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  • 1. Amezaga, J.
    et al.
    Baresel, C.
    Destouni, G.
    Göbel, J.
    Gren, I.-M.
    Hannerz, F.
    Larsén, L.
    Loredo, J.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Nuttall, C.
    Santamaria, L.
    Veselie, M.
    Wolkersdorfer, C.
    Younger, P.
    Mining Impacts on the Fresh Water Environment: Technical and Managerial Guidelines for Catchment-Focused Remediation2004In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. S23, no 1, p. 1-80Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Determining sorption coefficients in intact rock using an electrical potential gradient as a driving force for migration2006In: Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management XXIX / [ed] VanIseghem, P, WARRENDALE, PA: MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY , 2006, Vol. 932, p. 975-982Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport of radionuclides in indigenous rock is greatly affected by the sorption of cations in the porous rock matrix. For the determination of sorption coefficients, batch experiments have traditionally been used. For these experiments, the rock sample is crushed into fine particles to reduce the experimental time. However, this procedure increases the specific surface area of the sample and the new surfaces created could have different sorption qualities than the naturally occurring surfaces, which may impair the results of sorption coefficient determinations. A new method for determining sorption coefficients in intact rock is being developed, using electromigration as a means to speed up the transport process, thereby allowing for faster equilibration between the rock sample and the tracer solution. Here, we report results from preliminary experiments, using cesium as a sorbing tracer, showing a consistent difference between sorption coefficients obtained using electromigration methods on intact rock samples and traditional batch experiments on crushed samples.

  • 3.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Determination of sorption properties of intact rock samples: New methods based on electromigration2009In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 103, no 3-4, p. 71-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new methods for determining sorption coefficients in large rock samples have been developed. The methods use electromigration as a means to speed up the transport process, allowing for fast equilibration between rock sample and tracer solution. An electrical potential gradient acts as a driving force for transport in addition to the concentration gradient and forces the cations through the rock sample towards the cathode. The electrical potential gradient induces both electromigration and electroosmotic flow with a resulting solute transport that is large compared to diffusive fluxes. In one of the methods, the solute is driven through the sample and collected at the cutlet side. In the other, simpler method, the rock sample is equilibrated by circulating the solute through the sample. The equilibration of rock samples, up to 5 cm in length, with an aqueous solution has been accomplished within days to months. Experiments using cesium as a sorbing tracer yield results consistent with considerably more time demanding in-diffusion experiments. These methods give lower distribution coefficients than those obtained using traditional batch experiments with crushed rock. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Rapid surface area determination of crystalline rock using impedance spectroscopyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Specific surface area determinations on intact drillcores and evaluation of extrapolation methods for rock matrix surfaces2009In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 110, no 1-2, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in crystalline bedrock is investigated in several countries. For this storage scenario, the host rock is the third and final barrier for radionuclide migration. Sorption reactions in the crystalline rock matrix have strong retardative effects on the transport of radionuclides. To assess the barrier properties of the host rock it is important to have sorption data representative of the undisturbed host rock conditions. Sorption data is in the majority of reported cases determined using crushed rock. Crushing has been shown to increase a rock samples sorption capacity by creating additional surfaces. There are several problems with such an extrapolation. In studies where this problem is addressed, simple models relating the specific surface area to the particle size are used to extrapolate experimental data to a value representative of the host rock conditions. In this article, we report and compare surface area data of five size fractions of crushed granite and of 100 mm long drillcores as determined by the Brunauer Emmet Teller (BET)-method using N-2-gas. Special sample holders that could hold large specimen were developed for the BET measurements. Surface area data on rock samples as large as the drillcore has not previously been published. An analysis of this data show that the extrapolated value for intact rock obtained from measurements on crushed material was larger than the determined specific surface area of the drillcores, in some cases with more than 1000%. Our results show that the use of data from crushed material and current models to extrapolate specific surface areas for host rock conditions can lead to over estimation interpretations of sorption ability. The shortcomings of the extrapolation model are discussed and possible explanations for the deviation from experimental data are proposed.

  • 6.
    André, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Neretnieks, Ivar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Measuring sorption coefficients and BET surface areas on intact drillcore and crushed granite samples2008In: Radiochimica Acta, ISSN 0033-8230, E-ISSN 2193-3405, Vol. 96, no 9-11, p. 673-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general sorption coefficients, K-d cat ion exchange capacity, CEC, and BET surface areas are measured on crushed rock samples because it is very time consuming to measure K-d and CEC on larger rock pieces as it takes a long time for the sorbing species to penetrate into and equilibrate a large sample. Also conventional sample holders for BET measurements are too small to hold a large sample. We have manufactured large sample holders for BET measurements and modified the equipment so that it is possible to measure BET surface areas on samples with 50 mm diameter and LIP to 100 mm length. Results are presented for intact pieces and compared to results on crushed material from the same drillcore. For K-d and CEC measurements we have developed a technique and equipment by which ions can be made to rapidly intrude into and equilibrate the internal surfaces of the same size samples as mentioned above. The method is based on electro-migration where the sample is placed between two vessels one with an anode and other with a cathode. The electric potential gradient drives the ions into and through the sample very much faster than molecular diffusion does. With Cs as the sorbing ion a few weeks were sufficient to equilibrate the 50 mm long sample. In previous diffusion experiments it took more than a year to equilibrate a 15 mm thick sample. A special mixing technique eliminates the development of low and high PH in the electrode compartments. K-d results from measurements on an intact drillcore are presented and comparison is made with results obtained on crushed material from the same bore core. The results from the sorption experiments are compared with the results from the BET surface area determinations in an attempt to evaluate the use of the BET surface area as a proxy for sorption behaviour.

  • 7. Banwart, S. A.
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrochemical modelling for preliminary assessment of minewater pollution2001In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 74, no 03-jan, p. 73-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conceptual model for preliminary assessment of minewater pollution within the risk-based corrective action (RBCA) framework for environmental management is developed. The model aims to assist classification of a site regarding the potential threat to the environment and help assess whether the assumptions used in this classification are appropriate. The model estimates contamination source strength, longevity and possible future changes in discharge quality and can be applied with sparse data sets. The model relates solute export in the discharge to source minerals which includes sulphide phases that produce acidity and metals contamination and carbonate and aluminosilicate phases which provide natural attenuation to neutralise acidity and immobilise metals. We present and apply limited data from three sites representing a mine rock waste deposit located above the water table, a flooded abandoned coal mine with deep workings and a mine tailings deposit. Results from the rock waste deposit indicate that calcite no longer provides significant attenuation of the present acidity load and that acid generation and associated loads of Cu2+ may persist for a period of up to two centuries. The abandoned coal mine has a discharge that is presently alkaline, with calcite depletion expected to occur before pyrite is consumed, possibly yielding a future drop in pH. The lifetime for these minerals is similar at this site, and on the order of several centuries, thus rendering the estimate of future water quality evolution very uncertain. The mill tailings deposit is expected to produce acidic discharge on a time scale of one century. However, conclusive quantification of calcite weathering was not possible, leaving open the possibility that the weathering of Mg-silicate minerals provides important attenuation of the present acidity load.

  • 8. Bruggeman, C.
    et al.
    Maes, N.
    Christiansen, B. C.
    Stipp, S. L. S.
    Breynaert, E.
    Maes, A.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Liu, X.
    Grambow, B.
    Schaefer, Th
    Redox-active phases and radionuclide equilibrium valence state in subsurface environments - New insights from 6th EC FP IP FUNMIG2012In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 404-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the 6th EC FP Integrated Project "Fundamental Processes of Radionuclide Migration'' (FUNMIG), progress has been made to improve knowledge about the phases and reaction mechanisms involved in complex reduction processes of radionuclide contaminants in natural subsurface environments. This review paper gives an overview of the achievements made by the research groups involved in this project, and puts the scope and results of the studies in a more global context. Firstly, both thermodynamic and experimental evidence show that green rust is present and reactive in subsurface groundwater with a composition that spans the Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox boundary. Green rust has been shown to reduce Np(V), Se(VI) and Se(IV), but the pathways for the redox processes and the reaction products that result are complicated, and change as a function of the reaction parameters. Secondly, considerable evidence has emerged that Se(IV) is reduced on Fe(II)-bearing minerals which are ubiquitous in subsurface environments. The stable Se valence state in the presence of FeS(2) has been shown to be Se(0). Also, natural dissolved humic substances that contain sufficient electron donating capacity are capable of interacting with, and possibly reducing, Se(IV) to lower valence states. Thirdly, the influence of HCO(3)(-) and organic ligands on the uptake and reduction of U(VI) on Fe(II)-bearing minerals was investigated. While it appeared that HCO(3)(-) decreased the extent of U(VI) uptake by the reducing surface, the fraction of reduced U(IV) in the solid phase increased with increasing HCO(3)(-) concentration. In contrast with the observations for HCO(3)(-), organic ligands decreased both the extent of U uptake, as well as the fraction of U(IV) found in the solid phase. The studies performed within FUNMIG show that investigating reduction-oxidation mechanisms require (1) a detailed control over reaction conditions (anoxic atmosphere, purification of solid phases, initial radionuclide speciation), (2) a rigorous follow-up of reaction products (both solution chemistry and spectroscopic methods), and (3) the consideration of slow kinetics in the setting up of an experiment. These requirements make the study and assessment of redox processes one of the most demanding scientific challenges for geochemists who are asked to make predictions for radionuclide transport behaviour in the environment.

  • 9.
    Cui, Qing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sediment metal contents as indicators of urban metal flows in Stockholm2009In: Proceedings of ConAccount 2008 'Urban Metabolism: Measuring the Ecological City', 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Cui, Qing
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Copper content in lake sediments as a tracer of urban emissions: evaluation through a source-transport-storage model2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 13, p. 2714-2725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coupled source-transport-storage model was developed to determine the origin and path of copper from materials/goods in use in the urban drainage area and the fate of copper in local recipient lakes The model was applied and tested using five small lakes in Stockholm, Sweden. In the case of the polluted lakes Racksta Trask, Trekanten and Langsjon, the source strengths of copper identified by the model were found to be well linked with independently observed copper contents in the lake sediments through the model. The model results also showed that traffic emissions, especially from brake linings, dominated the total load in all five cases Sequential sedimentation and burial proved to be the most important fate processes of copper in all lakes, except Racksta Trask, where outflow dominated The model indicated that the sediment copper content can be used as a tracer of the urban diffuse copper source strength, but that the response to changes in source strength is fairly slow (decades) Major uncertainties in the source model were related to management of stormwater in the urban area, the rate of wear of brake linings and weathering of copper roofs The uncertainty of the coupled model is in addition affected mainly by parameters quantifying the sedimentation and bury processes, such as particulate fraction, settling velocity of particles, and sedimentation rate As a demonstration example, we used the model to predict the response of the sediment copper level to a decrease in the copper load from the urban catchment in one of the case study lakes (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved

  • 11.
    Dubois, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Holgersson, S
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Radionuclide Sorption on Granitic Material: Effect of the BET surface area and particle size2009In: 4th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Radiochemistry (APSORC-09), 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Dubois, Isabelle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Zazzi, Åsa
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Nickel sorption on chlorite: Batch experiments and modeling2009In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 73, no 13, p. A309-A309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Dubois, Isablle E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630). Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holgersson, S.
    Allard, S.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Correlation between particle size and surface area for chlorite and K-feldspar2010In: Water-Rock Interaction - Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Water-Rock Interaction, WRI-13 / [ed] P. Birkle, I.S. Torres-Alvorado, 2010, p. 717-720Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The specific surface area as determined by BET analysis is often used for scaling mineral surface reaction capacities and rates between particles of different sizes as found in nature. Generally, an inverse proportionality between BET area and particle size is assumed, based on geometry. However, macroscopic laboratory studies of mineral surface reactions generally employ crushed material that may have been mechanically disturbed, potentially leading to an artificial increase in the specific surface area, and a change in the apparent surface reactivity. In this study, we determine the BET area for natural K-feldspar and chlorite samples from Sweden as function of particle size in a first step towards relating the surface reactivity for these minerals to grain size.

  • 14.
    Dubois, Isablle E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Holgersson, S.
    Allard, S.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Dependency of BET surface area on particle siz for some granitic minerals2011In: Proc. radiochem. acta, Vol. 1, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the geochemical retention properties of rocks, which will be the final barrier for radionuclide transport to the biosphere in the case of a failed deep underground repository for spent nuclear fuel, radionuclide sorption experiments are usually made with crushed material. This raises the issue of extrapolating results obtained from laboratory experiments to the field scale. As sorption is generally related to the surface area of the geological material, it is then important to consider the dependency of the specific surface area on the particle size. In this work, BET surface area determinations of samples of different particle sizes are conducted on two minerals commonly found in granite: labradorite and magnetite. The results show a linearre lationship between BET surface area and the inverse of the particle size, up to a certain particle size. Furthermore, results also show that the specific surface area for intact, larger pieces is much smaller than the one predicted by a linear extrapolation of results on crushed material. Therefore, extrapolation of BET area for fine particles to the field situation will lead to an overestimation of the surface area and thereby also the radionuclide sorption, if sorption coefficients are extrapolated as well. Also of importance is that these results show that sorption experiments on crushed material may dominantly reflect properties of new surface, created during the mechanically treatment of the samples.

  • 15.
    Edman-Stålbrandt, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Flexibla lärobjekt: fördjupade kunskaper2006In: Netlearning 2006. May 8-10, 2006, Ronneby, Sweden., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Karlsson, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production2009In: ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VII / [ed] Brebbia CA; Tiezzi E, 2009, Vol. 122, p. 153-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is a major threat to the Baltic Sea, causing algae blooms and hypoxic bottoms. Ecological engineering methods aiming at help mitigating the nutrient imbalance problems have already been initiated or are being planned in the coastal zones of the Baltic Sea. This includes harvesting of reed, macro algae and blue mussels as nutrient and energy natural resources. The potential and feasibility of such methods to form the basis for sustainable use of natural resources is governed by the ecological, technical, economic and social aspects associated with the whole chain of processes from biomass to end products, e.g. biogas, fertilizers, and wastes. As a first step in a sustainability assessment, we show that biogas production from algae and reed is associated with a net energy benefit. Blue mussels do not result in a net energy benefit if used for biogas production, but represent the most efficient way of removing nutrients. Based on these preliminary results, we suggest that biogas production from reed and macro algae is worthy of further investigation, whereas for blue mussels, an alternative product must be found.

  • 17. Herbert, R. B.
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Ebena, G.
    Salmon, U.
    Ferrow, E.
    Fuchs, M.
    Quantification of abiotic reaction rates in mine tailings: Evaluation of treatment methods for eliminating iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 770-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective treatment techniques for eliminating iron-oxidizing (10B) and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) are required for the comparison of abiotic and microbial sulfide oxidation rates and mechanisms in mine tailings. This study evaluates the effect of autoclaving, repeated heating, ethanol treatment, antibiotic treatment, gamma-radiation, and washing with deionized water on tailings characteristics and concentrations of IOB and SOB. Most probable number enumeration indicates that IOB and SOB were present at very low concentrations or below detection limits following treatment with all methods except rinsing and antibiotics treatment, where higher concentrations of IOB and SOB were present. The physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of the tailings indicated no changes in bulk mineralogy or bulk chemical composition as a result of treatment. However, an increase in oxidized sulfur species at the tailings surface, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, was observed for the heating, autoclaving, and antibiotics treatments. Batch weathering experiments, used to evaluate the effect of treatment on element release rates, indicated that the final element release rates (after >30 d) were similar between treated and untreated control samples. On the basis of the results of this study, experiments over relatively long periods (>30 d) are to be recommended for the establishment of microbial and abiotic weathering rates in mill tailings samples. For the determination of abiotic reaction rates, treatment by gamma-radiation is suggested to be the most appropriate method for sulfide-rich tailings.

  • 18. Herbert, Roger B.
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Equilibrium Calculations and Geochemical Modelling of Aqueous Systems Using PHREEQC2004In: Training Manual on Mathematical Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Mass Transport / [ed] Ramanathan, A.L., Thangarajan, M., Ram, D.R., New Delhi, India: Prashant Publishing Co. , 2004, 1, p. 253-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19. Holgersson, S
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Berglund, S
    Batch Experiments of Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np Sorption onto Soil from the Laxemar Area2009In: 12th International Conference on the Chemistry and Migration Behaviour of Actinides and Fission Products in the Geosphere., 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20. Huthwelker, T.
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology. Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Germany.
    Helleis, F.
    Moortgat, G. K.
    Peter, T.
    Kinetics of HCI uptake on ice at 190 and 203 K: implications for the microphysics of the uptake process2004In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 108, no 30, p. 6302-6318Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uptake of HCl on vapor-deposited ice is investigated for HCl partial pressure p from 2 x 10(-8) to 10(-5) Torr at temperatures of 190 and 203 K in an especially designed Knudsen cell experiment. Two kinetic regimes can be distinguished experimentally: a long-lasting tailing which accounts for the major amount of the overall uptake and follows diffusion-like kinetics, gamma(t) proportional to t(-1/2) (gamma, uptake coefficient; t, time), and an initial period, where the uptake is higher than predicted by diffusion-like kinetics. The uptake kinetics are analyzed using analytical equations and also by full numerical simulation of simultaneous adsorption onto the surface and diffusion into the bulk. We derive the quantity H-d*D-1/2 (H-d*, effective Henry's law constant, D diffusion constant) and find H-d*D-1/2 proportional to p(-1/2), which implies that HCl dissociates upon uptake. The results for both analysis methods closely coincide. We suggest the use of a semiempirical parametrization for the total HCl uptake (molecules per geometric surface area) on vapor-deposited ice films as time dependent function n(t, p) = n(resid)(P) + C(T)(tp)(1/2), where C(T) is a constant which depends on temperature only. The compatibility of the residual, nondiffusive uptake, n(resid), with various adsorption isotherms is discussed. The analysis suggests that the experimentally observed diffusion-like kinetics dominates the overall trace gas uptake after a brief initial period. The diffusion-like kinetics must be considered when analyzing uptake experiments and when making applications to natural ice.

  • 21. Jarsjö, J.
    et al.
    Bayer-Raich, M.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Destouni, G.
    Modelling Sampling Strategies for Quantification of Plume Degradation: Examples from the Kristineberg sulphide ore mine, Sweden2009In: In AquaTerra Final Conference, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Quasi-steady State Box Model for Geochemical Reactions and Diffusion: MATLAB Implementation and Preliminary Application to a Mill Tailings Impoundment2004Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Malmström, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Destouni, G.
    Berglund, S.
    Spreading Versus Mixing Effects on Reactive Transport in Groundwater2005In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 69, no 10, p. A176-A176Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Malmström, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Docampo Cabaleiro, E
    Regenspurg, Simona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Modelling Ni(II) Sorption onto Granitic Material in the Deep Groundwater2007In: Migration 2007, 2007, p. 247-248Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Malmström, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Docampo Cabaleiro, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Modelling Ni(II) Sorption in Granitic Groundwater2006In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70 (18):Suppl 1:A387., 2006, p. A387-A387Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Berglund, S.
    Jarsjo, J.
    Combined effects of spatially variable flow and mineralogy on the attenuation of acid mine drainage in groundwater2008In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1419-1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifications of the spreading of acid mine drainage (AMD) in groundwater are needed for risk assessments of mining sites. However, due to subsurface heterogeneity, available field data may prove insufficient for deterministic process descriptions, even at well-characterized sites. Here, the probabilistic LaSAR-PHREEQC model is used to consider multicomponent reactions and transport in heterogeneous (flow and geochemistry) groundwater surrounding a mine waste site, with specific focus on the spreading of Zn. Model results, using field data from a mill tailings impoundment in northern Sweden (including major component geochemistry), indicate that precipitation of smithsonite (ZnCO3) may drastically delay the downstream arrival of Zn, but may also cause a peak concentration once the retained Zn is released. The amount of smithsonite formed is, however, minute and its spatial variation large, such that detection of smithsonite in soil samples may be difficult. Results further show that even a low degree of flow heterogeneity can effectively smooth otherwise distinctive temporal concentration changes attributed to the considered chemical reactions, and thereby mask the attenuation processes. By contrast, the existence of preferential flow paths can cause temporally separated concentration peaks in response to a single chemical reaction chain, even in a geochemically homogeneous domain, making the interpretation of the concentration curves non-trivial. The stochastic modelling results for Zn considering flow and/or mineralogical heterogeneity indicate a less efficient Zn attenuation than predicted by standard, deterministic reactive-transport models. In addition, in all considered probabilistic Zn and SO42- scenarios, the spatial variability in downstream pollutant concentration was high, implying that a relatively large number of point samples are needed to determine field-scale mean concentrations.

  • 27.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Destouni, G.
    Banwart, S. A.
    Stromberg, B. H. E.
    Resolving the scale-dependence of mineral weathering rates2000In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 1375-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison between mineral weathering rates determined in the laboratory and in the field commonly reveals large discrepancies, with order(s)-of-magnitude lower rates in the field. Such unresolved scale-dependence seriously limits our ability to extrapolate laboratory results to other scales and conditions. This extrapolation is necessary for quantifying environmental impacts, for instance from acid mine drainage, acid deposition, soil acidification, geological disposal of hazardous waste, and weathering feedback to climate change. We use the well-characterized deposits of mining waste rock at the Aitik site in northern Sweden, for which weathering rates have been previously published, as a model system for investigating this apparent scale-dependence of these rates. We show that the scale-dependence exhibited by the Aitik data is to a large degree predictable by quantification of the effects of a few critical and readily available, bulk-averaged physicochemical characteristics. The fact that this scale-dependence exhibited by the Aitik data is consistent with other laboratory and watershed studies suggests that at least some of the quantified effects are of general applicability and importance when extrapolating weathering rates from the laboratory to the field.

  • 28.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Destouni, G.
    Martinet, Philippe
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Modeling expected solute concentration in randomly heterogeneous flow systems with multicomponent reactions2004In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 2673-2679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many environmental problems require assessment of extensive reaction systems within natural subsurface flow systems exhibiting large physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity. We present an approach to couple stochastic advective-reactive modeling of physical solute transport (LaSAR) with the geochemical model PHREEQC for modeling solute concentrations in systems with variable flow velocity and multicomponent reactions. PHREEQC allows for general and flexible quantification of a multitude of linear and nonlinear geochemical processes, while LaSAR efficiently handles field-scale solute spreading in stochastic heterogeneous flow fields. The combined LaSAR-PHREEQC approach requires very modest computational efforts,thereby allowing a large number of reactive transport problems to be readily assessed and facilitating handling of quantifiable uncertainty in environmental model applications. Computational efficiency and explicit handling of field-scale dispersion without introduction of excessive fluid mixing that may impair model results are general advantages of the LaSAR compared with alternative solute transport modeling approaches. The LaSAR-PHREEQC approach is restricted to steady or unidirectional flow fields, and our specific application examples are limited to homogeneous reaction systems without local or transverse dispersion-diffusion, although these are not general methodological limitations. As a comprehensive application example, we simulate the spreading of acid mine drainage in a groundwater focusing on Zn2+ and including relevant, major-component geochemistry. Model results show that Zn2+ may be substantially attenuated by both sorption and precipitation, with flow heterogeneity greatly affecting expected solute concentrations downstream of the mine waste deposit in both cases.

  • 29.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gleisner, M.
    Herbert, R. B.
    Element discharge from pyritic mine tailings at limited oxygen availability in column experiments2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 184-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide mineral oxidation in mine tailings deposits poses a long term threat to surrounding ground water and surface waters. Soil or water cover remediation aims at reducing the rate of sulfide mineral oxidation by decreasing the 02 ingress rate. In this study, the authors addressed the rate of sulfide oxidation and pH buffering in -33 months long, well-controlled laboratory studies of water saturated columns of sulfidic mine tailings from the Kristineberg site in Sweden at reduced O-2 availability. The element discharge rates slowly declined towards a quasi-steady state over hundreds of days. Non-reactive tracer tests showed an anomalously large dispersion, indicating strong flow heterogeneity, possibly including preferential flow and/or stagnant water zones. Congruent dissolution of pyrite and sphalerite by injected oxidants (dissolved O-2 and Fe(III)) adequately explained the discharge rate of Fe, S and Zn at quasi-steady state. Arsenic, Pb and Cu were partly retained in the tailings. Base cation discharge rates, and thus pH buffering, were apparently controlled by the rate of acidity production, with actual pH levels, available mineral surface area, and water residence times being of less importance.

  • 30.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Rolli, Valentina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Cui, Qing
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sources and fates of heavy metals in complex, urban aquatic systems: modelling study based on Stockholm, Sweden2009In: ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VII   , 2009, Vol. 122, p. 83-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite management of point sources, heavy metals today remain at an elevated level in the urban environment, with diffuse sources dominating the emissions. In order to manage these pollutants, it is necessary to understand the coupling between the urban sources of heavy metals and their monitored, environmental levels, for example in aquatic sediments. In this work, we suggest a simple approach to quantitatively model Cu from its urban sources through a complex aquatic system. We apply the proposed model to Stockholm, situated between Lake Malaren and the archipelago of the Baltic sea, and discuss data availability along with conceptual difficulties. Using literature data, we show that Cu occurs at elevated levels in the aquatic sediment close to the centre of Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 31.
    Malmström, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Experimental Determination of UO22+ Sorption at Reducing and Non-Reducing Mineral Surfaces in Bicarbonate Solutions: Report of EU Project FUNMIG, FUNMIG PID 2.3.72007Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Malmström, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Schäfer, T.
    Schild, D.
    Uranium(VI) Sorption and Reduction by Granitic Minerals in Bicarbonate Solutions2007In: Migration 2007, 2007, p. 196-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Malmström, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Salmon, Sally
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Civil and Environmental Engineering.
    Mineral Weathering Rates in Sulphidic Mill Tailings: Do Rate Laws for Monomineralic Samples Apply?2004In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 68, no 11, p. A147-A147Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Risén, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Harvesting of Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea: Assessment of Potentials and Added Benefits2014In: Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, E-ISSN 1551-5036, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 825-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest to harvest wild cyanobacteria exists due to the environmental and socioeconomic risks during cyanobacteria blooms coupled with demands for nonterrestrial-based alternatives for biofuel sources. This research, therefore, sought to estimate the wild cyanobacteria harvesting potential using Nodularia spumigena, and using the Baltic Sea as the case study. Data from literature provided during years 2003-2009 were used to perform estimations. Additional benefits of harvesting were also assessed by estimating the nutrient removal and biogas production potentials from the harvested biomass. Results indicate that one boom unit has the potential to harvest approximately 3 to 700 kg dry weight of N. spumigena per hour depending on the algae concentration of the bloom. Results also suggest that nutrient removal and biogas production potentials provide substantial additional incentives to the harvesting operation during years of extensive and highly concentrated blooms. However, during nonextensive or nonconcentrated blooms such potentials are low.

  • 35.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Thomas, Jean Baptiste E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Risén, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Currently at Sweco Environment AB, Sweden.
    Ribeiro, Mauricio S.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Nylund, G. M.
    Jansson, A.
    Welander, U.
    Pavia, H.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0.5 ha), biogas and fertilizer biorefinery, and an estimation of the same system scaled up and adjusted to a cultivation of 10 ha. Based on a conservative estimate of biogas yield, neither the 0.5 ha case nor the up-scaled 10 ha estimates met the (commercial viability) target EROI of 3, nor the European Union Renewable Energy Directive GHG savings target of 60% for biofuels, however the potential for commercial viability was substantially improved by scaling up operations: GHG emissions and energy demand, per unit of biogas, was almost halved by scaling operations up by a factor of twenty, thereby approaching the EROI and GHG savings targets set, under beneficial biogas production conditions. Further analysis identified processes whose optimisations would have a large impact on energy use and emissions (such as anaerobic digestion) as well as others embodying potential for further economies of scale (such as harvesting), both of which would be of interest for future developments of kelp to biogas and fertilizer biorefineries.

  • 36.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Schild, D.
    Schafer, T.
    Huber, F.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Removal of uranium(VI) from the aqueous phase by iron(II) minerals in presence of bicarbonate2009In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 24, no 9, p. 1617-1625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium(VI) mobility in groundwater is strongly affected by sorption of mobile U(VI) species (e.g. uranyl, UO22+) to mineral surfaces, precipitation of U(VI) compounds, such as schoepite (UO2)(4)O(OH)(6)center dot 6H(2)O), and by reduction to U(IV), forming sparingly soluble phases (uraninite; UO2). The latter pathway, in particular, would be very efficient for long-term immobilization of U. In nature, Fe(II) is an important reducing agent for U(VI) because it frequently occurs either dissolved in natural waters, sorbed to matrix minerals, or structurally bound in many minerals. Redox reactions between U(VI) and Fe(II) depend not only on the availability of Fe(II) in the environment, but also on the chemical conditions in the aqueous solution. Under natural groundwater condition U(VI) forms complexes with many anionic ligands, which strongly affect its speciation. Carbonate, in particular, is known to form stable complexes with U, raising the question, if U(VI), when complexed by carbonate, can be reduced to UO2. The goal of this study was to find out if Fe(II) when structurally bound in a mineral (as magnetite, Fe3O4) or sorbed to a mineral surface (as corundum, Al2O3) can reduce U(VI) to U(IV) in the presence of HCO3-. Batch experiments were conducted under anaerobic conditions to observe U removal from the aqueous phase by the two minerals depending on HCO3- addition (1 mM), U concentration (0.01-30 mu M) and pH value (6-10). Immediately after the experiments, the mineral surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to obtain information on the redox state of U bound to the solid surfaces. XPS results gave evidence that U(VI) can be reduced both by magnetite and by corundum amended with Fe(II). In the presence of HCO3 the amount of reduced U on the mineral surfaces increased compared to carbonate-free solutions. This can be explained by the formation of Fe(II) carbonates on the mineral surfaces which represent an easily available Fe(II) pool for the U(VI) reduction. A facilitated U(VI) reduction is also considered possible when U is present as a carbonate complex compared to non-complexed U (e.g. uranyl).

  • 37.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Schäfer, T.
    Dardenne, K.
    Schild, D.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Uranyl Uptake on Granitic Minerals in Presence of Carbonate2006In: 2d FUNMIG workshop, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Regenspurg, Simona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Schäfer, T
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Experimental Determination of UO22+ Sorption and Reduction at Mineral Surfaces2006In: GEOCHIMICA ET COSMOCHIMICA ACTA, 2006, p. A523-A523Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39. Risén, E.
    et al.
    Nordström, J.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Non-market values of algae beach-cast management – Study site Trelleborg, Sweden2017In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 140, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the most serious global threats to coastal areas. One effect of eutrophication is seasonal macroalgal blooms. As a consequence, large amounts of beach-cast algae are today reported from coastal areas worldwide. In this study, we analyze nonmarket benefits by capturing local residents’ Willingness To Pay (WTP) for an environmental program to regularly remove and utilize beach-cast algae to produce bioenergy and biofertilizer. Results indicate a considerable WTP among local residents in the Baltic Sea study site. This WTP estimate together with a potential increase in non-resident beach tourism amounts to potentially substantial welfare benefits from the environmental program. These benefits could encourage similar environmental programs in the future.

  • 40.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable production of biogas from maritime biomass2010Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Gregeby, Erik
    Tatarchenko, Olena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Blidberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Assessment of biomethane production from maritime common reed2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several ongoing projects are harvesting maritime biomass from the Baltic Sea for eutrophication mitigation and utilisation of the recovered biomass. Some of this biomass comprises common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most widespread vascular plants on Earth. Reed utilisation from eutrophied coastal areas needs to be evaluated. Therefore, a system analysis was performed of reed harvesting for biofuel and biofertiliser production. The specific objectives of the analysis were to: investigate the methane yield associated with anaerobic co-digestion of reed; make a primary energy assessment of the system; quantify Greenhouse Gas (GHG) savings when a fossil reference system is replaced; and estimate the nutrient recycling potential of the system. The results from energy and GHG calculations are highly dependent on conditions such as system boundaries, system design, allocation methods and selected indicators. Therefore a pilot project taking place in Kalmar County, Sweden, was used as a case study system. Laboratory experiments using continuously stirred tank reactor digesters indicated an increased methane yield of about 220 m(3) CH4/t volatile solids from co-digestion of reed. The energy balance for the case study system was positive, with energy requirements amounting to about 40% of the energy content in the biomethane produced and with the non-renewable energy input comprising about 50% of the total energy requirements of the system. The net energy value proved to be equivalent to about 40 L of petrol/t reed wet weight. The potential to save GHG emissions compared with a fossil reference system was considerable (about 80%). Furthermore an estimated 60% of the nitrogen and almost all the phosphorus in the biomass could be re-circulated to arable land as biofertiliser. Considering the combined benefits from all factors investigated in this study, harvesting of common reed from coastal zones has the potential to be beneficial, assuming an appropriate system design, and is worthy of further investigations regarding other sustainability aspects.

  • 42.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nordström, Jonas
    Lund University.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    Valuing beach cast utilization and addressing preference uncertaintyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication and global warming have created major problems with decaying macroalgae on Baltic Sea beaches. A considerable amount of this biomass is retrieved, only to be returned to the sea when the tourist season ends. It is therefore essential to implement systems whereby the retrieved biomass is utilised. One potential system is anaerobic digestion for biogas and biofertiliser recovery, but knowledge about non-market benefits is lacking. This study estimated the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for algae retrieval and utilisation in a case study area and examined methods for incorporating preference uncertainty information into WTP estimates. This was done by gathering data using two different methods and comparing the results. In addition, results obtained from an open-ended interval (OEI) format were compared with those from a payment card. A substantial mean WTP was found. The two elicitation formats produced similar mean WTP estimates. However, the OEI format produced weaker results, with a significantly higher level of stated preference uncertainty and an elevated zero response rate. Comparisons of preference uncertainty information gathered with two different methods yielded unexpected results and to some extent contradicted findings on interval size in the OEI format as a good measure of preference uncertainty.

  • 43.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Natural Resource Potential of Macroalgae Harvesting in the Baltic Sea-Case Study Trelleborg, Sweden2013In: Global Challenges in Integrated Coastal Zone Management, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 69-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in harvesting biomass from the Baltic Sea has increased in recent years. However, there is a lack of available data on macroalgae biomass and of cost-effective methods for site-specific quantification of macroalgae. In this study, macroalgae biomass has been quantified in Trelleborg and thus the nutrient reduction that could be achieved by harvesting on a regional scale. The biomass was estimated on the basis of existing inventories of macroalgae, photic zone distribution and bottom substrata. An independent model for estimating the potential of macroalgae growth was applied where factors affecting the growth of macroalgae, for example nutrients, light and temperature, were considered. The estimated summer stock of macroalgae biomass along the 58 km coastal stretch in Trelleborg amounts to 19 000 tonnes dry weight (dwt) red filamentous algae. If 10-30% of this summer stock were to be harvested, a nutrient reduction of 50-150 t of nitrogen could be achieved. The model for estimating biomass proved promising and worthy of further investigation.

  • 44.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Tatarchenko, Olena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Harvesting of drifting filamentous macroalgae in the Baltic Sea: An energy assessment2014In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 013116-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication combined with climate change has caused ephemeral filamentous macroalgae to increase and drifts of seaweed cover large areas of some Baltic Sea sites during summer. In ongoing projects, these mass occurrences of drifting filamentous macroalgae are being harvested to mitigate eutrophication, with preliminary results indicating considerable nutrient reduction potential. In the present study, an energy assessment was made of biogas production from the retrieved biomass for a Baltic Sea pilot case. Use of different indicators revealed a positive energy balance. The energy requirements corresponded to about 30%-40% of the energy content in the end products. The net energy gain was 530-800 MJ primary energy per ton wet weight of algae for small-scale and large-scale scenarios, where 6 000 and 13 000 tonnes dwt were harvested, respectively. However, the exergy efficiency differed from the energy efficiency, emphasising the importance of taking energy quality into consideration when evaluating energy systems. An uncertainty analysis indicated parametric uncertainty of about 25%-40%, which we consider to be acceptable given the generally high sensitivity of the indicators to changes in input data, allocation method, and system design. Overall, our evaluation indicated that biogas production may be a viable handling strategy for retrieved biomass, while harvesting other types of macroalgae than red filamentous species considered here may render a better energy balance due to higher methane yields.

  • 45. Salmon, S. U.
    et al.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Quantification of mineral dissolution rates and applicability of rate laws: Laboratory studies of mill tailings2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 269-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable quantification of mineral weathering rates is a key to assess many environmental problems. In this study, the authors address the applicability of pure mineral laboratory rate laws for dissolution of mill tailings samples. Mass-normalised sulfide and alummosilicate mineral dissolution rates, determined in oxygenated batch experiments, were found to be different between two samples from the same similar to 50-year-old, carbonate-depleted mill tailings deposit. Consideration of difference in particle surface area and mineralogy between the samples resolved most of this discrepancy in rates. While the mineral surface area normalised dissolution rates of pyrite in a freshly crushed pure pyrite specimen and a sulfide concentrate derived from the tailings were within the range of abiotic literature rates of oxidation by dissolved molecular O-2, as were rates of sphalerite and chalcopyrite dissolution in the tailings, dissolution rates of pyrite and aluminosilicates in the tailings generally differed from literature values. This discrepancy, obtained using a consistent experimental method and scale, is suggested to be related to difficulties in quantifying individual mineral reactive surface area in a mixture of minerals of greatly varying particle size, possibly due to factors such as dependence of surface area-normalised mineral dissolution rates on particle size and time, or to non-proportionality between rates and BET surface area.

  • 46.
    Salmon, Sally U.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Biogeochemical processes in mill tailings deposits: modelling of groundwater composition2004In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A general model is presented for geochemical processes occurring in the unsaturated zone of a carbonate-depleted, pyritic tailings deposit. Quantification of slow geochemical reactions, using published, empirical rate laws from small-scale experiments on monomineralic samples, and geochemical equilibrium reactions successfully reproduced the relative rates of field processes in the case study, Impoundment 1 in Kristineberg. Reproduction of absolute rates was achieved by scaling down all laboratory-derived mineral weathering rates by two orders of magnitude. The sensitivity of the modelled groundwater composition and pH to rates of pH-buffering processes and redox reactions indicated that inclusion and accurate quantification of all dominant geochemical processes on the field scale is necessary for reliable prediction of groundwater composition and pH.

  • 47.
    Sinha, Rajib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Identifying ways of closing the metal flow loop in the global mobile phone product system: A system dynamics modeling approach2016In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, p. 65-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past few decades, e-waste has emerged as one of the fastest growing and increasingly complex waste flows world-wide. Within e-waste, the life cycle of the mobile phone product system is particularly important because of: (1) the increasing quantities of mobile phones in this waste flow; and (2) the sustainability challenges associated with the emerging economies of reuse, refurbishment, and export of used mobile phones. This study examined the possibilities of closing the material flow loop in the global mobile phone product system (GMPPS) while addressing the broad sustainability challenges linked to recovery of materials. This was done using an adapted system dynamics modeling approach to investigate the dominant paths and drivers for closing the metal flow loop through the concept of eco-cycle. Two indicators were chosen to define the closed loop system: loop leakage and loop efficiency. Sensitivity analysis of selected parameters was used to identify potential drivers for closing the metal flow loop. The modeling work indicated leverage for management strategies aimed at closing the loop in: (i) collection systems for used phones, (ii) mobile phone use time, and (ii) informal recycling in developing countries. By analyzing the dominant parameters, an eco-cycle scenario that could promote a closed loop system by decreasing pressures on virgin materials was formulated. Improved policy support and product service systems could synchronize growth between upstream producers and end-of-life organizations and help achieve circular production and consumption in the GMPPS. 

  • 48.
    Sinha, Rajib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Singh, Jagdeep
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Experimenting on closing the metal flow loop in the global mobile phone product system: a system dynamics modeling approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), well known as e-waste, is one of the fastest growing waste flows worldwide with increasing complexity in production through distribution to end of life (EoL). In this waste stream, a high number of mobile phones makes e-waste more compelling to examine the whole life of the specific product. In addition, having an interest in e-wastes for informal recycling in developing countries (DC), industrialized countries (IC) export e-wastes to developing countries. The emerging economies of reuse, refurbish and export of used mobile phones not only make the EoL complex, but also make the systems more challenging to sustainability. Since industrial ecology (IE) advocates resource efficiency with closed loop systems, we adapted a system dynamics modeling approach to investigate the dominance paths and driving forces for closing the metal flow loop through the concept of industrial symbiosis and eco-cycle modeling. This study finds higher efficiency for closing the loop in collection systems of used phones, mobile phone use time, and informal recycling in developing countries. By analyzing the dominant parameters, an eco-cycle model is proposed which could enhance a closed loop system by decreasing pressures on non-renewable resources. Improved policy supports accompanying consumer and corporate awareness with responsibility could create a circular consumption in the global mobile phone product system. 

  • 49.
    Syrovetnik, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Accumulation of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, Estonia: Determination of binding processes by means of sequential leaching.2007In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 147, no 1, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Oostriku peat bog (central Estonia) has been exposed to metal-rich groundwater discharge over a long period of time and has accumulated high concentrations of Fe (up to 40 wt-%), heavy metals (e.g. Ph, Zn, Mn, Cu), and As. In this study, the peat was characterised with respect to composition and metal content with depth. The peat pore water was analysed and compared to a spring water emerging at the site. Sequential extraction, using a Tessier scheme optimised for iron-rich sediments, was used to understand the relative roles of binding mechanisms involved in the retention of different metals in the peat. Significant difference in depth distribution was found between different metals bound in the peat, which was partly attributed to varying compositions of the peat with depth and different dominant binding mechanisms for different metals.

  • 50.
    Syrovetnik, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Modelling of sulphide mineral oxidation as a source of heavy metals in the Oostriku peat bog, EstoniaManuscript (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 57
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