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  • 1. Bergea, Ola
    et al.
    Karlsson, Reine
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jacobsson, Per
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Education for sustainability as a transformative learning process: a pedagogical experiment in EcoDesign doctoral education2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 15-16, p. 1431-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents details about a doctoral-level EcoDesign course, as an education for sustainable development experience, in relation to pedagogic theory. The aim was to promote transformative learning in order to facilitate more productive use of environmental knowledge in product and business development. The course included interdisciplinary dialogue founded in real world experiences presented by lecturers from business, government and NGOs, as well as study visits and group work on the drafting of journal papers. The key pedagogical objective was to widen the perspective to embrace more humanly engaging concerns and to enhance the student's overall understanding about relations between sustainable development priorities and product design practices. @ 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Burman, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Lingg, B.
    Villinger, S.
    Enlund, H.
    Hellbratt, S-E
    Cost and Energy Assessment of a High Speed Ship2008In: International Journal of Small Craft Technology, RINA - Part B, ISSN 1740-0694, Vol. 150, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Burman, Magnus
    et al.
    Lingg, B.
    Villinger, S.
    Enlund, H.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Hellbratt, S-E
    Cost and energy assessment of a high speed ship2006In: Second Conference on High Performance Yacht Design, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison in total life cycle costs and energy consumption for one high speed ship design with three different structural materials have been performed. The investigation considers a high speed ferry with a steel hull and an aluminium superstructure, an all aluminium concept and a ship built in sandwich material with carbon fibre faces. The different materials will affect several cost elements during the design, the production and the operation of the ship until and including its disposal. Furthermore, the material selection has an impact on the energy consumption within all stages of the ships life cycle. The assessment is made in a comparative manner. Hence, identical out fitting components, e.g. interior, instrumentation, and ventilation are left out. It is shown that the steel version causes the highest costs and energy consumption. The sandwich construction has the lowest life cycle costs while the aluminium version has the lowest energy consumption. The break-even point between the steel and the composite versions appears after 4 years (only 2 years of operation!), the break-even point between the aluminium and the composite ferry is after 12 years (10 years of operation). A sensitivity analysis with different possible scenarios, e.g. change in interest, petrol cost, maintenance cost, has been performed. All of the investigated scenarios identify the composite version to have the lowest life cycle costs. This paper summarises an original work carried out as a master of science work as given in [1-2].

  • 4.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Hotel Module in Glassfiber Sandwich: Environmental Study2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report the structural material for a hotel module is qualitatively studied with focus onenvironment. The module is designed in composite sandwich material with cellular polymericfoam, Pet or PVC, covered by two glass fiber laminates on each side. This type of materialconstruction is traditionally used in transportation industry i.e. aerospace, aircraft, military shipsand yacht, demanding high stiffness in combination with low weight. But an increase in the usewithin the construction area can be seen especially within offshore industry were theenvironment is extremely corrosive.The investigated structure of a room and a bathroom includes floor, roof and three walls for eachmodule. A life cycle perspective, from cradle to grave (cradle) is used for the study starting withraw material production, product manufacturing, use of product and finally waste treatment indifferent forms. Parallel to the sandwich module building in conventional technique is includedfor comparison. This technique includes walls of wood joints with insulating material as mineralwool in between and then covered with gypsum wallboard. Joists are produced in concrete.As result environmental arguments are formed for the new sandwich alternatives and for theconventional technique. By just adding the arguments, for and against, turns out on favor for thePET sandwich module. For the material production the constituent materials for the sandwichgenerally presents higher CO2 emissions than the conventional building materials. But when itcomes to production and mounting of the module a number of arguments for the module can bestated. Better control of internal environment (working environment), efficient use of rawmaterial, effective transports. Compared to the conventional design the risk for problems withmoisture is non-existing for the sandwich structure.The best alternative for waste treatment of the sandwich module is reuse. Other alternative ismaterial recycling of glass fiber in combination with energy recovery for polyester and corematerial.For fire safety a recent full-scale test of a ship cabin point out the potential to design a fire safesandwich structure with appropriate insulating materials.

  • 5.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Hotellmodul i glasfibersandwich: Miljöstudie2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna kvalitativa studie, analyseras en hotellmodul med fokus på miljöeffekter. Modulen byggs i sandwichteknik med täckskikt av glasfiberpolyesterkomposit och däremellan en kärna avcellplast av PET eller PVC. Denna typ av struktur används traditionellt inom transportindustrin tex. rymd, flyg och fartyg där hög styvhet i kombination med låg vikt krävs. Men en ökning avanvändandet av sandwich kan ses inom andra konstruktionsområden speciellt offshoreindustrindär miljön är extremt korrosiv. Den undersökta modulen omfattar, ett rum och badrum, golv, tak och tre väggar. Studien ärgenomförd utifrån ett livscykelperspektiv, från vaggan till graven (vaggan), med indelningen råmaterialtillverkning, produkttillverkning, användning av produkt och slutligen hantering av avfall i olika former. Parallellt med analysen av sandwichmodulen ingår även analys av konventionellt byggande, för jämförelse. Konventionellt byggande omfattar uppförande av väggar med träreglar och isoleringsmaterial som täcks med gipsskiva. Golv- och takbjälklaggjuts i betong.Som resultat formas miljöargument för de nya sandwichalternativen och den konventionella byggtekniken. Genom att studera argumenten, för och mot, genereras flest positiva argument försandwichmodulen med kärna av PET-cellplast. För tillverkning av material erhålls generellthögre CO2 utsläpp för de ingående materialen i sandwichmodulen än för konventionelltbyggande. Men för tillverkning av modulen och montering finns ett antal positive argument, bättre kontroll av inre miljö (arbetsmiljö), effektivt utnyttjande av råmaterial, och effektivatransporter. Jämfört med konventionellt byggande så är risken för uppkomst av fuktproblem små för modulstrukturen.Det bästa alternativet för avfallshantering av sandwichmodulen är återanvändning. Andra alternativ är materialåtervinning av glasfiber i kombination med energiutvinning av polyesteroch kärnmaterial. För studie av brandsäkerhet presenteras resultat från ett nyligen genomfört fullskaleförsök avbrand i en passagerarhytt på ett sandwichfartyg. Resultatet visar på möjligheten att med rätt brandisolering designa en sandwichstruktur med hög säkerhet mot brand.

  • 6.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Bus Structure2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of light weight materials are increasing especially for transporting applications as different types of vehicles. Though, the cost for production may increase due to higher material cost this can be beneficial in other parts of the product life cycle, especially the operation phase. By using light weight materials the structural weight decreases, which can be utilized either as reduced fuel consumption, increased payload, increased speed or increased range. This have been demonstrated in a number of projects especially concerning ship structures were both life cycle cost and environmental analysis has shown the benefits with light weight materials in composite sandwich structures and aluminium structures.

    In this study a bus structure originally manufactured in steel is investigated. The new lightweight structure is produced in sandwich technique with face in glass fibre polyester and different core materials, PET, PVC and PS depending on location in the structure. Life cycle cost analysis, LCCA, has been made to compare the steel structure with the sandwich structure. Included phases of the life cycle are production, operation and disposal.

    The result from the analysis results in a decrease of life cycle cost by 3 to 4% depending on the fuel price and the fuel consumption. The production cost for the sandwich structure is slightly higher, 4%, than the steel structure. This is explained by the higher material costs for the sandwich structure.

    By identifying the break-even point it is clearly shown that a decrease by two year, from year 4,5 to 6,5, is the result when doubling the fuel price, 1 €/litre to 2 €/litre. This is explained by the weight decrease of 5% for the total weight giving lower fuel consumption for the light weight structure by 5%.

  • 7.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ship Structures2008Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Life Cycle Cost and Environmental Analysis for Cruising Ship Superstructure2011Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Life Cycle Perspective for Light Weight Ship Structures in Terms of Cost and Environmental Effects2009In: International Conference on Light Weight Design for Marine Structures, 7-8 September 2009, Glasgow, U.K, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of light weight material is increasing, especially for transport applications resulting in reduced fuel consumption. In the Swedish project LASS, Lightweight construction applications at sea, a number of different types of ships have been studied with emphasis to improve efficiency by reducing structural weight. One part of the project encompasses investigation of life cycle effects to demonstrate the environmental benefits and economic potentials when changing from traditional materials to lightweight materials. All included ship structures are analysed with life cycle cost analysis, LCCA and one of the structures is also investigated environmentally through life cycle assessment, LCA. In all cases the effectiveness in fuel economy is increased. For one of the ship structures, a high speed craft a weight saving around 40% results in decreased operation cost with 20% over 20 year of use. The weight savings can also be utilized as an increase in payload resulting in decreased energy consumption per transported payload. This is the case for a Ro-Ro ship investigated, resulting in a break-even after about 4 year when changing from steel to aluminium of the superstructure.

  • 10.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Measurable indicators and matematical modelling: EU CargoXpress2009Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Waste Handling Alternatives for a Bus Structure  in FRP-Sandwich2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increasing environmental demands, especially on treatment of products end of life phase, product manufacturers and designers must consider the future disposal of their products. For conventional materials like steel and aluminium well organized methods for recycling exists. This is not yet the circumstances polymer composite materials, used more extensively, especially for transporting structures. Several techniques do exist but they are not yet commercially available. The current disposal methods of polymer composites are landfill and incineration.

    Here, disposal of a composite sandwich bus structure is studied, using an information model for assessing possible techniques for polymer composite material waste. This model is based on internal factors, which are related to the waste and to the processes. To implement the model relevant waste properties must be identified in order to fulfil the conditions set by the required processes involved.

    The result from using the information model shows that several methods are possible. Since three different core materials are used in the structure these must for some of the waste treatments be separated dependent on the use of the recycled material. For mechanical material recycling separation of the core material is recommended. Material recycling by cement manufacturing does not allow material containing PVC, which then must be separated. For several methods, the waste property CHEM, chemical composition, heat value and ash content must be analyzed. These methods are incineration with energy recovery, material recycling and energy/chemical recovery by fluidized bed or pyrolysis, material recycling by cement manufacturing and hydrolysis.

    A recommendation for design of the bus structure to facilitate the disposal treatment is to use the same type of core material through the structure and to decrease the use of PVC-core, since it needs specific consideration.

  • 12.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Bazaz, Kushink
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Hou, Qianqian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Forecast for future cost increases, material, labor and fuel: EU CargoXpress2011Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Access of hazardous and metallic integrated objects at dismantling of sandwich ship structures through effective information handling2006In: / [ed] Smit PK et al, ASRANet Ltd , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Conditions for recycling and recovery of composite materials2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For composite material as a relative new material group no market for recycled material exists. But with increasing use in structures this will hopefully change. Recycling of composites is also more complicated compared to recycling of traditional structural materials as steel and aluminium since they contain a mixture of fibre and polymeric materials. It is therefore important to identify all conditions that will influence the recycling and recovery of composite materials. These conditions can be divided into internal and external factors.

    Internal factors are knowledge necessary for implementing the technique and to receive a good result in the end. These factors can be identified through a recently completed project with the aim to form guidelines for material recycling and energy recovery of different composite materials. Here also the economy and the environmental effects for the different recycling alternatives were studied. The results pointed out material recycling as the best alternative for almost all included materials. Examples of internal factors necessary for energy recovery are methods for cutting up the waste, material size before incineration, appropriate incineration temperature and heat value.

    Before deciding for material recycling or energy recovery there are other types of factors that will influence the choice. These external factors, also known as push and pull factors, are discussed in this paper. Examples are amount of waste, laws and regulations, age of product and type of design.

     

  • 15.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Metal inserts and hazardous content in light weight composite structures in the context of recycling2006In: 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering / [ed] Deflou, J. et al., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer composite materials present many favourable properties. The low density results in high specific strength and stiffness, which makes these materials very interesting for applications within the transport field, including vehicles on land, at see and in air. Recently introduced legislation regarding waste treatment has put large demands on composite material producers and users. Although several methods exist they are not yet commercially available since composites is a rather new type of material. The waste treatment is complicated since composite materials consist of several materials, fibre, polymer matrix and additives. A model has therefore been proposed for assessing the different waste disposal techniques. The model focuses on the internal factors, which are defined as factors related directly to the waste and the processes of treatment in form of waste and process properties. In this paper two of these waste properties are identified as strategic for disposal of composite materials. These are the waste properties describing metal and hazardous content, MET and HAZ. To facilitate for future disposal two types of labels are suggested for these waste properties. The issue then is to decide the coordinates for how much information is needed and for whom. What, where and how?

  • 16.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Reinoldsson, Per
    Industry.
    Environmentally friendly recycling of FRP-sandwich ship hulls2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibre composite material and sandwich structures are used more extensively especially for transporting structures, vehicles and vessels. This group of materials is young compared to the traditional metallic structural materials. Thus, experience for end of life treatment is missing for these new materials. Increasing environmental demands from customers and authorities forces the manufacturers to act.

    In this study a model for assessing possible disposal techniques is demonstrated for a sandwich hull from the Visby Class Corvette. The model is based on waste properties and conditions set by the processes involved in the different disposal techniques. Six different disposal techniques are investigated, from reuse to landfill. For the studied structure they are all possible to carry out.

    When considering external factors as market only two of them are possible today, energy recovery by waste incineration and landfill. According to the waste hierarchy set by the authorities for minimising environmental effects these methods are not on top of the list. Hopefully industrially techniques for material recycling will exists when this sandwich hull is actual for disposal.

  • 17.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Reinoldsson, Per
    Industry.
    Outline of guidelines for recycling and recovery of FRP composites2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibre composite materials and sandwich constructions are used in many applications for their excellent strength to weight ratio. Their properties are best utilized in transporting structures since the structural weight is reduced and thereby resulting in decreased energy consumption when use of the product. However composite materials are claimed being difficult to recycle and recover since they contain a combination of several material, fibers surrounded by a polymeric thermoset matrix. To investigate the possibilities for material recycling and energy recovery a project with the aim of forming guidelines was performed. Here different recycling and recovery scenarios were economically and environmentally analyzed. The results were formed as guidelines that pointed out material recycling as the best choice for almost all materials included in the study. To implement these results in reality more information about the recycling activity must be known. These former guidelines will therefore be developed. For example it is necessary to inform about proper material size before granulating. It is important to have knowledge about the content of hazardous substance in the material for considering the possibility of material recycling. In this paper an outline for forming of guidelines is presented, were all necessary information needed for successful recycling and recovery is included

  • 18.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Model for End of Life Treatment of Polymer Composite Materials2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of increasing environmental demands, especially on dealing with products end of life phase, product manufacturers and designers must consider the future disposal of their products. For conventional materials like steel and aluminium well-functioning recycling methods exists. This is not the case for structures of polymer composites, which are used more extensively, especially for structures like vehicles and vessels. Several techniques do exist but they are not yet commercially available. The current disposal methods of polymer composites are landfill and incineration.

    Polymer composites are materials, which consist of several materials like fibre, matrix, and additives. In the form of sandwich constructions also foam core material is added. This circumstance complicates the waste treatment of composite materials. In this thesis a model for assessing possible future waste treatment techniques for polymer composites including sandwich structures is presented. The model is meant to be used as an aid for preparing future disposal for end of life products for planning waste treatment and for facilitating communication in contacts with waste receivers.

    Recommendations for waste treatment have been formed for a number of polymer composites. These recommendations are based on the analysis of costs and environmental effects and they compare different scenarios for mechanical material recycling and energy recovery by waste incineration. The result of this study points out material recycling as the preferable method for the main part of the studied materials. But this recommendation is strongly dependent on type of virgin material replaced by the recycled material. Energy recovery can also be considered if the polymer composite waste replaces coal, which is non renewable. Though incineration will always result in a cost for the waste producer.

    In the recommendations mentioned above no information concerning implementation of the different waste disposal techniques is included. Therefore, in this study a model for assessing possible waste disposal techniques for polymer composites is presented. The model is based on internal factors, which are related to the waste and to the processes. To implement the model relevant waste properties must be identified in order to fulfil the conditions set by the required processes involved.

    A case study was carried out using the proposed model for assessing different waste disposal techniques for the hull of the Visby Class Corvette in the Royal Swedish Navy. Six different techniques were studied for the hull structure. Since almost all the important waste properties were known and the waste was assessed to be treatable all the included techniques except one are shown to be usable in the future.

    Many investigations have pointed out material recycling as the best alternative considering environmental effects. This is also valid for polymer composite materials. Since recycling polymer composites is a complicated process, especially recycling thermoset composite it is important to aquire comprehensive information about the constituents of these materials.

  • 19.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Why Lightweight Ro-Pax?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Umair, Shakila
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle cost and environmental effect analysis for a Ro-Pax superstructure in composite material2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Recycling of Composites: Guidelines based on Cost and Life Cycle Assessment2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Reinholdsson, P.
    Environmental friendly recycling of FRP-sandwich ship hulls2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibre composite material and sandwich structures are used more extensively especially for transporting structures, vehicles and vessels. This group of materials is young compared to the traditional metallic structural materials. Thus, experience for end of life treatment is missing for these new materials. Increasing environmental demands from customers and authorities forces the manufacturers to act. In this study a model for assessing possible disposal techniques is demonstrated for a sandwich hull from the Visby Class Corvette. The model is based on waste properties and conditions set by the processes involved in the different disposal techniques. Six different disposal techniques are investigated, from reuse to landfill. For the studied structure they are all possible to carry out. When considering external factors as market only two of them are possible today, energy recovery by waste incineration and landfill. According to the waste hierarchy set by the authorities for minimising environmental effects these methods are not on top of the list. Hopefully industrially techniques for material recycling will exists when this sandwich hull is actual for disposal.

  • 23.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Olsson, Karl-Axel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    A comparative LCA Study on a Boat Structure1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Olsson, Karl-Axel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Fatigue Testing Techniques for Ductile Core Material1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Olsson, Karl-Axel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Recycling and LCA Studies of FRP-Sandwich structures1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Innovative Vessel, The CargoXpress2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside the economic growth demands for further use of resources increase as well. As a result of this transportation of industrial products all over the world will also increase, in particular through shipping. In this study a new innovative concept for transport of cargo, the CargoXpress vessel, is presented and analysed over the life cycle in terms of costs and environmental effects. In the life cycle cost analysis the influence of future price scenarios for LNG-fuel and structural material is investigated through sensitivity analysis. For the environmental study life cycle assessment is used according to ISO 14044:2006. In direct comparative analysis the environmental impacts and costs over the life cycle of the new vessel is compared to road transport by truck. Then also analysis is made by selecting different existing transport scenarios were the new vessel is compared to road transports. The results from both cost and environmental analysis clearly present benefits for transporting goods with the CargoXpress vessel. Regarding the cost several factors in combination plays an important role for the outcome as initial investment cost, price development of fuel and interest rate. For the environmental analysis the innovative vessel is shown to be the preferable alternative.

  • 27.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Bazaz, Kushink
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Bergström, Martin
    Center of Maritime Technologies e.V. , Hamburg.
    Life cycle cost and environmental assessment for the new competitive vessel2012Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Bazaz, Kushink
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Bergström, Martin
    Center of Maritime Technologies e.V. , Hamburg.
    Results of competing transport scenarios road- transport versus maritime transport2012Report (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hedlund Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    The Composite Superstructure Concept: An Environment-Friendly & Cost Efficient Approach2010In: RINA, Royal Institution of Naval Architects - Ship Design and Operation for Environmental Sustainability - Papers, 2010, p. 17-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003 the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, VINNOVA, made a call for research applications within the area of “Lightweight Materials and Lightweight Design”. The aim was to support a transition from high density construction materials to more sophisticated lightweight materials and to create networks of organisations (industry, research, authorities...) into a Technical Platform of various and complementary knowledge and know-how that could both support and sustain the said transition.The combination of a strong industrial interest and the need for fire safety design was the basis for SP Fire Technology to prepare and send an application to VINNOVA entitled “Lightweight construction applications at sea” (LASS). The core task described in the application was to investigate technically and economically four different vessels where appropriate parts had been re-designed using lightweight materials.The initial objects for study were:    A 24 m all composite passenger HSC (high speed craft)    An 88 m aluminium high speed catamaran with an FRP composite superstructure    A 199 m RoRo vessel with an aluminium deck house    A 188 m RoPax vessel with an FRP composite superstructure. Two additional objects were later introduced into the project:    An 89 meter dry cargo freight vessel with parts in FRP composite    An offshore living quarter (LQ) module in aluminium. The application was accepted by VINNOVA in the autumn of 2004 and the kick-off meeting was held in Borås in January 2005. The project officially ended the 30th of June, 2008.

  • 30.
    Ma, Jijie
    et al.
    College of Engineering, Zhejiang Normal University, China.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Lyu, Yezhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Leonardi, Mara
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, Italy.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    ECO DESIGN OF BRAKE PADS WITH RECYCLED FRICTION MATERIALS2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Tasala Gradin, Katja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Evaluation of an Eco Audit tool - through an LCA of a novel car disc brake2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, NordDesign 2018, The Design Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport of goods and people is increasing and causing strains on the environment. Road vehicles emit exhaust and non-exhaust emissions. One significant contributor to non-exhaust emissions is particulates generated through wear from braking. The particulates originate from the contact surfaces of the pad and the disc. Particulate emission is a known issue with considerable impacts on plant, animal, and human health. In the EU Horizon 2020 LOWBRASYS (a LOW environmental impact BRAke SYStem) project (LOWBRASYS, 2017), one of the objectives was to design a novel disc brake that reduces particulate generation during braking. One of the results is a novel disc brake with disc and pad-materials that indicate a significant decrease in particulate formation during use. This is accomplished by changing the materials of the contact pair regarding composition and coatings (Wahlström, Lyu, Matjeka, & Söderberg, 2017). Materials used in the disc brakes cause environmental impacts during their life cycle. Some parts and processes need for example critical raw materials such as tungsten, cobalt, and more (European Commission, 2017). This paper evaluates a material selection tool with an environmental perspective for product developers called Eco Audit (Ashby et al. 2008). This tool is featured in the CES Edu Pack software provided by Granta Design, Cambridge University (Granta 2018). The purpose of this study is to evaluate if the Eco Audit tool can provide a fast and valid impact assessment from an LCA perspective. Results of the Eco Audit compared to the SimaPro results indicate that it is possible to make valid conclusions. The validity of the tool is connected to the purpose of the study. If the purpose is to identify critical life cycle phases and environmental impacts, then the tool can accurately aid the user. It could potentially be difficult to make valid conclusions when assessing a product with more complex processes or advanced materials. The tool's strengths are the simplicity and easy accessibility for any user. The trade-off is precision, robustness, and representativeness of the target. 

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