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  • 1.
    Andrae, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Johansson, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bursell, Martin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Manrique Carrera, Arturo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    High-pressure catalytic combustion of gasified biomass in a hybrid combustor2005In: Applied Catalysis A: General, ISSN 0926-860X, E-ISSN 1873-3875, Vol. 293, no 1-2, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic combustion of synthetic gasified biomass was conducted in a high-pressure facility at pressures ranging from 5 to 16 bars. The catalytic combustor design considered was a hybrid monolith (400 cpsi, diameter 3.5 cm, length 3.6 cm and every other channel coated). The active phase consisted of 1 wt.% Pt/gamma-Al2O3 With wash coat loading of total monolith 15 wt.%. In the interpretation of the experiments, a twodimensional boundary layer model was applied successfully to model a single channel of the monolith. At constant inlet velocity to the monolith the combustion efficiency decreased with increasing pressure. A multi-step surface mechanism predicted that the flux of carbon dioxide and water from the surface increased with pressure. However, as the pressure (i.e. the Reynolds number) was increased, unreacted gas near the center of the channel penetrated significantly longer into the channel compared to lower pressures. For the conditions studied (lambda = 46, T-in = 218-257 degrees C and residence time similar to 5 ms), conversion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were diffusion limited after ignition, while methane never ignited and was kinetically controlled. According to the kinetic model surface coverage of major species changed from CO, H and CO2 before ignition to O, OH, CO2 and free surface sites after ignition. The model predicted further that for constant mass flow combustion efficiency increased with pressure, and was more pronounced at lower pressures (2.5-10 bar) than at higher pressures (> 10 bar).

  • 2. D'Alessandro, Fabrizio
    et al.
    Pacchiarotta, Giovanna
    Rubino, Alberto
    Sperandio, Mauro
    Villa, Pierluigi
    Carrera, Arturo Manrique
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Marra, Gianluigi
    Congiu, Annalisa
    Lean Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-low Emissions at High Temperature in Gas-Turbine Burners2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, p. 136-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic systems for methane combustion, with Rh and Pt in a BaZrO3-based perovskite, were synthesized at the University of L'Aquila and tested at close to industrial conditions at the KTH Energy Centre in Stockholm. Because of the resistance to high temperature of BaZrO3 (up to similar to 2600 degrees C), such systems are suitable for resolving stability problems frequently encountered with high-temperature operations. Furthermore, these perovskites contain the noble metal in a high oxidation state, giving rise to very active compounds. They also result in ultra-low emissions, compatible with legislation in such places as southern California and Japan.

  • 3. Dascomb, John
    et al.
    Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Thermal conversion efficiency of producing hydrogen enriched syngas from biomass steam gasification2013In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 38, no 27, p. 11790-11798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results from an experimental study on the energy conversion efficiency of producing hydrogen enriched syngas through uncatalyzed steam biomass gasification. Wood pellets were gasified using a 100 kWth fluidized bed gasifier at temperatures up to 850 degrees C. The syngas hydrogen concentration and cold gas efficiency were found to increase with both bed temperature and steam to biomass weight ratio, reaching a maximum of 51% and 124% respectively. The overall energy conversion to syngas (based on heating value) also increased with bed temperature but was inversely proportional to the steam to biomass ratio. The maximum energy conversion to syngas was found to be 68%. The conversion of energy to hydrogen (by heating value) increased with gasifier temperature and gas residence time, but was found to be independent of the S/B ratio. The maximum conversion of all energy sources to hydrogen was found to be 25%.

  • 4.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Black liquor conbustion in Karft Recovery Boiler-Numerical Modelling2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 5.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 6.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy. KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Science and Engineering.
    Combustion Performance of the Kraft Recovery Boiler Versus Black Liquor PropertiesIn: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Numerical Simulation of Black Liquor Combustion in Kraft Recovery Boiler1998In: Exposé över Förbränningsforskning i Sverige, 1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    Theoretical Analysis of Interaction Between Fuel Drop and Walls during Black Liquor Combustion in a Kraft Recovery Furnace2001In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Feasibility study and quality assurance of the end-product of Alphakat KDV technology for conversion of biomass2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För närvarande finns det ett stort intresse att utveckla ett ekonomiskt och framkomligt system för omvandling av biomassa till flytande bränslen och kemikalier, då hanteringen av bränslen väsentligt underlättas.

    Under 2014, fick avdelningen för Energiteknik, KTH, uppdraget att undersöka och dokumentera KDVs process för konvertering av biomassa till flytande bränsle: Bland annat ingick att analysera processens produkt och restprodukter. Idag marknadsförs tekniken av Alphakat, Eppendorf, Tyskland. Alphakat gör gällande att KDV erbjuder en alternativ teknik för produktion av bränsle, inklusive syntetisk-diesel från fasta bränslen såsom biomassa. Det övergripande syftet med projektet var att samla information, tekniska data, processdata och genomföra test och analysera produkten. Detta för att få en uppfattning om huruvida KDV kan tekniskt användas föratt konvertera biomassa till diesel. Emellertid, KDVs tekniska potential, särskilt för omvandling av biomassa till flytande bränsle kunde inte bevisas baserat på resultaten av den nu aktuella undersökningen med den tillhandahållna informationen av företaget.

    Produkten av processen analyserades enligt ASTM D6715. De relevanta egenskaperna för KDVs produkt dokumenterades genom noggranna tester. Men huruvida produkten kommer från biomassa kunde inte garanteras då KDV är en oljebaserad process. Påverkan av så kallade “Carrier oil”, på produktens kvalitet och kvantitet kan vara betydande då en stor del av värmevärdet hos bränslet kan komma från denna olja. KDVs potential för produktion av flytande bränsle från biomassa kan inte bevisas.

    Vi bedömer att en fördjupad teknisk och vetenskaplig utvärdering av KDV är ett nödvändigt och viktigt steg för att framtiden underlätta kommande investeringar i KDVs teknologin. Denna utvärdering bör utföras i en laboratorieskala, med hjälp av avancerad mätutrustning, i en kontrollerad miljö som kunde garantera vetenskaplig dokumentation och övervakning av processen.

    Förvätskning av biomassa ser vi som lovande då faktorer som medger attförnybara bränslen och kemikalier då kan göras tillgängliga för en allmän användning då de har en stor miljömässig fördel.

  • 10.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Multi-disciplinary problem based learning in computational fluid dynamics2014In: STAR Global Conference 2014, Vienna Austria, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is one of European’s key centers of innovation and intellectual talent for almost two centuries. Recognized as Sweden’s most prestigious technical university, KTH is also the country’s oldest and largest. Computerized simulation technique was recognized as a fundamental component of the higher-education sector at KTH as early as the fifties. Although the utilization of these tools in research is now considered to be standard, the educational aspects are not. In this field, the method of instruction followed by practice is considered to be a superior pedagogic method compared to lecture to many. The current method emphasizes on demonstrative activities of the learners known as phenomeno-graphic learning. However, phenomeno-graphic learning is viable if there are breadth and depth in the physic, mathematic, computer science and graphic, operational strategy and methodology, etc. illuminating weakness of learning by doing method.  

    This work aims to report the success and progress of the course, numerical methods in energy technology, which utilizes Computational Fluid Dynamics cods such as STAR-CCM+ as the tool. Learning methodology is based on instructional design and andragogically approach that offers an elaboration on the mechanism of learning process and its premeditated in context of a prescribed framework. The results indicated the prominence of student sensitive and constructive learning process and the advantages of using a preferred framework in guiding the students in a pertinent context (area). The method particularly incorporates the constructivist principles that lead to enhance the learning process. In addition, the conclusions of this study similarly illuminate the vast potentials of computational fluid dynamic for research, evaluation and educational purposes.

  • 11.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Khodabandeh, Rahmat
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Utilization Of Numerical Methods In Context Of Learning Process Enhancement For Mutli-Disciplinary Field Of Science2012In: INTED2012 Proceedings: 6th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 5-7 March, 2012, Iated , 2012, p. 6138-6143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computerized simulation technique is a fundamental component of the higher education and is a vital mechanism, utilized in phenomena-graphic studies in science. The system offers recreation of an alternative reality in front of scientist's eyes, giving an insight into the biggest and smallest scales (astronomy to nanotechnology) yet cannot be comprehended otherwise. Currently the tool is utilized in research and taught one on one. The progress in computational technology and the advent of commercial codes equipped with user-friendly interface have facilities the introduction of computational fluid dynamic in undergraduate education promoting critique of various learning opportunities through visualization technique. Nevertheless the outcomes of each study is highly influenced by the ideas, approaches, knowledge in phenomena, mathematical rules and measures, computer science, cads, post processing and interpretation of the results. The user of such system acts as the facilitator and liaison between the real and virtual phenomena. The user should own the proper education, experience, emphasizing the relevance of the teaching strategy; understanding the key mechanisms in learning process. Unlocking the full power of computational fluid dynamic, some critical topics in educational area need to be addressed. One is to identify the learning process, approaches and methodology. One task with three different definitions was given to groups and the data regarding the learning process, strategies for solving the problem adapted by students for, engagements of the participants in work was monitored. The data were gathered through a net based learning tool. The progress of the groups were scrutinized weekly, aiming at directing the group in pre-define learning scope. This work is based on instructional design and andragogically approach. It offers an elaboration on the mechanism of learning process and is premeditated in context of prescribed framework. The results indicated the prominence of student sensitive and constructive learning process and the advantages of using a preferred framework in guiding the students in pertinent context (area) particularly incorporation of constructivist principles that may lead to enhance learner's learning experience. In addition, the conclusions of this study similarly illuminate the vast potentials of computational fluid dynamic for research, evaluation and educational purposes.

  • 12.
    Fridh, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Bunkute, Birute
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    An experimental study on partial admission in a two-stage axial air test turbine with numerical comparisons2004In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2004, Vienna, 2004, Vol. 5 B, p. 1285-1297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents ongoing experimental aerodynamic and efficiency measurements on a cold flow two-stage axial air test turbine with low reaction steam turbine blades at different degrees of partial admission. The overall objectives of the work are to experimentally investigate and quantify the steady and unsteady aerodynamic losses induced by partial admission. The first results show that both the total-to-static turbine efficiency drops and that the efficiency peak appears at lower isentropic velocity ratios with lower degrees of admission. Detailed steady traverse measurements of the static wall pressures downstream of sector-ends show strong local variations. The pressure wake from the partial admission blockage moves almost axially through the turbine while the temperature wake is located in a tangential position that represents the position of a particle trace based on velocity triangles, in the direction of the rotor rotation. Comparisons with 2D compressible flow computations around the circumference demonstrate the importance of the radial flow component in these experiments.

  • 13.
    Hermannsson, Elvar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Leifsson, L.
    Koziel, S.
    Ogurtsov, S.
    Glubokov, O.
    Fakhraie, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Hydrodynamic design optimization of trawl-door shapes with local surrogate models2013In: SIMULTECH 2013: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications, 2013, p. 751-756Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trawl-doors have a large influence on the fuel consumption of fishing vessels. Design and optimization of trawl-doors using computational models are a key factor in minimizing the fuel consumption. This paper presents an optimization algorithm for the shape design of trawl-door shapes using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. Accurate CFD models are computationally expensive. Therefore, the direct use of traditional optimization algorithms, which often require a large number of evaluations, may prohibitive. The proposed approach is iterative and uses low-order local response surface approximation models of the expensive CFD model, constructed in each iteration, to reduce the number of evaluations. The algorithm is applied to the design of a two-element trawl-door (slat and airfoil), involving four design variables controlling the angle of attack and the slat position and orientation. The results show that a satisfactory design can be obtained at the cost of a few iterations of the algorithm.

  • 14.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Manrique, Arturo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fredriksson, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Experimental investigations of catalytic combustion for high-pressure gas turbine applications2006In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2006, Vol 1, 2006, p. 763-771Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic combustion has proven to be a suitable alternative to conventional flame combustion in gas turbines for achieving Ultra-Low Emission levels (ULE). In the process of catalytic combustion, it is possible to achieve a stable combustion of lean fuel/air mixtures which results in reduced combustion temperature in the combustor. The ultimate result is that almost no thermal-NOx is formed and the emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions are reduced to single-digit limits. Successful development of catalytic combustion technology would lead to reducing pollutant emissions in gas turbines to ultra-low levels at lower operating costs. Since the catalytic combustion prevents the pollutant formations in the combustion there is no need for costly emission cleaning systems.

  • 15.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Manrique Carrera, Arturo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fredriksson, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Gasified biomass fuelled gas turbine: Combustion stability and selective catalytic oxidation of fuel-bound nitrogen2006In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2006, Vol 1, 2006, p. 773-780Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low heating value of gasified biomass and its fuel bound nitrogen containing compounds challenge the efforts on utilizing gasified biomass on gas turbine combustor. Low heating value of the gas brings along combustion stability issues and pollutant emission concerns. The fuel bound nitrogen present in gasified biomass could completely be converted to NOx during the combustion process. Catalytic combustion technology, showing promising developments on ultra low emission gas turbine combustion of natural gas could also be the key to successful utilization of biomass in gas turbine combustor. Catalysts could stabilize the combustion process of low heating value gas while the proper design of the catalytic configuration could selectively convert the fuel bound nitrogen into molecular nitrogen. This paper presents preliminary results of the experimental investigations on combustion stability and nitrogen selectivity in selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia in catalytic combustion followed by a brief description of the design of catalytic combustion test facility. The fuel-NOx reduction strategy considered in this study was to preprocess fuel in the catalytic system to remove fuel bound nitrogen before real combustion reactions occurs. The catalytic combustion system studied here contained two stage reactor in one unit containing fuel preprocessor (SCO catalyst) and combustion catalysts. Experiments were performed under lean combustion conditions (lambda value from 6 up to 22) using a simulated mixture of gasified biomass. The Selective Catalytic Oxidation approach was considered to reduce the conversion of NH3 into N-2. Results showed very good combustion stability, higher combustion efficiency and good ignition performances under the experimental conditions. However, the selective oxidation of fuel bound nitrogen into N-2 was only in the range of 20% to 30% under the above conditions.

  • 16.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Manrique, Carrera
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fredriksson, Jan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    High Pressure Catalytic Combustion of Methane in a Multi Segmented Catalytic Combustor2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Kullab, Alaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    CFD Analysis of Spacer-Obstructed Channels in Membrane DistillationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spacers are used in desalination and filtration technologies to enhance the hydrodynamic conditions in flow channels, as well as to provide support and separation of membrane sheets. This paper present the main results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for flow in spacer-obstructed flow channel for application in membrane distillation (MD). Flow of attack angle, spacer-to-channel thickness and void ratio were the main geometrical parameters that were studied; velocity profiles, shear stress and pressure drops were the main assessment criteria used for evaluation. Results show the flow of attack angle has a very minimum effect on the performance of spacers. The effect of spacer to channel thickness ratio was significant in all assessment parameters. Higher void ratios were found advantageous in promoting flow mixing, but resulted in lower sheer stress and reduced trans-membrane flux. In practice, the selection of the best case would include a trade-off between the cost of membranes needed to produce the required production and pumping.

  • 18.
    Kullab, Alaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Martin, andrew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Experimental evaluation of a modified air-gap membrane distillation prototype2013In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 51, no 25-27, p. 4998-5004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modifications were implemented on a semi-commercial air-gap membrane distillation prototype to assess experimentally any improvement in its performance. The main changes were in the air-gap domain with focus on reducing the conductive heat transfer losses by reducing the physical support that separates the membrane from the condensation surface. Moreover, several feed channel spacers were tested as well and assessed based on their effect in increasing the mass transfer and imposed pressure drop. Results show that the modifications increased slightly the distillate mass flow rate by 9-11% and reduced the conductive heat losses by 20-24%. Spacer effect was found to be mainly in imposed pressure drop within the tested types.

  • 19. Leifsson, L.
    et al.
    Koziel, S.
    Hermannsson, Elvar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhraie, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Trawl-door design optimization by local surrogate models2014In: 55th AIAA/ASMe/ASCE/AHS/SC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trawl-doors have a large influence on the fuel consumption of fishing vessels. Design and optimization of trawl-doors using computational models are a key factor in minimizing the fuel consumption. This paper presents an optimization algorithm for the shape design of trawl-door shapes using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. Accurate CFD models are computationally expensive. Therefore, the direct use of traditional optimization algorithms, which often require a large number of evaluations, may prohibitive. The proposed approach is iterative and uses low-order local response surface approximation models of the expensive CFD model, constructed in each iteration, to reduce the number of evaluations. The algorithm is applied to the design of a two-element trawl-door (slat and airfoil), involving four design variables controlling the angle of attack and the slat position and orientation. The results show that a satisfactory design can be obtained at the cost of a few iterations of the algorithm.

  • 20.
    Manrique Carrera, Arturo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Biomass for Gas Turbine Applications: Experimental Study for Reducing Fuel NOx Formation2005In: 14th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 2005, Vol. 100Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Manrique Carrera, Arturo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Persson, Katarina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Järås, Sven
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Catalytic Combustion of Gasified Biomass for Gas Turbine Applications: Experimental Investigation at High Pressure2005In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Catalytic Combution, 2005, Vol. 100, p. 9-14Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Munajat, Nur Farizan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Erlich, Catharina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Influence of water vapour and tar compound on laminar flame speed of gasified biomass gas2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 98, p. 114-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass can be converted to a gaseous fuel through gasification in order to be used in higher efficiency conversion equipment. Combustion of a gaseous fuel generally allows for higher combustion temperatures than that of a solid fuel leading to the higher efficiency. However, the gasified biomass gas (GBG) contains condensable compounds, such as water vapour and tars, which both will affect the subsequent combustion process with respect to emission levels and flame stability. Cleaning of the GBG prior to combustion is very costly and therefore further research is needed on direct combustion of GBG containing these condensable compounds, in order to develop stable combustion techniques for GBG. The laminar flame speed is a main parameter that relates to other important flame properties such as stability, extinction limit and flashback. Each of GBG components have different chemical and transport properties, which then influences the laminar flame speed of GBG. In this study, the individual effect of water vapour (H2O) and tar compound addition in simulated GBG on laminar flame speed is investigated at atmospheric pressure. The tar compound used is benzene (C6H6) and simulated GBG used is CO/H-2/CH4/CO2/N-2 mixture. Experiments were carried out with conical burner stabilized flame and a Schlieren photography system. The volume fraction of additives in the fuel mixture was varied: for H2O from 0% to 5% and for C6H6 from 0% to 10%. The unburned fuel air mixture was preheated and the temperature was maintained at T-i = 398 K to avoid condensation of the liquid. It was found that measured laminar flame speed of GBG-air mixture decreases with addition of H2O in the fuel mixture. While, non-monotonic behaviour is shown with addition of C6H6. Initially, as the volume fraction of C6H6 incremented, the laminar flame speed decreases, reaching a minimum value, and then increase.

  • 23.
    Persson, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Ersson, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Manrique Carrera, Arturo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Järås, Sven
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Supported palladium-platinum catalyst for methane combustion at high pressure2005In: Catalysis Today, ISSN 0920-5861, E-ISSN 1873-4308, Vol. 100, p. 479-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic combustion of methane over a supported bimetallic Pd-Pt catalyst and a monometallic Pd catalyst has been investigated experimentally. Two different reactor configurations were used in the study, i.e. a tubular lab-scale reactor working at atmospheric pressure and a high-pressure reactor working at up to 15 bar. The results showed that the bimetallic catalyst has a clearly more stable activity during steady-state operation compare to the palladium only catalyst. The activity of the bimetallic catalyst was slightly higher than for the palladium catalyst. These results were established in both test facilities. Further, the impact of pressure on the combustion activity has been studied experimentally. The tests showed that the methane conversion decreases with increasing pressure. However, the impact of pressure is more prominent at lower pressures and levels out for pressures above 10 bar

  • 24.
    Reza, Fakhrai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bahram, Saadatfar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Computational Fluid Dynamics as an Alternative Representation of Physical Phenomena for an Iterative Learning Environment2012In: EDULEARN12 Proceedings: 4th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies,Barcelona, Spain. 2-4 July, 2012, IATED , 2012, p. 1325-1332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) is an alternative representation of the physical phenomenon in engineering education. The method will replace the hardware-based laboratory in education as the computation power increases and became more available. However, CFD is a cross disciplinary field with its roots in computer science, programing, fluid mechanic, and visualization. Nevertheless it is utilized in almost all disciplines, in each viewed as the exceedingly self-directed and constructivist form of learning. Currently the desired proficiency in the fundamentals and conversant is conquered through instruction followed by practice “learning by doing”. This method has been considered to be a superior pedagogic method in this field and closely woven into the fabric of demonstrative activities of the learners with honors from centuries ago. During the last decade, a variety of frameworks have been employed to enhance the ease of use of the tools in numerical prediction and data applications. However, the educational aspect of CFD, though evolving with notable precincts, has been left unaddressed. There are not effective teaching and learning methods guaranteeing the utilization of high level cognitive process by students. In addition, there is a fundamental lack of definition of terminology in this field as well as in other educational technologies as a whole. The neglect has widened the gap concerning tools and their execution environments, stifling advances in research and education. This work is dedicated to identify the project works that best exemplify the CFD regardless the discipline in which the students are trained. Numbers of problems covering all aspects of CFD were design, offered and executed by students. Students undertook the problem in groups and reported the results. The progress of the work monitored and the best exercise which cutch the student’s interests and covered cross-disciplinary nature of the CFD were identified. The important properties of these project works were mapped and will be tested once more in upcoming teaching events.

  • 25.
    Reza, Fakhrai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Bahram, Saadatfar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Conceptual Model for Educational Deployment of Podcast in Context of Learning Process Enhancement2013In: INTED2013 Proceedings: 7th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 4-5 March, 2013., IATED , 2013, p. 1716-1719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that learners are progressively more emphasizing on the importance of communication platform in learning and teaching along with convenience and flexibility, to accommodate the needs of their active lifestyles. In other words, learners are looking for an educational system to deliver in a relevant manner that is technology-enhanced. New technologies, Information and Communications Technology have made sizable evolution and generated impact and improvement over the conditions for learning in education, training and Lifelong Learning (LLL).

    To deal with the issues that are created by this changing landscape, a research project created across a course to review the use, effectiveness and impact of the podcast across teaching and learning scenarios and services. It was structured around some specific items: creation, deployment and impact. The output of this study illuminates the significant potentials of using podcast in learning process, intended learning outcomes as well as describes a conceptual framework used by integrating podcast into learning process.

  • 26.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Conceptual modeling of nano fluid ORC for solar thermal polygeneration2014In: 2013 ISES SOLAR WORLD CONGRESS, 2014, Vol. 57, p. 2696-2705Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model has been developed for thermodynamic cycle of the solar thermal production of power, heating and cooling utilizing nano fluid as a working fluid in Organic Rankine Cycle. The proposed working fluid provides enhancement in power, heating, and cooling as useful outputs. Initial studies were performed with silver-nano pentane as a working fluid in the cycle. This work extends the application of the cycle to working fluids consisting of organic fluid mixtures. Nano Organic fluid could be used successfully in solar thermal power plants, as working fluids in Rankine cycles. An advantage of using nano fluid as a working fluid is that there are mature experiences with building components for these fluids. A commercially available modeling program has been used to model and investigate the performance of the system. The potential and advantages of using nano fluid are discussed. It is found that the thermodynamic efficiencies achievable with nano organic fluid, under optimum conditions, are higher than those obtained from the base fluid. Further, the size of heat exchangers, evaporator, and condenser are lower than those using the base fluid.

  • 27.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Exergo-environmental analysis of nano fluid ORC low-grade waste heat recovery for hybrid trigeneration system2014In: Energy Procedia: International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2014, Elsevier, 2014, p. 1879-1882Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a thermodynamic model based on theoretical and experimental data is developed for utilizing nano fluid organic Rankine cycle (nORC) in a trigeneration hybrid system. The trigeneration hybrid system composed of a solid biomass boiler, gas turbine cycle, a nORC, cooling, and a heating system. The exergy of the system analyzed; moreover, environmental impact assessments and interrelated parametric studies are examined. The results show higher exergy efficiency for the hybrid trigeneration employed nORC, and indicate that carbon dioxide emissions for utilizing nano fluid in nORC trigeneration system are less than conventional working fluid system.

  • 28.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Nano Organic Rankine Cycle for Enhanced Heat Recovery2013In: ASME ORC 2013, 2nd International seminar on ORC power systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There will be an incredible energy challenge in the future. With growing population, more and more energy needs to meet society’s demands. Fossil fuels are limited resources; hence there will be need more renewable energy as well as more efficient use of energy by recovering low-grade heat source. An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system would be attractive and promising technology for energy conversion systems in low temperature thermal energy sources. Many actual ORC’s applications have been installed; nevertheless, one of the major challenges in the ORC technology is working fluid. The difficulties involved in the accurate thermophysical properties in addition to safety of organic fluids that are commonly found in ORC, may result in relatively low efficiency as well as heat exchanger and component size. In the organic Rankine cycle, heat exchangers, including evaporators and condensers, are the dominant components with most working fluid accumulation. Moreover, the working fluid is linked to the expansion part; therefore, selecting an organic fluid and expander should be performed at the same time. Conventional Organic Rankine Cycle uses organic fluid as a working fluid, whereas nano fluid organic Rankine cycle (nORC) uses nano material and organic compound as a working fluid and it is particularly suitable for utilizing small scale heat exchangers, due to creating better thermal match both in boiling and condensing, in low temperature applications. In this work, utilizing nano organic fluid as a working fluid for ORC for Some types of nanoparticles are studied; thermophysical properties of nano ORC candidate in the specific temperature range are measured and analyzed. Also, this study presents acceptable operating conditions and expansion machine by investigating the interaction among the expansion part and nano organic working fluid.

  • 29. Tao, L
    et al.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Metallurgy.
    Use of a Computer Model for Evaluation of Combustion and NOx Control Alternatives in a Kraft Recovery Boiler1998In: TAPPI Proceedings, 1998Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Catalytic CO2 conversion via solar-driven fluidized bed reactors2014In: International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, ISSN 1748-1317, E-ISSN 1748-1325, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 127-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converting CO2 and steam (H2O) into synthesis gas is a new route to recycle them to fuels. Conversions are performed via a two-step conversion method in which catalysts are heated up and cooled down repeatedly with CO and H2 as the products. To make the method economic, solar energy is employed to drive conversion systems. A solar-driven system with fluidized bed reactors is proposed for CO2 conversion in this paper, and numerical models are built to study its performance and find out the optimum working condition. The investigation proves that system is a competent candidate to power the two-step conversion of CO2 for the carbon recycle and the syngas production.

  • 31.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    The numerical and experimental study of a fluidized bed reactor for the two-step conversion of CO2Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    The thermodynamic analysis of two-step conversions of CO2/H2O for syngas production by ceria2014In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 39, no 23, p. 12353-12360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the challenges of demands on alternative fuels and CO2 emission, the conversion of CO2 has become a hot spot. Among various methods, two-step conversion of CO2 with catalyst ceria (cerium oxide, CeO2) appears to be a promising way. Solar energy is commonly employed to drive the conversion systems. This article proposes a solar-driven system with fluidized bed reactors (PER) for CO2/H2O conversions. N-2 is used as the gas of the heat carrier. The products of CO/H-2 could be further used for syngas. To evaluate the capability of the system for exporting work, the system was analysed on the basis of the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the reaction mechanism of ceria. Heat transfer barriers in practical situations were considered. The lowest solar to chemical efficiency is 4.86% for CO2 conversion, and can be enhanced to 43.2% by recuperating waste heat, raising the N-2 temperature, and increasing the concentration ratio. The analysis shows that the method is a promising approach for CO2/H2O conversion to produce syngas as an alternative fuel.

  • 33.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mohan, Gowtham
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    The design of a solar-driven catalytic reactor for CO2 conversions2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 57, p. 2752-2761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar energy has been employed to provide the heat for CO2 conversions for several years except for its use on power generation, since it is one of the most common renewable energy resources and the total amount is enormous; However, the dominant method is to concentrate solar rays directly on reactants, relying on the design and quality of the receivers a lot. The operation and maintenance of the receivers require extra attention due to the delicate structure of the receivers and the potential contamination on the lenses from the chemical reactions. To steer clear of the shortcoming, a solar-driven catalytic reactor has been designed and analyzed in this article. The reactor drives the endothermic reactions with the heat source of hot gases, which are produced in solar receivers upriver, thus the flexible and necessary operations on the catalytic reactor could be peeled off from the solar receiver, and the potential contamination on the optical components in the solar receiver could be avoided. The design processes and details are described, the heat performance is simulated and analyzed, and efficiencies are theoretically calculated in this article. The solar-driven catalytic reactor exhibits the possibility of the practical use of solar energy in CO2 conversion and recycle.

  • 34.
    Wei, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saadatfar, Bahram
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhrai, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Review on the two-step-conversion of CO2 driven by solar energy2013In: The Journal of Macro Trends in Energy and Sustainability, ISSN 2333-0511, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic conversions of CO2 and H2O emerge as an attractive way to recycle CO2 and H2O to provide synthesis gas as an alternative fuel. Two-step-conversion method with catalysts shows a better performance among different techniques for converting CO2. Solar energy is highly interesting for researchers since it is renewable, feasible and abundant. This article reviews the different aspects of two-step-conversion of CO2 driven by solar energy, including the catalysts used for conversions, and the conversion systems with solar energy. The article focuses on ceria (CeO2) as the promising catalyst, and the looping circulating fluidized bed as the reactors for conversion systems with the prospect. The factors affecting the gas-solid interaction in fluidization are also reviewed. As the conclusion, the two-step conversion of CO2 driven by solar energy appears competitive and ceria gets advantages among the involved catalysts.

  • 35.
    Zhang, Xiaoxiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fakhraie, Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fransson, Torsten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Evaluation of reduced kinetics in simulation of gasified biomass gas combustion2013In: ASME Turbo Expo 2013: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition: Volume 1B: Combustion, Fuels and Emissions, ASME Press, 2013, Vol. 1B, p. V01BT04A045-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is essentially important to use appropriate chemical kinetic models in the simulation process of gas turbine combustion. To integrate the detailed kinetics into complex combustion simulations has proven to be a computationally expensive task with tens to thousands of elementary reaction steps. It has been suggested that an appropriate simplified kinetics which are computationally efficient could be used instead. Therefore reduced kinetics are often used in CFD simulation of gas turbine combustion. At the same time, simplified kinetics for specific fuels and operation conditions need to be carefully selected to fulfill the accuracy requirements. The applicability of several simplified kinetics for premixed Gasified Biomass Gas (GBG) and air combustion are evaluated in this paper. The current work is motivated by the growing demand of gasified biomass gas (GBG) fueled combustion. Even though simplified kinetic schemes developed for hydrocarbon combustions are published by various researchers, there is little research has been found in literature to evaluate the ability of the simplified chemical kinetics for the GBG combustion. The numerical Simulation tool "CANTERA" is used in the current study for the comparison of both detailed and simplified chemical kinetics. A simulated gas mixture of CO/H2/CH4/CO2/N2 is used for the current evaluation, since the fluctuation of GBG components may have an unpredictable influence on the simulation results. The laminar flame speed has an important influence with flame stability, extinction limits and turbulent flame speed, here it is chosen as an indicator for validation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data from the previous study [1] which is done by our colleagues. Water vapour which has shown a dilution effect in the experimental study are also put into concern for further validation. As the results indicate, the reduced kinetics which are developed for hydrocarbon or hydrogen combustion need to be highly optimized before using them for GBG combustion. Further optimization of the reduced kinetics is done for GBG and moderate results are achieved using the optimized kinetics compared with the detailed combustion kinetics.

1 - 35 of 35
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