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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The Diagnostic Plot—A Tutorial with a Ten Year Perspective2021In: Progress in Turbulence IX: Proceedings of the iTi Conference in Turbulence 2021, Springer Nature , 2021, Vol. 267, p. 125-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diagnostic plot was introduced in 2010 (Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 29: 403–406) but was used already in 2008 during a large measurement campaign as a litmus test to determine if tripped zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers fulfilled basic criteria of being canonical. It used the rms-level of streamwise velocity (urms ) in the outer part of the boundary layer, a region where urms can give clear indications if insufficient or too tough tripping has been used. In standard plots one needs both the friction velocity and measurement of the full velocity and turbulence profiles. By instead plotting urms/ U∞ as a function of U/ U∞, it was found that this gives rise to a well-defined distribution that could be used as a canonical measure. It was later discovered that it is possible to extend the description to the near wall region. It has also been extended to boundary layers over rough surfaces and with pressure gradients, and some further uses. This paper aims to be both a review of the development of the method during the last 10+ years and a tutorial for those who want to employ it in their research and maybe also find new uses of the methodology.

  • 2.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Imayama, Shintaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent boundary layers over flat plates and rotating disks-The legacy of von Karman: A Stockholm perspective2013In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 40, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the findings and ideas of von Karman are still of interest to the fluid dynamics community. For instance, his result that the mean velocity distribution in turbulent flows has a logarithmic behavior with respect to the distance from the centreline is still a cornerstone for everybody working in wall-bounded turbulence and was first presented to an international audience in Stockholm at the Third International Congress for Applied Mechanics in 1930. In this paper we discuss this result and also how the so-called von Karman constant can be determined in a new simple way. We also discuss the possibility of a second (outer) maximum of the streamwise velocity fluctuations, a result that was implicit in some of the assumptions proposed by von Karman.

  • 3.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    A new scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity in wall-bounded turbulent flows and what it tells us about the "outer" peak2011In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 041702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One recent focus of experimental studies of turbulence in high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows has been the scaling of the root mean square of the fluctuating streamwise velocity, but progress has largely been impaired by spatial resolution effects of hot-wire sensors. For the near-wall peak, recent results seem to have clarified the controversy; however, one of the remaining issues in this respect is the emergence of a second (so-called outer) peak at high Reynolds numbers. The present letter introduces a new scaling of the local turbulence intensity profile, based on the diagnostic plot by Alfredsson and Orlu [Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 42, 403 (2010)], which predicts the location and amplitude of the "outer" peak and suggests its presence as a question of sufficiently large scale separation.

  • 4.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH Mech, Royal Inst Technol, Linne FLOW Ctr, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH Mech, Royal Inst Technol, Linne FLOW Ctr, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    A New Way to Determine the Wall Position and Friction Velocity in Wall-Bounded Turbulent Flows2012In: PROGRESS IN TURBULENCE AND WIND ENERGY IV / [ed] Oberlack, M Peinke, J Talamelli, A Castillo, L Holling, M, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2012, p. 181-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of turbulent boundary layers are often focussed on the near wall region. In experiments an accurate determination of the wall (say within 10 μm) with respect to the measurement probe is not easily achieved through optical or mechanical measurements (see e.g. Ref. [1]). Also the friction velocity (uτ ) is hard to determine with high accuracy. One possibility is to utilize the linear velocity profile (U+ = y+ ) to determine one or both of the mentioned quantities, but is usually impeded by the fact that the hot-wire readings are affected by heat transfer to the wall. The motivation here is to utilize the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the streamwise velocity in a way so that the influence of the heat transfer can be avoided and thereby obtain accurate estimates of both the wall position and friction velocity. 

  • 5.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH Mech, Linne FLOW Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Large-Eddy BreakUp Devices - a 40 Years Perspective from a Stockholm Horizon2018In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 100, no 4, p. 877-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 1980's Large Eddy BreakUp (LEBU) devices, thin plates or airfoils mounted in the outer part of turbulent boundary layers, were shown to be able to change the turbulent structure and intermittency as well as reduce turbulent skin friction. In some wind-tunnel studies it was also claimed that a net drag reduction was obtained, i.e. the reduction in skin-friction drag was larger than the drag on the devices. However, towing-tank experiments with a flat plate at high Reynolds numbers as well as with an axisymmetric body showed no net reduction, but instead an increase in total drag. Recent large-eddy simulations have explored the effect of LEBUs on the turbulent boundary layer and evaluations of the total drag show similar results as in the towing tank experiments. Despite these negative results in terms of net drag reduction, LEBUs manipulate the boundary layer in an interesting way which explains why they still attract some interest. The reason for the positive results in the wind-tunnel studies as compared to drag measurements are discussed here, although no definite answer for the differences can be given.

  • 6.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The diagnostic plot - a litmus test for wall bounded turbulence data2010In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 403-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagnostic plot is suggested that can be used to judge wall bounded turbulence data of the mean and the rms of the streamwise velocity in terms of reliability both near the wall, around the maximum in the rms as well as in the outer region. The important feature of the diagnostic plot is that neither the wall position nor the friction velocity needs to be known, since it shows the rms value as a function of the streamwise mean velocity, both normalized with the free stream velocity. One must remember, however, that passing the test is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to prove good data quality.

  • 7.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Kurian, Thomas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, A.
    Rüedi, Jean-Daniel
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The diagnostic plot: a new way to appraise turbulent boundary-layer data2009In: ADVANCES IN TURBULENCE XII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH EUROMECH EUROPEAN TURBULENCE CONFERENCE / [ed] Eckhardt, B., 2009, Vol. 132, p. 609-612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been a renewed interest in how averaged quantities of the turbulent boundary layer vary in the direction normal to the wall, especially with regard to the mean and fluctuation velocity distributions (see e.g. [1, 2]). Comparing data from different facilities and/or different techniques are, however, often inconclusive since the inaccuracies of the measured quantities may be larger than the trends one wants to investigate.

  • 8.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The viscous sublayer revisited-exploiting self-similarity to determine the wall position and friction velocity2011In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 271-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In experiments using hot wires near the wall, it is well known that wall interference effects between the hot wire and the wall give rise to errors, and mean velocity data from the viscous sublayer can usually not be used to determine the wall position, nor the friction velocity from the linear velocity distribution. Here, we introduce a new method that takes advantage of the similarity of the probability density distributions (PDF) or rather the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) in the near-wall region. By using the velocity data in the CDF in a novel way, it is possible to circumvent the problem associated with heat transfer to the wall and to accurately determine both the wall position and the friction velocity. Prior to its exploitation, the self-similarity of the distribution functions of the streamwise velocity fluctuations within the viscous sublayer is established, and it is shown that they can accurately be described by a lognormal distribution.

  • 9.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new formulation for the streamwise turbulence intensity distribution2011In: 13th European Turbulence Conference (ETC13): Wall-Bounded Flows And Control Of Turbulence, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2011, p. 022002-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical and experimental data from zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers over smooth walls have been analyzed by means of the so called diagnostic plot introduced by Alfredsson & Orlu [Eur. J. Fluid Mech. B/Fluids, 4 2, 403 (2010)]. In the diagnostic plot the local turbulence intensity is shown as a function of the local mean velocity normalized with a reference velocity scale. In the outer region of the boundary layer a universal linear decay of the turbulence intensity is observed independent of Reynolds number. The deviation from this linear region appears in the buffer region and seems to be universal when normalized with the friction velocity. Therefore, a new empirical fit for the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity distribution is proposed and the results are compared with up to date reliable high-Reynolds number experiments and extrapolated towards Reynolds numbers relevant to atmospherical boundary layers.

  • 10.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new formulation for the streamwise turbulence intensity distribution in wall-bounded turbulent flows2012In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 36, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity has recently been discussed in several papers both from the viewpoint of new experimental results as well as attempts to model its behavior. In the present paper numerical and experimental data from zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers, channel and pipe flows over smooth walls have been analyzed by means of the so called diagnostic plot introduced by Alfredsson & ÖrlÌ [P.H. Alfredsson, R. ÖrlÌ, The diagnostic plot-a litmus test for wall bounded turbulence data, Eur. J. Mech. B Fluids 29 (2010) 403-406]. In the diagnostic plot the local turbulence intensity is plotted as function of the local mean velocity normalized with a reference velocity scale. Alfredsson et al. [P.H. Alfredsson, A. Segalini, R. ÖrlÌ, A new scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity in wall-bounded turbulent flows and what it tells us about the outer peak, Phys. Fluids 23 (2011) 041702] observed that in the outer region of the boundary layer a universal linear decay of the turbulence intensity independent of the Reynolds number exists. This approach has been generalized for channel and pipe flows as well, and it has been found that the deviation from the previously established linear region appears at a given wall distance in viscous units (around 120) for all three canonical flows. Based on these results, new empirical fits for the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity distribution of each canonical flow are proposed. Coupled with a mean streamwise velocity profile description the model provides a composite profile for the streamwise variance profile that agrees nicely with existing numerical and experimental data. Extrapolation of the proposed scaling to high Reynolds numbers predicts the emergence of a second peak of the streamwise variance profile that at even higher Reynolds numbers overtakes the inner one.

  • 11.
    Andreolli, Andrea
    et al.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Separating large-scale superposition and modulation in turbulent channels2023In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 958, article id A37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of very-large-scale motions in wall-bounded turbulent flows is commonly associated with their footprint in the form of the superposition of the large scales at the wall and the additional amplitude modulation of small-scale near-wall turbulence. These two phenomena are currently understood to be interlinked, with the superposed large-scale velocity gradient causing the modulation of small-scale activity in the proximity of the wall. To challenge this idea, we devise a numerical strategy that selectively suppresses either superposition or amplitude modulation, in an effort to isolate and study the remaining phenomenon. Results from our direct numerical simulations indicate that a positive correlation between the amplitude of the small scales in the near-wall region and the large-scale signal in the outer flow persists even when near-wall large-scale motions are suppressed - i.e. in absence of superposition. Clearly, this kind of correlation cannot be caused by the near-wall large-scale velocity or its gradients, as both are absent. Conversely, when modulation is blocked, the near-wall footprints of the large scales seem to disappear. This study has been carried out on channel flows at friction Reynolds number Re-tau = 1000 in both standard simulation domains and minimal streamwise units (MSUs), where the streamwise fluctuation energy is enhanced. The consistency of the results obtained by the two approaches suggests that MSUs can capture correctly this kind of scale interaction at a much reduced cost.

  • 12. Bailey, S. C. C.
    et al.
    Hultmark, M.
    Monty, J. P.
    Alfredsson, Per Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chong, M. S.
    Duncan, R. D.
    Fransson, Jens
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hutchins, N.
    Marusic, I.
    McKeon, B. J.
    Nagib, H. M.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Smits, A. J.
    Vinuesa, R.
    Obtaining accurate mean velocity measurements in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers using Pitot tubes2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 715, p. 642-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on one component of a larger study on measurement of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent flat plate boundary layer, in which a detailed investigation was conducted of the suite of corrections required for mean velocity measurements performed using Pitot tubes. In particular, the corrections for velocity shear across the tube and for blockage effects which occur when the tube is in close proximity to the wall were investigated using measurements from Pitot tubes of five different diameters, in two different facilities, and at five different Reynolds numbers ranging from Reθ = 11 100 to 67 000. Only small differences were found amongst commonly used corrections for velocity shear, but improvements were found for existing near-wall proximity corrections. Corrections for the nonlinear averaging of the velocity fluctuations were also investigated, and the results compared to hot-wire data taken as part of the same measurement campaign. The streamwise turbulence-intensity correction was found to be of comparable magnitude to that of the shear correction, and found to bring the hot-wire and Pitot results into closer agreement when applied to the data, along with the other corrections discussed and refined here.

  • 13.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    History effects and near equilibrium in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 820, p. 667-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent boundary layers under adverse pressure gradients are studied using well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) with the goal of assessing the influence of the streamwise pressure-gradient development. Near-equilibrium boundary layers were characterized through the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter β. In order to fulfil the near-equilibrium conditions, the free stream velocity was prescribed such that it followed a power-law distribution. The turbulence statistics pertaining to cases with a constant value of β (extending up to approximately 40 boundary-layer thicknesses) were compared with cases with non-constant β distributions at matched values of β and friction Reynolds number Reδ∗. An additional case at matched Reynolds number based on displacement thickness Reδ∗ was also considered. It was noticed that non-constant β cases appear to approach the conditions of equivalent constant β cases after long streamwise distances (approximately 7 boundary-layer thicknesses). The relevance of the constant β cases lies in the fact that they define a 'canonical' state of the boundary layer, uniquely characterized by β and Re. The investigations on the flat plate were extended to the flow around a wing section overlapping in terms of β and Re. Comparisons with the flat-plate cases at matched values of β and Re revealed that the different development history of the turbulent boundary layer on the wing section leads to a less pronounced wake in the mean velocity as well as a weaker second peak in the Reynolds stresses. This is due to the weaker accumulated effect of the β history. Furthermore, a scaling law suggested by Kitsios et al. (Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 61, 2016, pp. 129-136), proposing the edge velocity and the displacement thickness as scaling parameters, was tested on two constant-pressure-gradient parameter cases. The mean velocity and Reynolds-stress profiles were found to be dependent on the downstream development. The present work is the first step towards assessing history effects in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers and highlights the fact that the values of the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter and the Reynolds number are not sufficient to characterize the state of the boundary layer.

  • 14.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    History effects and near-equilibrium in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with turbulent boundary layers under adverse-pressure gradients. Well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) were performed to assess the influence of the streamwise pressure development. The pressure gradient is imposed by prescribing the free-stream velocity in the free-stream above the layer. In order to fulfill the near-equilibrium conditions, the free-stream velocity has to follow a power-law distribution. The turbulence statistics pertaining tocases with a constant Clauser pressure-gradient parameter β were compared with cases with a non-constant pressure distribution at matched β and friction Reynolds number  Reτ. It was noticed that the non-constant cases appear toconverge slowly to a certain state of the boundary layer, which is uniquelycharacterised by β and Reτ . The investigations on the flat plate were extended to the flow around a wing section. Comparisons with the flat-plate cases revealed some interesting features: In turbulent boundary layers with strong pressure gradients in the development history the energy-carrying structures in the outerregion are strongly enhanced, which can be detected by the pronounced wake inthe mean velocity as well as the large second peak in the Reynolds stresses. This was also confirmed by one-dimensional energy spectra, where more energetic large structures were identified in the outer region for stronger pressure gradients overall. A scaling law suggested by Kitsios et al. (2015) was tested on a constant pressure gradient case. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles were found to be dependent on the downstream development when they were scaled with the edge velocity and displacement thickness.

  • 15.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Large-eddy simulations of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) are studied by performing well-resolved large-eddy simulations. The pressure gradient is imposed by defining the free-stream velocity distribution with the description of a power law. Different inflow conditions, box sizes and upper boundary conditions are tested in order to determine the final set-up. The statistics ofturbulent boundary layers with three different power-law coefficients and thus magnitudes of adverse pressure gradients are then compared to zero pressure-gradient (ZPG) data. The effect of the APG on TBLs is manifested in the mean flow through a much more prominent wake region and in the Reynolds stresses through the existence of an outer peak. The pre-multiplied energy budgets shows the APG influence on the distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy transfer mechanism across the boundary layer.

  • 16.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Large-eddy simulations of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers2016In: 2nd Multiflow Summer School on Turbulence, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016, article id 012012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) are studied by performing well-resolved large-eddy simulations. The pressure gradient is imposed by defining the free-stream velocity distribution with the description of a power law. Different inflow conditions, box sizes and upper boundary conditions are tested in order to determine the final set-up. The statistics of turbulent boundary layers with two different power-law coefficients and thus magnitudes of adverse pressure gradients are then compared to zero pressure-gradient (ZPG) data. The effect of the APG on TBLs is manifested in the mean flow through a much more prominent wake region and in the Reynolds stresses through the existence of an outer peak. The pre-multiplied energy budgets show, that more energy is transported from the near-wall region to farther away from the wall.

  • 17.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Simulations of turbulent asymptotic suction boundary layers2015In: Journal of Turbulence, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 17, p. 157-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of large-eddy simulations of a turbulent asymptotic suction boundary layer (TASBL) was performed in a periodic domain, on which uniform suction was applied over a flat plate. Three Reynolds numbers (defined as ratio of free-stream and suction velocity) of Re = 333, 400 and 500 and a variety of domain sizes were considered in temporal simulations in order to investigate the turbulence statistics, the importance of the computational domain size, the arising flow structures as well as temporal development length required to achieve the asymptotic state. The effect of these two important parameters was assessed in terms of their influence on integral quantities, mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, higher order statistics, amplitude modulation and spectral maps. While the near-wall region up to the buffer region appears to scale irrespective of Re and domain size, the parameters of the logarithmic law (i.e. von Kármán and additive coefficient) decrease with increasing Re, while the wake strength decreases with increasing spanwise domain size and vanishes entirely once the spanwise domain size exceeds approximately two boundary-layer thicknesses irrespective of Re. The wake strength also reduces with increasing simulation time. The asymptotic state of the TASBL is characterised by surprisingly large friction Reynolds numbers and inherits features of wall turbulence at numerically high Re. Compared to a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) or a channel flow without suction, the components of the Reynolds-stress tensor are overall reduced, but exhibit a logarithmic increase with decreasing suction rates, i.e. increasing Re. At the same time, the anisotropy is increased compared to canonical wall-bounded flows without suction. The reduced amplitudes in turbulence quantities are discussed in light of the amplitude modulation due to the weakened larger outer structures. The inner peak in the spectral maps is shifted to higher wavelength and the strength of the outer peak is much less than for TBLs. An additional spatial simulation was performed, in order to relate the simulation results to wind tunnel experiments, which – in accordance with the results from the temporal simulation – indicate that a truly TASBL is practically impossible to realise in a wind tunnel. Our unique data set agrees qualitatively with existing literature results for both numerical and experimental studies, and at the same time sheds light on the fact why the asymptotic state could not be established in a wind tunnel experiment, viz. because experimental studies resemble our simulation results from too small simulation boxes or insufficient development times.

  • 18.
    Bobke, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent asymptotic suction boundary layers: Effect of domain size and development time2016In: Springer Proceedings in Physics, Springer, 2016, p. 173-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of large-eddy simulations of a turbulent asymptotic suction boundary layer (TASBL) was performed in a periodic domain, on which uniform suction was applied over a flat plate. The Reynolds number (defined as the ratio between free-stream and suction velocity) was Re=333" role="presentation" style="border: 0px; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: normal; font-family: inherit; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; vertical-align: baseline; outline: 0px; display: inline; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; position: relative;">Re=333Re=333and a variety of domain sizes were considered in temporal simulations in order to investigate the effect of the computational domain size and temporal development length. The asymptotic state is related to high friction Reynolds numbers and was found to require large computational domains and development lengths.

  • 19. Borodulin, V. I.
    et al.
    Ivanov, A. V.
    Kachanov, Y. S.
    Mischenko, D. A.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hein, S.
    Excitation of 3D TS-waves in a swept-wing boundary layer by surface vibrations and freestream vortices2018In: AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics Inc. , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several kinds of velocity disturbances, which may affect the transition to turbulence in a swept wing boundary layer. Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves are among most important of them. The properties of TS waves and their potential competition with cross-flow waves on a swept wing are poorly studied in theoretical works and were not studied experimentally at all. This paper presents the method of excitation of fully controlled 3D TS waves via interaction of free-stream vortices and surface vibrations. The experimental approach developed here will be used for investigation of the corresponding receptivity problem.

  • 20.
    Borodulin, V. I.
    et al.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Ivanov, A. V.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Kachanov, Y. S.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Mischenko, D. A.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hein, S.
    DLR, Inst Aerodynam & Flow Technol, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany..
    Experimental and theoretical study of swept-wing boundary-layer instabilities. Three-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting instability2019In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 31, no 11, article id 114104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the linear evolution of three-dimensional (3D) Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instability modes of 3D boundary layers developing on a swept airfoil section have been carried out. The flow under consideration is the boundary layer over an airfoil at 350 sweep and an angle of attack of +1.5 degrees. At these conditions, TS instability is found to be the predominant one. Perturbations with different frequencies and spanwise wavenumbers are generated in a controlled way using a row of elastic membranes. All experimental results are deeply processed and compared with results of calculations based on theoretical approaches. Very good quantitative agreement of all measured and calculated stability characteristics of swept-wing boundary layers is achieved.

  • 21.
    Borodulin, V. I.
    et al.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Ivanov, A. V.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Kachanov, Y. S.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Mischenko, D. A.
    Khristianovich Inst Theoret & Appl Mech, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hein, S.
    DLR, Inst Aerodynam & Flow Technol, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany..
    Experimental and theoretical study of swept-wing boundary-layer instabilities. Unsteady crossflow instability2019In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 31, no 6, article id 064101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the linear evolution of unsteady (in general) Cross-Flow (CF) and three-dimensional (3D) Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instability modes of 3D boundary layers developing on a swept airfoil section have been carried out. CF-instability characteristics are investigated in detail at an angle of attack of -5 degrees when this kind of instability dominates in the laminar-turbulent transition process, while the 3D TS-instability characteristics are studied at an angle of attack of +1.5 degrees when this kind of instability is predominant in the transition process. All experimental results are deeply processed and compared with results of calculations based on several theoretical approaches. For the first time, very good quantitative agreement of all measured and calculated stability characteristics of swept-wing boundary layers is achieved both for unsteady CF- and 3D TS-instability modes for the case of a boundary layer developing on a real swept airfoil. The first part of the present study (this paper) is devoted to the description of the case of CF-dominated transition, while the TS-dominated case will be described in detail in a subsequent second part of this investigation.

  • 22.
    Borodulin, V. I.
    et al.
    RAS, SB, ITAM, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Ivanov, A. V.
    RAS, SB, ITAM, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Kachanov, Y. S.
    RAS, SB, ITAM, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Mischenko, D. A.
    RAS, SB, ITAM, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hein, S.
    DLR, Inst Aerodynam & Flow Technol, D-37073 Gottingen, Germany..
    Quantitative study of localized mechanisms of excitation of cross-flow instability modes in a swept-wing boundary layer2018In: CONFERENCE OF YOUNG SCIENTISTS IN MECHANICS, IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2018, article id 012008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study of two efficient receptivity mechanisms of excitation of cross-flow (CF) instability modes is carried out in a boundary layer of a real airfoil section of a swept wing due to: (i) action of localized surface vibrations, and (ii) scattering of 2D freestream vortices on them. It is found that the two mechanisms lead to rather efficient excitation of CF-modes both at surface vibration frequency and at combination 'vortexvibration' frequencies. First estimations of the corresponding localized receptivity coefficients are obtained. Direct comparison of the experimental amplification curves of the excited CF-modes with those calculated based on the linear stability theory (LST) has shown that the experimental data obtained at vibration frequency are in excellent agreement with the LST. At the same time, growth rates of the CF-modes excited at combination frequencies are found to be completely inconsistent with the LST. A possible explanation of this phenomenon via action of a new efficient distributed receptivity mechanism is suggested. This mechanism is associated with scattering of freestream vortices on rather high-amplitude CF-modes excited by surface vibrations.

  • 23. Borodulin, V. I.
    et al.
    Ivanov, A. V.
    Kachanov, Y. S.
    Mischenko, D. A.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hein, S.
    Receptivity coefficients of vortex-vibrational type at excitation of 3D Tollmien-Schlichting waves in a boundary layer on a swept wing2019In: HIGH-ENERGY PROCESSES IN CONDENSED MATTER (HEPCM 2019): Proceedings of the XXVI Conference on High-Energy Processes in Condensed Matter, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the birth of S.A. Chaplygin, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2019, article id 030044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is devoted to the first results of an experimental quantitative study of the receptivity mechanism of a swept-wing laminar boundary layer related to scattering of 2D freestream vortices (with frequency fv) at 3D local surface vibrations (with frequency fs) resulting in an excitation of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves (having combination frequencies f+ = fs+fv and f- = fs - fv). The experiments were carried out in a low-turbulence level wind tunnel on a high-precision experimental model of long-laminar-run swept airfoil (sweep angle of 35°) at a freestream speed of about 10 m/s. Controlled localized 3D surface vibrations and 2D freestream vortices were generated by special disturbance sources. Quantitative characteristics of the studied receptivity mechanism (receptivity coefficients) were estimated.

  • 24. Borodulin, V. I.
    et al.
    Ivanov, A. V.
    Kachanov, Y. S.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hein, S.
    Characteristics of 3D instability of a 35-degree swept wing to CF and TS modes. Experiment and theory2016In: AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive experimental investigation of linear evolution of Cross-Flow (CF) and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) modes of 3D boundary layer oscillations on a swept wing has been carried out. TS-instability characteristics have been studied experimentally for the first time. The characteristics of development of the two kinds of instability modes are compared with calculations and display a very good agreement. The whole dataset may be used for promotion of theoretical methods of investigation of laminar-turbulent transition in swept wing boundary layers.

  • 25. Bourgoin, M.
    et al.
    Baudet, C.
    Kharche, S.
    Mordant, N.
    Vandenberghe, T.
    Sumbekova, S.
    Stelzenmuller, N.
    Aliseda, A.
    Gibert, M.
    Roche, P. -E
    Volk, R.
    Barois, T.
    Caballero, M. L.
    Chevillard, L.
    Pinton, J. -F
    Fiabane, L.
    Delville, J.
    Fourment, C.
    Bouha, A.
    Danaila, L.
    Bodenschatz, E.
    Bewley, G.
    Sinhuber, M.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Torrano, I.
    Mantik, J.
    Guariglia, D.
    Uruba, V.
    Skala, V.
    Puczylowski, J.
    Peinke, J.
    Investigation of the small-scale statistics of turbulence in the Modane S1MA wind tunnel2018In: CEAS Aeronautical Journal, ISSN 1869-5582, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 269-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the planning, set-up, turbulence characterization and analysis of measurements of a passive grid turbulence experiment that was carried out in the S1MA wind-tunnel from ONERA in Modane, in the context of the ESWIRP European project. This experiment aims at a detailed investigation of the statistical properties of turbulent flows at large Reynolds numbers. The primary goal is to take advantage of the unequaled large-scale dimensions of the ONERA S1MA wind-tunnel facility, to make available to the broad turbulence community high-quality experimental turbulence data with unprecendented resolution (both spatial and temporal) and accuracy (in terms of statistical convergence). With this goal, we designed the largest grid-generated turbulence experiment planned and performed to date. Grid turbulence is a canonical flow known to produce almost perfectly homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (HIT) which remains a unique framework to investigate fundamental physics of turbulent flows. Here, we present a brief description of the measurements, in particular those based on hot-wire diagnosis. By comparing results from classical hot-wires and from a nano-fabricated wire (developed at Princeton University), we show that our goal of resolving down to the smallest dissipative scales of the flow has been achieved. We also present the full characterization of the turbulence here, in terms of turbulent energy dissipation rate, injection and dissipation scales (both spatial and temporal) and Reynolds number.

  • 26.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Rinaldi, Enrico
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. Royal Inst Technol, Linne FLOW Ctr KTH Mech, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Critical Point for Bifurcation Cascades and Featureless Turbulence2020In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 124, no 1, article id 014501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Letter we show that a bifurcation cascade and fully sustained turbulence can share the phase space of a fluid flow system, resulting in the presence of competing stable attractors. We analyze the toroidal pipe flow, which undergoes subcritical transition to turbulence at low pipe curvatures (pipe-to-torus diameter ratio) and supercritical transition at high curvatures, as was previously documented. We unveil an additional step in the bifurcation cascade and provide evidence that, in a narrow range of intermediate curvatures, its dynamics competes with that of sustained turbulence emerging through subcritical transition mechanisms.

  • 27.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Linear stability of the flow in a toroidal pipe2015In: 9th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2015, TSFP-9 , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While hydrodynamic stability and transition to turbulence in straight pipes - being one of the most fundamental problems in fluid mechanics - has been studied extensively, the stability of curved pipes has received less attention. In the present work, the first (linear) instability of the canonical flow inside a toroidal pipe is investigated as a first step in the study of the related laminar-turbulent transition process. The impact of the curvature of the pipe, in the range 8 e [0.002,1], on the stability properties of the flow is studied in the framework of linear stability analysis. Results show that the flow is indeed modally unstable for all curvatures investigated and that the wave number corresponding to the critical mode depends on the curvature, as do several other features of this problem. The critical modes are mainly located in the region of the Dean vortices, and are characterised by oscillations which are symmetric or antisymmetric as a function of the curvature. The neutral curve associated with the first bifurcation is the result of a complex interaction between isolated modes and branches composed by several modes characterised by a common structure. This behaviour is in obvious contrast to that of straight pipes, which are linearly stable for all Reynolds numbers.

  • 28.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Modal instability of the flow in a toroidal pipe2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 792, p. 894-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modal instability encountered by the incompressible flow inside a toroidal pipe is studied, for the first time, by means of linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS). In addition to the unquestionable aesthetic appeal, the torus represents the smallest departure from the canonical straight pipe flow, at least for low curvatures. The flow is governed by only two parameters: the Reynolds number (Formula presented.) and the curvature of the torus (Formula presented.), i.e. the ratio between pipe radius and torus radius. The absence of additional features, such as torsion in the case of a helical pipe, allows us to isolate the effect that the curvature has on the onset of the instability. Results show that the flow is linearly unstable for all curvatures investigated between 0.002 and unity, and undergoes a Hopf bifurcation at (Formula presented.) of about 4000. The bifurcation is followed by the onset of a periodic regime, characterised by travelling waves with wavelength (Formula presented.) pipe diameters. The neutral curve associated with the instability is traced in parameter space by means of a novel continuation algorithm. Tracking the bifurcation provides a complete description of the modal onset of instability as a function of the two governing parameters, and allows a precise calculation of the critical values of (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.). Several different modes are found, with differing properties and eigenfunction shapes. Some eigenmodes are observed to belong to groups with a set of common characteristics, deemed ‘families’, while others appear as ‘isolated’. Comparison with nonlinear DNS shows excellent agreement, confirming every aspect of the linear analysis, its accuracy, and proving its significance for the nonlinear flow. Experimental data from the literature are also shown to be in considerable agreement with the present results.

  • 29.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chin, C.
    Hutchins, N.
    Monty, J.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    On Large-Scale Friction Control in Turbulent Wall Flow in Low Reynolds Number Channels2016In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 811-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reconsiders the control scheme proposed by Schoppa & Hussain (Phys. Fluids 10, 1049–1051 1998), using a new set of numerical simulations. The computations are performed in a turbulent channel at friction Reynolds numbers of 104 (the value employed in the original study) and 180. In particular, the aim is to better characterise the physics of the control as well as to investigate the optimal parameters. The former purpose lead to a re-design of the control strategy: moving from a numerical imposition of the mean flow to the application of a volume force. A comparison between the two is presented. Results show that the original method only gave rise to transient drag reduction. The forcing method, on the other hand, leads to sustained drag reduction, and thus shows the superiority of the forcing approach for all wavelengths investigated. A clear maximum efficiency in drag reduction is reached for the case with a viscous-scaled spanwise wavelength of the vortices of 1200, which yields a drag reduction of 18 %, as compared to the smaller wavelength of 400 suggested as the most efficient vortex in Schoppa & Hussain. Various turbulence statistics are considered, in an effort to elucidate the causes of the drag-reducing effect. For instance, a region of negative production was found, which is quite unusual for developed turbulent channel flow.

  • 30.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chin, Cheng
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Reynolds number dependence of large-scale friction control in turbulent channel flow2016In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 1, no 8, article id 081501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigates the effectiveness of the control strategy introduced by Schoppa and Hussain [Phys. Fluids 10, 1049 (1998)] as a function of Reynolds number (Re). The skin-friction drag reduction method proposed by these authors, consisting of streamwise-invariant, counter-rotating vortices, was analyzed by Canton et al. [Flow, Turbul. Combust. 97, 811 (2016)] in turbulent channel flows for friction Reynolds numbers (Re t) corresponding to the value of the original study (i.e., 104) and 180. For these Re, a slightly modified version of the method proved to be successful and was capable of providing a drag reduction of up to 18%. The present study analyzes the Reynolds number dependence of this drag-reducing strategy by performing two sets of direct numerical simulations (DNS) for Re-tau = 360 and 550. A detailed analysis of the method as a function of the control parameters (amplitude and wavelength) and Re confirms, on the one hand, the effectiveness of the large-scale vortices at low Re and, on the other hand, the decreasing and finally vanishing effectiveness of this method for higher Re. In particular, no drag reduction can be achieved for Re t = 550 for any combination of the parameters controlling the vortices. For low Reynolds numbers, the large-scale vortices are able to affect the near-wall cycle and alter the wall-shear-stress distribution to cause an overall drag reduction effect, in accordance with most control strategies. For higher Re, instead, the present method fails to penetrate the near-wall region and cannot induce the spanwise velocity variation observed in other more established control strategies, which focus on the near-wall cycle. Despite the negative outcome, the present results demonstrate the shortcomings of the control strategy and show that future focus should be on methods that directly target the near-wall region or other suitable alternatives.

  • 31.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Characterisation of the steady, laminar incompressible flow in toroidal pipes covering the entire curvature rangeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Characterisation of the steady, laminar incompressible flow in toroidal pipes covering the entire curvature range2017In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 66, p. 95-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is concerned with a detailed investigation of the steady (laminar), incompressible flow inside bent pipes. In particular, a toroidal pipe is considered in an effort to isolate the effect of the curvature, δ, on the flow features, and to compare the present results to available correlations in the literature. More than 110 000 numerical solutions are computed, without any approximation, spanning the entire curvature range, 0 ≤ δ ≤ 1, and for bulk Reynolds numbers Re up to 7 000, where the flow is known to be unsteady. Results show that the Dean number De provides a meaningful non-dimensional group only below very strict limits on the curvature and the Dean number itself. For δ>10−6 and De > 10, in fact, not a single flow feature is found to scale well with the Dean number. These considerations are also valid for quantities, such as the Fanning friction factor, that were previously considered Dean-number dependent only. The flow is therefore studied as a function of two equally important, independent parameters: the curvature of the pipe and the Reynolds number. The analysis shows that by increasing the curvature the flow is fundamentally changed. Moderate to high curvatures are not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively different from low δ cases. A complete description of some of the most relevant flow quantities is provided. Most notably the friction factor f for laminar flow in curved pipes by Ito [J. Basic Eng. 81:123–134 (1959)] is reproduced, the influence of the curvature on f is quantified and the scaling is discussed. A complete database including all the computed solutions is available at www.flow.kth.se.

  • 33.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Neutral stability of the flow in a toroidal pipe2015In: Proceedings - 15th European Turbulence Conference, ETC 2015, TU Delft , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is concerned with the numerical investigation of the linear stability properties of the viscous, incompressible flow inside a toroidal pipe. A Hopf bifurcation is found and tracked in phase space, showing that the flow is modally unstable even at extremely low curvatures. The bifurcation and the eigenfunctions associated with it are analysed as a function of the two parameters governing the flow, i.e. the Reynolds number, Re, and the curvature, δ. For all curvatures, the critical Reynolds number is found to be about 3000. 

  • 34.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    On stability and transition in bent pipes2019In: Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation XI, Springer , 2019, p. 531-536Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is concerned with the investigation of the instability and transition to turbulence of the viscous, incompressible flow inside curved pipes. For the first time, the impact of the curvature is analysed over the whole parameter space, presenting new results for both the steady flow and the instabilities encountered by this flow.

  • 35.
    Canton, Jacopo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    On the Reynolds number dependence of large-scale friction control in turbulent channel flowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36. Chan, C. , I
    et al.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Chin, R. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Mech Engn, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Large-scale and small-scale contribution to the skin friction reduction in a modified turbulent boundary layer by a large-eddy break-up device2022In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 034601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of streamwise length scales (lambda x) in turbulent skin friction generation is investigated using a direct numerical simulation data set of an incompressible zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer and the spectral analysis based on the FukagataL73 (2002)]. The total skin friction generation associated with motions scaled with local boundary layer thickness delta of lambda x 3 delta and lambda x 3 delta) contribute to a significant portion of turbulent skin friction. However, it is found that the large-scale ejection and sweep events with streamwise length scales at lambda x 3 delta are equally important. The turbulent skin friction reduction associated with the modification of largeand small-scale quadrant events is studied, using well-resolved simulation data sets of a large-eddy break-up (LEBU) device in a turbulent boundary layer. The results reveal that LEBUs modify both the large- and small-scale ejection and sweep events, yielding a substantial turbulent skin friction reduction.

  • 37.
    Chan, I. C.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Mech Engn, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Chin, R. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Mech Engn, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    The skin-friction coefficient of a turbulent boundary layer modified by a large-eddy break-up device2021In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 33, no 3, article id 035153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computational study based on well-resolved large-eddy simulations is performed to study the skin friction modification by a large-eddy breakup device (LEBU) in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. The LEBU was modeled using an immersed boundary method. It is observed that the presence of the device leads to the generation of wake vortices, which propagate downstream from the LEBU and toward the wall. A skin friction decomposition procedure is utilized to study different physical mechanisms of the observed skin friction reduction. From the skin friction decomposition, it is found that the skin friction reduction can be characterized by three universal regions of different changes for the skin friction contributions. The first region is predominantly associated with the formation of the wake vortices and the reduction of Reynolds shear stress. In the second region, the mean streamwise velocity fields show that a region of velocity deficit formed downstream of the LEBU propagates toward the wall and leads to turbulence reduction due to wake wall interactions, which also induces a local maximum skin friction reduction. In the third region, the dissipation of wake vortices leads to the regeneration of Reynolds shear stress. A quadrant analysis of the Reynolds shear stress contribution reveals that the LEBU increases the Q2 and Q4 contributions and attenuates the Q1 and Q3 contributions in the first region, followed by an onset of Reynolds shear stress further downstream.

  • 38. Chin, C
    et al.
    Monty, J
    Hutchins, N
    Ooi, A
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Simulation of a large-eddy-break-up device (LEBU) in a moderate Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer2015In: Proc 9th Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39. Chin, C.
    et al.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Cardesa, J. I.
    Noorani, Azad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chong, M. S.
    Flow topology of rare back flow events and critical points in turbulent channels and toroidal pipes2018In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018, Vol. 1001, no 1, article id 012002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the back flow events and critical points in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Reτ ≈ 650 is performed and compared with the results in a turbulent channel flow at Reτ ≈ 934. The statistics and topological properties of the back flow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally-averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the back flow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the spanwise wall-shear stress when compared to the channel flow. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and channel flows also shows fewer back flow events and critical points in the torus. This cannot be solely attributed to differences in Reynolds number, but is a clear effect of the secondary flow present in the toroidal pipe. A possible mechanism is the effect of the secondary flow present in the torus, which convects momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from the outer to the inner bend through the pipe walls. In the region around the critical points, the skin-friction streamlines and vorticity lines exhibit similar flow characteristics with a node and saddle pair for both flows. These results indicate that back flow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artifacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.

  • 40. Chin, C.
    et al.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Monty, J.
    Hutchins, N.
    Ooi, A.
    Schlatter, Phillip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Simulation of a Large-Eddy-Break-up Device (LEBU) in a Moderate Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layer2016In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-resolved large eddy simulation (LES) of a large-eddy break-up (LEBU) device in a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer is performed with, Reynolds number, based on free-stream velocity and momentum-loss thickness, of Reθ ≈ 4300. The implementation of the LEBU is via an immersed boundary method. The LEBU is positioned at a wall-normal distance of 0.8 δ (δ denoting the local boundary layer thickness at the location of the LEBU) from the wall. The LEBU acts to delay the growth of the turbulent boundary layer and produces global skin friction reduction beyond 180δ downstream of the LEBU, with a peak local skin friction reduction of approximately 12 %. However, no net drag reduction is found when accounting for the device drag of the LEBU in accordance with the towing tank experiments by Sahlin et al. (Phys. Fluids 31, 2814, 1988). Further investigation is performed on the interactions of high and low momentum bulges with the LEBU and the corresponding output is analysed, showing a ‘break-up’ of these large momentum bulges downstream of the LEBU. In addition, results from the spanwise energy spectra show consistent reduction in energy at spanwise length scales for (Formula presented.) independent of streamwise and wall-normal location when compared to the corresponding turbulent boundary layer without LEBU.

  • 41. Chin, Cheng
    et al.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Monty, Jason
    Hutchins, Nicholas
    Influence of a Large-Eddy-Breakup-Device on the Turbulent Interface of Boundary Layers2017In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 99, no 3-4, p. 823-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of implementing a large-eddy break-up device (LEBU) in a turbulent boundary layer on the interaction with the boundary layer is investigated with particular emphasis on the turbulent/non-turbulent interface (TNTI). The simulation data is taken from a recent well-resolved large eddy simulation (Chin et al. Flow Turb. Combust. 98, 445-460 2017), where the LEBU was implemented at a wall-normal distance of 0.8 delta (local boundary layer thickness) from the wall. A comparison of the TNTI statistics is performed between a zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer with and without the LEBU. The LEBU is found to delay the growth of the turbulent boundary layer and also attenuates the fluctuations of the TNTI. The LEBU appears to alter the structure size at the interface, resulting in a narrower and shorter dominant structure (in an average sense). Further analysis beneath the TNTI using two-point correlations shows that the LEBU affects the turbulent structures in excess of 100 delta downstream of the LEBU.

  • 42.
    Chin, R. C.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Mech Engn, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Cardesa, J. , I
    Noorani, Azad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Chong, M. S.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Mech Engn, Melbourne, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Backflow events under the effect of secondary flow of Prandtl's first kind2020In: Physical Review Fluids, E-ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 5, no 7, article id 074606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the backflow events in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Re-tau approximate to 650 is performed and compared with the results in a straight turbulent pipe flow at Re-tau approximate to 500. The statistics and topological properties of the backflow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the backflow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the azimuthal wall-shear stress when compared to the pipe flow. In the region around the backflow events, critical points are observed. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and its straight counterpart also shows fewer backflow events and critical points in the torus. This is attributed to the secondary flow of Prandtl's first kind present in the toroidal pipe, which is responsible for the convection of momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from outer bend to the inner bend along the azimuthal direction. These results indicate that backflow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artefacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.

  • 43. Discetti, S.
    et al.
    Bellani, G.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Serpieri, J.
    Sanmiguel Vila, C.
    Raiola, M.
    Zheng, X.
    Mascotelli, L.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Ianiro, A.
    Characterization of very-large-scale motions in high-Re pipe flows2019In: Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, ISSN 0894-1777, E-ISSN 1879-2286, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very-large-scale structures in pipe flows are characterized using an extended Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)-based estimation. Synchronized non-time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and time-resolved, multi-point hot-wire measurements are integrated for the estimation of turbulent structures in a pipe flow at friction Reynolds numbers of 9500 and 20000. This technique enhances the temporal resolution of PIV, thus providing a time-resolved description of the dynamics of the large-scale motions. The experiments are carried out in the CICLoPE facility. A novel criterion for the statistical characterization of the large-scale motions is introduced, based on the time-resolved dynamically-estimated POD time coefficients. It is shown that high-momentum events are less persistent than low-momentum events, and tend to occur closer to the wall. These differences are further enhanced with increasing Reynolds number.

  • 44.
    Dogan, Eda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Quantification of amplitude modulation in wall-bounded turbulence2019In: Fluid Dynamics Research, ISSN 0169-5983, E-ISSN 1873-7005, Vol. 51, no 1, article id 011408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many recent investigations on the scale interactions in wall-bounded turbulent flows focus on describing so-called amplitude modulation, the phenomenon that deals with the influence of large scales in the outer region on the amplitude of the small-scale fluctuations in the near-wall region. The present study revisits this phenomenon regarding two aspects, namely the method for decomposing the scales and the quantification of the modulation. First, the paper presents a summary of the literature that has dealt with either or both aspects. Second, for decomposing the scales, different spectral filters (temporal, spatial or both) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) are evaluated and compared. The common data set is a well-resolved large-eddy simulation that offers a wide range of Reynolds numbers spanning Re-theta = 880-8200. The quantification of the amplitude modulation is discussed for the resulting scale components. Particular focus is given to evaluate the efficacy of the various filters to separate scales for the range of Reynolds numbers of interest. Different to previous studies, the different methods have been evaluated using the same data set, thereby allowing a fair comparison between the various approaches. It is observed that using a spectral filter in the spanwise direction is an effective approach to separate the small and large scales in the flow, even at comparably low Reynolds numbers, whereas filtering in time should be approached with caution in the low-to-moderate Re range. Additionally, using filters in both spanwise and time directions, which would separate both wide and long-living structures from the small and fast scales, gives a cleaner image for the small-scales although the contribution to the scales interaction from that filter implementation has been found negligible. Applying EMD to decompose the scales gives similar results to Fourier filters for the energy content of the scales and thereby for the quantification of the amplitude modulation using the decomposed scales. No direct advantage of EMD over classical Fourier filters could be seen. Potential issues regarding different decomposition methods and different definitions of the amplitude modulation are also discussed.

  • 45.
    Drozdz, Artur
    et al.
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Dept Thermal Machinery, Al Armii Krajowej 21, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Elsner, Witold
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Dept Thermal Machinery, Al Armii Krajowej 21, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Niegodajew, Pawel
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Dept Thermal Machinery, Al Armii Krajowej 21, PL-42200 Czestochowa, Poland..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    A description of turbulence intensity profiles for boundary layers with adverse pressure gradient2020In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 84, p. 470-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an extension of the diagnostic-plot scaling (Alfredsson et al., 2012) of the turbulence-intensity profiles for the outer region of adverse-pressure-gradient (APG) turbulent boundary layers (TBLs). An extended formula including the shape factor is proposed, which allows the diagnostic-plot scaling to be used in strong APGs at high Reynolds numbers. The validity of the new formulation is verified using several available databases. We demonstrate that the new formula allows to scale profiles in cases where the Clauser-Rotta pressure-gradient parameter beta is below 14 even in presence of very strong flow-history effects. In order to extend the scaling to the near-wall region of TBLs the adapted complete difference function is proposed. The proposed scaling yields a unified description of the turbulence-intensity profiles regardless of their flow history (as opposed to other previously proposed scalings), and is valid for a wider range of cases not only for the outer but also for the inner region.

  • 46.
    Dróżdż, Artur
    et al.
    Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Thermal Machinery, Armii Krajowej 21, Czestochowa, 42-200, Poland, Armii Krajowej 21.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics. Department of Mechanical, Electrical and Chemical Engineering, OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan Universitym Oslo, 0166, Norway.
    Sokolenko, Vasyl
    Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Thermal Machinery, Armii Krajowej 21, Czestochowa, 42-200, Poland, Armii Krajowej 21.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    Department of Mechanical, Electrical and Chemical Engineering, OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan Universitym Oslo, 0166, Norway; Institute of Fluid Mechanics (LSTM), Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU), Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.
    Elsner, Witold
    Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Thermal Machinery, Armii Krajowej 21, Czestochowa, 42-200, Poland, Armii Krajowej 21.
    Niegodajew, Paweł
    Czestochowa University of Technology, Department of Thermal Machinery, Armii Krajowej 21, Czestochowa, 42-200, Poland, Armii Krajowej 21.
    Hot-wire spatial resolution issues in adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers2024In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 237, article id 115229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a finite length of hot-wire probe sensor length on the measured streamwise velocity fluctuations is well understood in canonical wall-bounded flow, where the small-scale energy has been found to be universal and invariant with Reynolds number. A straightforward application of that assumption to non-canonical flows such as strong adverse pressure gradient (APG) flows has, however, been hampered since the effect of Re and APG could not conclusively be studied separately due to the lack of data with a clear scale separation. The present experimental investigation at Reτ≈4000 in weak, moderate and strong APGs with different wire length shows that spatial averaging effects are not only limited to the inner layer. A note of caution is hence warranted for measurements that seemingly try to take the bias effect of spatial attenuation into account by performing measurements with albeit long but fixed viscous-scaled wire length.

  • 47.
    Eitel-Amor, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Simulation and validation of a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer up to Reθ = 83002014In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 47, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a finely resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) of a spatially developing zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer up to a Reynolds number of Reθ = 8300 are presented. The very long computational domain provides substantial assessment for suggested high Reynolds number (Re) trends. Statistics, integral quantities and spectral data are validated using high quality direct numerical simulation (DNS) ranging up to Reθ = 4300 and hot-wire measurements covering the remaining Re-range. The mean velocity, turbulent fluctuations, skin friction, and shape factor show excellent agreement with the reference data. Through utilisation of filtered DNS, subtle differences between the LES and DNS could to a large extent be explained by the reduced spanwise resolution of the LES. Spectra and correlations for the streamwise velocity and the wall-shear stress evidence a clear scale-separation and a footprint of large outer scales on the near-wall small scales. While the inner peak decreases in importance and reduces to 4% of the total energy at the end of the domain, the energy of the outer peak scales in outer units. In the near-wall region a clear k - 1 region emerges. Consideration of the two-dimensional spectra in time and spanwise space reveals that an outer time scale λt ≈ 10δ99 / U∞, with the boundary layer thickness δ99 and free-stream velocity U∞, is the correct scale throughout the boundary layer rather than the transformed streamwise wavelength multiplied by a (scale independent) convection velocity. Maps for the covariance of small scale energy and large scale motions exhibit a stronger linear Re dependence for the amplitude of the off-diagonal peak compared to the diagonal one, thereby indicating that the strength of the amplitude modulation can only qualitatively be assessed through the diagonal peak. In addition, the magnitude of the wall-pressure fluctuations confirms mixed scaling, and pressure spectra at the highest Re give a first indication of a -7/3 wave number dependence.

  • 48.
    Eitel-Amor, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics and Engineering Acoustics.
    The significance of hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers2020In: ETC 2013 - 14th European Turbulence Conference, Zakon Group LLC , 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elementary question whether hairpin vortices constitute an inherent, universal structure of wall turbulence at moderate and high Reynolds numbers (Re) is addressed in this study. The downstream evolution of a single, artificial hairpin vortex is first studied in a mean shear flow to investigate possible decay and package-creation processes under high Re conditions. In a second step, hairpin-dominated flow in a transitional turbulent boundary layer is considered, whereas the lifetime of individual vortices and possible connection mechanisms are evaluated. The statistics obtained from this flow regime will be compared with reference data from turbulent-boundary-layer studies employing different transition mechanisms. Vortex eduction will be applied to comprehend the evolution from a well organized to a more chaotic state. The results could explain discrepancies in boundary-layer data close to transition and will contribute to the discussion about the relevance of hairpin-like structures in fully developed wall turbulence.

  • 49.
    Eitel-Amor, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent boundary layers in long computational domains2015In: Proceedings Ercoftac Workshop: Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation IX, Springer Netherlands, 2015, p. 267-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wall-bounded turbulence emerges e.g. along the surface of moving ships and airplanes or in pipelines. The prediction of skin friction and drag is directly related to fuel consumption or the power needed to transport gases through pipelines, thereby emphasizing the practical relevance of wall turbulence.

  • 50.
    Eitel-Amor, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Flores, O.
    Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers2015In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 27, no 2, article id 025108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work presents a number of parallel and spatially developing simulations of boundary layers to address the question of whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence, and which role they play during transition. In the first part, the parent-offspring regeneration mechanism is investigated in parallel (temporal) simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to either turbulent channels or boundary layers (Re-tau less than or similar to 590). The effect of a turbulent background superimposed on the mean flow is considered by using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are only created shortly after initialization, with all rotational structures decaying for later times. For hairpins in a clean (laminar) environment, the decay is relatively slow, while hairpins in weak turbulent environments (10% of nu(t)) dissipate after a couple of eddy turnover times. In the second part, the role of hairpin vortices in laminar-turbulent transition is studied using simulations of spatial boundary layers tripped by hairpin vortices. These vortices are generated by means of specific volumetric forces representing an ejection event, creating a synthetic turbulent boundary layer initially dominated by hairpin-like vortices. These hairpins are advected towards the wake region of the boundary layer, while a sinusoidal instability of the streaks near the wall results in rapid development of a turbulent boundary layer. For Re-theta > 400, the boundary layer is fully developed, with no evidence of hairpin vortices reaching into the wall region. The results from both the parallel and spatial simulations strongly suggest that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background is developed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former direct numerical simulation studies is reminiscent of the transitional boundary layer and may not be connected to some aspects of the dynamics of the fully developed wall-bounded turbulence.

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