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  • 1. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Land use planning and transport investment appraisal2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The impact of land use planning on Cost-Benefit Analysis rankings2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Almström, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    The impact of travel costs and economic growth on cost-benefit analysis rankings2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a tool for selecting transport investments is often questioned. It is not unusual that politicians or others in the public debate argue that the outcome of a CBA completely rely on assumptions concerning a particular input factor, such as valuation of CO2 emissions or future fuel price. This paper explores whether the relative ranking of CBA outcomes are robust with respect to some key inputs in transport demand analysis driving cost, public transport fare and economic growth. We study six different infrastructure objects (three road and three rail objects) and four alternative assumptions on input factors compared to a reference scenario.

    The findings suggest that single input factors in a CBA, individually have a small impact on the ranking of the studied investments. In our model calculations we observe no change in rank between a road and a rail object.

  • 4.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Börjesson, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Response to Wadud and Baierl: “Explaining ‘peak car’ with economic variables: An observation”2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, p. 386-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car? Drivers of  the recent decline in Swedish car use2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use.  This paper shows that the two variables GDP per capita and fuel price explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 6.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak car?: Drivers of the recent decline in Swedish car use2015In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 42, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been well-known that economic variables such as GDP and fuel price as well as socio-demographic characteristics and spatial distribution are key factors explaining car use trends. However, due. to the recently observed plateau of total car travel in many high income countries, it has been argued that other factors, such as changes in preferences, attitudes and life-styles, have become more important drivers of car use. This paper shows that the two variables, GDP per capita and fuel price, explain most of the aggregate trends in car distances driven per adult in Sweden: as much as 80% over the years 2002 to 2012. The estimated elasticities are well in line with previous literature and can reasonably well reproduce the trend in car distances driven per adult back to 1980. We find, however, a substantial variation in elasticities between municipalities depending on public transport supply, population density, share of foreign-born inhabitants and the average income level.

  • 7.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The city as a driver of new mobility patterns, cycling and gender equality: Travel behaviour trends in Stockholm 1985-2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse changes in individual travel behaviour in Stockholm County over 30 years, using three large cross-sectional travel survey data sets. We show how travel patterns evolve over time by gender, income and age-group, in different areas of the region (centre vs. periphery).  We relate the observed trends in travel behaviour to societal trends (gender equality, ICT adoption, knowledge-based economy) and policy changes (congestion charges), and we compare them to trends in other European capital cities.

  • 8.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Explaining “peak car” with economic variables2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 2016, no 88, p. 236-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decrease of car travel during the 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the statement that the development cannot be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP and fuel prices. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel; what we are experiencing is not just a temporary plateau, but a true “peak car”. However, this study shows that the traditional variables GDP and fuel price are in fact sufficient to explain the observed trends in car traffic in all the countries included in our study: the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Sweden and (to a large extent) Australia and Germany. We argue that the importance of the fuel price increases in the early 2000s has been underappreciated in the studies that shaped the later debate. Results also indicate that GDP elasticities tend to decrease with rising GDP, and that fuel price elasticities tend to increase at high price levels and during periods of rapid price increases.

  • 9.
    Bastian, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Maria, Börjesson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Peak Car for urban Swedish men?2014In: Proceedings of Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation (hEART),September 10, 2014 – September 12, 2014, Leeds, UK, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study long-term trends in regional car travel demand within and across socio-demographic groups in Sweden, using cross-sectional data from National Travel Surveys, spanning the period from 1978 to 2011. We find that the reduction in per-adult driving in Sweden mainly occurs among urban men. Urban men of all income groups reduced their driving for both commuting and non-commuting trips in conjunction with rising gasoline prices, which may have contributed to this development. We find that driving among those socio-demographic groups, who have better opportunities to reduce their driving, and driving for discretionary rather than commute purposes is being reduced over time. Sweden is ranked among the most gender-equal countries in the world; yet we find a substantial remaining gender gap in the share of adults driving a car on an average day, even when controlling for other socio-economic differences.

     

  • 10.
    Batley, Richard
    et al.
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Bates, John
    John Bates Serv, Abingdon, Oxon, England..
    Bliemer, Michiel
    Univ Sydney, Inst Transport & Logist Studies, Transport Network Modelling, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Bourdon, Jeremy
    Arup, London, England..
    Cabral, Manuel Ojeda
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Chintakayala, Phani Kumar
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Choudhury, Charisma
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Daly, Andrew
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Dekker, Thijs
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Drivyla, Efie
    Arup, London, England..
    Fowkes, Tony
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Hess, Stephane
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Heywood, Chris
    Accent, London, England..
    Johnson, Daniel
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Laird, James
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Mackie, Peter
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Parkin, John
    Univ West England, Ctr Transport & Soc, Transport Engn, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Sanders, Stefan
    Arup, London, England..
    Sheldon, Rob
    Accent, London, England..
    Wardman, Mark
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Worsley, Tom
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    New appraisal values of travel time saving and reliability in Great Britain2019In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 583-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the study Provision of market research for value of time savings and reliability' undertaken by the Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent consortium for the UK Department for Transport (DfT). The paper summarises recommendations for revised national average values of in-vehicle travel time savings, reliability and time-related quality (e.g. crowding and congestion), which were developed using willingness-to-pay (WTP) methods, for a range of modes, and covering both business and non-work travel purposes. The paper examines variation in these values by characteristics of the traveller and trip, and offers insights into the uncertainties around the values, especially through the calculation of confidence intervals. With regards to non-work, our recommendations entail an increase of around 50% in values for commute, but a reduction of around 25% for other non-workrelative to previous DfT WebTAG' guidance. With regards to business, our recommendations are based on WTP, and thus represent a methodological shift away from the cost saving approach (CSA) traditionally used in WebTAG. These WTP-based business values show marked variation by distance; for trips of less than 20miles, values are around 75% lower than previous WebTAG values; for trips of around 100miles, WTP-based values are comparable to previous WebTAG; and for longer trips still, WTP-based values exceed those previously in WebTAG.

  • 11.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    A Communication Choice Model2003Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Departure Time Modelling: Applicability and Travel Time Uncertainty2006In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Diskussionsunderlag till ASEK: tolkningen av det transportpolitiska delmålet om jämställdhet2011Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Forecasting demand for high speed rail2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is sometimes argued that standard state-of-practice logit-based models cannot forecast the demand for substantially reduced travel times, for instance due to High Speed Rail (HSR). The present paper investigates this issue by reviewing the literature on travel time elasticities for long distance rail travel and comparing these with elasticities observed when new HSR lines have opened. This paper also validates the Swedish long distance model, Sampers, and its forecast demand for a proposed new HSR, using aggregate data revealing how the air-rail modal split varies with the difference in generalized travel time between rail and air. The Sampers long distance model is also compared to a newly developed model applying Box-Cox transformations. The paper contributes to the empirical literature on long distance travel, long distance elasticities and HSR passenger demand forecasts. Results indicate that the Sampers model is indeed able to predict the demand for HSR reasonably well. The new non-linear model has even better model fit and also slightly higher elasticities.

  • 15.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Forecasting demand for high-speed rail2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Forecasting demand for high-speed rail2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Gender-related differences and similarities in travel behaviour: a life-cycle perspective. Evidence from Stockholm2011Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Inter-temporal variation in the marginal utility of travel time and travel cost2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Inter-temporal variation in the travel time and travel cost parameters of transport models2014In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 377-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel time and travel cost parameters is a key issue in forecasting. Using two identical stated choice experiments conducted among Swedish drivers with an interval of 13 years, 1994 and 2007, this paper estimates the inter-temporal variation in travel time and cost parameters (under the assumption that the variance of the error components of the indirect utility function is equal across the two datasets). It is found that the travel time parameter has remained constant over time but that the travel cost parameter has declined in real terms. The trend decline in the cost parameter can be entirely explained by higher average income level in the 2007 sample compared to the 1994 sample. The results support the recommendation to keep the travel time parameter constant over time in forecast models, but to deflate the travel cost parameter with the forecasted income increase among travellers and the relevant income elasticity of the cost parameter. Evidence from this study further suggests that the inter-temporal and the cross-sectional income elasticities of the cost parameter are equal. The average elasticity is found to be -0.8 to -0.9 in the present sample of drivers, and the elasticity is found to increase with the real income level, both in the cross-section and over time.

  • 20.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics.
    Issues in Urban Travel Demand Modelling: ICT Implications and Trip timing choice2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Travel demand forecasting is essential for many decisions, such as infrastructure investments and policy measures. Traditionally travel demand modelling has considered trip frequency, mode, destination and route choice. This thesis considers two other choice dimensions, hypothesised to have implications for travel demand forecasting. The first part investigates how the increased possibilities to overcome space that ICT (information and communication technology) provides, can be integrated in travel demand forecasting models. We find that possibilities of modelling substitution effects are limited, irrespective of data source and modelling approach. Telecommuting explains, however, a very small part of variation in work trip frequency. It is therefore not urgent to include effects from telecommuting in travel demand forecasting. The results indicate that telecommuting is a privilege for certain groups of employees, and we therefore expect that negative attitudes from management, job suitability and lack of equipment are important obstacles. We find also that company benefits can be obtained from telecommuting. No evidences that telecommuting gives rise to urban sprawl is, however, found. Hence, there is ground for promoting telecommuting from a societal, individual and company perspective.

    The second part develops a departure time choice model in a mixed logit framework. This model explains how travellers trade-off travel time, travel time variability, monetary and scheduling costs, when choosing departure time. We explicitly account for correlation in unobserved heterogeneity over repeated SP choices, which was fundamental for accurate estimation of the substitution pattern. Temporal constraints at destination are found to mainly restrict late arrival. Constraints at origin mainly restrict early departure. Sensitivity to travel time uncertainty depends on trip type and intended arrival time. Given appropriate input data and a calibrated dynamic assignment model, the model can be applied to forecast peak-spreading effects in congested networks. Combined stated preference (SP) and revealed preference (RP) data is used, which has provided an opportunity to compare observed and stated behaviour. Such analysis has previously not been carried out and indicates that there are systematic differences in RP and SP data.

  • 21.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301).
    Joint RP-SP data in a mixed logit analysis of trip timing decisions2008In: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, ISSN 1366-5545, E-ISSN 1878-5794, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1025-1038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper, a departure time choice model including travel time variability is estimated, combining stated preference and revealed preference data. We account for response scale differences between RP and SP data and, applying the mixed logit model, test for correlation of scheduling sensitivity across RP and SP choices within individuals. The analysis implies systematic differences in the RP and SP data. With support of the evaluation from the Stockholm trial, this indicates that SP is less trustworthy for trip timing analysis and forecasting, presumably because there are temporal differences in RP and SP choice situations.

  • 22.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Ministern har fel om infrastrukturen: Debattartikel2016In: Land, ISSN 0023-7531Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Modelling the preference for scheduled and unexpected delays2009In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 29-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a study undertaken to estimate a departure-time and mode-choice model for Stockholm. The model is segmented according to trip purpose, and a mixed - or error component - logit model is estimated. Estimation draws on stated preference data collected from drivers travelling toward the city centre during morning peak hours. The study uncovers drivers' preferences for scheduled delay, unexpected delay, travel time and cost as well the patterns of substitution between mode and time of day alternatives. The result indicates that disutility of unexpected delay depends on the scheduled deviation from preferred arrival time. The preference for scheduled delay is roughly proportional to the time shift and varies in the population, but is much more consistent within an individual. Another finding is that constraints at the destination mainly restrict late arrival, whereas constraints at the origin mainly restrict early departure.

  • 24.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Statliga pengar till infrastruktur slösas bort: Debattartikel2016In: Land, ISSN 0023-7531, no 23 februari 2016Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Telecommuting and work travel demand modelling in Sweden2003Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The national value of time study 2007/08 (Vinnova/ Swedish Road Administration/Swedish Rail Administration2010Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Travel time evaluation using camera data from Stockholm2010Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Valuating perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a stated choice experiment and drawings of four different type-environments to assess how various security-promoting factors in the built physical environment influence valuation of walking time when accessing public transport. Valuations that can be applied for evaluating policies to improve perceived security are obtained. Consistent results are achieved, indicating that the method is promising for incorporating aspects in the physical environment in the welfare analysis. The results indicate a systematic variation in value of walk time in different physical environments and it is more dependent of the physical environment for women than for men. This paper thereby contributes to the literature by showing that results by social sciences can be verified using methods and theories traditionally used in transport and welfare analysis and may therefore be incorporated in standard CBA. A contribution of this study is the insight that the perception of insecurity involved in accessing the public transport system is a welfare loss that can be quantified.

  • 29.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Valuing perceived insecurity associated with use of and access to public transport2012In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 22, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a stated choice experiment and drawings of four different type-environments to assess how various security-promoting factors in the built physical environment influence valuation of walking time when accessing public transport. Valuations that can be applied for evaluating policies to improve perceived security are obtained. Consistent results are achieved, indicating that the method is promising for incorporating aspects in the physical environment in the welfare analysis. The results indicate a systematic variation in value of walk time in different physical environments and it is more dependent of the physical environment for women than for men. This paper thereby contributes to the literature by showing that results by social sciences can be verified using methods and theories traditionally used in transport and welfare analysis and may therefore be incorporated in standard CBA. A contribution of this study is the insight that the perception of insecurity involved in accessing the public transport system is a welfare loss that can be quantified.

  • 30.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Properties of Internet and Telephone Data Collection Methods in a Stated Choice Value of Time Study Context2011In: Journal of Choice Modelling, ISSN 1755-5345, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze Internet and telephone Stated Choice (SC) survey methods in the context of the Swedish value of time study 2008. In this study, extensive piloting and follow up surveys was undertaken to assure high quality data. We use these data and data from the main survey to analyse properties of the different data collection methods. One conclusion is that Internet gives less random error in the SC data. On the other hand, the response rate drops when Internet is the only response and recruiting mode. A mixed mode survey, where Internet is the primary method but where respondents are knowingly subject to a telephone follow up survey, is found to give substantially higher Internet response rates. If the telephone follow up does not include SC questions, the value of time result will still be biased. A large part of this bias seems to be explained by socio-economic data, such as income and age, which are cheaper to collect.

  • 31.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Not invented here: Transferability of congestion charges effects2014In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, p. 263-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore to what extent the effects of congestion charges rely on specific features of a city and its transport system. We use Stockholm, and its current congestion charging scheme, as a case study by making various modifications in the transport system influencing the availability and attractiveness of public transport, bypasses and bottleneck capacities. We use a transport model to forecast the effects of the Stockholm charges given each transport system modification. Our main conclusion is that although the social benefit of a given charging system is considerably and non-linearly dependent on initial congestion levels, traffic effects and adaptations costs are surprisingly stable across transport system modifications. Specifically, the level of public transport provision has only small effects on baseline congestion, and therefore on the total benefit of the charges. Contrary to expectation, the charges' effect on traffic volumes remains virtually unchanged regardless of the changes in public transport supply. All results are compared to and consistent with the one-market standard model. We interpret our results with respect to common arguments against the transferability of experiences from cities having introduced congestion charges.

  • 32.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Centre for Transport Studies, WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Brundell-Freij, Karin
    Centre for Transport Studies, WSP Analysis & Strategy.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The Stockholm congestion charges – 4 years on: Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Congestion charges were introduced in Stockholm in 2006, first as a trial followed by a referendum, then permanently from 2007. This paper discusses what conclusions can be drawn from the first four years of operation. We show that the traffic reduction caused by the charges’ has increased over time, once external factors are controlled for. Alternative-fuel vehicles are exempt from the charges, and this has substantially increased the sales of such vehicles. We discuss public and political acceptability, synthesizing recent research and Swedish experience, and conclude that objective and subjective effects as well as general environmental and political attitude played a role for the high levels of public support, while institutional reform and resolving power issues were necessary to gain political support. Finally, we briefly discuss implications for the transport planning process in general.

  • 34.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cherchi, Elisabetta
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Bierlaire, Michel
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Between and within individual variation in values of time and mode choice: application to equity effects of congestion charge2012In: Proceedings of 1st European Symposium on Quantitative Methods in Transportation Systems, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cherchi, Elisabetta
    Bierlaire, Michel
    Within-Individual Variation in Preferences Equity Effects of Congestion Charges2013In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2382, p. 92-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to explore how the values of travel time (VTT) and preferences for different modes vary within individuals compared with the variation between observed trips. With 6-week revealed preference panel data and stated preference data from a mode choice context, both collected in Switzerland, a revealed stated preference logit mode choice model was estimated. The model was applied to simulate how VTT and change in consumer surplus vary across trips within and between individuals over the 6 weeks in response to a hypothetical congestion-charging scheme. The variation in VTT arising from income differences was found to be substantially smaller than the variation in VTT between trips. Moreover, the variability in VTT averaged over all trips within each individual was considerably smaller than the variability in VTT for all observed trips. Therefore, the assumption that variation in VTT between observed trips reflects the variation in the average VTT between individuals, which is usually made in equity analyses, will over-state the between-individual variation. The results suggest that if intraindividual variation in preferences is not taken into account, the negative equity effects of congestion charges are likely to be overestimated.

  • 36.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Experiences from the Swedish Value of Time study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, p. 144-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide a synthesis of results and insights from the Swedish Value of Time study, with focus on what is relevant for transport appraisal and understanding travel behavior. We summarize recent econometric advances, and show how these enable a better understanding and identification of the value of time distribution. The influence of the sign and size of changes is estimated and discussed, including the problems of loss aversion and the value of small time savings. Further, we show how the value of time depends on trip and traveler characteristics, discuss in what dimensions the value of time should be differentiated in appraisal, and provide recommended values for use in applied transport appraisal.

  • 38.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Finanspolitiska rådet, 2015.: Svensk finanspolitik. Underlagsrapport2015Book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hur mycket kan förbättringar för cyklister bidra till att minska vägträngseln och förbättra miljön? PM till TV42010Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Kostnadseffektivitet i valet av infrastrukturinvesteringar2015Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2012In: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board (TRB) 91st Annual Meeting, Washington D.C., USA, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    New Values of time and their application in appraisal2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference and the Summer School, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Nolltaxa är orealistiskt, oekonomiskt och orättvist: DN Debatt2015In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2015-05-20Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2009Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    On the use of "average delay" as a measure of train reliability2011In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 171-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how passengers on long-distance trains value unexpected delays relative to scheduled travel time and travel cost. For scheduled services with high reliability and long headways, the value of delays is most commonly assumed to be proportional to the average delay. By exploring how the valuation of train delays depends on delay risk and delay length, using three different stated choice data sets, we find that the "average delay" approach does not hold: the disutility increases slower than linearly in the delay risk. This means that using the average delay as a performance indicator, a guide for operations planning or for investment appraisal will underestimate the value of small risks of long delays relative to large risks for short delays. It also means that estimated valuations of "average delay" will depend on the delay risk level: valuations will be higher the lower the risk levels in the study are.

  • 46.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH. Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eliasson, Jonas
    Stockholm City Transportat Adm, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Should values of time be differentiated?2019In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 357-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the issue of differentiating the valuation of travel time savings (VTTS) in transport cost-benefit analysis, summarising and discussing theories forming the basis for arguments for and against VTTS differentiation. We stress some important implications, insights and consequences of different assumptions relating to these theories, many of which we feel have been underappreciated in much of the CBA literature and practice. We derive a welfare rule including a social cost for monetary redistributions and show the implications for how the VTTS can be defined in different choice situations. Crucially, the applicable VTTS definition depends on whether travel costs (fares) are under public control and to whom benefits accrue in the long run. In some choice situations, the VTTS should be controlled for differences in income, but it is important to always take into account differences in marginal utilities of time (e.g. across travel time components, modes and trip purposes). Using Swedish data, we show that controlling the VTTS for income differences changes the VTTS only slightly; the variation in VTTS across modes, trip lengths, trip purposes apparently stems primarily from differences in marginal utilities of time rather than income.

  • 47.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The benefits of cycling: Viewing cyclists as travellers rather than non-motorists2012In: Cycling and sustainability / [ed] John Parkin, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2012, p. 247-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the environment and congestion conditions. However, we argue that since the bicycle is a part of the transport system, it should be evaluated as such. Focusing on implications for cycling appraisal in general, we also discuss two conflicting trends in Stockholm: a sharp decrease in cycling in the outer areas, and a sharp increase in the inner parts. Methodology – We use (i) travel survey data to analyse the potential to reduce congestion through improvements for cyclists, (ii) travel survey data from 1986 to 1987 and 2004 and bicycle counts over 25 years and (iii) a value of time survey of Stockholm cyclists including questions of exercise habits. Findings – Additional benefits in appraisal from reduced car traffic and improved health seem to be small. Given bicyclists’ high values of time and low investment costs, bicycling investments are still likely to be socially beneficial. The conflicting bicycling trends can be explained by (i) increased road congestion and improved bicycle infrastructure, (ii) increased visibility of bicyclists generating a ‘positive spiral’, (iii) increased interest in physical fitness and changes in the relative prices of cars versus central residences turn cycling into a high-status mode and (iv) in peripheral areas, increasing distances and less dense land use patterns decrease cycling levels. Practical implications – The results underscore the need for dense, mixeduse spatial planning and ‘smart’ marketing using the effects of cyclist visibility to reinforce the ‘status’ of cycling.

  • 48.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle appraisal2012In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 673-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time savings, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists' value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis. Bicyclists seem to take health largely into account when making their travel choices, implying that it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, our results suggest that bicycle should be viewed as a competitive mode of travel and not primarily as a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

  • 49.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Börjesson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The value of time and external benefits in bicycle cost-benefit analyses2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 World Conference on Transport Research, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the value of time gains, different cycling environments and additional benefits in cost-benefit analysis of cycling investments. Cyclists’ value of travel time savings turns out to be high, considerably higher than the value of time savings on alternative modes. Cyclists also value other improvements highly, such as separated bicycle lanes. As to additional benefits of cycling improvements in the form of health and reduced car traffic, our results do not support the notion that these will be a significant part in a cost-benefit analysis, contrary to some earlier studies and beliefs. As to health effects, cyclists seem to take these largely into account when making their travel choices, so it would be double-counting to add total health benefits to the analysis once the consumer surplus has been correctly calculated. As to reductions in car traffic, our results indicate that the cross-elasticity between car and cycle is low, and hence benefits from traffic reductions will be small. However, the valuations of improved cycling speeds and comfort are so high that it seems likely that improvements for cyclists are cost-effective compared to many other types of investments, without having to invoke second-order, indirect effects. In other words, the bicycle is perfectly able to be viewed as a competitive mode of travel, rather than primarily a means to achieve improved health or reduced car traffic.

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