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  • 1.
    Abele, Andreas
    et al.
    Continental Gmbd, Germany.
    Johansson, Rolf
    SP.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    Hull University, UK.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical Univ of Berlin.
    Servat, David
    CEA, France.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Technische Universit¨at Berlin, DE.
    The CVM framework: A prototype tool for compositional variability management2010In: Proceeding of: Fourth International Workshop on Variability Modelling of Software-Intensive Systems, 2010, p. 101-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article announces the first public release ofan experimental research tool for variability management,called “CVM framework” and provides an overview of thetool’s capabilities and architecture.

  • 2.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Pelc, Mariusz
    University of Greenwich.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Context-Aware Adaptation in DySCAS2009In: Electronic Communications of the EASST, ISSN 1863-2122, E-ISSN 1863-2122, ISSN 1863-2122, Vol. 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DySCAS is a dynamically self-configuring middleware for automotivecontrol systems. The addition of autonomic, context-aware dynamic configurationto automotive control systems brings a potential for a wide range of benefits in termsof robustness, flexibility, upgrading etc. However, the automotive systems representa particularly challenging domain for the deployment of autonomics concepts, havinga combination of real-time performance constraints, severe resource limitations,safety-critical aspects and cost pressures. For these reasons current systems are staticallyconfigured. This paper describes the dynamic run-time configuration aspectsof DySCAS and focuses on the extent to which context-aware adaptation has beenachieved in DySCAS, and the ways in which the various design and implementationchallenges are met.

  • 3.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems2009In: Autonomic Communication / [ed] Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; Parashar, Manish; Karnouskos, Stamatis; Pedrycz, Witold, Springer US , 2009, p. 169-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  • 4.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Leonhardi, Alexander
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Burton, Simon
    Redell, Ola
    Enea Data AB.
    Weber, Alexander
    Vollmer, Vasco
    A Future Dynamically Reconfigurable Automotive Software System2008In: Proceedings of the Elektronik im Kraftfahrzeug, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current systems employ a static run-time environment; due to the difficulty and cost involved in the development of dynamic systems in a high-integrity embedded control context. A dynamic system, referring to the system configuration, would greatly increase the flexibility of the offered functionality and enable customised software configuration for individual vehicles, adding customer value through plug-and-play capability, and increased quality due to its inherent ability to adjust to changes in hardware and software. We envisage an automotive system containing a variety of components, from a multitude of organizations, not necessarily known at development time. The system dynamically adapts its configuration to suit the run-time system constraints.This paper presents our vision for future automotive control systems that will be regarded in an EU research project, referred to as DySCAS (Dynamically Self-Configuring Automotive Systems). We propose a self-configuring vehicular control system architecture, with capabilities that include automatic discovery and inclusion of new devices, self-optimisation to best-use the processing, storage and communication resources available, self-diagnostics and ultimately self-healing. Such an architecture has benefits extending to reduced development and maintenance costs, improved passenger safety and comfort, and flexible owner customisation.Specifically, this paper addresses the following issues: The state of the art of embedded software systems in vehicles, emphasising the current limitations arising from fixed run-time configurations; and the benefits and challenges of dynamic configuration, giving rise to opportunities for self-healing, self-optimisation, and the automatic inclusion of users’ Consumer Electronic (CE) devices. Our proposal for a dynamically reconfigurable automotive software system platform is outlined and a typical use-case is presented as an example to exemplify the benefits of the envisioned dynamic capabilities.

  • 5.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Ward, Paul
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Hawthorne, James
    The University of Greenwich.
    Mariusz, Pelc
    The University of Greenwich.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    A Middleware Approach to Dynamically Configurable Automotive Embedded Systems2008In: ISVCS 2008: The First Annual International ICST Symposium on Vehicular Computing Systems, EUDL - European Union Digital Library , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an advanced dynamically configurable middleware for automotive embedded systems. The layered architecture of the middleware, and the way in which core and optional services provide transparency and flexible platform independent support for portability, is described. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, performance and safety challenges of the automotive domain. The use of policies to achieve flexible run-time configuration is explained with reference to the core policy technology which has been extended and adapted specifically for this project. The component model is described, focussing on how the configuration logic is distributed throughout the middleware and application components, by inserting ‘decision points’ wherever deferred logic or run-time context-sensitive configuration is required. Included in this discussion are the way in which context information is automatically provided to policies to inform context-aware behaviour; the dynamic wrapper mechanism which isolates policies, provides transparency to software developers and silently handles run-time errors arising during dynamic configuration operations.

  • 6.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    AVL List GmbH.
    Bonnet, Stephane
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Duffau, Laurent
    Airbus Operations SAS.
    Fenu, Gianfranco
    Universita degli Studi di Trieste.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V..
    Keis, Andreas
    EADS Deutschland GmbH.
    Kundner, Ingrid
    AVL List GmbH.
    Lau, Kung-Kiu
    The University of Manchester.
    Malot, Marc
    Sagem Défense Sécurité.
    Örtel, Markus
    OFFIS e. V..
    Paganelli, Fabien
    Sagem Défense Sécurité.
    Pantel, Marc
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Priggouris, Nikolaos
    Hellenic Aerospace Industry S.A..
    Rajan, Ajitha
    Oxford University.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.
    Rossignol, Alain
    ASTRIUM SAS.
    Silva, Adeline
    Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vasaiely, Parham
    EADS Deutschland GmbH.
    Wahl, Thomas
    Oxford University.
    Introduction2013In: CESAR: Cost-efficient Methods and Processes for Safety-relevant Embedded Systems / [ed] Ajitha Rajan, Thomas Wahl, Springer, 2013, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The embedded safety-critical system design and development industries are facing ever-increasing demands regarding the variety and flexibility of systems and devices from society. At a technical level, these demands result in more and more complex solutions that, at the same time, need to abide by stringent regulatory requirements and economic challenges, such as cost, performance and time to market.  

  • 7.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Beyond Wasserman2011In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops / [ed] Camille Salinesi, Oscar Pastor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, p. 270-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical development environment today consists of many specialized development tools, which are partially integrated, forming a complex tool landscape with partial integration. Traditional approaches for reasoning about tool integration are insufficient to measure the degree of integration and integration optimality in today’s complex tool landscape. This paper presents a reference model that introduces dependencies between, and metrics for, integration aspects to overcome this problem. This model is used to conceive a method for reasoning about tool integration and identify improvements in an industrial case study. Based on this we are able to conclude that our reference model does not detract value from the principles that it is based on, instead it highlights improvements that were not well visible earlier. We conclude the paper by discussing open issues for our reference model, namely if it is suitable to use during the creation of new systems, if the used integration aspects can be subdivided further to support the analysis of secondary issues related to integration, difficulties related to the state dependency between the data and process aspects within the context of developing embedded systems and the analysis of non-functional requirements to support tool integration.

  • 8.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Qualifying Software Tools, a Systems Approach2012In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 340-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern safety standards designed to ensure safety in embedded system products often take a descriptive approach, focusing on describing appropriate requirements on management, processes, methods and environments during development. While the qualification of software tools has been included in several such standards, how to handle the safety implications of tools integrated into tool chains has been largely ignored. This problem is aggravated by an increase both in automation of tool integration and the size of development environments.

    In this paper we define nine safety goals for tool chains and suggest a qualification method that takes a systems approach on certifying software tools as parts of tool chains. With this method, software tools are developed and pre-qualified under the assumption that certain properties will be supported by the development environment they are to be deployed in. The proposed method is intended to (1) achieve a stronger focus on the relevant parts of tool chains in regard to safety and (2) separate the extra effort these parts imply from the effort already stipulated by safety standards.

  • 9.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties2012In: 30th International System Safety Conference Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) of a tool chain from an industrial case study. This tool chain was then reanalyzed and redesigned twice, in part motivated by identified hazards.

    This paper presents our experiences from applying STPA to safety-guided design in the context of integrating COTS engineering tools into tool chains. We discuss the benefits of and difficulties with applying STPA. We also suggest improvements that complement STPA with support methods and tools.

    The primary benefit was the support in categorizing risks and causes. The three difficulties we encountered were identifying context-specific causal factors, defining control structures across several domains (management, user, technical, etc.) and limiting the domains taken into account. The use of STPA during safety-guided design would be facilitated by the use of expert systems and simulation, especially in regard to relating different domains.

  • 10.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The Discourse on Tool Integration Beyond Technology, A Literature Survey2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 106, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tool integration research area emerged in the 1980s. This survey focuses on those strands of tool integration research that discuss issues beyond technology.

     

    We reveal a discourse centered around six frequently mentioned non-functional properties. These properties have been discussed in relation to technology and high level issues. However, while technical details have been covered, high level issues and, by extension, the contexts in which tool integration can be found, are treated indifferently. We conclude that this indifference needs to be challenged, and research on a larger set of stakeholders and contexts initiated.

     

    An inventory of the use of classification schemes underlines the difficulty of evolving the classical classification scheme published by Wasserman. Two frequently mentioned redefinitions are highlighted to facilitate their wider use.

     

    A closer look at the limited number of research methods and the poor attention to research design indicates a need for a changed set of research methods. We propose more critical case studies and method diversification through theory triangulation.

     

    Additionally, among disparate discourses we highlight several focusing on standardization which are likely to contain relevant findings. This suggests that open communities employed in the context of (pre-)standardization could be especially important in furthering the targeted discourse.

  • 11.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 12.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York.
    McDermid, John A.
    University of York.
    The Need for a Confidence View of CPS Support Environments (Fast Abstract)2015In: Proceedings of HASE 2015, The 16th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 273-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-View Modelling Integration Frameworks (MVMIFs) may help mitigate complexity associated with the development of CPS, but may also have implications on safety. Safety-related standards do not provide guidance to mitigate this problem. We therefore suggest that MVMIFs are extended with a confidence view to support the creation of an assurance case that covers issues related to risks in the support environment.

  • 13. Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). The SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective2016In: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, p. 1669-1681Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

  • 15.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A functional architecture for autonomous driving2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of self-driving vehicles increase, it is necessary to investigate the Electrical/Electronic(E/E) system architectures for autonomous driving, beyond proof-of-concept prototypes. Relevant patterns and anti-patterns need to be raised into debate and documented. This paper presents the principal components needed in a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with reasoning for how they should be distributed across the architecture. A functional architecture integrating all the concepts and reasoning is also presented.

  • 16.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Functional Reference Architecture for Autonomous Driving2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 73, p. 136-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    As autonomous driving technology matures towards series production, it is necessary to take a deeper look at various aspects of electrical/electronic (E/E) architectures for autonomous driving.

    Objective

    This paper describes a functional architecture for autonomous driving, along with various considerations that influence such an architecture. The functionality is described at the logical level, without dependence on specific implementation technologies.

    Method

    Engineering design has been used as the research method, which focuses on creating solutions intended for practical application. The architecture has been refined and applied over a five year period to the construction of protoype autonomous vehicles in three different categories, with both academic and industrial stakeholders.

    Results

    The architectural components are divided into categories pertaining to (i) perception, (ii) decision and control, and (iii) vehicle platform manipulation. The architecture itself is divided into two layers comprising the vehicle platform and a cognitive driving intelligence. The distribution of components among the architectural layers considers two extremes: one where the vehicle platform is as "dumb" as possible, and the other, where the vehicle platform can be treated as an autonomous system with limited intelligence. We recommend a clean split between the driving intelligence and the vehicle platform. The architecture description includes identification of stakeholder concerns, which are grouped under the business and engineering categories. A comparison with similar architectures is also made, wherein we claim that the presence of explicit components for world modeling, semantic understanding, and vehicle platform abstraction seem unique to our architecture.

    Conclusion

    The concluding discussion examines the influences of implementation technologies on functional architectures and how an architecture is affected when a human driver is replaced by a computer. The discussion also proposes that reduction and acceleration of testing, verification, and validation processes is the key to incorporating continuous deployment processes.

  • 17.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Educating embedded systems hackers: A practitioner's perspective2014In: 2014 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2014 - Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some practical skills which bridge the gap between a sound theoretical education in embedded systems and the skillset acquired by experienced practitioners in the field. The presentation of each skill is accompanied by common solution patterns, state-of-practice technologies, and a set of exercises to provide practical uptake of each skill.

  • 18.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Systems Engineering and Architecting for Intelligent Autonomous Systems2017In: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Watzenig, Daniel, Horn, Martin, Springer, 2017, p. 313-351Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of architecture and systems engineeringfor autonomous driving system, through a set of complementaryperspectives. For practitioners, a short term perspective uses the state of theart to dene a three layered functional architecture for autonomous driving,consisting of a vehicle platform, a cognitive driving intelligence, and o-board supervisory and monitoring services. The architecture is placed withina broader context of model based systems engineering (MBSE), for which wedene four classes of models: Concept of Operations, Logical Architecture,Application Software Components, and Platform Components. These classesaid an immediate or subsequent MBSE methodology for concrete projects.Also for concrete projects, we propose an implementation setup and technologiesthat combine simulation and implementation for rapid testing of autonomousdriving functionality in physical and virtual environments. Futureevolution of autonomous driving systems is explored with a long term perspectivelooking at stronger concepts of autonomy like machine consciousnessand self-awareness. Contrasting these concepts with current engineering practicesshows that scaling to more complex systems may require incorporatingelements of so-called constructivist architectures. The impact of autonomy onsystems engineering is expected to be mainly around testing and verication,while implementations shall continue experiencing an in ux of technologiesfrom non-automotive domains.

  • 19.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A reference architecture for cooperative driving2013In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, no 10: Part C, p. 1095-1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

  • 20.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Izosimov, Viacheslav
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A Functional Brake Architecture for Autonomous Heavy Commercial Vehicles2016In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, SAE International , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy commercial vehicles constitute the dominant form of inland freight transport. There is a strong interest in making such vehicles autonomous (self-driving), in order to improve safety and the economics of fleet operation. Autonomy concerns affect a number of key systems within the vehicle. One such key system is brakes, which need to remain continuously available throughout vehicle operation. This paper presents a fail-operational functional brake architecture for autonomous heavy commercial vehicles. The architecture is based on a reconfiguration of the existing brake systems in a typical vehicle, in order to attain dynamic, diversified redundancy along with desired brake performance. Specifically, the parking brake is modified to act as a secondary brake with capabilities for monitoring and intervention of the primary brake system. A basic fault tree analysis of the architecture indicates absence of single points of failure, and a reliability analysis shows that it is reasonable to expect about an order of magnitude improvement in overall system reliability. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

  • 21.
    Berntsson, Lars-Olof
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Cuenot, Philippe
    Siemens VDO.
    Donandt, Jörg
    Daimler AG.
    Eklund, Ulrich
    Volvo Cars.
    Freund, Ulrich
    ETAS GmbH.
    Frey, Patrick
    ETAS GmbH.
    Gérard, Sébastien
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Jansson, Pontus
    Mecel AB.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Selin, Dennis
    Volvo Cars.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Tessier, Patrick
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corp..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    EAST-ADL 2.0 Specification2008Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This specification of the EAST ADL 2.0 is based on the EAST-ADL developed in the EAST EEA projectand has been further refined and harmonized with on-going modelling appraches in the automotiveindustry. It presents the modeling infrastructure, i.e. how the modeling elements should be represented inthe language and the UML representation. For each package a usage example is provided.The EAST-ADL 2.0 is harmonized with AUTOSAR.The metamodel and UML profile of EAST ADL 2.0 is defined in two steps: A domain (automotive)metamodel is defined, capturing only the domain specific needs of the language, without adding the UML2details. The basic concepts of UML are used for this purpose, such as classes, compositions andassociations. Based on the domain metamodel, a UML2 profile for the domain metamodel is defined,specifying stereotypes with properties and constraints.Comments on the content of this document are welcomed, and should be directed to <coordinator@atesst.org>.Please download the latest available specification and the XMI file ready for use in UML2 tools from the <atesst.org> website.

  • 22.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    De-Jiu, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating safety analysis into the model-based development toolchain of automotive embedded systems2010In: ACM SIGPLAN Notices, ISSN 0362-1340, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has a growing demand for the seamless integration of safety analysis tools into the model-based development tool chain for embedded systems. This requires translating concepts of the automotive domain to the safety domain. We automate such a translation between the automotive architecture description language EAST-ADL2 and the safety analysis tool HiPHOPS by using model transformations and by leveraging the advantages of different model transformation techniques. By means of this integration, the safety analysis can be conducted early in the development process, when the system can be redesigned to fulfill safety goals with relatively low effort and cost.

  • 23.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Domain Specific Language for Generating Tool Integration Solutions2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based development of complex systems requires toolsupport for the dierent phases of the system life cycle. To allow for anecient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated.Despite the availability of modern tool integration platforms and frameworks,it is complex, labor-intensive and costly to build tool integrationsolutions. For managing the growing complexity of tool integration solutions,a need for systematic engineering arises. A missing piece is thehigh-level architectural description of tool integration solutions. We proposethe domain specic language TIL for describing tool integrationsolutions at a high level of abstraction. We propose an approach thattakes advantage of modeling technologies to systematize and automatethe process of building tool integration solutions. By automatically generatingintegration solutions from a TIL model, we can reduce the manualimplementation eort.

  • 24.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    On the modeling and generation of service-oriented tool chains2014In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 461-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains have grown from ad-hoc solutions to complex software systems, which often have a service-oriented architecture. With service-oriented tool integration, development tools are made available as services, which can be orchestrated to form tool chains. Due to the increasing sophistication and size of tool chains, there is a need for a systematic development approach for service-oriented tool chains. We propose a domain-specific modeling language (DSML) that allows us to describe the tool chain on an appropriate level of abstraction. We present how this language supports three activities when developing service-oriented tool chains: communication, design and realization. A generative approach supports the realization of the tool chain using the service component architecture. We present experiences from an industrial case study, which applies the DSML to support the creation of a service-oriented tool chain. We evaluate the approach both qualitatively and quantitatively by comparing it with a traditional development approach.

  • 25. Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Automated tailoring of application life-cycle management systems to existing development processes2013In: International Journal On Advances in Software, ISSN 1942-2628, E-ISSN 1942-2628, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    High-Level Specification and Code Generation for Service-Oriented Tool Adapters2012In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Science (ICCSA2012), 2012, p. 35-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of complex systems requires tool support for the different phases of the system life cycle. To allow for an efficient development process, the involved tools need to be integrated, e.g. by exchanging tool data or providing trace ability between the data. Despite the availability of tool integration platforms and frameworks, it is labor-intensive and costly to build tool integration solutions. Industrial tool integration initiatives such as OSLC (Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration) demand complex configurations and the adherence to integration standards. This further complicates building an integration solution. We propose an approach that uses formalized specifications to systematize tool integration and specialized code generators to automate the process of building tool adapters. We evaluate our approach with the implementation of a code generator that creates service-oriented tool adapters conforming to the OSLC industry initiative.

  • 27.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A modular tool integration approach: experiences from two case studies2010In: 3rd Workshop on Model-driven tool and Process Integration (MDTPI2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    In the model-driven development process of automotive embedded systems a number of specialized tools are used to support various development tasks. Each tool needs to work seamlessly with artifacts created by other tools to increase the efficiency of development. We identify desirable properties for integrating the data of different tools. We then propose an approach for decomposing the data integration into modular steps that fulfill these properties. We report our experiences from applying this approach to integrate simulation capabilities and functionality for safety analysis into a model-based development environment.

  • 28.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sosa, J. D.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Diaz, O.
    Efficient construction of presentation integration for web-based and desktop development tools2013In: 2013 IEEE 37th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), New York: IEEE , 2013, p. 697-702Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The engineering of software-intensive systems is supported by a variety of development tools. While development tools are traditionally desktop tools, they are more and more complemented and replaced by web-based development tools. The resulting blend of desktop and web-based tools is difficult to integrate into a seamless tool chain, which supports product development by data, control and presentation integration. Moreover, the construction of such tool chains is a significant engineering challenge. We propose an approach for the efficient, automated construction of tool chains, which integrate both web-based and desktop development tools; and provide a proof of concept of the approach in a case study. Our approach suggests that companies can selectively take advantage of hosted web-based development tools, while maintaining a seamless flow of integration with legacy desktop tools.

  • 29.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A cost-efficiency model for tool chains2012In: Global Software Engineering Workshops (ICGSEW), 2012 IEEE Seventh International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 6-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seamless integration of development tools can help to improve the productivity of software development and reduce development costs. When tool chains are used in the context of global software engineering, they are deployed as globally distributed systems. Tool chains have the potential to bring productivity gains but they are also expensive to realize. The decision to introduce a tool chain is often made based only on a qualitative analysis of the situation. More precise analysis of the trade-offs would be possible if a quantitative model describing the cost-efficiency of tool chains would be available. We apply the COCOMO model for cost analysis in combination with the TIL model for tool chain design to create a generic quantitative estimation model for predicting the cost-efficiency of tool chains. We validate the cost-efficiency model with a case study of an industrial tool chain.

  • 30.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An Estimation Model for the Savings Achievable by Tool Chains2012In: Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2012 IEEE 36th Annual, 2012, p. 488-492Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool chains are sought after by industry due to their promise to improve the productivity of software development by reducing costs. Despite these promises, there are few attempts to quantify costs and productivity improvements achievable with a tool chain. The decision for or against realizing a tool chain design requires a quantitative analysis of the economic benefits achievable with a tool chain. We apply the COCOMO model for cost estimation to create a quantitative model for predicting the cost-savings of tool chains. The cost-savings model can provide support for practitioners and decision makers when facing the decision to create a new tool chain.

  • 31.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An executable design decision representation using model transformations2010In: Proceedings - 36th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2010, Lille, 2010, p. 131-134Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Design decisions are often tacit knowledge of an architecture and consequently they are easily lost during software evolution, a phenomenon known as knowledge vaporization. As a countermeasure design decisions can be documented explicitly. However, documenting design decision is expensive because they need to be captured in addition to the changes in the architecture. We propose an executable representation for design decisions using model transformations which is independent of a particular component model or architectural description language. As a result we get all the advantages of explicitly captured design decisions such as the potential to reduce knowledge vaporization while preventing the high capturing cost since the corresponding architectural change can be computed automatically. The approach is illustrated by a case study in the context of embedded software architectures.

  • 32.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Constructing Tool Chains based on SPEM Process Models2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of embedded systems requires a number of tools and it is widely believed that integrating the tools into an automated tool chain can improve the productivity of development. However, tool chains are not accepted by practitioners if they are not aligned with the established development culture, processes and standards. Process models exist for a variety of reasons, i.e., for documenting, planning or tracking progress in a development project and SPEM is the standardized formalism by the OMG for this purpose. We explore in how far a SPEM process models can be used for creating the skeleton of a tool chain, which is aligned with the process. We identify a number of relationship patterns between the development process and its supporting tool chain and show how the patterns can be used for constructing a tool chain. In two case studies, we examine the practical applicability of the patterns, when tailoring the design of a tool chain to a development process.

  • 33.
    Broman, David
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley and Linköping University.
    Lee, Edward A.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Tripakis, Stavros
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Viewpoints, Formalisms, Languages, and Tools for Cyber-Physical Systems2012In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Multi-Paradigm Modeling (MPM), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 49-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are becoming indispensable in our modern way of life. As an application domain CPS is not new. As an intellectual discipline, however, it is. This paper focuses on CPS modeling, which is an essential activity in CPS design, with multiple challenges. In particular, stakeholders lack a systematic framework and guidelines to help them choose among the many available modeling languages and tools. We propose such a framework in this paper. Our framework consists of three elements: viewpoints, which capture the stakeholders’ interests and concerns; concrete languages and tools, among which the stakeholders must make a selection when defining their CPS design environments; and abstract, mathematical formalisms, which are the “semantic glue” linking the two worlds. As part of the framework, we survey various formalisms, languages, and tools and explain how they are related. We also provide examples of viewpoints and discuss how they are related to formalisms.

  • 34. Cancila, D.
    et al.
    Birk, W.
    Nuzzo, V.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stoycheva, M.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experiences and reflections on three years of CPS Summer schools within EIT digital2016In: 2016 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2016 - Organized as a Part of Embedded Systems Week, Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of current European Commission effort in term of educational innovation to reduce the gap between research and industry which still is a barrier to the economic development. Entrepreneurial innovation & education driving Europe's digital transformation (EIT Digital for short) is an European-based initiative fostering I&E (innovation and entrepreneurship) by integrating education, research and business at different educational levels. For instance in EIT master programmes, students work together with industries and academics to have a faster go-to-market of research results. Summer schools are part of the master programs; three of them have been organised related to CPS (cyber-physical systems), critical infrastructure and, more recently, Industry 4.0. Past and present events are discussed and the experience from these events is reported. It is further analysed how the general setup of the summer school program is affecting the educational aspects and achievement of the intended learning outcomes.

  • 35.
    Caspi, Paul
    et al.
    Verimag, France.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto
    Trento Univ, Italy.
    Almeida, Luiz
    Univ of Porto.
    Benveniste, Albert
    Inria, France.
    Buttazzo, Giorgio
    Univ. of Pisa, Italy.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    MDH, Västerås.
    Damm, Werner
    Offis, Germany.
    Kopetz, Hermann
    Vienna Univ, Austria.
    Sifakis, Josef
    Verimag, France.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Wellings, Andy
    York Univ, UK.
    Wilhelm, Reinhard
    Univ. of Saarbrucken, Germany .
    Guidelines for a curriculum on embedded software and systems2005In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 587-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of embedded real-time systems requires skills from multiple specific disciplines, including, but not limited to, control, computer science, and electronics. This often involves experts from differing backgrounds, who do not recognize that they address similar, if not identical, issues from complementary angles. Design methodologies are lacking in rigor and discipline so that demonstrating correctness of an embedded design, if at all possible, is a very expensive proposition that may delay significantly the introduction of a critical product. While the economic importance of embedded systems is widely acknowledged, academia has not paid enough attention to the education of a community of high-quality embedded system designers, an obvious difficulty being the need of interdisciplinarity in a period where specialization has been the target of most education systems. This paper presents the reflections that took place in the European Network of Excellence Artist leading us to propose principles and structured contents for building curricula on embedded software and systems.

  • 36. Chamberlain, R.
    et al.
    Taha, W.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Preface2019In: Cyber Physical Systems: Model-Based Design, Springer Verlag , 2019, p. vi-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Friesen, Viktor
    Daimler AG.
    Ekelin, Cecilia
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Developing a Context-aware Architecture in DySCAS2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems in vehicles are of rapidly increasing commercial importance for the automotive industry. Current vehicular embedded systems exhibit a fixed software structure and the possibilities for software upgrades are limited. Due to increasing expectations of context-awareness, dependability, flexibility, cost efficiency and time-to-market; we argue that it is now necessary to enable advanced features that are based on dynamic configuration.To reach the goals of dynamically self-configuring automotive systems, we propose an architecture which is currently being developed in the EC funded DySCAS project. We describe the proposed architecture, with a focus on its support for adaptive behavior. To illustrate the type and extent of adaptability achievable, a set of generic use case classes are briefly described and the requirements they place on the architecture and in particular the adaptive aspects, are discussed.The architecture is based on a distributed hierarchical control and decision strategy, which through the policy-based middleware functions and underlying technologies allows separation-of-concerns, on-line reconfiguration, seamless connectivity, plug-and-play capability, and also increased dependability and resource optimization. Decision points are concerned with both application and resource aspects and are dispersed throughout a distributed platform, allowing the embedding of numerous policies to make context-aware decisions whilst avoiding excessive complexity. The approach is scalable and provides additional freedom for engineers to define the dynamic configuration characteristics.The developed architecture is so far on a functional level and has been validated against system requirements. Current work concentrates on defining the corresponding software architecture, considering automotive platforms and constraints.

  • 38.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A Modeling Framework for Automotive Embedded Control Systems2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is part of a larger effort to define a modeling approach suitable for complex embedded control systems for which modeling techniques are in the progress of maturing. Modeling constitutes an indispensable part of engineering, forming an important basis for documentation, communication, and design automation. In order to describe and compare different modeling techniques, a framework has been developed. The current state of the framework is presented together with lessons learned. We will illustrate the framework with an automotive application. The framework combines a generic concept of systems and the modeling concepts that have been extracted from a study of 12 modeling approaches covering different levels of design and disciplines. Future work will refine the framework by studying additional modeling techniques and by considering more domain specific modeling needs in automotive systems.

  • 39.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB.
    Törner, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corp..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Modelling Support for Design of Safety-Critical Automotive Embedded Systems2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and demonstrates an approach that promises to bridge the gap between model-based systems engineering and the safety process of automotive embedded systems. The basis for this is the integration of safety analysis techniques, a method for developing and managing Safety Cases, and a systematic approach to model-based engineering - the EAST-ADL2 architecture description language. Three areas are highlighted: (I) System model development on different levels of abstraction. This enables fulfilling many requirements on software development as specified by ISO-CD-26262 (2) Safety Case development in close connection to the system model (3) Analysis of mal-functional behaviour that may cause hazards, by modelling of errors and error propagation in a (complex and hierarchical) system model.

  • 40.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Developing Dependable Automotive Embedded Systems using the EAST-ADL2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of embedded automotive systemscalls for a more rigorous approach to systemdevelopment compared to current state of practice. Acritical issue is the management of the engineeringinformation that defines the embedded system. TheEAST-ADL1 is an architecture description languagefor automotive embedded systems. The languageemphasizes information management as a basis forsystematic design and verification. It is currently beingrefined in the ATESST2 project.

  • 41.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    de Boer, Gerrit
    Bosch GmbH.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Naseer Qureshi, Tahir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Anthony, Richard
    The University of Greenwich.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Pihl, Claes
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Granath, Johan
    Movimento AB.
    Sandberg, Jonas
    Systemite AB.
    Helt, Albert
    Daimler AG.
    Jahnich, Isabell
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    DySCAS System Architecture2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This deliverable provides an architectural strategy and overall system design forthe DySCAS middleware system as a first step towards a complete systemspecification. The DySCAS Basic Architecture captures both the systemconceptualization and an initial function-level outline without consideringimplementation and technology details. It defines the middleware system in termsof its application and operational contexts, expected features, middleware servicesthat group functions, behaviours, as well as the structuring and implementationdecisions that are most crucial to satisfy the given set of requirements. In thisdocument, we also outline some fundamental strategies for binding themiddleware components to the target platforms and infrastructures and forhandling potential errors at both initialization-time and rum-time, while taking thetechnology support and domain needs into consideration.This deliverable also covers the rationale behind the architecture solutions andprovides a generic framework that relates architecture principles and styles, wellknownmechanisms, and reference models to the expected functionalities andqualities of DySCAS. The aim is to consolidate the proposed solutions and also tofacilitate the communications between DySCAS partners and to third-parties.

  • 42.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A metrics system for quantifying operational coupling in embedded computer control systems2004In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM international conference on Embedded software, 2004, p. 184-192Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One central issue in system structuring and quality prediction is the interdependencies of system modules. This paper proposes a novel technique for determining the operational coupling in embedded computer control systems. It allows us to quantify dependencies between modules, formed by different kinds of relationships in a solution, and therefore promotes a more systematic approach to the reasoning about modularity. Compared to other existing coupling metrics, which are often implementation-technology specific such as confining to the inheritance and method invocation relationships in OO software, this metrics system considers both communication and synchronization and can be applied throughout system design. The metrics system has two parts. The first part supports a measurement of coupling by considering individual relationship types separately. The quantification is performed by considering the topology of connections, as well as the multiplicity, replication, frequency, and accuracy of component properties that appear in a relationship. The second part provides a methodology for combining coupling by individual relationship types into an overall coupling, where domain specific heuristics and technology constraints are used to determine the weighting.

  • 43.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    A systematic approach for identifying operational relationships in embedded computer control systems2004In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE / [ed] Steinmetz R; Mauthe A, IEEE , 2004, p. 32-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded computer control systems are a kind of safety critical real-time system, formed by a synergetic integration of various functions, technologies, and engineering disciplines. To modularize the design and to define the embodiments of functional modules in terms of software components, a more precise modeling of systems and support for assessments of modularity and related tradeoffs in designs is necessary. However, little support exists in this area. Existing system models and modularity metrics such as coupling and cohesion are often either too general or too specific by targeting only a specific implementation technology. This paper proposes a meta-level model for the systems and a fine-grained classification of relationship patterns established by communication, synchronization, and implementation. The work emphasizes a system perspective and aims to support a more precise assessment of coupling, considered as one of the most important criterion for component creation and integration as well as structuring.

  • 44.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    System Architecture in a Mechatronics Perspective1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Machine Design.
    Towards A Framework for Architecting Mechatronics Software Systems2001In: Proceedings of 7th IEEE International Conferenceon Engineering of Complex Computer Systems / [ed] Andler, Sten F., Hinchey, Michael G., Offutt, Jeff, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2001, p. 170-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As mechatronics software systems become larger and more complex, the need to ensure system consistency and completeness with respect to the requirements and to manage system complexity becomes more important. From a system point of view, complexity depends on the number and the multiplicity of system constituent units and their relationships. In this paper, the initial results from our efforts to adopt the concept of software architecture in the development of mechatronics software systems for the purpose of managing complexity and ensuring system qualities are presented. A design framework for architecting mechatronics software systems is being developed. The design framework includes two models: (1) an architecture model, and (2) a decision model. The architecture model aims to provide an effective basis for managing complexity and performing architecture based system development. The decision model aims to provide a basis for reasoning about how to meet flexibility-related qualities in the development.

  • 46.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Elicitation of relevant analysis and V&V techniques2007Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this task is to collect engineering scenarios that is of particular concern for thelanguage and tool development work in ATESST. Such scenarios will form the basis for identifyingand formulating more detailed requirements as well as for supporting the verification and validationof project results.The task is carried out by both industrial and academic participants. The subtasks concerningscenario capturing are mainly performed by the industrial participants in order to embrace the endusers’demands and to ensure the industrial significances. The academic participants havecontributed a scheme for scenario description and consolidated the industrial inputs.This document provides a complete description of 36 engineering scenarios captured by theproject partners. It concludes with a list of requirements on EAST-ADL, which are derived eitherdirectly from these engineering scenarios or from other related domain and technologyconsiderations.

  • 47.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Towards Model-Based Engineering of Self-Configuring Embedded Systems2010In: Model-based engineering of embedded real-time systems / [ed] Giese, H; Karsai, G; Lee, E; Rumpe, B; Schatz, B, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, 1st Edition, Vol. 6100, p. 345-353Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In self-configuring embedded systems, upgrades, attachment of devices, relocation ofapplications and adjustment of performance parameters can be carried out during run-timefor the purposes of information/function integration, maintenance, performance, resourceefficiency, and robustness. We describe a model-based engineering approach to support thedevelopment of such systems. Essential ingredients include a combined usage of a systemmodel, simulation combined with a number of formal techniques, and run-time models used as a basis for on-line decision making, with the overall goal to ascertain flexible, yet dependable, system behavior.

  • 48.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Shi, Jianlin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Sébastien, Gérard
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Strömberg, Mikael
    Systemite AB.
    Årzen, Karl-Erik
    Lund University.
    Model integration in the development of embedded control systems - A characterization of current research efforts2006In: 2006 IEEE Conference on Computer-Aided Control System Design, Vols 1 and 2, IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. 283-289Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of advanced embedded control systems requires a systematic approach in handling their increasing complexity and in particular integration of the different aspects and parts of a product worked on by different experts. Several variants of model-based approaches are today advocated to facilitate systems integration. This paper describes a number of representative efforts that address multiple concerns or views including modeling languages such as AADL and EAST-ADL as well as model integration environments such as GeneralStore, ToolNet, and Fujaba. We present a characterization of the approaches and thereby highlight their commonalities and differences regarding basic integration mechanisms and engineering support. We conclude with a prospect for future work.

  • 49.
    Chen, Jinwei
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Hu, Zhenchao
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Jinzhi, Lu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Huisheng
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Mech Engn, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Sihan
    Beijing Inst Technol, Sch Mech Engn, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    An Open Source Lifecycle Collaboration Approach Supporting Internet of Things System Development2019In: 2019 14TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (SOSE), IEEE , 2019, p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The internet of things (IoT) system integrates heterogeneous systems using centric services to provide a single open solution to process sensor data. During the whole life cycle of IoT systems, developers face the problems of interface management and data interoperability led by increasing complexity. Such problems decrease the efficiency of IoT system development and implementation, such as interface configurations for domain specific systems are difficult if there is not a unified specification. This paper proposed an Open Services for Lifecycle Collaboration (OSLC) approach supporting IoT system development and implementation. The approach integrates domain specific data across the whole lifecycle including development models and sensor data. Moreover, it enables interface management for IoT system development and real-time monitoring for implementations. From the case study, we find an OSLC-based tool, Datalinks, supports data integration and interface management which improves the development efficiency and data interoperability of IoT systems. The integrated data based on OSLC acts the mid-wares of data exchange between physical space and virtual space of IoT system. Moreover, the OSLC-based interfaces are developed based on unified specifications whose reusability is promoted for the future development.

  • 50. Cuenot, P.
    et al.
    Frey, P.
    Johansson, R.
    Lönn, H.
    Servat, D.
    Kolagari, R. T.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Weber, M.
    Engineering support for automotive embedded systems beyond autosar2009In: AutoTechnology, ISSN 1616-8216, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 46-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future de-facto standard for automotive Electric/Electronic (E/E) software architectures of the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (Autosar) initiative is gaining momentum in the automotive industry. This is manifested by the fact that vehicle manufacturers and Tier-1 suppliers are committed to this standard. The initiative's main focus is on software (SW) components at implementation level. EAST-ADL2 is an architecture description language, which is based on Autosar concepts and extends the initiative towards a system engineering approach for automotive embedded software.

1234 1 - 50 of 199
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