Amino-1-undecanethiol (AUT) and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angles. The goal is to probe the nature of such layers, and the additivity or otherwise of the pH responsiveness, with a view to evaluate their suitability as smart materials. For each of the two pure (unmixed) cases, ordered molecular monolayers are formed with sulfur binding to gold and the alkane chain pointing out from the surface as expected. Adsorption from the thiol mixtures, however, leads to a more complex behaviour. The surface concentration of thiols from the mixtures, as determined by QCM-D, is considerably lower than for the pure cases and it reaches a minimum at a 3:1 MPA/AUT relative concentration in the solution. The XPS results confirm a reduction in adsorbed amount in mixtures with the lowest overall intensity for the 3:1 ratio. Monolayers formed from mixtures display a wettability which is much lower and less pH sensitive. Collectively these results confirm that for adsorption from mixed systems, the configuration is completely different. Complex formation in the mixed solutions leads to the adsorption of molecules parallel to the surface in an axially in-plane configuration. This parallel layer of thiols is mechanically relatively robust to nano-shaving based on AFM measurements. These results will have a significant impact on the design of biomimetic surface coatings particularly when mixtures of oppositely charged molecules are present on the surface, as is commonly the case in biological, proteinaceous surfaces (e.g. hair and skin).

  • 11.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Jin, Ying
    Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Natl Ctr Mat Serv Safety, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China..
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    The golden alloy Cu5Zn5Al1Sn: Patina evolution in chloride-containing atmospheres2018In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 133, p. 190-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of chloride deposition on the formation, evolution and barrier properties of the patina formed on CuSZn5Al1Sn used for architectural cladding is explored via long-term marine field exposures and laboratory investigations. The presence of Cu2O, ZnO, Al2O3 and SnO2 within the inner part of the patina and intercalation of SnO2, Zn-5(CO3)(2)(OH)(6), Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O, Zn-5(OH)(8)Cl-2 center dot H2O within its outer part, predominantly composed of Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl, significantly reduce the chloride-induced corrosion compared with Cu metal. The intercalation of zinc-rich corrosion products within the patina and not at the top-surface explain their marginal influence on the runoff process that mainly occurs at the outmost surface.

  • 12.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Univ Sci & Technol Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Jin, Ying
    Wen, Lei
    Zhang, Chensheng
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Zhang, Junping
    Synergistic effects of gelatin and convection on copper foil electrodeposition2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 211, p. 245-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper foil electrodeposition has been explored using a pure titanium rotating disk electrode (RDE) in acidic electrolytes containing gelatin and/or chloride ions under different convection conditions. In the plating bath without gelatin, the results indicate that stronger convection promotes hydrogen evolution, which reduces the current efficiency during copper plating. Gelatin restrains the growth of copper grains in the lateral direction parallel to the surface. This results in grain refinement on the shiny side, an increase in local grain misorientation and in internal stresses on both the shiny and the matte side, and a reduction in their internal stress difference. At strong convection conditions and with gelatin present, copper deposits as strip-like grains along the centrifugal direction of the cross section, and finally forms a spiral-shaped pattern on the matte side. The causes of these features are discussed in detail. The combined influences of hydrogen and gelatin adsorption are further elaborated in a model for a copper deposition. The current investigation suggests that a moderate convection (somewhat lower than 1000 rpm) and a concentration of 2 ppm gelatin in the plating bath are sufficient for copper foil fabrication in the presence of chloride ions (20 ppm).

  • 13.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    de la Fuente, D.
    Chico, B.
    Morcillo, M.
    Welter, J. -M
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Analysis of historic copper patinas. Influence of inclusions on patina uniformity2017In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century. All copper substrates contain inclusions of varying size, number and composition, reflecting different copper ores and production methods. The largest inclusions have a size of up to 40 μm, with most inclusions in the size ranging between 2 and 10 μm. The most common element in the inclusions is O, followed by Pb, Sb and As. Minor elements include Ni, Sn and Fe. All historic patinas exhibit quite fragmentized bilayer structures, with a thin inner layer of cuprite (Cu2O) and a thicker outer one consisting mainly of brochantite (Cu4SO4(OH)6). The extent of patina fragmentation seems to depend on the size of the inclusions, rather than on their number and elemental composition. The larger inclusions are electrochemically nobler than the surrounding copper matrix. This creates micro-galvanic effects resulting both in a profound influence on the homogeneity and morphology of historic copper patinas and in a significantly increased ratio of the thicknesses of the brochantite and cuprite layers. The results suggest that copper patinas formed during different centuries exhibit variations in uniformity and corrosion protection ability.

  • 14. Cronholm, Pontus
    et al.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lowe, Troy A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Winnberg, Lina
    Elihn, Karine
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Möller, Lennart
    Intracellular Uptake and Toxicity of Ag and CuO Nanoparticles: A Comparison Between Nanoparticles and their Corresponding Metal Ions2013In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 970-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increased understanding of nanoparticle toxicity and its impact on human health is essential to enable a safe use of nanoparticles in our society. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of a Trojan horse type mechanism for the toxicity of Ag-nano and CuO-nano particles and their corresponding metal ionic species (using CuCl2 and AgNO3), i.e., the importance of the solid particle to mediate cellular uptake and subsequent release of toxic species inside the cell. The human lung cell lines A549 and BEAS-2B are used and cell death/membrane integrity and DNA damage are investigated by means of trypan blue staining and the comet assay, respectively. Chemical analysis of the cellular dose of copper and silver is performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy are employed to study cellular uptake and particle-cell interactions. The results confirm a high uptake of CuO-nano and Ag-nano compared to no, or low, uptake of the soluble salts. CuO-nano induces both cell death and DNA damage whereas CuCl2 induces no toxicity. The opposite is observed for silver, where Ag-nano does not cause any toxicity, whereas AgNO3 induces a high level of cell death. In conclusion: CuO-nano toxicity is predominantly mediated by intracellular uptake and subsequent release of copper ions, whereas no toxicity is observed for Ag-nano due to low release of silver ions within short time periods.

  • 15.
    Cronholm, Pontus
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lowe, Troy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Möller, Lennart
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Trojan Horse type mechanism: Cellular dose and toxicity of Ag and CuO nanoparticles2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, p. S201-S201Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16. Cronholm, Pontus
    et al.
    Midander, Klara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Elihn, Karine
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Möller, Lennart
    Effect of sonication and serum proteins on copper release from copper nanoparticles and the toxicity towards lung epithelial cells2011In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 269-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methodological settings can influence particle characteristics and toxicity in nanotoxicology. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum proteins and sonication of Cu nanoparticle suspensions influence the properties of the nanoparticles and toxicological responses on human lung epithelial cells. This was investigated by using methods for particle characterization (photon correlation spectroscopy and TEM) and Cu release (atomic absorption spectroscopy) in combination with assays for analyzing cell toxicity (MTT-, trypan blue- and Comet assay). The results showed that sonication of Cu nanoparticles caused decreased cell viability and increased Cu release compared to non-sonicated particles. Furthermore, serum in the cell medium resulted in less particle agglomeration and increased Cu release compared with medium without serum, but no clear difference in toxicity was detected. Few cells showed intracellular Cu nanoparticles due to fast release/dissolution processes of Cu. In conclusion; sonication can affect the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  • 17. Elihn, Karine
    et al.
    Cronholm, Pontus
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Midander, Klara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Möller, Lennart
    Cellular Dose of Partly Soluble Cu Particle Aerosols at the Air-Liquid Interface Using an In Vitro Lung Cell Exposure System2013In: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, ISSN 1941-2711, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is currently a need to develop and test in vitro systems for predicting the toxicity of nanoparticles. One challenge is to determine the actual cellular dose of nanoparticles after exposure. Methods: In this study, human epithelial lung cells (A549) were exposed to airborne Cu particles at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The cellular dose was determined for two different particle sizes at different deposition conditions, including constant and pulsed Cu aerosol flow. Results: Airborne polydisperse particles with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 180nm [geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.5, concentration 10(5) particles/mL] deposited at the ALI yielded a cellular dose of 0.4-2.6 mu g/cm(2) at pulsed flow and 1.6-7.6 mu g/cm(2) at constant flow. Smaller polydisperse particles in the nanoregime (GMD 80 nm, GSD 1.5, concentration 10(7) particles/mL) resulted in a lower cellular dose of 0.01-0.05 mu g/cm(2) at pulsed flow, whereas no deposition was observed at constant flow. Exposure experiments with and without cells showed that the Cu particles were partly dissolved upon deposition on cells and in contact with medium. Conclusions: Different cellular doses were obtained for the different Cu particle sizes (generated with different methods). Furthermore, the cellular doses were affected by the flow conditions in the cell exposure system and the solubility of Cu. The cellular doses of Cu presented here are the amount of Cu that remained on the cells after completion of an experiment. As Cu particles were partly dissolved, Cu (a nonnegligible contribution) was, in addition, present and analyzed in the nourishing medium present beneath the cells. This study presents cellular doses induced by Cu particles and demonstrates difficulties with deposition of nanoparticles at the ALI and of partially soluble particles.

  • 18. Eriksson, P.
    et al.
    Carlsson, B.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Design of accelerated corrosion tests for electronic components in automotive applications2001In: IEEE transactions on components and packaging technologies (Print), ISSN 1521-3331, E-ISSN 1557-9972, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new accelerated laboratory corrosion tests for electronic components in automotive applications have been developed, based on the use of metallic copper as a meter for corrosivity. The accelerated tests are designed so that they reproduce the same kind of corrosion effects as observed with exposure of copper in real vehicle environments. The test cycle that best simulates the corrosion characteristics of an engine compartment is composed of the following steps: a) exposure to neutral salt spray for 2 h; b) drying at 23 degreesC and 50% RH for 22 h; c) exposure to a test atmosphere of 1.5 ppm NO2 and 0.5 ppm SO2 at 25 degreesC and 95% RH for five days; d) drying at 23 degreesC and 50% RH for one day. The predominating corrosion products of copper, formed both during service exposure and in the accelerated test, are Cu2O and Cu2Cl(OH)(3), with a small amount of sulphur-containing corrosion products in the form of sulphates, In terms of corrosivity of copper, a test duration of six weeks corresponds to 7.5 years of exposure in the reference engine compartment selected for this study. The test cycle designed for the passenger compartment contains the steps: a) exposure for five days to a test atmosphere of 10 ppm NO2 and 95% RH at 35 degreesC, followed by b) drying at 23 degreesC and 50% RH for two days. In this case, Cu2O is the predominating corrosion product. Zn terms of corrosivity of copper, a test duration of four weeks corresponds to 7.5 years of exposure in the reference passenger compartment of this study.

  • 19. Ferraris, M.
    et al.
    Perero, S.
    Ferraris, S.
    Miola, M.
    Verne, E.
    Skoglund, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Antibacterial silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on stainless steel2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 396, p. 1546-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coating made of silver nanocluster/silica composites has been deposited, Via a radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering technique, for the first time onto stainless steel (AISI 304L) with the aim to improve its antibacterial properties. Different thermal treatments after coating deposition have been applied in order to optimize the coating adhesion, cohesion and its antibacterial properties. Its applicability has been investigated at realistic conditions in a cheese production plant. The physico-chemical characteristics of the coatings have been analyzed by means of different bulk and surface analytical techniques. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to assess coating morphology, composition, surface roughness, wetting properties, size and local distribution of the nanoparticles within the coating. Tape tests were used to determine the adhesion/cohesion properties of the coating. The amount and time-dependence of released silver in solutions of acetic acid, artificial water, artificial tap water and artificial milk were determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The antibacterial effect of the coating was evaluated at different experimental conditions using a standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus in compliance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and AATCC 147 standards. The Ahearn test was performed to measure the adhesion of bacteria to the coated stainless steel surface compared with a control surface. The antibacterial coating retained its antibacterial activity after thermal treatment up to 450 degrees C and after soaking in common cleaning products for stainless steel surfaces used for e.g. food applications. The antibacterial capacity of the coating remained at high levels for 1-5 days, and showed a good capacity to reduce the adhesion of bacteria up to 30 days. Only a few percent of silver in the coating was released into acetic acid, even after 10 days of exposure at 40 degrees C. Most silver (> 90%) remained also in the coating even after 240 h of continuous exposure. Similar observations were made after repeated exposure at 100 degrees C. Very low levels of released silver in solution were observed in artificial milk. No release of silver nanoparticles was observed either in synthetic tap water or in artificial milk at given conditions. The coating further displayed good antibacterial properties also when tested during working conditions in a cheese production plant.

  • 20. Ferraris, M.
    et al.
    Perero, S.
    Ferraris, S.
    Miola, M.
    Vernè, E.
    Skoglund, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Antibacterial silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on stainless steel2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 396, p. 1546-1555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coating made of silver nanocluster/silica composites has been deposited, via a radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering technique, for the first time onto stainless steel (AISI 304L) with the aim to improve its antibacterial properties. Different thermal treatments after coating deposition have been applied in order to optimize the coating adhesion, cohesion and its antibacterial properties. Its applicability has been investigated at realistic conditions in a cheese production plant. The physico-chemical characteristics of the coatings have been analyzed by means of different bulk and surface analytical techniques. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to assess coating morphology, composition, surface roughness, wetting properties, size and local distribution of the nanoparticles within the coating. Tape tests were used to determine the adhesion/cohesion properties of the coating. The amount and time-dependence of released silver in solutions of acetic acid, artificial water, artificial tap water and artificial milk were determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The antibacterial effect of the coating was evaluated at different experimental conditions using a standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus in compliance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) and AATCC 147 standards. The Ahearn test was performed to measure the adhesion of bacteria to the coated stainless steel surface compared with a control surface. The antibacterial coating retained its antibacterial activity after thermal treatment up to 450 °C and after soaking in common cleaning products for stainless steel surfaces used for e.g. food applications. The antibacterial capacity of the coating remained at high levels for 1-5 days, and showed a good capacity to reduce the adhesion of bacteria up to 30 days. Only a few percent of silver in the coating was released into acetic acid, even after 10 days of exposure at 40 °C. Most silver (> 90%) remained also in the coating even after 240 h of continuous exposure. Similar observations were made after repeated exposure at 100 °C. Very low levels of released silver in solution were observed in artificial milk. No release of silver nanoparticles was observed either in synthetic tap water or in artificial milk at given conditions. The coating further displayed good antibacterial properties also when tested during working conditions in a cheese production plant.

  • 21.
    Ferraris, Sara
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Perero, S.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Miola, M.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Vernè, E.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Rosiello, A.
    Aero Sekur S.p.A.
    Ferrazzo, V.
    Aero Sekur S.p.A.
    Valletta, G.
    Aero Sekur S.p.A.
    Sanchez, Javier
    Bactiguard AB.
    Ohrlander, Mattias
    Bactiguard AB.
    Tjörnhammar, Staffan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Fokine, Michael
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ferraris, M.
    Politecnico di Torino.
    Chemical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of silver nanocluster/silica composite coated textiles for safety systems and aerospace applications2014In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 317, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the chemical, mechanical and antibacterial properties of a novel silver nanocluster/silica composite coating, obtained by sputtering, on textiles for use in nuclear bacteriological and chemical (NBC) protection suites and for aerospace applications.

    The properties of the coated textiles were analyzed in terms of surface morphology, silver concentration and silver release in artificial sweat and synthetic tap water, respectively. No release of silver nanoparticles was observed at given conditions.

    The water repellency, permeability, flammability and mechanical resistance of the textiles before and after sputtering demonstrated that the textile properties were not negatively affected by the coating.

    The antibacterial effect was evaluated at different experimental conditions using a standard bacterial strain of Staphylococcus aureus and compared with the behavior of uncoated textiles.

    The coating process conferred all textiles a good antibacterial activity. Optimal deposition conditions were elaborated to obtain sufficient antibacterial action without altering the aesthetical appearance of the textiles.

    The antibacterial coating retained its antibacterial activity after one cycle in a washing machine only for the Nylon based textile.

  • 22. Gliga, Anda R.
    et al.
    Skoglund, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Fadeel, Bengt
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Size-dependent cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles in human lung cells: the role of cellular uptake, agglomeration and Ag release2014In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, ISSN 1743-8977, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently one of the most manufactured nanomaterials. A wide range of toxicity studies have been performed on various AgNPs, but these studies report a high variation in toxicity and often lack proper particle characterization. The aim of this study was to investigate size-and coating-dependent toxicity of thoroughly characterized AgNPs following exposure of human lung cells and to explore the mechanisms of toxicity. Methods: BEAS-2B cells were exposed to citrate coated AgNPs of different primary particle sizes (10, 40 and 75 nm) as well as to 10 nm PVP coated and 50 nm uncoated AgNPs. The particle agglomeration in cell medium was investigated by photon cross correlation spectroscopy (PCCS); cell viability by LDH and Alamar Blue assay; ROS induction by DCFH-DA assay; genotoxicity by alkaline comet assay and gamma H(2)AX foci formation; uptake and intracellular localization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and cellular dose as well as Ag release by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Results: The results showed cytotoxicity only of the 10 nm particles independent of surface coating. In contrast, all AgNPs tested caused an increase in overall DNA damage after 24 h assessed by the comet assay, suggesting independent mechanisms for cytotoxicity and DNA damage. However, there was no gamma H(2)AX foci formation and no increased production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The reasons for the higher toxicity of the 10 nm particles were explored by investigating particle agglomeration in cell medium, cellular uptake, intracellular localization and Ag release. Despite different agglomeration patterns, there was no evident difference in the uptake or intracellular localization of the citrate and PVP coated AgNPs. However, the 10 nm particles released significantly more Ag compared with all other AgNPs (approx. 24 wt% vs. 4-7 wt%) following 24 h in cell medium. The released fraction in cell medium did not induce any cytotoxicity, thus implying that intracellular Ag release was responsible for the toxicity. Conclusions: This study shows that small AgNPs (10 nm) are cytotoxic for human lung cells and that the toxicity observed is associated with the rate of intracellular Ag release, a 'Trojan horse' effect.

  • 23. Goidanich, S.
    et al.
    Brunk, Jon
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications Patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions2011In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, p. 46-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites.

  • 24. Goidanich, S.
    et al.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science (closed 20081231).
    Arenas, M. A.
    De Damborenea, J.
    Ormellese, M.
    Sánchez Amaya, J. M.
    Botana, F. J.
    Le Bozec, N.
    Effect of the environment on the metal release and corrosion behaviour of different copper-based alloys: Field exposures at 5 different test sites in Europe2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffuse emissions and dispersion of metals from different sources in the society have lately received an increased concern from an environmental perspective. Large research efforts have been initiated and undertaken by the division of Corrosion Science at KTH to fill knowledge gaps on corrosion-induced metal release from external constructions and buildings. The generation of such data is of paramount importance for the on-going assessment of flows and potential adverse environmental effects caused by released metals. Generated information is also essential for an improved understanding of prevailing atmospheric corrosion processes of importance for the preservation of our cultural heritage, e.g. bronze statues exposed to the atmosphere. This paper summarizes and compares long-term metal release data from pure copper, bronze (6%wt Sn) and brass (20%wt Zn) exposed at unsheltered conditions in five European environments of significantly different climatic and pollutant conditions; three urban sites (Stockholm-Sweden, Milan-Italy and Madrid-Spain) and two marine sites (Brest-France, Cadiz-Spain). Generated data are interpreted with respect to parallel multi-analytical studies of changes in patina characteristics, corrosion rates and differences in prevailing environmental conditions.

  • 25.
    Goidanich, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Departamento de Ingeniería de Superficies, Corrosión y Durabilidad, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM/CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    de Damborenea, J.
    Departamento de Ingeniería de Superficies, Corrosión y Durabilidad, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (CENIM/CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez Amaya, J. M.
    CASEM. Cadiz, Spain.
    Botana, F. J.
    CASEM. Cadiz, Spain.
    Le Bozec, N.
    French Corrosion insitute, Brest, France.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Copper-based alloys in outdoor applications: aspects on patina growth, composition and dissolution at different urban and marine sites in Europe2009In: EuCheMS International Conference on Chemistry and the Environment, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Goidanich, Sara
    et al.
    Toniolo, Lucia
    Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Effects of wax-based anti-graffiti on copper patina composition and dissolution during four years of outdoor urban exposure2010In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 288-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection against graffiti has become a serious problem in most cities. Unfortunately such form of vandalism does not save the cultural heritage. The use of anti-graffiti coatings is a common treatment that can also temporary protect the surface from degradation due to interactions with the environment. Aspects that have not yet been sufficiently investigated from a metal artefact perspective are whether the presence of the anti-graffiti coating will influence the patina composition and reduce the degree of patina dissolution. Long-term (four years) effects of wax-based anti-graffiti coatings on bare copper sheet and pre-patinated copper exposed to urban atmospheric conditions are presented and discussed in terms of changes in patina dissolution rates, barrier properties and composition. The investigation is based on a multi-analytical approach combining chemical analysis, analytical and electrochemical tools (stereomicroscopy, FTIR, XRD, SEM/EDS, AAS, EIS, colorimetric measurements). Results are believed to provide important information related to the long-term applicability of such coatings to preserve the Cultural Heritage.

  • 27.
    Goidanich, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Corrosion induced metal release from copper based alloys compared to their pure elements2008In: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite numerous studies on atmospheric corrosion of copper and copper based alloys, the corrosion induced release processes of individual alloy constituents suffer from significant knowledge gaps. This investigation comprises metal release rate measurements of copper, zinc and tin from some copper based alloys including brass (20 wt-% Zn) and bronze (6 wt-% Sn), and their pure alloying metals, copper, zinc and tin. Data have been generated during a 2.5 year urban field exposure in Stockholm, Sweden and parallel laboratory investigations in a specially designed rain chamber using artificial rain. Brass shows significantly lower annual release rates of both copper and zinc compared to pure metal sheets of its alloy constituents. Zinc is preferentially released compared to copper. Dezincification of brass occurs both at field and laboratory conditions, a process influenced by rain characteristics. Alloying with tin does not largely reduce the release rate of copper from bronze compared to pure copper. No measurable amount of tin is released from the bronze surface.

  • 28.
    Gustavsson, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Hummelgård, Christine
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Institutionen för naturvetenskap, teknik och matematik, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Rahman, Seikh Mohammad Habibur
    Chalmers, Dept Chem & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Eriksson, Sten
    Chalmers, Dept Chem & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    In-situ activated hydrogen evolution by molybdate addition to neutral and alkaline electrolytes2012In: Journal of Electrochemical Science and Engineering, ISSN 1847-9286, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activation of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) by in-situ addition of Mo(VI) to the electrolyte has been studied in alkaline and pH neutral electrolytes, the latter with the chlorate process in focus. Catalytic molybdenum containing films formed on the cathodes during polarization were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X ray analysis (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X ray fluorescence (XRF). In-situ addition of Mo(VI) activates the HER on titanium in both alkaline and neutral electrolytes and makes the reaction kinetics independent of the substrate material. Films formed in neutral electrolyte consisted of molybdenum oxides and contained more molybdenum than those formed in alkaline solution. Films formed in neutral electrolyte in the presence of phosphate buffer activated the HER, but were too thin to be detected by EDS. Since molybdenum oxides are generally not stable in strongly alkaline electrolyte, films formed in alkaline electrolyte were thinner and probably co-deposited with iron. A cast iron molybdenum alloy was also investigated with respect to activity for HER. When polished in the same way as iron, the alloy displayed a similar activity for HER as pure iron.

  • 29.
    Gustavsson, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Hummelgård, Christine
    Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE 851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Joakim
    Department of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE 851 70 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Rahman, Seikh Mohammed Habibur
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Eriksson, Sten
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    In-situ Activated Hydrogen Evolution by Molybdate Addition to Neutral and Alkaline ElectrolytesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Activation of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) by in-situ addition of Mo(VI) to the electrolyte has been studied in alkaline and pH neutral electrolytes, the latter with the chlorate process in focus. Catalytic molybdenum containing films formed on the cathodes during polarization were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X‑ray analysis (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X‑ray fluorescence (XRF). In-situ addition of Mo(VI) activates the HER on titanium in both alkaline and neutral electrolytes and makes the reaction kinetics independent of the substrate material. Films formed in neutral electrolyte consisted of molybdenum oxides and contained more molybdenum than those formed in alkaline solution. Films formed in neutral electrolyte in the presence of phosphate buffer activated the HER, but were too thin to be detected by EDS. Since molybdenum oxides are generally not stable in strongly alkaline electrolyte, films formed in alkaline electrolyte were thinner and probably co-deposited with iron. A cast iron‑molybdenum alloy was also investigated with respect to activity for HER. When polished in the same way as iron, the alloy displayed a similar activity for HER as pure iron.

  • 30. He, W.
    et al.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    A laboratory study of copper and zinc runoff during first flush and steady-state conditions2001In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 127-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of environmental conditions and corrosion layer characteristics have been investigated on the runoff rate of copper and zinc, used as roofing material. For this purpose, a rain device has been constructed, capable of simulating rain episodes of varying intensity and pH, and used on new and aged copper and zinc panels of varying origin and corrosion product composition. The setup, using artificial rain with a composition resembling the southern and central part of Sweden, has proven to result in realistic runoff rates for all materials investigated. During a rain event, easily soluble corrosion products will be removed in the first rain volume, commonly referred to as the first flush, followed by a more or less constant runoff rate during subsequent rain. The magnitude of the first flush depends on environmental conditions prior Co a rain episode, e.g., length of dry periods and extent of dry deposition, as well as on rain volume and rain intensity. A defect-rich and porous corrosion layer increases the magnitude of the first flush. The total metal runoff quantity increases with decreasing pH for both copper and zinc. In agreement with previous findings outdoors, an effect of patina age can be seen on copper. The laboratory data can be used to explain variations in runoff rate between different sampling periods observed in field data.

  • 31. He, W
    et al.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Runoff Rates of Zinc - a Four-Year Field and Laboratory Study: American Society for Testing and Materials2002In: Outdoor Atmospheric Corrosion / [ed] Herbert E Townsend, ASTM International, 2002, p. 216-Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden .
    Baresel, Christian
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Transport and fate of silver as polymer-stabilised nanoparticles and ions in a pilot wastewater treatment plant, followed by sludge digestion and disposal of sludge/soil mixtures: A case study2014In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 1416-1424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of transport and changes in properties of polymer-stabilised Ag NPs is presented in this paper investigating their interaction in different treatment steps within a fully realistic pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), in anaerobic digested sludge, and in soil/sludge mixtures. The fate of the same Ag NPs was tracked in these environments, hence taking the history of the Ag NPs into account. The results show that most of the Ag NPs end up in the sludge (80-100%), also after anaerobically digestion. Furthermore, the fraction of silver in the supernatant was very low after 48h incubation with silver-containing digested sludge mixed with different soil types. However, when Ag NPs were added directly to the sludge/soil mixture, soluble silver was present in the supernatant with sandy soil, but not with clayey soil. In all, generated findings show that risk assessments and toxicological studies of Ag NPs suspensions must take into account possible chemical and particle transformations upon environmental entry, as silver in general become less soluble when transported to WWTPs and interacting with sludge, and soil.

  • 33.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ekvall, M. T.
    Hansson, L. -A
    Cedervall, T.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Tungsten carbide nanoparticles in simulated surface water with natural organic matter: dissolution, agglomeration, sedimentation and interaction with Daphnia magna2017In: Environmental Science: Nano, ISSN 2051-8153, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 886-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though anthropogenic nano-sized tungsten carbide nanoparticles (WC NPs) have been found in the environment, there are currently no investigations on their environmental fate. This work studies the interaction between natural organic matter (NOM) and WC NPs, as well as the potential uptake by the aquatic model organism Daphnia magna. We here show that the affinity between WC NPs and humic acid or dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), which are model molecules of NOM, is very low with no observed surface adsorption. The lack of a stabilizing effect of these organic molecules, in combination with a relatively high effective density of WC NP agglomerates in humic acid, resulted in the substantial agglomeration and sedimentation of the WC NPs. A higher stability of the smaller sized WC NP agglomerates (<150 nm) means that this fraction is mobile and can be transported to other settings, suggesting that this particle fraction should be considered in further studies. The dissolution of tungsten from WC NPs was continuous and the relatively slow dissolution rate (on the order of 0.03 mg m-2 h-1) implies that particle transport will not be severely limited from a dissolution perspective. Uptake of tungsten (dissolved tungsten and WC particles) by D. magna was observed although this did not induce any acute toxic effects.

  • 34.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    The importance of extracellular speciation and corrosion of copper nanoparticles on lung cell membrane integrity2016In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 141, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) are increasingly used in various biologically relevant applications and products, e.g., due to their antimicrobial and catalytic properties. This inevitably demands for an improved understanding on their interactions and potential toxic effects on humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the corrosion of copper nanoparticles in various biological media and to elucidate the speciation of released copper in solution. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lung cell (A549 type II) membrane damage induced by Cu NPs in the various media were studied. The used biological media of different complexity are of relevance for nanotoxicological studies: Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM), DMEM+ (includes fetal bovine serum), phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and PBS + histidine. The results show that both copper release and corrosion are enhanced in DMEM+, DMEM, and PBS + histidine compared with PBS alone. Speciation results show that essentially no free copper ions are present in the released fraction of Cu NPs in neither DMEM+, DMEM nor histidine, while labile Cu complexes form in PBS. The Cu NPs were substantially more membrane reactive in PBS compared to the other media and the NPs caused larger effects compared to the same mass of Cu ions. Similarly, the Cu NPs caused much more ROS generation compared to the released fraction only. Taken together, the results suggest that membrane damage and ROS formation are stronger induced by Cu NPs and by free or labile Cu ions/complexes compared with Cu bound to biomolecules.

  • 35.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Le Bozec, N.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Spatial distribution and formation of corrosion products in relation to zinc release for zinc sheet and coated pre-weathered zinc at an urban and a marine atmospheric condition2013In: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 300-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc release data from 5 years of unsheltered exposures in a marine and an urban site is compiled for different zinc material types. The thin surface treatment on zinc materials is gradually detached after approximately 2 years at both sites, revealing the pre-weathered zinc surface unprotected. This consequently increased the release rates of zinc from this surface, whereas the zinc runoff rate from the bare zinc sheet remained relatively stable. Raman studies on bare zinc sheet exposed for 5 years at the marine site revealed zinc oxide of varying crystalline nature and hydrozincite to appear localized and separated from each other.

  • 36.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lowe, Troy A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wold, Susanna
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ion selective electrodes are not suitable for measurements of silver ion concentrations in alkaline carbonate media2013In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, E-ISSN 1759-9679, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 1068-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ion selective electrode (ISE) for determination of the labile silver ion concentration in carbonate containing solutions of pH 10 was seen to give incorrect results due to shifts in the Ag vertical bar Ag+ equilibrium. This drawback was not the case for the differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) method.

  • 37.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lundin, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Lowe, Troy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Interactions between surfactants and silver nanoparticles of varying charge2012In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 369, no 1, p. 193-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between silvernanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different surface charge and surfactants relevant to the laundry cycle has been investigated to understand changes in speciation, both in and during transport from the washing machine. Ag NPs were synthesized to exhibit either a positive or a negative surface charge in solution conditions relevant for the laundry cycle (pH 10 and pH 7). These particles were characterized in terms of size and surface charge and compared to commercially laser ablated Ag NPs. The surfactants included anionic sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (LAS), cationic dodecyltrimethylammoniumchloride (DTAC) and nonionic Berol 266 (Berol). Surfactant–Ag NP interactions were studied by means of dynamic light scattering, Raman spectroscopy, zeta potential, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance. Mixed bilayers of CTAB and LAS were formed through a co-operative adsorption process on positively charged Ag NPs with pre-adsorbed CTAB, resulting in charge reversal from positive to negative zeta potentials. Adsorption of DTAC on negatively charged synthesized Ag NPs and negatively charged commercial Ag NPs resulted in bilayer formation and charge reversal. Weak interactions were observed for nonionic Berol with all Ag NPs via hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in decreased zeta potentials for Berol concentrations above its critical micelle concentration. Differences in particle size were essentially not affected by surfactant adsorption, as the surfactant layer thicknesses did not exceed more than a few nanometers. The surfactant interaction with the Ag NP surface was shown to be reversible, an observation of particular importance for hazard and environmental risk assessments.

  • 38.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Oromieh, Aidin Geranmayeh
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Odenevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Sorption and dissolution of bare and coated silver nanoparticles in soil suspensions-Influence of soil and particle characteristics2015In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 891-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products triggers the need for investigations that improve the understanding of their chemical transformations upon environmental entry. Such knowledge provides crucial information for toxicological studies and risk assessments. Interactions with the soil compartment need to be explored as there are evident risks of the dispersion of both AgNPs and of released Ag ions/complexes present in wastewater-treated sludge that is distributed onto agricultural land. The dissolution and fractionation in solution of bare (AgNP-bare, noncoated) and coated AgNPs (AgNP-coat, stabilized with two nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene glycerol trioleate and Tween 20) were investigated after 4 and 48h in suspensions of one sandy and one clayey soil of different pHs (3.3, 5.2). Parallel experiments were performed with soil suspensions spiked with easily soluble AgNO3. Silver in the water phase was separated in a dissolved fraction (mainly Ag ions/complexes) and a particle fraction (mainly AgNP/agglomerates/Ag adsorbed on organic matter) by means of ultracentrifugation. Bare AgNPs were nonstable and dissolved to a significantly larger extent in the sandy soil mixture compared to coated AgNPs. The concentration of dissolved Ag (ions/complexes) in the water phase was similar in the case of bare AgNPs and AgNO3 (at pH 3 and 5.2) after 24h in sandy soil, which implies a high degree of dissolution of bare AgNPs (50-100%). In contrast, approximately 50% of the coated AgNPs remained in the water phase after 48h of equilibration in the sandy soil at pH 5.2. The clayey soil had a significantly higher sorption capacity of Ag compared with the sandy soil, as Ag in the case of coated AgNPs was only detected in the water phase of pH 5.2 (<1 % of added Ag). Ultracentrifugation was proven more efficient compared with microfiltration to separate the dissolved Ag fraction (ions/complexes) and the particle fraction (AgNPs/agglomerates) of the water phase. This fractionation is not a measure of any potential toxicity.

  • 39.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Skoglund, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Maria-Elisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wold, Susanna
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Sequential Studies of Silver Released from Silver Nanoparticles in Aqueous Media Simulating Sweat, Laundry Detergent Solutions and Surface Water2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 13, p. 7314-7322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an increased use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) as an antibacterial in consumer products follows a need to assess the environmental interaction and fate of their possible dispersion and release of silver. This study aims to elucidate an exposure scenario of the Ag NPs potentially released from, for example, impregnated clothing by assessing the release of silver and changes in particle properties in sequential contact with synthetic sweat, laundry detergent solutions, and freshwater, simulating a possible transport path through different aquatic media. The release of ionic silver is addressed from a water chemical perspective, compared with important particle and surface characteristics. Released amounts of silver in the sequential exposures were significantly lower, approximately a factor of 2, than the sum of each separate exposure. Particle characteristics such as speciation (both of Ag ionic species and at the Ag NP surface) influenced the release of soluble silver species present on the surface, thereby increasing the total silver release in the separate exposures compared with sequential immersions. The particle stability had no drastic impact on the silver release as most of the Ag NPs were unstable in solution. The silver release was also influenced by a lower pH (increased release of silver), and cotransported zeolites (reduced silver in solution).

  • 40.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Dromberg, P.
    Water and Sewage Network Investigations, Stockholm Vatten VA AB.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Die Bindekapazität von Entwässerungssystemen für Kupfer von Kupferdächern: Vergleich von Regenwasserkupferkonzentrationen in einem Kupferdachentwässerungssystem und einem Parkplatz2010In: Wasser- /Abwassertechnik, Vol. 3, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Gustafsson, Johanna
    Unit for Analytical Toxicology, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Insitutet, SE-141 86 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna L.
    Unit for Analytical Toxicology, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Insitutet, SE-141 86 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Möller, Lennart
    Unit for Analytical Toxicology, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Novum, Karolinska Insitutet, SE-141 86 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Bioaccessibility, bioavailability and toxicity of commercially relevant iron- and chromium-based particles: in vitro studies with an inhalation perspective2010In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, ISSN 1743-8977, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 7, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Production of ferrochromium alloys (FeCr), master alloys for stainless steel manufacture, involves casting and crushing processes where particles inevitably become airborne and potentially inhaled. The aim of this study was to assess potential health hazards induced by inhalation of different well-characterized iron- and chromium-based particles, i.e. ferrochromium (FeCr), ferrosiliconchromium (FeSiCr), stainless steel (316L), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), and chromium(III)oxide (Cr2O3), in different size fractions using in vitro methods. This was done by assessing the extent and speciation of released metals in synthetic biological medium and by analyzing particle reactivity and toxicity towards cultured human lung cells (A549).

    Results

    The amount of released metals normalized to the particle surface area increased with decreasing particle size for all alloy particles, whereas the opposite situation was valid for particles of the pure metals. These effects were evident in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) of pH 4.5 containing complexing agents, but not in neutral or weakly alkaline biological media. Chromium, iron and nickel were released to very low extent from all alloy particles, and from particles of Cr due to the presence of a Cr(III)-rich protective surface oxide. Released elements were neither proportional to the bulk nor to the surface composition after the investigated 168 hours of exposure. Due to a surface oxide with less protective properties, significantly more iron was released from pure iron particles compared with the alloys. Cr was predominantly released as Cr(III) from all particles investigated and was strongly complexed by organic species of ALF. Cr2O3 particles showed hemolytic activity, but none of the alloy particles did. Fine-sized particles of stainless steel caused however DNA damage, measured with the comet assay after 4 h exposure. None of the particles revealed any significant cytotoxicity in terms of cell death after 24 h exposure.

    Conclusion

    It is evident that particle and alloy characteristics such as particle size and surface composition are important aspects to consider when assessing particle toxicity and metal release from alloy particles compared to pure metal particles. Generated results clearly elucidate that neither the low released concentrations of metals primarily as a result of protective and poorly soluble surface oxides, nor non-bioavailable chromium complexes, nor the particles themselves of occupational relevance induced significant acute toxic response, with exception of DNA damage from stainless steel.

  • 42.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Isaksson, Sara
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Mei, Nanxuan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wold, S.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Nanoparticles of WC-Co, WC, Co and Cu of relevance for traffic wear particles – Particle stability and reactivity in synthetic surface water and influence of humic matter2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 224, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studded tyres made of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) are in the Northern countries commonly used during the winter time. Tungsten (W)-containing nano- and micron-sized particles have been detected close to busy roads in several European countries. Other typical traffic wear particles consist of copper (Cu). The aims of this study were to investigate particle stability and transformation/dissolution properties of nanoparticles (NPs) of WC-Co compared with NPs of tungsten carbide (WC), cobalt (Co), and Cu. Their physicochemical characteristics (primarily surface oxide and charge) are compared with their extent of sedimentation and metal release in synthetic surface water (SW) with and without two different model organic molecules, 2,3- and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) mimicking certain sorption sites of humic substances, for time periods up to 22 days. The WC-Co NPs possessed a higher electrochemical and chemical reactivity in SW with and without DHBA molecules as compared with NPs of WC, Co, and Cu. Co was completely released from the WC-Co NPs within a few hours of exposure, although it remained adsorbed/bonded to the particle surface and enabled the adsorption of negatively charged DHBA molecules, in contrast with the WC NPs (no adsorption of DHBA). The DHBA molecules were found to rapidly adsorb on the Co and Cu NPs. The sedimentation of the WC and WC-Co NPs was not influenced by the presence of the 2,3- or 3,4-DHBA molecules. A slight influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Co NPs, and a strong influence (slower sedimentation) was observed for the Cu NPs in SW with 2,3-DHBA compared with SW alone. The extent of metal release increased in the order: WC < Cu < Co < WC-Co NPs. All NPs released more than 1 wt-% of their metal total mass. The release from the Cu NPs was most influenced by the presence of DHBA molecules.

  • 43.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Liu, Yi
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Complexation- and ligand-induced metal release from 316L particles: importance of particle size and crystallographic structure2011In: Biometals, ISSN 0966-0844, E-ISSN 1572-8773, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1099-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron, chromium, nickel, and manganese released from gas-atomized AISI 316L stainless steel powders (sized < 45 and < 4 mu m) were investigated in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF, pH 4.5) and in solutions of its individual inorganic and organic components to determine its most aggressive component, elucidate synergistic effects, and assess release mechanisms, in dependence of surface changes using atomic absorption spectroscopy, Raman, XPS, and voltammetry. Complexation is the main reason for metal release from 316L particles immersed in ALF. Iron was mainly released, while manganese was preferentially released as a consequence of the reduction of manganese oxide on the surface. These processes resulted in highly complexing media in a partial oxidation of trivalent chromium to hexavalent chromium on the surface. The extent of metal release was partially controlled by surface properties (e.g., availability of elements on the surface and structure of the outermost surface) and partially by the complexation capacity of the different metals with the complexing agents of the different media. In general, compared to the coarse powder (< 45 mu m), the fine (< 4 mu m) powder displayed significantly higher released amounts of metals per surface area, increased with increased solution complexation capacity, while less amounts of metals were released into non-complexing solutions. Due to the ferritic structure of lower solubility for nickel of the fine powder, more nickel was released into all solutions compared with the coarser powder.

  • 44.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Particle characteristics and metal release from natural rutile (TiO2) and zircon particles in synthetic body fluids2012In: Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, ISSN 2158-7027, E-ISSN 2158-7043, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium oxide (rutile, TiO2) and zircon (ZrSiO4), known insoluble ceramic materials, are commonly used for coatings of implant materials. We investigate the release of zirconium, titanium, aluminum, iron, and silicon from different micron-sized powders of 6 powders of natural rutile (TiO2) and zircon (ZrSiO4) from a surface perspective. The investiga- tion includes five different synthetic body fluids and two time periods of exposure, 2 and 24 hours. The solution chemi- cals rather than pH are important for the release of zirconium. When exceeding a critical amount of aluminum and sili- con in the surface oxide, the particles seem to be protected from selective pH-specific release at neutral or weakly alka- line pH. The importance of bulk and surface composition and individual changes between different kinds of the same material is elucidated. Changes in material properties and metal release characteristics with particle size are presented for zircon.

  • 45.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Latvala, S.
    Elihn, K.
    Karlsson, H. L.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions2016In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 81, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5–7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10–12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy.

  • 46.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Corrosion Science.
    Risks of using membrane filtration for trace metal analysis and assessing the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media - A study on zinc, copper and nickel2011In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, no 5, p. 1144-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane filtration is commonly performed for solid liquid separation of aqueous solutions prior to trace metal analysis and when assessing "dissolved" metal fractions. Potential artifacts induced by filtration such as contamination and/or adsorption of metals within the membrane have been investigated for different membrane materials, metals, applied pressures and pre-cleaning steps. Measurements have been conducted on aqueous solutions including well-defined metal standards, ultrapure water, and on runoff water from corroded samples. Filtration using both non-cleaned and pre-cleaned filters revealed contamination and adsorption effects, in particular pronounced for zinc, evident for copper but non-significant for nickel. The results clearly show these artifacts to be non-systematic both for non-cleaned and pre-cleaned membranes. The applied pressure was of minor importance. Measurements of the labile fraction by means of stripping voltammetry clearly elucidate that membrane filtration followed by total metal analysis cannot accurately assess the labile or the dissolved metal fraction.

  • 47.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, M. -E
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wei, Z.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Znidarsic, M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Interaction of Albumin and Fibrinogen with Stainless Steel: Influence of Sequential Exposure and Protein Aggregation on Metal Release and Corrosion Resistance2017In: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 73, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion and metal release mechanisms of the biomedical stainless steel grade Type 316L are at human-relevant biological conditions not fully understood. This study focuses on its corrosion properties and release of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) into simulated physiological solutions at pH 7.4 in the presence of proteins. Parallel studies were performed on stainless steel Type 303 containing a substantial amount of MnS inclusions. Metal release studies were performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 4 h and 24 h at 37 degrees C with or without different concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA), fibrinogen from bovine plasma (Fbn), or mixtures of the same. Studies were in addition performed after 1, 4, 6, and 24 h in solutions that were partially replenished after 5 h in order to investigate whether any Vroman effect (exchange of adsorbed proteins by proteins of higher binding affinity) could influence the extent of released metals in solution. This was performed at physiological concentrations of BSA (40 g/L) and Fbn (2.67 g/L) in PBS, and for reference solutions of PBS, PBS with 40 g/L BSA, and PBS with 2.67 g/L Fbn. Changes in open-circuit potential and linear polarization resistance were investigated for the same conditions. After exposure, the exposed surfaces were rinsed and investigated ex situ by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy. Metal-protein complexation-induced metal release mechanisms were found to be most pronounced for Type 316L and the release of Fe, Cr, and Ni. Fibrinogen adsorbed differently onto Type 303 (thicker conformation of adsorbed proteins) as compared with Type 316L and occasionally induced corrosion events for Type 303. Mn was mostly released from inclusions present in the Type 303 alloy, most probably via non-electrochemical mechanisms. A Vroman effect was observed for both grades. A significant extent of precipitation of metal-rich protein aggregates influenced the metal release measurements in solution and resulted in an underestimation of the total amount of released metals from the stainless steel grades.

  • 48.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Maria-Elisa
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Correlation between surface physicochemical properties and the release of iron from stainless steel AISI 304 in biological media2014In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 122, p. 216-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steel is widely used in biological environments, for example as implant material or in food applications, where adsorption-controlled ligand-induced metal release is of importance from a corrosion, health, and food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential correlations between surface energy and wettability of stainless steel surfaces and the release of iron in complexing biological media. This was accomplished by studying changes in surface energies calculated from contact angle measurements, surface oxide composition (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and released iron (graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy) for stainless steel grade AISI 304 immersed in fluids containing bovine serum albumin or citric acid, and non-complexing fluids such as NaCl, NaOH, and HNO3. It was shown that the surface wettability and polar surface energy components were all influenced by adventitious atmospheric carbon (surface contamination of low molecular weight), rather than differences in surface oxide composition in non-complexing solutions. Adsorption of both BSA and citrate, which resulted in ligand-induced metal release, strongly influenced the wettability and the surface energy, and correlated well with the measured released amount of iron.

  • 49.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Szakalos, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Ultrafine 316 L stainless steel particles with frozen-in magnetic structures characterized by means of electron backscattered diffraction2011In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 65, no 14, p. 2089-2092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) studies clearly revealed a different crystallographic structure of the smallest particle size fraction of gas-atomized AISI 316 L stainless steel powder (<4 mu m) compared with larger sized fractions of the same powder (<45 mu m). Despite similar chemical compositions, the predominating structure of the smallest particle size fraction was ferritic (i.e., has ferromagnetic properties) whereas the larger sized particle fractions and massive 316 L revealed an expected austenitic and non-magnetic structure. From these findings, it follows that direct magnetic separation can be applied to separate very fine sized particles. These structural differences explain previously observed dissimilarities from corrosion and metal release perspectives.

  • 50.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Killian, Manuela S.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering 4, Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Virtanen, Sannakaisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering 4, Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Schmuki, Patrik
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering 4, Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Interaction of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme with stainless steel studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy2012In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 28, no 47, p. 16306-16317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth mechanistic understanding of the interaction between stainless steel surfaces and proteins is essential from a corrosion and protein-induced metal release perspective when stainless steel is used in surgical implants and in food applications. The interaction between lysozyme (LSZ) from chicken egg white and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AISI 316L stainless steel surfaces was studied ex situ by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) after different adsorption time periods (0.5, 24, and 168 h). The effect of XPS measurements, storage (aging), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and elevated temperature (up to 200 °C) on the protein layers, as well as changes in surface oxide composition, were investigated. Both BSA and LSZ adsorption induced an enrichment of chromium in the oxide layer. BSA induced significant changes to the entire oxide, while LSZ only induced a depletion of iron at the utmost layer. SDS was not able to remove preadsorbed proteins completely, despite its high concentration and relatively long treatment time (up to 36.5 h), but induced partial denaturation of the protein coatings. High-temperature treatment (200 °C) and XPS exposure (X-ray irradiation and/or photoelectron emission) induced significant denaturation of both proteins. The heating treatment up to 200 °C removed some proteins, far from all. Amino acid fragment intensities determined from ToF-SIMS are discussed in terms of significant differences with adsorption time, between the proteins, and between freshly adsorbed and aged samples. Stainless steel–protein interactions were shown to be strong and protein-dependent. The findings assist in the understanding of previous studies of metal release and surface changes upon exposure to similar protein solutions.

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