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  • 1.
    Arzpeima, Minoodokht
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Björling, Gunilla
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Antimicrobial Efficacy and Degradation Route of Silver-Based Coated Endotracheal Tubes2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Arzpeima, Minoodokht
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Rosén, Annika
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Sanchez, Javier
    Björling, Gunilla
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Chemotherapy-Induced Surface Degradation and Thrombogenicity of Intravascular Catheters: A Preliminary In-Vitro Study with Focus on Breast Cancer2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Atari Jabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Mendoza Álvarez, Ana Isabel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hillborg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. ABB, Corporated Resarch, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Univ Skovde, S-54128 Skovde, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Design of nanocomposite surfaces with antibiofouling properties for outdoor insulation applicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Atari Jabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. ABB, Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Hillborg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. ABB, Corp Res, S-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Univ Skovde, S-54128 Skovde, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Image Analysis Determination of the Influence of Surface Structure of Silicone Rubbers on Biofouling2015In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, article id 390292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on how the texture of the silicone rubber material affects the distribution of microbial growth on the surface of materials used for high voltage insulation. The analysis of surface wetting properties showed that the textured surfaces provide higher receding contact angles and therefore lower contact angle hysteresis. The textured surfaces decrease the risk for dry band formation and thus preserve the electrical properties of the material due to a more homogeneous distribution of water on the surface, which, however, promotes the formation of more extensive biofilms. The samples were inoculated with fungal suspension and incubated in a microenvironment chamber simulating authentic conditions in the field. The extent and distribution of microbial growth on the textured and plane surface samples representing the different parts of the insulator housing that is shank and shed were determined by visual inspection and image analysis methods. The results showed that the microbial growth was evenly distributed on the surface of the textured samples but restricted to limited areas on the plane samples. More intensive microbial growth was determined on the textured samples representing sheds. It would therefore be preferable to use the textured surface silicone rubber for the shank of the insulator.

  • 5.
    Atari Jabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Salas Lacamprett, Carla
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. Univ Skovde, S-54128 Skovde, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Use of essential oils for the prevention of biofilm formation on silicone rubber high voltage insulators2015In: Polymers from Renewable Resources, ISSN 2041-2479, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 119-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevention of biofilm formation on high voltage insulators is important to avoid changes in the surface properties of the material and the subsequent failure of the application. Antimicrobial silicone rubber samples were prepared by the addition of thymol and eugenol to Sylgard 184 to determine the possibility of using natural antimicrobial agents present in essential oils in materials used for high voltage insulators. The antimicrobial effects of thymol and eugenol were studied for different fungal strains and for green algae identified in the biofilms formed on insulators in Tanzania, Sri Lanka and Sweden. It was successfully demonstrated that samples containing high amount of eugenol and different concentrations of thymol could inhibit the fungal growth of strains from Sri Lanka and Tanzania and the growth of green algae. The growth of strains from Sweden was also suppressed. The addition of eugenol to the material resulted in a noncrosslinked system and therefore, the antimicrobial effect of the additive in the material could not be assessed. The addition of thymol did not significantly influence the thermal and mechanical properties of Sylgard184. Although thermal analysis revealed that a large amount of the antimicrobial agent was lost during sample preparation, the materials were effective against microbial growth, even at low thymol concentrations.

  • 6.
    Atarijabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Biofilm formation on silicone materials containing various antimicrobial agents2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The colonisation of microorganisms and subsequent biofilm formation on the surface of polymeric high voltage insulators affect the surface properties and can lead to failure of the insulators.  In this study, silicone materials were prepared with different antimicrobial agents. The materials were analysed for the changes in the physical, chemical, surface and mechanical properties before and after biological growth test.

     

    Microorganisms used for the biological tests were fungi defined in the international standard test ISO 846 for electrical applications (Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Penicillium funiculosum Thom, Paecilomyces variotii Bainier, Chaetomium globosum Kunze: Fries, Aspergillus terreus Thom, Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud & Penicillium ochrochloron Biourge) and algae isolated from insulators in Sri Lanka and Tanzania (Chlorella vulgaris var. Autotrophica + various bacterial strains). Fungi growth test was performed by inoculation of the fungi on the surface of the materials and incubation in an oven at 28°C and 98% humidity for a specific period. Algae growth test was performed by inoculation on the material surface and subsequent incubation in room temperature under a constant fluorescent lamps for a specific period.

     

    The results indicated that some of the samples could prevent the biofilm formation on the surface of the materials while the microbial growth was unaffected on the pure silicone rubber.

  • 7.
    Atarijabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Biofilm formation on silicone nanocomposites containing different antimicrobial agents2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study three types of clay/silicon nanocomposites were prepared. Clay was modified with two different antimicrobial agents (p-aminobenzoic acid and partially aminated poly(vinylbenzyl chloride) and used for preparation of the nanocomposites, which aimed to show antimicrobial properties and also easy dispersion of the clay into the polymeric matrix. Reference nanocomposites were made through the modification of the clay with a siloxane surfactant to make an easy dispersion of the clay into the silicone rubber. Nanocomposites were studied for resistancy against biological attack according to the international standard tests. Growth test results indicated that some of the nanocomposites can inhibit biological growth more than pristine nanocomposites. Modified clay was studied with x-ray diffraction technique. Materials were also studied with scanning electron microscopy before and after biological growth to analyse the biofilm formation on the surface.

  • 8.
    Atarijabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Design of antimicrobial silicone nanocomposites for high voltage insulationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Atarijabarzadeh, Sevil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Inhibition of biofilm formation on silicone rubber samples using various antimicrobial agents2011In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 1111-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-temperature-cured silicone rubber samples (silicone rubber (SIR) based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) and SIR samples containing three different antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate (NaB), DCOIT (4,5 Dichloro-2-octyl-2H-isothiazolone-one) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions and incubated for 28 days at 29 +/- 1 degrees C and >= 90% humidity, according to the ISO 846:1997(E) protocol. Prior to the biodegradation test, a powder test was conducted to study the efficacy of the chosen antimicrobial compounds and to determine the correct concentration of the compounds for sample preparation. The extent of the microbial growth was studied visually and by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Changes in surface hydrophobicity and surface chemical composition were studied by contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. Microbial growth and biofilm formation were observed on the surface of reference samples. DCOIT was the most effective antimicrobial agent, as demonstrated by the lack of microbial growth and unaltered surface hydrophobicity. On the surface of samples containing NaB, an initiation of microbial growth and therefore a slight change in surface hydrophobicity was observed. PABA did not inhibit the fungal growth.

  • 10.
    Backman, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Björling, Gunilla
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Lysdahl, Michael
    Markström, Agneta
    Schedin, Ulla
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Frostell, Claes
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Material Wear of Polymeric Tracheostomy Tubes: A Six-Month Study2009In: The Laryngoscope, ISSN 0023-852X, E-ISSN 1531-4995, Vol. 119, no 4, p. 657-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives were to study long-term material wear of tracheostomy tubes made of silicone (Si), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyurethane (PU) after 3 and 6 months of clinical use. Study Design: The study has a prospective and comparative design. Methods: Nineteen patients with long-term tracheostomy, attending the National Respiratory Center in Sweden, were included, n = 6 with Si tubes, n = 8 with PVC tubes, and n = 5 with PU tubes. The tubes were exposed to the local environment, in the trachea for 3 and 6 months and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Results: All tubes revealed severe surface changes. No significant differences were established after 3 or 6 months of exposure between the various materials. The changes had progressed significantly after this period, compared to previously reported changes after 30 days of exposure. The results from all analyzing techniques correlated well. Conclusions: All tubes, exposed in the trachea for 3-6 months, revealed major degradation and changes in the surface of the material. Polymeric tracheostomy tubes should be changed before the end of 3 months of clinical use.

  • 11. Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    Kittikorn, Thorsak
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Santonja-Blasco, L.
    Martizez-Felipe, A.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Ek, Monica
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Water absorption and hydrothermal performance of PHBV/sisal biocomposites2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 108, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of biocomposites of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) and sisal fibre subjected to hydrothermal tests at different temperatures above the glass transition of PHBV (T-H = 26, 36 and 46 degrees C) was evaluated in this study. The influences of both the fibre content and presence of coupling agent were focused. The water absorption capability and water diffusion rate were considered for a statistical factorial analysis. Afterwards, the physico-chemical properties of water-saturated biocomposites were assessed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Analysis, Size Exclusion Chromatography, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was found that the water diffusion rate increased with both temperature and percentage of fibre, whereas the amount of absorbed water was only influenced by fibre content. The use of coupling agent was only relevant at the initial stages of the hydrothermal test, giving an increase in the diffusion rate. Although the chemical structure and thermal properties of water-saturated biocomposites remained practically intact, the physical performance was considerably affected, due to the swelling of fibres, which internally blew-up the PHBV matrix, provoking cracks and fibre detachment.

  • 12. Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    Reig-Rodrigo, P.
    Teruel-Juanes, R.
    Kittikorn, Thorsak
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Effect of sisal and hydrothermal ageing on the dielectric behaviour of polylactide/sisal biocomposites2017In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 149, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dielectric properties of virgin polylactide (PLA) and its reinforced composites with different weight amounts of sisal fibres were assessed at broad temperature (from −130 °C to 130 °C) and frequency ranges (from 10−2–107 Hz), before and after being subjected to accelerated hydrothermal ageing. The synergetic effects of both the loading of sisal and hydrothermal ageing were analysed by means of dielectric relaxation spectra. The relaxation time functions were evaluated by the Havriliak-Negami model, substracting the ohmic contribution of conductivity. The intramolecular and intermolecular relaxations were respectively analysed by means of Arrhenius and Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse thermal activation models. The addition of fibre increased the number of hydrogen bonds, which incremented the dielectric permittivity and mainly hindered the non-cooperative relaxations of the biocomposites by increasing the activation energy. Hydrothermal ageing enhanced the formation of the crystalline phase at the so-called transcrystalline region along sisal. This fact hindered the movement of the amorphous PLA fraction, and consequently decreased the dielectric permittivity and increased the dynamic fragility.

  • 13. Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    Strömberg, E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Karlsson, S.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A statistical design of experiments for optimizing the MALDI-TOF-MS sample preparation of polymers. An application in the assessment of the thermo-mechanical degradation mechanisms of poly (ethylene terephthalate)2011In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 692, no 1-2, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sample preparation procedure for MALDI-TOF MS of polymers is addressed in this study by the application of a statistical Design of Experiments (DoE). Industrial poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was chosen as model polymer. Different experimental settings (levels) for matrixes, analyte/matrix proportions and concentrations of cationization agent were considered. The quality parameters used for the analysis were signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. A closer inspection of the statistical results provided the study not only with the best combination of factors for the MALDI sample preparation, but also with a better understanding of the influence of the different factors, individually or in combination, to the signal. The application of DoE for the improvement of the MALDI measure of PET stated that the best combination of factors and levels was the following: matrix (dithranol), proportion analyte/matrix/cationization agent (1/15/1, V/V/V), and concentration of cationization agent (2 g L-1). In a second part, multiple processing by means of successive injection cycles was used to simulate the thermo-mechanical degradation effects on the oligomeric distribution of PET under mechanical recycling. The application of MALDI-TOF-MS showed that thermo-mechanical degradation primarily affected initially predominant cyclic species. Several degradation mechanisms were proposed, remarking intramolecular transesterification and hydrolysis. The ether links of the glycol unit in PET were shown to act as potential reaction sites, driving the main reactions of degradation.

  • 14. Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Kittikorn, Thorsak
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology. Prince of Songkla University,Thailand.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Relevant factors for the eco-design of polylactide/sisal biocomposites to control biodegradation in soil in an end-of-life scenario2017In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 143, p. 9-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eco-design considers the factors to prepare biocomposites under an end-of-life scenario. PLA/sisal biocomposites were obtained from amorphous polylactide and sisal loadings of 10, 20 and 30 wt% with and without coupling agent, and subjected to biodegradation in soil according to standard ISO846. Mass-loss, differential scanning calorimetry and size-exclusion chromatography were used for monitoring biodegradation. A statistical factorial analysis based on the molar mass Mn and crystallinity degree XC pointed out the relevance and interaction of amount of fibre and use of coupling agent with the time of burial in soil. During the preparation of biocomposites, chain scission provoked a similar reduction of Mn for coupled and non-coupled biocomposites. The amount of fibre was relevant for the increase of XC due to the increase of nucleation sites. The coupling agent accelerated the evolution of both factors: reduction of Mn and the consequent increase of XC, mainly during biodegradation in soil. Both factors should be balanced to facilitate microbial assimilation of polymer segments, since bacterial digestion is enhanced by chain scission but blocked by the promotion of crystalline fractions.

  • 15. Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Assessing the MALDI-TOF MS sample preparation procedure to analyze the influence of thermo-oxidative ageing and thermo-mechanical degradation on poly (Lactide)2011In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1416-1428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple processing by means of successive injection cycles was used to simulate the thermo-mechanical degradation effects on the oligomeric distribution of PLA under mechanical recycling. Likewise, an accelerated thermal ageing over PLA glass transition was performed in order to simulate its service life. MALDI-TOF MS was used for the analysis and the sample preparation procedure was assessed by means of a statistical Design of Experiments (DoE). The quality effects in use for the analysis were signal-to-noise ratio and Resolution. Different matrixes, analyte/matrix proportions and the use of NaTFA as cationization agent were considered. A deep inspection of the statistical results provided a better understanding of the influence of the different factors, individually or in combination, to the signal. The application of DoE for the improvement of the MALDI measurement of PLA stated that the best combination of factors (levels) was the following: matrix (s-DHB), proportion analyte/matrix (1/5 V/V), and no use of cationization agent. Degradation primarily affected the initially predominant cyclic [LA(C)](n) and linear H-[LA(L)](n)-OH species, where LA stands for a PLA repeating unit. Intramolecular and intermolecular transesterifications as well as hydrolytic and homolytic reactions took place during the formation and disappearance of oligomeric species. In both degradation mechanisms induced by thermal ageing and thermo-mechanical degradation, the formation of H-[LA(L)](n)-O-CH(3) by intermolecular transesterifications was highlighted.

  • 16. Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    Vilaplana, Domingo Francisco Javier
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Thermal analysis as a quality tool for assessing the influence of thermo-mechanical degradation on recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate)2009In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 169-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was simulated by multiple processing to assess the effects of thermo-mechanical degradation, and characterized using rheological and thermal analysis techniques. Thermo-mechanical degradation under repeated extrusion induces chain scission reactions in PET, which result in a dramatic loss in the deformation capabilities and an increase in the fluidity of the polymer under reprocessing, reducing its recycling possibilities after four extrusion cycles. Multiple reprocessing severely affects the storage modulus and the microstructure of recycled PET, both in the amorphous and crystalline regions. Multimodal melting behavior is observed for reprocessed PET, indicating heterogeneous and segregated crystalline regions. A deconvolution procedure has been applied to individually characterize each crystalline population in terms of lamellar thickness distribution and partial crystallinity. Thermal analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) have proved to be suitable techniques for the quality assessment of recycled PET, giving unequivocal information about its degree of degradation compared to the common technological measurements of melt-mass flow rate (MFR) or oxidative stability (T-OX).

  • 17. Badia, J.D.
    et al.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Material valorisation of amorphous polylactide. Influence of thermo-mechanical degradation on the morphology, segmental dynamics, thermal and mechanical performance2012In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 97, no 4, p. 670-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the effects of multiple mechanical recycling on the structure and properties of amorphous polylactide (PIA). The influence of the thermo-mechanical degradation induced by means of five successive injection cycles was initially addressed in terms of macroscopic mechanical properties and surface modification. A deeper inspection on the structure and morphology of PLA was associated to the thermal properties and viscoelastic behaviour. Although FT-IR analysis did not show significant changes in functional groups, a remarkable reduction in molar mass was found by viscometry. PIA remained amorphous throughout the reprocessing cycles, but the occurrence of a cold-crystallization during DSC and DMTA measurements, which enthalpy increased with each reprocessing step, suggested chain scission due to thermo-mechanical degradation. The effect of chain shortening on the glass-rubber relaxation studied by DMTA showed an increase in free volume affecting the segmental dynamics of PLA, particularly after the application of the second reprocessing step, in connection to the overall loss of performance showed by the remaining properties.

  • 18. Badia, J.D.
    et al.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ribes-Greus, A
    The role of crystalline, mobile amorphous and rigid amorphous fractions on the performance of recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET)2012In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 98-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The action of thermo-mechanical degradation induced by mechanical recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) was simulated by successive injection moulding cycles. Degradation reactions provoked chain scissions and a reduction in molar mass mainly driven by the reduction of diethyleneglycol to ethylene glycol units in the flexible domain of the PET backbone, and the formation ofeOH terminated species with shorter chain length. The consequent microstructural changes were quantified taking into account a three-fraction model involving crystalline, mobile amorphous (MAF) and rigid amorphous fractions (RAF). A remarkable increase of RAF, to a detriment of MAF was observed, while the percentage of crystalline fraction remained nearly constant. A deeper analysis of the melting behaviour, the segmental dynamics around the glass-rubber relaxation, and the macroscopic mechanical performance, showed the role of each fraction leading to a loss of thermal, viscoelastic and mechanical features, particularly remarkable after the first processing cycle.

  • 19. Badia, J.D.
    et al.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    Characterization of Induced Thermo-mechanical Degradation on Poly (ethylene terephthalate)2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Badia, J.D.
    et al.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    STUDY OF THERMO-MECHANICAL AND THERMO-OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF POLYLACTIDE BYMALDI-TOF MS. A STATISTICAL DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS TO OPTIMIZE THE SAMPLE PREPARATIONPROCEDURES2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Bengtsson, M.
    et al.
    Wallström, Stina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Svanberg, S.
    Fluorescence lidar imaging of fungal growth on high-voltage outdoor composite insulators2005In: Optics and lasers in engineering, ISSN 0143-8166, E-ISSN 1873-0302, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 624-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote fluorescence imaging of fungal growth on polymeric high-voltage insulators was performed using a mobile lidar system with a laser wavelength of 355 nm. Insulator areas contaminated by fungal growth could be distinguished from clean surfaces and readily be imaged. The experiments were supported by detailed spectral studies performed in laboratory using a fibre-optic fluorosensor incorporating an optical multi-channel analyser system (OMA) and a nitrogen laser emitting radiation at 33 7 nm.

  • 22. Bengtsson, M.
    et al.
    Wallström, Stina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Sjöholm, M.
    Grönlund, R.
    Anderson, B.
    Larsson, A.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Kröll, Stefan
    Svanberg, S.
    Fungus covered insulator materials studied with laser-induced fluorescence and principal component analysis2005In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 1037-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method combining laser-induced fluorescence and principal component analysis to detect and discriminate between algal and fungal growth on insulator materials has been studied. Eight fungal cultures and four insulator materials have been analyzed. Multivariate classifications were utilized to characterize the insulator material, and fungal growth could readily be distinguished from a clean surface. The results of the principal component analyses make it possible to distinguish between algae infected, fungi infected, and clean silicone rubber materials. The experiments were performed in the laboratory using a fiber-optic fluorosensor that consisted of a nitrogen laser and an optical multi-channel analyzer system.

  • 23.
    Björk, Folke.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Eriksson, C. A.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Khabbaz, F.
    Degradation of components in flooring systems in humid and alkaline environments2003In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Constituents from products that are used in the flooring on a concrete slab such as carpets of plasticised PVC and water-based adhesives sometimes degrade in an alkaline and humid environment. The concrete itself could be such an environment. In order to examine the effect of different levels of alkalinity and humidity on the mentioned products a specialised procedure was developed. By this procedure it was possible to imitate the effect of an environment of alkalinity and humidity corresponding to a recently produced concrete slab on different substances and also collect volatile degradation products produced. Degradation of some of the constituents was dependent on the levels of alkalinity and humidity, although there were significant differences in the possibility to resist the environmental factors. For some of the components, an increase in alkalinity resulted in a much higher production of degradation products even when the relative humidity was kept on a comparatively low level. The results give basis for a recommendation not to adhere plastic floorings directly to a recently produced slab of high-quality concrete because the alkaline material in the concrete could cause degradation.

  • 24. Björling, Gunilla
    et al.
    Arzpeima, Minoodokht
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Considerations in Tube Selection2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. Björling, Gunilla
    et al.
    Axelsson, Sara
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Lysdahl, Michael
    Aune, Ragnhild Elizabeth
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Frostell, Claes
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Long-Term Tracheostomy: Aspects on Tube Change and Material Wear2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • The tracheostomy tubes in use are exposed not only to bacteria but also the lining fluids, which are a first defence against toxicity in inhaled gases. It contains several antioxidants. The complex bacteriological environment in the trachea, as well as the formation of a biofilm on the tube surface through colonization of bacteria, is believed to affect the mechanical and chemical properties of the tube material. The study was conducted at the National Respiratory Centre (NRC) at Danderyd Hospital in collaboration with the Royal Institute of Technology and Sophiahemmet University College in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • 26. Björling, Gunilla
    et al.
    Lysdahl, Michael
    Markström, Agneta
    Schedin, Ulla
    Aune, Ragnhild E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Process Science.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Frostell, Claes
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient Experiences of Long-Term Tracheostomy2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Camacho, W.
    et al.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy compared with thermogravimetric analysis as a tool for on-line prediction of water diffusion in polyamide 6,62002In: Polymer international, ISSN 0959-8103, E-ISSN 1097-0126, Vol. 51, no 12, p. 1366-1370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NIR spectroscopy in the transmission mode and thermogravimetric analysis were used to predict diffusion of water into polyamide 6,6 samples immersed in water at 40, 60, 75 and 90degreesC for different periods of time. The sorption curves between 40 and 75 were sigmoidal indicating that the surface concentration was time dependent. The sorption curves were readily fitted by the use of a time-dependent surface concentration and a water-concentration-dependent diffusivity. The zero-concentration water diffusivity decreased non-linearly and the activation energy of diffusion increased from 24 to 58 kJ mol(-1), with decreasing temperature. The surface concentration relaxation time decreased rapidly. The sorption of water in thick polyamide samples was readily characterized by FT-NIR spectroscopy. The accuracy and feasibility of this method was similar to conventional thermogravimetric methods. The greatest advantage of FT-NIR, however, is the possibility of detecting and monitoring the moisture concentration on-line and in a non-destructive way.

  • 28. Camacho, W.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Assessment of thermal and thermo-oxidative stability of multiextruded recycled PP, HDPE and a blend thereof2002In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and chemiluminescence (CL) techniques have been used for assessment of thermal and thermo-oxidative stability of recycled PP, HDPE and their blend containing 20 wt.% of PP. The pure polymers and the blend were subjected to six extrusion cycles. The oxidation induction time (OIT) of the PP, PE and the blend decreased with the number of extrusion cycles also did the temperature of oxidation (T-ox). The thermal stability of PE decreased with the number of number of processing cycles, which may indicate that the shear forces during processing induce chain scission of the polymer backbone leading mainly to shortening of the chains. PP, however showed a decrease in thermal stability up to the third extrusion, and about the same stability during further processing. Thus chain scission predominated during all the extrusions and no chain branching or crosslinking were observed. The behaviour of the blend showed a synergetic tendency and did not obey the mixture rule. The CL runs produced a clearer picture of the oxidation process in blends since two peaks were observed, a sharp one corresponding to the PP and the other of bimodal shape to PE. The PP appeared to oxidize first and accelerated the oxidation of PE due to the presence of oxidation sites in the PE-PP interfaces. The blend of PP an HDPE mechanically mixed appeared to be a two-phase system in the molten state. This information can not be obtained from DSC and TG experiments.

  • 29. Camacho, W.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    NIR, DSC, and FTIR as quantitative methods for compositional analysis of blends of polymers obtained from recycled mixed plastic waste2001In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 1626-1635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for the determination of the composition of two binary blends in mixtures of recycled polymeric materials were analyzed and compared. Recycled polypropylene/polyethylene (PP/HDPE) and recycled poly(acryl-butadiene-styrene) and polypropylene(ABS/PP) were used to develop and validate the methods. Diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers high sensitivity and ease of operation and a possibility to perform multivariate data analysis. In comparison, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Mid-IR which are commonly used for this purpose require certain sample preparation and are indeed time consuming. In addition, the low sensitivity of these two methods to concentrations lower than 1% wt makes their application in quality control of recycled polymers inappropriate. NIR can be used for estimating the composition of the recyclate on-line in only a few seconds, no sample preparation is required, and high precision is achieved. We obtained a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) equal to 0.21% wt in the interval from 0-15% wt of PP in HDPE and a RMSEP equal to 0.91% wt in the interval 0-100%. For blends of PP/ABS a RMSEP of 0.74% wt in the range 0-100% and 0.32% wt in the range 0-15% wt PP was calculated. Most of the variation in the spectral data with respect to the polymer blend composition for all the studied blends were explained by two principal components (PC). The optimal number of factors (PC) was determined by cross-validation analysis.

  • 30. Camacho, W.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Quality-determination of recycled plastic packaging waste by identification of contaminants by CC-MS after microwave assisted extraction (MAE)2000In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of recycled resins of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) separated from mixed solid waste (MSW) were studied by analyzing the tentative low molecular weight contaminants. For that purpose a microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique was developed using MDPE and two aromatic antioxidants (Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168) as models. A 50:50 mixture of cyclohexane and isopropanol gave high recovery yields; 97% for Irgafos 168 and 93% for Irganox 1010 and short extraction times. Limonene, isopropylester of myristic and palmitic acids were examples of products identified in recycled HDPE. These compounds are typically fragrance and flavor constituents. In addition alcohols, esters, ketones were identified. Most of the substances are constituents of the packaging fillings at their first usage. But the possibility that contaminants may have entered the material by contact with other plastics is not excluded. The major category of compounds identified already in the virgin material is composed of aliphatic hydrocarbons (e.g. pentadecane, hexadecaned, 1-hexadenene), branched alkanes, branched alkenes and others. The same kind of compounds were also identified in the recycled materials at a similar concentration as in virgin ones. Virgin and recycled polyethylene contain also ethylbenzene and o-, m- and p-xylenes, where o-xylene had the largest peak of the four. The aromatic hydrocarbons are probably parts of additives, which degraded during extraction and sample preparation procedures. Aromatic hydrocarbons without functional groups, such as ethylbenzene and xylenes are considered highly toxic, but the height and area of their peaks suggest low concentrations. The concentration of these hazardous contaminants in the recycled resin is, however, approximately five times higher in recycled material, estimated by a comparison of the peak areas. Ethylbenzene and o-, m- and p-xylenes, o-xylene having the largest peak of the four were also identified in virgin and recycled polypropylene resins.

  • 31. Camacho, W.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Quantification of antioxidants in polyethylene by near infrared (NIR) analysis and partial least squares (PLS) regression2002In: IJPAC. International journal of polymer analysis and characterization, ISSN 1023-666X, E-ISSN 1563-5341, Vol. 7, no 02-jan, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to generate a calibration model that can be used for the prediction of the content of two antioxidants, Irganox 10 10 and Irgafos 168, in high density polyethylene (HDPE). The samples containing levels of either one or both antioxidants in a range of 0-4500 ppm were analyzed by near infrared (NIR) in the diffuse reflectance mode. The samples were compounded in an extruder and subsequently analyzed as pellets, therefore, sample preparation was not required. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method and the extraction of the antioxidants was performed either by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) or ultrasonication. Data pretreatment of the raw NIR-data was necessary in order to eliminate the physical differences of the samples, e.g., size and shape. Multiple scattering correction (MSC) and second derivative of the raw data were used for this purpose. Root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) for Irganox 1010 and Irgafos 168 was 46 and 97 ppm, respectively, when derived raw data was used,- similar results were obtained when calibration was performed on MSC data. The number of principal components was determined by cross-validation; in addition, the calibration model was validated with a test set.

  • 32. Camacho, W.
    et al.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Simultaneous determination of molecular weight and crystallinity of recycled HDPE by infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration2002In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 321-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An attempt of correlating molecular weight (M,) of recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as measured by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with diffuse reflectance near and mid-infrared spectroscopy (NIR/MIR) was made by means of multivariate calibration. The spectral data obtained was also used to extract information about the degree of crystallinity of the recycled resin. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as the reference method. Partial leastsquares (PLS) calibration was performed on the MIR and NIR spectral data for prediction of Af, Four PC factors described fully the PLS models. The root-meansquare error of prediction (RMSEP) obtained with MIR data was 360, whereas a RMSEP of 470 was achieved when calibration was carried out on the diffuse reflectance NIR data. A PLS calibration for prediction of degree of crystallinity was performed on the NIR data in the 1100-1900-nm region, but the ability of prediction of this model was poor. However a PLS calibration in the region 2000-2500 nm yield better results. Four PC factors explained the most of the variance in the spectra and the RMSEP was 0.4 wt %.

  • 33. Camacho, W.
    et al.
    Valles-Lluch, A.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Determination of moisture content in nylon 6,6 by near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics2003In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 87, no 13, p. 2165-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of moisture on the morphology and mechanical properties of polyamides have been extensively studied by a number of researchers. However, the assessment of water content in the resins has been carried out by thermal or thermogravimetric methods, which are destructive. In the present work partial least-squares (PLS) calibration models based on near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were produced in order to predict the moisture content of nylon 6,6. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the loss-on-drying (LOD) method were used as reference methods. TGA, LOD, DSC, and NIR analysis were performed in parallel, and the obtained data were used for multivariate calibration purposes. Data pretreatment techniques such as derivation and multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) successfully eliminated the baseline offset present in the raw spectra and compensated for differences in thickness and light scattering of the analyzed samples. Calibration models were validated by full cross validation with the help of a test set. A comparison of the prediction ability of PLS models based on pretreated data was also done. NIR spectroscopy is a rapid and nondestructive method for the determination of moisture in recycled nylon. The moisture content can be predicted with a RMSEP = 0.05 wt %.

  • 34. Contat-Rodrigo, L.
    et al.
    Haider, N.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Ultrasonication and microwave assisted extraction of degradation products from degradable polyolefin blends aged in soil2001In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 1101-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two nonconventional extraction techniques, microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonication, were used to extract degradation products from polyolefins with enhanced degradability. High-density polyethylene/polypropylene blends with two different biodegradable additives (a granular starch/iron oxide mixture and Mater-Bi AF05H) were subjected to outdoor soil burial tests and removed at different periods of time between 0 and 21 months. The extracted products were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ultrasonication was found to be a more suitable technique than MAE because of better reproducibility. In addition, higher amounts of certain products (e.g., carboxylic acids) were extracted by ultrasonication than by MAE. The degradation products extracted from the two blends were basically a homologous series of alkanes, alkenes, carboxylic acids, and alcohols. The amount of hydrocarbons (saturated and unsaturated) and alcohols remained basically the same as the degradation times increased. However, carboxylic acids tended to decrease slightly with the exposure time. Their concentration remained practically unchanged until 12 months of soil burial when a more significant decrease was noted. The quantitative analysis of the degradation products revealed for both samples a decrease in the amount of carboxylic acids with the exposure time, although the trend was different according to the additive used in each sample. For blends with Mater-Bi the amount of carboxylic acids was at a minimum after 12-month exposure in soil, which coincided with a minimum in the molecular weight distribution. After blends with granular starch/iron oxide were exposed to 3 months in soil, tetradecanoic acid was no longer detectable and the amount of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids decreased significantly. Solid-phase microextraction, a solvent-free extraction technique, was used to extract the degradation products that could have migrated to the soil from blends with Mater-Bi. Small amounts of tetradecanoic acid and dodecanol were identified by GC-MS in the soil surrounding the sample. The degradation patterns observed here correlate with our previous results from mechanical and morphological characterization of these samples.

  • 35.
    Ek, Monica K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    NewCell, ReCell and some other cell: Some highlights from dissolving pulp projects2013In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 245Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Ek, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    From Cellulose Accessibility to Polymer and Product Properties of Cellulose Derivatives2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ek, Monica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Fardim, Pedro
    Maunu, Sirkka Liisa
    University of Helsinki.
    Nousiainen, Pertti
    Siika-Aho5, Matti
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    New cellulose derivatives from wood for high value products2008In: TAPPSA: Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry of Southern Africa, ISSN 1029-0109, no September 2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various pre-treatment methods to increase the accessibility of cellulose materials to swelling and reactive agents at different hierarchical levels, has been developed. It was demonstrated that enzymes are very efficient at increasing the cellulose reactivity. A new method to measure the reactivity and accessibility of the hydroxyl groups on cellulose was developed. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agents were synthesized and used further in esterification reactions with cellulose samples to prepare cellulose based graft-copolymers. MALDI-TOFMS was evaluated for characterization of cellulose derivatives. Methods to prepare electrospun fibres, casings, sponges and beads, were developed with target applications in pharmaceuticals and foods.

  • 38. Eldsater, C.
    et al.
    Albertsson, Ann-Christine
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Changes in composition of hydrolyzed poly(butylene adipate-co-caproamide) characterized by pyrolysis-GC-MS, H-1-NMR and FTIR2000In: IJPAC. International journal of polymer analysis and characterization, ISSN 1023-666X, E-ISSN 1563-5341, Vol. 5, no 06-apr, p. 415-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changes in composition of an abiotically degraded polyester-amide, poly(butylene adipate-co-caproamide), in an aqueous environment at 37 degrees C; 60 degrees C and 80 degrees C were investigated. The changes in polymer composition were studied using pyrolysis-GC-MS, H-1-NMR, FTIR, and size exclusion chromatography, and degradation products were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and subsequent GC-MS. During the degradation of PEA in an aqueous environment, the main degradation products were 6-aminohexanoic acid, 1-hydroxydodecanoic acid-6-one-5-oxo and dimers. After longer degradation times and at higher degradation temperatures, 1-hydroxydodecanoic acid-6-one-5-oxo was cleaved further into hexanedioic acid and 1,4-butanediol. At 80 degrees C, the degradation was fastest with the largest weight loss due to dissolution of oligomer. At 80 degrees C, the amide content in the copolymer increased with increasing degradation time. We suggest that there is a two-step degradation mechanism with the formation of linear degradation products, where the hydrolysis of ester bonds is favored over that of amide bonds.

  • 39.
    Enebro, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry of carboxymethyl cellulose2006In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 20, no 24, p. 3693-3698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A refined sample preparation procedure for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) was developed for the evaluation of the degree of substitution (DS) in partially depolymerised carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). By adding ammonium sulphate to the sample mixture prior to the analysis, good quality mass spectra could be acquired. The usual time-consuming search for 'sweet-spots' at the crystalline rim of the MALDI target spot was also avoided. This quality improvement made it possible to investigate whether various positions on the target spot generated mass spectra in which the measured DS varied. The accuracy and reproducibility of the sample preparation procedure were tested by applying it on three commercial CMCs. The study shows that the DS values that were calculated from the spectra acquired from the centre region of the MALDI target spot were in better agreement with the DS provided by the supplier than were the values obtained from the large crystals at the target spot rim. This observation could be one reasonable explanation for the higher DS values reported in other publications. By applying our refined MALDI sample preparation procedure DS values that were in good agreement with the values provided by the manufacturer could be obtained. This indicates that MALDI-TOFMS of partially depolyrnerised CMCs can be used for an estimation of the DS as a complement to the more established methods, e.g. NMR, titrimetry, and chromatographic techniques.

  • 40.
    Enebro, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Momcilovic, Dane
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Siika-Aho, Matti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    A New Approach for Studying Correlations between the Chemical Structure and the Rheological Properties in Carboxymethyl Cellulose2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 3253-3257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two model sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) with similar monomer composition but with significant differences in the viscoelastic properties, that could not be assigned to variations in the average molar mass or molar mass distribution, were investigated with respect to the fraction of nonsubstituted cellulose segments in the polymers. The CMCs were hydrolyzed by a purified highly selective endoglucanase. The average molar mass and molar mass distribution of the enzyme products, as measured by size-exclusion chromatography with online multi-angle light scattering and refractive index detection (SEC/MALS/RI), revealed that the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis was more effective on one of the CMCs. To investigate whether this was due to a higher fraction of nonsubstituted cellulose segments in the polymer, the concentrations of nonsubstituted enzyme products, e.g., cellotetraose and cellopentaose, were measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). It was concluded that the two CMCs displayed significant differences in the fraction of nonsubstituted cellulose segments. Furthermore, the CMC with the strongest attractive intermolecular interactions, according to rheometry, also contained the highest fraction of nonsubstituted cellulose segments.

  • 41.
    Enebro, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Momcilovic, Dane
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Siika-Aho, Matti
    VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Espoo.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Investigation of endoglucanase selectivity on carboxymethyl cellulose by mass spectrometric techniques2009In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 271-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits of applying cellulose selective enzymes as analytical tools for chemical structure characterization of cellulose derivatives have been frequently addressed over the years. In a recent study the high selectivity of cellulase Cel45A from Trichoderma reesei (Tr Cel45A) was utilized for relating the chemical structure to the flow properties of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). However, in order to take full advantage of the enzymatic hydrolysis the enzyme selectivity on the cellulose substrate must be further investigated. Therefore, the selectivity of Tr Cel45A on CMC was studied by chemical sample preparation of the enzyme products followed by mass spectrometric chemical structure characterization. The results strongly suggest that, in accordance with recent studies, also this highly selective endoglucanase is able to catalyze hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds adjacent to mono-substituted anhydroglucose units (AGUs). Furthermore, the results also indicate that substituents on the nearby AGUs will affect the hydrolysis.

  • 42.
    Enebro, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Momcilovic, Dane
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Siika-Aho, Matti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Liquid Chromatography combined with Mass Spectrometry for the Investigation of Endoglucanase Selectivity on Carboxymethyl Cellulose2009In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 344, no 16, p. 2173-2181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endoglucanases are useful tools in the chemical structure analysis of cellulose derivatives. However, knowledge on the endoglucanase selectivity, which is of central importance for data interpretation, is still limited. In this study, new reverse-phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods were developed to investigate the selectivity of the endoglucanases Cel5A, cel7B, Cel45A, and Cel74A from the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. The aim was to improve the identification of the regioisomers in the complex mixtures that are obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. Reduction followed by per-O-methylation was performed in order to improve the separation in reverse-phase LC, increase MS sensitivity, and to facilitate structure analysis by MS/MS of O-carboxymethyl glucose and cellooligosaccharides. The cellulose selective enzymes that were investigated displayed interesting differences in enzyme selectivity on CMC substrates.

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Carl Axel
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Khabbaz, Farideh
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Två rapporter som behandlar: Kemisk nedbrytning av material i golvbjälklag1999Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Espert, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Camacho, Walker
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Thermal and thermomechanical properties of biocomposites made from modified recycled cellulose and recycled polypropylene2003In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 89, no 9, p. 2353-2360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual cellulose fibers from the paper industry have been used as reinforcements in recycled polypropylene (PP) composites. The main obstacle to obtaining good properties with this biocomposite is deficiencies in the compatibility between the nonpolar matrices and the polar cellulose fibers used as reinforcements. The aim of this work was to improve the compatibilization between these cellulose fibers and the PP matrix with four different methods: modification by the addition of polypropylene-maleic anhydride copolymer (PPgMA) during the process of blending, preblending modification of the cellulose with a solution of PPgMA, modification of cellulose by silanes (vinyltrimethoxysilane), and acetylation of cellulose. Blends with all of the differently modified celluloses were prepared with the cellulose content varied up to 40%, and then all of the blends were subjected to thermal (differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis) and thermomechanical (dynamic mechanical thermal analysis) analyses. The results showed that the addition of cellulose fibers improved the thermomechanical behavior of the PP, increasing the value of the log of the dynamic modulus, and affected the thermal and thermooxidative behavior. Moreover, an advantage of the use of a recycled PP containing a small quantity of ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) as a prime material in the composition was the enhancement of mechanical properties. The use of these methods for the modification of cellulose led to more desirable thermal and thermooxidative stabilities.

  • 45.
    Espert, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    de las Heras, Luis A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Emission of possible odourous low molecular weight compounds in recycled biofibre/polypropylene composites monitored by head-space SPME-GC-MS2005In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 555-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disadvantage of the use of natural fibres to reinforce polypropylene is their poor thermal stability, which results in their degradation at processing temperatures of the composites. As a result of this, there is a formation of low molecular weight compounds that are responsible for undesirable odours. Head-space-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used as a sample preparation technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the low molecular weight compounds in natural polypropylene/polypropylene composites after simulating degradation. Among the compounds found in the samples, there are fragments of PP chains as heptadecane, compounds from antioxidants such as 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-phenol, and p-tert-butylphenol, and compounds from biofibres ageing, such as ethylparaben and vanillin. Numerous carboxylic acids were also identified, being these most probably the source of the undesirable odours.

  • 46.
    Espert, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Novel PP/Montmorillonite/cellulose hybrid composites: study of the interaction between Montmorillonite clay and celluloseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Espert, Ana
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Comparison of water absorption in natural cellulosic fibres from wood and one-year crops in polypropylene composites and its influence on their mechanical properties2004In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 1267-1276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally beneficial composites can be made by replacing glass fibres with various types of cellulose fibres. Fibres from pine or eucalyptus wood and also one-year crops such as coir, sisal, etc. are all good candidates. The poor resistance towards water absorption is one of the drawbacks of natural fibres/polypropylene composites. New natural fibres/polypropylene composites were made and the water absorption in them was studied by immersion of the composites in water at three different temperatures, 23, 50 and 70 degreesC. The process of absorption of water was found to follow the kinetics and mechanisms described by Fick's theory. In addition, the diffusivity coefficient was dependent on the temperature as estimated by means of Arrhenius law. A decrease in tensile properties of the composites was demonstrated, showing a great loss in mechanical properties of the water-saturated samples compared to the dry samples. The morphology change was monitored by scanning electron microscopy studies of the samples before and after exposure to water and the devastating effect of water on the fibre structure was shown.

  • 48.
    Ezekiel, Ngesa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ndazi, Bwire
    Nyahumwa, Christian
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Effect of temperature and durations of heating on coir fibers2011In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 638-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites derived from polymeric resin and lignocellulosic fibers may be processed at temperatures ranging from 100 degrees C to 230 degrees C for durations of up to 30 min. These processing parameters normally lead to the degradation of the fiber's mechanical properties such as Young's modulus (E), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and percentage elongation at break (%EB). In this study, the effect of processing temperature and duration of heating on the mechanical properties of coir fibers were examined by heating the fibers in an oven at 150 degrees C and 200 degrees C for 10,20 and 30 min to simulate processing conditions. Degradation of mechanical properties was evaluated based on the tensile properties. It was observed that the UTS and %EB of heat treated fibers decreased by 1.17-44.00% and 15.28-81.93%, respectively, compared to untreated fibers. However, the stiffness or E of the fibers increased by 6.3-25.0%. Infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to elucidate further the influence of chemical, thermal and microstructural degradation on the resulting tensile properties of the fibers. The main chemical changes observed at 2922, 2851, 1733, 1651, 1460, 1421 and 1370 cm(-1) absorption bands were attributed to oxidation, dehydration and depolymerization as well as volatization of the fiber components. These phenomena were also attributed to in the TGA, and in addition the TGA showed increased thermal stability of the heat treated coir fibers with reference to the untreated counterparts which was most probably due to increased recrystallization and cross linking. The microstructural features including microcracks, micropores, collapsed microfibrils and sort of cooled molten liquid observed on the surface of heat treated coir fibers from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) could not directly be linked to the effect of temperature and durations of heating although such features may have largely account for the lower tensile properties of heat treated coir fibers with reference to untreated ones.

  • 49. Fateh-Alavi, K.
    et al.
    Nunez, M. E.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    The effect of stabilizer concentration on the air-plasma-induced surface oxidation of crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane2002In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of three stabilizers-a hindered phenol (Irganox 1076), a hindered amine light stabilizer (Tinuvin 770) and a bifunctional stabilizer with chain-breaking hindered phenol and secondary amine and hydroperoxide-decomposing sulphide moieties (Irganox 565)-in crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane were varied using swelling solutions of the stabilizers at different concentrations. The concentration of the stabilizer in the rubber was assessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy of Soxhlet and microwave assisted extracts. Irganox 1076 and Tinuvin 770 were soluble in polydimethylsiloxane to at least 0.2-0.3 wt.%, whereas the solubility of Irganox 565 was considerably lower. The samples were exposed to GHz air plasma and the surface structures of the exposed samples were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by optical and scanning electron microscopy after uniaxial stretching. The plasma exposure time required for the formation of an oxidised glassy layer increased in a linear fashion with increasing stabilizer concentration, suggesting that the consumption rate was constant in time during the plasma exposure. Tinuvin 770 showed the strongest overall protecting effect whereas Irganox 565 showed the strongest protecting effect per mass fraction of stabilizer. Irganox 1076 was of moderate efficiency. The results suggest that efficient protection towards air plasma is achieved with hindered amine stabilizers or with stabilizers combining chain-breaking and hydroperoxide-decomposing functions. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that Tinuvin 770 and Irganox 565 protected polydimethylsiloxane against thermal oxidation at elevated temperatures. The chemical consumption of these stabilizers followed basically the classical scheme with zero-order kinetics and a rate constant obeying the Arrhenius law.

  • 50.
    Fateh-Alavi, Kamyar
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Polymer Technology.
    A rapid microwave-assisted solvent extraction method for assessment of stabilizer concentration in crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane2004In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 2185-2192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crosslinked polyclimethylsiloxanes were prepared containing 0.05 to 0.2 wt % of either a phenolic antioxidant (Irganox(R) 1010) or a hindered amine stabilizer (Tinuvin(R) 144). The stabilizer concentration was assessed by HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy of Soxhlet and microwave-assisted solvent extracts. Almost complete recovery of stabilizer was achieved with Soxhlet extraction. High stabilizer recovery was achieved when acetone was used as the solvent in the microwave-assisted extraction. HPLC was shown to be an efficient method for determining the concentration of Irganox 1010. For Tinuvin 144 the selectivity of both UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC was poor, leading to imprecise evaluation of the antioxidant concentration. The loss of stabilizer by migration from polymer to hot water (75 and 95degreesC) was monitored for the systems stabilized with Irganox 1010 and the diffusion coefficient of the antioxidant in the polymer was determined.

123 1 - 50 of 134
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