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  • 1. Bucca, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Carnevale, Marco
    Collina, Andrea
    Facchinetti, Alan
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jönsson, Per-Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Adoption of different pantographs' preloads to improve multiple collection and speed up existing lines2012In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 50, no SUPPL. 1, p. 403-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current collection using more than one pantograph is needed in railway operation to provide power to non-electrically connected traction units and, in some cases, to reduce current density on the collector strips that heavily influences the wear on the contacting bodies. The multiple current collection may become a critical condition due to the mechanical disturbances produced on the trailing pantographs by the interaction between the first pantograph and the catenary. The present-day evolution of pantograph preload regulating systems, exploiting pressure-controlled servo-valves driven by electronic units, allows a diversification of the preloads of front and rear pantographs. In this work, a suitable solution to improve multiple pantograph collection quality is analysed by the use of a lower mean force on the leading pantograph aimed at reducing the oscillations of contact wire the trailing pantograph is subjected to. This would improve the current collection quality of the trailing pantograph, and could be pursued even admitting a slight worsening of front pantograph's performances.

  • 2. Bucca, Guiseppe
    et al.
    Carnevale, Marco
    Collina, Andrea
    Facchinetti, Alan
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jönsson, Per-Anders
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Differentiation of pantographs’ preloads as a mean to improve multiple collection and speed upexisting lines2011In: Proceedings of 22nd Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics / [ed] Simon Iwnicki, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Cocron, Peter
    et al.
    TU Chemnitz.
    Neumann, Isabel
    TU Chemnitz.
    Kreußlein, Maria
    TU Chemnitz.
    Pereira Cocron, Maria
    TU Chemnitz.
    Wanner, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bierbach, Maxim
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BAST).
    Augusto, Bruno
    VTI.
    Driver and vehicle behaviour to power train failures in electric vehicles – experimental results of field and simulator studies.2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    see fulltext

  • 4.
    Daniel, Wanner
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Experimental implementation of a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with individual-wheel drives2016In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks - Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2015, CRC Press, 2016, p. 147-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with four individual-wheel drives, which are based on wheel hub motors. The control strategy to handle the faults is based on the principle of control allocation and is implemented in an experimental vehicle. Experimental tests has been performed with the experimental vehicle and with simulation. The results show that the directional stability of such a vehicle can be improved for the analysed manoeuvre and failure mode, and the tendencies of the experimental results correspond with the simulation results. It has been found that the lateral and yaw motion could be strongly improved. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    IAVSD_11:2.pdf
  • 5.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    A Multi-Line Brush Based Tyre Model to Study the Rolling Resistance and Energy Loss2015In: Proceedings of 4th International Tyre Colloquium: Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Guildford, UK (2015), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aim to develop a three dimensional multi-line brush based tyre model for investigating the rolling resistance and energy loss in tyres. The losses in the model are characterised by the external losses originated from the sliding phenomenon in the tyre contact patch, and the internal losses due to the tyre viscoelastic nature which is employed by a rubber model. The Extended Brush tyre Model (EBM) proposed in this work can be used to estimate the dissipated energy and the rolling resistance under different driving manoeuvres and wheel conditions. This paper focuses on the estimation of energy loss and in-plane rolling resistance.

  • 6.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Extended Brush Tyre Model to Study Rolling Loss in Vehicle Dynamics Simulations2017In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 255-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a semi-physical tyre model that enables studies of rolling loss in combination with vehicle dynamic simulations. The proposed model, named extended brush tyre model (EBM), takes the effects of driving conditions, wheel alignment, and tyre materials into account. Compared to the basic brush tyre model, EBM includes multiple numbers of lines and bristles as well as integrated rubber elements into the bristles. The force and moment characteristics of the model are shown to have a good correlation with the Magic Formula tyre model and experimental data. The numerically estimated rolling resistance coefficients under different conditions are compared to findings in the literature, FE-simulations and experiments. The model can capture some aspects that are not covered by the available literature and experimental observations such as camber effect on rolling loss. EBM can be used as a platform for future studies of rolling loss optimisation using active chassis control.

  • 7.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Rolling Loss Optimisation of an Over-actuated Vehicle using Predictive Control of Steering and Camber ActuatorsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Rolling loss analysis of combined camber and slip angle control2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to present a new functionality of over-actuated systems, such as Wheel Corner Modules, to reduce the rolling loss in vehicles. The findings are based on numerical simulations using a bicycle model coupled with a newly proposed tyre model which is capable of simulating the tyre losses during vehicle motions. The results show that for the considered vehicle in the considered manoeuvre the rolling loss can be reduced about 25–40% by proper control of camber and slip angle combinations, while still maintaining the vehicle performance.

  • 9.
    Drugge, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Juhlin, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Aerodynamic loads on buses due to crosswind gusts: extended analysis2010In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 48, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to use inverse simulations on measured vehicle data in order to estimate the aerodynamic loads on a bus when exposed to crosswind situations. Tyre forces, driver input, wind velocity and vehicle response were measured on a typical coach when subjected to natural crosswind gusts. Based on these measurements and a detailed MBS vehicle model, the aerodynamic loads were estimated through inverse simulations. In order to estimate the lift force, roll and pitch moments in addition to the lateral force and yaw moment, the simulation model was extended by also incorporating the estimation of the vertical road disturbances. The proposed method enables the estimation of aerodynamic loads due to crosswind gusts without using a full scale wind tunnel adapted for crosswind excitation.

  • 10.
    Drugge, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Stensson, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Modelling and simulation of catenary-pantograph interaction2000In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 33, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Drugge, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Lennartsson, Anders
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    A laboratory model study of a railway current collection system2008In: Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Vol 5, PTS A-C,, NEW YORK: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2008, p. 1805-1810Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital system on modem high-speed electric trains is the overhead catenary system and the pantograph current collector. As speed limits are increased, train operators and railway engineers need measures of system performance in a number of situations. In this work a laboratory model is built to study the pantograph behaviour on curved track running on a catenary system with large stiffness variation. The model is designed to be simple, yet exhibit the most characteristic dynamic properties of the real system. Another objective is the possibility to run the pantograph at speeds near the wave propagation velocity of the contact wire. The situation of several trailing pantographs, with even spacing, which excites the system to steady state, is considered. Effects of changes in design features such as tension in the contact wire and torsion and translation stiffness of components in the pantograph are studied for different speeds. The interaction is complex and the performance depends on the dynamic properties of both the catenary system and the pantograph. The results show that the pantograph configuration mainly affects the size of amplitudes in the system while the contact wire tension influences at which velocities large amplitudes and contact losses occur.

  • 12.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Implementation and evaluation of force allocation control of a down-scaled prototype vehicle with wheel corner modules2013In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 335-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of wheel corner modules on vehicles creates new possibilities of controlling wheel forces through the utilisation of multiple actuators and wheel motors. Thereby new solutions for improved handling and safety can be developed. In this paper, the control architecture and the implementation of wheel slip and chassis controllers on a down-scaled prototype vehicle are presented and analysed. A simple, cost-effective force allocation algorithm is described, implemented and evaluated in simulations and experiments. Straight line braking tests were performed for the three different controller settings individual anti-lock brakes (ABS), yaw-torque-compensated ABS and force allocation using both wheel torque and steering angle control at each wheel. The results show that force allocation is possible to use in a real vehicle, and will enhance the performance and stability even at a very basic level, utilising very few sensors with only the actual braking forces as feedback to the chassis controller.

  • 13.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Energy efficient cornering using over-actuationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with utilisation of active steering and propulsion on individual wheels in order to improve a vehicle’s energy efficiency during a double lane change manoeuvre at moderate speeds. Through numerical optimization, solutions have been found for how wheel steering angles and propulsion torques should be used in order to minimise the energy consumed by the vehicle travelling through the manoeuvre. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the cornering resistance can be reduced by 10% compared to a standard vehicle configuration. Based on the optimization study, simplified algorithms to control wheel steering angles and propulsion torques that are more energy efficient are proposed. These algorithms are evaluated in a simulation study that includes a path tracking driver model and an energy efficiency improvement of 6-9% based on a combined rear axle steering and torque vectoring control during cornering is found. The results indicate that in order to improve energy efficiency for a vehicle driving in a non-safety-critical situation the force distribution should be shifted towards the front wheels.

  • 14.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Energy efficient cornering using over-actuation2019In: Mechatronics (Oxford), ISSN 0957-4158, E-ISSN 1873-4006, Vol. 59, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with utilisation of active steering and propulsion on individual wheels in order to improve a vehicle's energy efficiency during a double lane change manoeuvre at moderate speeds. Through numerical optimisation, solutions have been found for how wheel steering angles and propulsion torques should be used in order to minimise the energy consumed by the vehicle travelling through the manoeuvre. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the energy consumption due to cornering resistance can be reduced by approximately 10% compared to a standard vehicle configuration. Based on the optimisation study, simplified algorithms to control wheel steering angles and propulsion torques that results in more energy efficient cornering are proposed. These algorithms are evaluated in a simulation study that includes a path tracking driver model. Based on a combined rear axle steering and torque vectoring control an improvement of 6–8% of the energy consumption due to cornering was found. The results indicate that in order to improve energy efficiency for a vehicle driving in a non-safety-critical cornering situation the force distribution should be shifted towards the front wheels.

  • 15.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Utilization of optimization solutions to control active suspension for decreased braking distanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with how to utilize active suspension on individual vehicle wheels in order to improve the vehicle performance during straight-line braking. Through numerical optimization, solutions have been found to how active suspension should be controlled and coordinated with friction brakes to shorten the braking distance. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the braking distance can be shortened by more than 1 m when braking from 100 km/h. The applicability of these results is studied by investigating the approach for different vehicle speeds and actuator stroke limitations. It is shown that substantial improvements in the braking distance can also be found for lower velocities, and that the actuator strokes are an important parameter. To investigate the potential of implementing these findings in a real vehicle, a validated detailed vehicle model equipped with active struts is analysed. Simplified control laws, appropriate for on-board implementation and based on knowledge of the optimized solution, are proposed and evaluated. The results show that substantial improvements of the braking ability, and thus safety, can be made using this simplified approach. Particle model simulations have been made to explain the underlying physics and limitations of the approach. These results provide valuable guidance on how active suspension can be used to achieve significant improvements in vehicle performance with reasonable complexity and energy consumption.

  • 16.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden .
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Trigell, Annika Stensson
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Utilisation of optimisation solutions to control active suspension for decreased braking distance2015In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 256-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with how to utilise active suspension on individual vehicle wheels in order to improve the vehicle performance during straight-line braking. Through numerical optimisation, solutions have been found as regards how active suspension should be controlled and coordinated with friction brakes to shorten the braking distance. The results show that, for the studied vehicle, the braking distance can be shortened by more than 1 m when braking from 100 km/h. The applicability of these results is studied by investigating the approach for different vehicle speeds and actuator stroke limitations. It is shown that substantial improvements in the braking distance can also be found for lower velocities, and that the actuator strokes are an important parameter. To investigate the potential of implementing these findings in a real vehicle, a validated detailed vehicle model equipped with active struts is analysed. Simplified control laws, appropriate for on-board implementation and based on knowledge of the optimised solution, are proposed and evaluated. The results show that substantial improvements of the braking ability, and thus safety, can be made using this simplified approach. Particle model simulations have been made to explain the underlying physical mechanisms and limitations of the approach. These results provide valuable guidance on how active suspension can be used to achieve significant improvements in vehicle performance with reasonable complexity and energy consumption.

  • 17.
    Edrén, Johannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    Vehicle Dynamics and Active Safety, Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    The developement of a down-scaled over-actuated vehicle equipped with autonomous corner module functionality2010In: FISITA Proceedings 2010, paper F2010B056, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development of a functional down-scaled prototype of a passenger car with capability to control steering, wheel torques, wheel loads and camber individually. The adopted chassis technology is based on a modularised platform, referred to as Autonomous corner modules (ACM), which simplifies the re-use of components at the four corners of the vehicle and between different vehicles.

    This work gives an insight in the design of the vehicle and the selection of electrical actuators and sensors to provide all ACM functions. Since a part of the implemented chassis components do not admit to be scaled down at the same level, necessary design modifications are suggested. The problems of scaling, meaning that a down-scaled prototype cannot fully emulate a full-scaled vehicle’s all functions simultaneously, are a great disadvantage of down scaling. For example is gravity one desired parameter that is hard to physically scale down.

    In order to evaluate the behaviour of the down-scaled prototype, it is of high importance to establish the characteristics of the developed vehicle and its subsystems. In particular, tyre design is considered as complex. For this reason, different ideas of methods to confirm tyre characteristics are proposed.

    Also the paper presents the initial process of developing the prototype vehicle that is later to be used in vehicle dynamics research.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Nordmark, Arne B.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    An Experimental and Numerical Study of Pantograph Dynamics, with the Application of Dimension Estimation.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Erséus, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    A path tracking driver model with representation of driving skill2011In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 145-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A flexible and intuitive non-linear driver model is proposed, which allows setting of physically relevant parameters for representation of both typical high and typical low skill drivers in a path tracking scenario with constant speed. The model is equipped with a relatively simple internal vehicle model and is divided into three levels of driving skill: perceptual, anticipatory and interpretational skill; decisional skill; and execution skill. Validation of the model is performed using the results from moving base driving simulator tests with the double lane change scenario described in ISO 3888-1:1999. The parameter sets used for the model configuration are selected based on physical relevance to the model and optimisation is carried out with a Nelder-Mead implementation, showing that the model is able to resemble the characteristics of the driver types in the scenario for 70 km/h, and with adjustments being able to represent drivers at other speeds.

  • 20.
    Erséus, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Characteristics of path tracking skill on a curving road2015In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 26-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this research work is to evaluate the relation of driver skill to measurements done when driving on a regular curving road, i.e., performing a primary driving task. A curving road scenario is designed using both clear sight and fog-limited sight distance. Measures are compared under equal conditions to identify the best separation of recruited driver types. A moving base simulator, VTI Simulator III, is used for the acquisition of driver metrics. Curves are found to be more reliable for identifying driver skill than straight road segments, and a number of measures show good performance in characterising driving skill under the tested conditions, both for clear sight and with the preview limited down to 30 m. The standard deviation proves to be very useful and qualifies for successful driver skill categorisation for commonly sampled data such as the lateral acceleration, yaw rate and steering wheel angle.

  • 21.
    Erséus, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Methodology for finding parameters related to path tracking skill applied on a DLC-test in a moving base driving simulator2013In: International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, ISSN 1471-0226, E-ISSN 1741-5306, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this research is to develop and assess a method that can evaluate the relation of the driver's path tracking skill to a large number of vehicle parameters. The proposed methodology for comparison of measures under equal conditions is applied on test data from a double lane change test in a moving base simulator. Several measures are found to separate the recruited high and low skill driver groups, with the best results for the second part of the manoeuvre. Standard deviation qualifies for successful driver skill categorisation using commonly sampled data, e.g., steering wheel rate and angular acceleration.

  • 22.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Alexander, Lönnergård
    SEGULA Technologies.
    Mohit, Asher
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Analysis and optimisation of objective vehicle dynamics testing in winter conditions2017In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 945-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective testing of vehicle handling in winter conditions has not been implemented yet because of its low repeatability and its low signal-to-noise ratio. Enabling this testing, by identifying robust manoeuvres and metrics, was the aim of this study. This has been achieved by using both experimental data, gathered with steering-robot tests on ice, and simulation models of different complexities. Simple bicycle models with brush and MF-tyre models were built, both optimally parameterised against the experimental data. The brush model presented a better balance in complexity performance. This model was also implemented in a Kalman filter to reduce measurement noise; however, a simpler low-pass filter showed almost similar results at lower cost. A more advanced full vehicle model was built in VI-CarRealTime, based on kinematics and compliance data, damper measurements, and real tyre measurements in winter conditions. This model offered better results and was therefore chosen to optimise the initial manoeuvres through test design and simulations. A sensitivity analysis (ANOVA) of the experimental data allowed one to classify the robustness of the metrics. Finally, to validate the results, the proposed and the initial manoeuvres were tested back to back in a new winter campaign.

  • 23.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Andersson Eurenius, C.
    Volvo Cars.
    Donnay Cortiñas, J.
    Volvo Cars.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Validation of a Moving Base Driving Simulator for Subjective Assessments of Steering Feel and Handling2017In: 13th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, CRC Press/Balkema , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving Base Driving Simulators (MBDS) have a large potential to increase effectiveness in vehicle dynamics development. MBDS can reduce dependency on vehicle-prototypes by allowing subjective assessments (SA) of models. Little is, however, known about the relation of SA in MBDS and in physical ve- hicles. This paper aims to increase this knowledge, and proposes and implements a methodology to validate MBDS for SA of steering feel and handling. Firstly, vehicle models were generated from Kinematics & Com- pliance measurements of real vehicles. These models were validated versus objective tests, with steering ro- bots, of the physical vehicles. These vehicles and their MBDS-models were assessed by expert drivers, using a scanned-test track in the MBDS. Comparison of the SA in both environments enabled the MBDS validation. Promising results, with higher SA accuracy for handling than for steering feel, indicates that the major im- provement effort should focus on the steering model and its simulation in the MBDS.

  • 24.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Analysing vehicle dynamics objective and subjective testing in winter conditions2016In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks: Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2015, Taylor & Francis Group, 2016, p. 759-768Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a test procedure developed to gather good quality data from objective and subjective testing on winter conditions. As the final goal of this test is to analyse the correlation between objective metrics and subjective assessments on winter for steering and handling, this procedure has to ensure a minimum change of the surface properties, which has a major influence on vehicle performance, during the whole test campaign. Therefore, the method presented keeps the total test time very low and allows similar vehicle configurations to be test- ed, objectively and subjectively, very close in time. Moreover, continuous maintenance work on the ice is performed. Reference vehicles are also used to monitor the changes on vehicle per- formance caused by weather conditions, which are inevitable. The method showed to be very effective. Initial results on objective metrics and subjective assessments are also presented. 

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  • 25.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Correlations of subjective assessments and objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering: A walk through history2016In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 17-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving customer satisfaction concerning steering feel and vehicle handling requires subjective assessments and tuning of vehicle components by expert test drivers and engineers. Extensive subjective testing is expensive, time consuming and requires physical vehicles, which is in conflict with reduction of development time and cost. Objective testing and model-based development are constantly increasing but translating subjective requirements into objective ones is non-trivial. This paper summarises, discusses and classifies the methods, strategies and findings in previously published research regarding correlations of subjective assessments and objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering. The aim is twofold: (i) to identify key parameters of steering, handling and their preferred values and (ii) to compile and discuss the fundamental issues to deal with in the continued search for correlations between objective metrics and subjective assessments. The paper gives a comprehensive overview and insight of different aspects to take into account when conducting research in this field.

  • 26.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Findings from subjective evaluations and driver ratings of vehicle dynamics: steering and handling2015In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 53, no 10, p. 1416-1438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates subjective assessments (SA) of vehicle handling and steering feel tests, both numerical and verbal, to understand drivers’ use of judgement scales, rating tendencies and spread. Two different test methods are compared: a short multi-vehicle first-impression test with predefined-driving vs the standard extensive single-vehicle free-driving tests, both offering very similar results but with the former saving substantial testing time. Rating repeatability is evaluated by means of a blind test. Key SA questions are identified by numerical subjective assessment autocorrelations and by generating word clouds from the most used terms in verbal assessments, with both methods leading to similar key parameters. The results exposed in this paper enable better understanding of SA, allowing improving the overall subjective testing and evaluation process, and improving the data collection and analysis process needed before identifying correlations between SA and objective metrics.

  • 27.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Objective metrics for vehicle handling and steering and their correlations with subjective assessments2016In: International Journal of Automotive Technology, ISSN 1229-9138, E-ISSN 1976-3832, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 777-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on increasing the available knowledge about correlations between objective metrics and subjective assessments in steering feel and vehicle handling. Linear and non-linear correlations have been searched for by means of linear regression and neural network training, complemented by different statistical tools. For example, descriptive statistics, the t-distribution and the normal distribution have been used to define the 95% confidence interval for expected subjective assessments and their mean, which makes it possible to predict the subjective rating related to a given objective metric and its area of confidence. Single- and multi-driver correlations have been investigated, as well as how the use of different databases and different vehicle classes affects the results. A method for automatizing the search for correlations when using the driver-by-driver strategy is also explained and evaluated. Ranges of preferred objective metrics for vehicle dynamics have been defined. Vehicles with characteristics within these ranges of values are expected to receive a higher subjective rating when evaluated. Finally, linear correlations between objective metrics have been studied, linear dependency between objective metrics has been identified and its consequences have been presented.

  • 28.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. Volvo Cars.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Machine learning to classify and predict objective and subjective assessments of vehicle dynamics: the case of steering feel.2018In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 150-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective measurements and computer-aided engineering simu- lations cannot be exploited to their full potential because of the high importance of driver feel in vehicle development. Further- more, despite many studies, it is not easy to identify the relation- ship between objective metrics (OM) and subjective assessments (SA), a task further complicated by the fact that SA change between drivers and geographical locations or with time. This paper presents a method which uses two artificial neural networks built on top of each other that helps to close this gap. The first network, based solely on OM, generates a map that groups together similar vehicles, thus allowing a classification of measured vehicles to be visualised. This map objectively demonstrates that there exist brand and vehi- cle class identities. It also foresees the subjective characteristics of a new vehicle, based on its requirements, simulations and measure- ments. These characteristics are described by the neighbourhood of the new vehicle in the map, which is made up of known vehicles that are accompanied by word-clouds that enhance this description. This forecast is also extended to perform a sensitivity analysis of the tolerances in the requirements, as well as to validate previously pub- lished preferred range of steering feel metrics. The results suggest a few new modifications. Finally, the qualitative information given by this measurement-based classification is complemented with a second superimposed network. This network describes a regression surface that enables quantitative predictions, for example the SA of the steering feel of a new vehicle from its OM. 

  • 29.
    Gil Gómez, Gaspar
    et al.
    Volvo Cars.
    Vestlund, Johannes
    Volvo Cars.
    Bakker, Egbert
    Volvo Cars.
    Berger, Christian
    Chalmer University of Technology.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Improving subjective assessments of vehicle dynamics evaluations by means of computer tablets as digital aid2016In: Computer software and hardware: Vehicle dynamics, SAE International , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle dynamics development relies on subjective assessments (SA), which is a resource-intensive procedure requiring both expert drivers and vehicles. Furthermore, development projects becoming shorter and more complex, and increasing demands on quality require higher efficiency.

    Most research in this area has focused on moving from physical to virtual testing. However, SA remains the central method. Less attention has been given to provide better tools for the SA process itself. One promising approach is to introduce computer-tablets to aid data collection, which has proven to be useful in medical studies. Simple software solutions can eliminate the need to transcribe data and generate more flexible and better maintainable questionnaires. Tablets’ technical features envision promising enhancements of SA, which also enable better correlations to objective metrics, a requirement to improve CAE evaluations.

    However, it cannot be assumed that a tablet-based solution is feasible in vehicle dynamics SA context. Any distraction might result in low SA quality and safety issues when test-drivers are subjected to high mental workload pushing the vehicles to their performance-limits.

    In this study, a SA tablet-software for steering feel, handling, and ride was developed and systematically evaluated versus the traditional pen-and-paper method. The results indicate that the new approach is technically feasible in this context, meets more use-cases, and the drivers’ attitude towards it is positive. It increased questionnaire completion and rating resolution while reducing the error rate and transcription time.

    Although attendees reported that the paper-based approach has advantages from a usability point of view, the benefits of the tablet-based approach enable further process-related advantages.

  • 30.
    Gurov, Alexey
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Sengupta, Abhinav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Collision avoidance driver assistance system using combined active braking and steering2014In: Proceedings of AVEC’14, 12th symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Sept 22-26, Tokyo, Japan., 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31. Harell, P.
    et al.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Reijm, M.
    Study of critical sections in catenary systems during multiple pantograph operation2005In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 219, no 4, p. 203-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the dynamic behaviour of a catenary system, the sections that limit the speed have to be found. A survey was made to gather information about critical sections of the catenary-pantograph system. Interviews with personnel at the Swedish National Rail Administration were performed and problem areas that need consideration were found and are presented. The purpose of this study was to find out how much of these critical sections affect the system and to suggest improvements to the design. Section overlaps and section insulators, both in combination with the usage of multiple pantographs, were modelled, and simulations have been performed at different speeds and for different catenary systems. As a result of this research, a better base could be built on how to ease the operation with multiple pantographs.

  • 32.
    Harell, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Reijm, Marten
    Multiple pantograph operation: effects of section overlaps2004In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 41, p. 687-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic situation of the future goes towards flexibility of train configurations and increasing speed. There is a need for the ability to adjust the number of passenger cars as well as the energy consumption for trains to run efficiently, leading to multiple pantographs and short pantograph distances. Limitations due to this were studied on an existing catenary system. A model of the pantograph catenary system was developed in a finite element program. To verify the correctness of the model, comparison with full scale experiments was done. Results from the simulations indicates that trailing pantographs suffers from high dynamic effects within the section overlap. Effects of changes in design of the section overlap was studied. The results show that it is possible to get lower dynamic effects in the section overlap, even lower than within an ordinary span.

  • 33.
    Harell Poznic, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Experimental evaluation of nonlinear dynamics and coupled motions in a pantograph2010In: Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Vol 1, Pts A and B, NEW YORK: AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2010, Vol. 1, p. 619-626Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous electric power supply, which is transferred from the contact wire to the train through a pantograph mechanism, is a necessity for a train to function satisfactory. Since various sources of nonlinearities are present, such as friction in the pantograph suspensions and impacts in the subsystems and at the excitation, there is a possibility of nonlinear dynamic behaviour. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate the dynamic behaviour of a commercial pantograph to verify if nonlinear behaviour and coupling effects can occur. A test rig has been built that has the ability to simulate both the horizontal and vertical excitation generated by the contact wire. Measurements have been performed for sinusoidal input signals both in horizontal and vertical directions. Harmonic and subharmonic motions as well as irregular behaviour are shown to exist in the system. The results show that the pantograph's rotational degree of freedom, friction in the suspension systems and the nonlinear stiffness play an important role for the dynamic behaviour of the system and are therefore crucial to include when creating mathematical models of the system.

  • 34.
    Hu, Yunhao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Dai, Mian
    EE commercial vehicle ADAS development, ZF Automotive, Tokyo, Japan.
    Wang, Kui
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Cut-in Critical Level Prediction via Simulation Based Time-to-Collision Algorithm2020In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2020, p. 643-650Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cut-in critical level prediction is of vital importance to Advanced Driving Assistance system (ADAS) to fulfil regional requirements and to increase safety. Time-to-Collision is the key component for critical levels of cut-in scenario. Hence, a new simulation based Time-to-Collision (TTC) calculation algorithm is firstly introduced in this paper. For the purpose of cut-in critical level prediction, the values of TTC in c.a 2000 cut-in cases are calculated, which are used to train a novel machine learning based cut-in critical level prediction method. The goal of ADAS functions development is to perform as a sophisticated driver, especially in dealing with risks. Thus, the correlation coefficient between ego vehicle deceleration and TTC could be used to evaluate the performance of different TTC calculation methods. In order to validate the superiority of simulation based TTC calculation algorithm, the Pearson correlation coefficient is calculated for the simulation based TTC and the TTC calculated by the traditional method, which are 0.7882 and 0.1357, respectively. Through enough valid regional cut-in samples trained prediction algorithm, TTC could be estimated accurately and effectively, i.e., the accuracy reaches 92%. To the best of the author's knowledge the simulation based TTC calculation method and the cut-in critical level prediction learning algorithm are new contributions in ADAS field.

  • 35.
    Hvitfeldt, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Väg- och spårfordon samt konceptuell fordonsdesign. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Driver gaze model for motion cueing yaw feedback optimisation2023In: 28th Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving simulators are increasingly important in vehicle development, benefiting from hardware and motion cueing algorithm (MCA) advancements. However, current state-of-the-art MCAs are optimising with regards to a vehicle fixed vestibular system, ignoring active and passive head movements during manoeuvres. Research shows that drivers actively move their heads to focus their gaze and passively stabilising it during involuntary trunk movements, resulting in significant differences between vehicle and head yaw angles. Humans isolate trunk and head movement in the range of 0.1-1.0 Hz, suggesting neck-driven gaze stabilisation. This behaviour is not accounted for in current MCAs, warranting an investigation. This study develops a driver gaze model to enhance motion cueing strategies and compares it to existing methods. Findings indicate significant discrepancies between vehicle and estimated head yaw rate in winter testing with high slip angles, and that omitting vestibular models and separating the slip angle in the yaw feedback improves the motion cueing with regards to induced head movements. Further, the results shows that there is a clear relationship between motion cueing, visual feedback, and induced driver head movement. In conclusion, driver gaze models can improve motion cueing strategies in driving simulators, and thus the study highlights the need for considering driver gaze behaviour and provides insights for tuning and optimising MCAs.

  • 36.
    Hvitfeldt, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Motion cueing for winter test conditions2022In: IAVSD 2021: Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks II, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 888-901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the tuning of motion cues in dynamic driving simulators for EPAS (Electronic power assisted steering) tuning in winter conditions. The study investigates the differences in frequency content of the vehicle states yaw rate and lateral acceleration between dry and winter EPAS tuning. Based on the results from this investigation, which shows an increased spectral density of low frequency content in both yaw rate and lateral acceleration, coordinated tilt is added to the motion cueing, to give the driver low frequency lateral acceleration feedback. The tilt coordination filter is tuned using offline optimisation based on logged data. The resulting MCA is evaluated objectively using a linear model of a driving simulator and subjectively through driving around a winter test track with six test drivers. The test is conducted using a pairwise comparison of two different settings, one setting without and another with added tilt coordination. Objective metrics shows reduction in lateral false cues, increased correlation between actual vehicle acceleration and simulator acceleration and an increased spectral density below 0.30 Hz. The pairwise comparison and the commentary feedback shows potential in adding tilt coordination with more drivers favouring tilt coordination, however statistical significance cannot be reached due to the low number of drivers.

  • 37.
    Hvitfeldt, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Optimisation of roll axis position in a moving base driving simulator to minimise false cues2021In: Actes (IFSTTAR), Driving Simulation Association , 2021, p. 189-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method to minimise false cues and reduce phase lag by positioning the roll axis objectively based on offline optimisation. It shows that a nonfiltered roll feedback signal could be used to reduce phase lag in the simulator and the subjective assessments indicate that the reduction of phase lag and false cues could improve the perceived fidelity of the simulator.

  • 38.
    Hvitfeldt, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Väg- och spårfordon samt konceptuell fordonsdesign. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Enhancing perception of vehicle motion by objective positioning of the longitudinal axis of rotation in driving simulatorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry is heading towards a more objective approach to vehicle testing, but subjective evaluation is still an important part of the development process. Subjective evaluation in physical testing has environmental implications and is dependent on ambient conditions. A more repeatable, faster, safer, and more cost-effective tool for subjective evaluation is to use moving base driving simulators. The motion cueing algorithms (MCA) maps the movement of the vehicle into the limited space of the simulator. The choice of reference point, i.e., where on the vehicle to sample the motion to feed to the MCA and the alignment of the axis of rotation of the simulator cabin is still an open topic. This paper investigates the choice of reference point and corresponding simulator longitudinal axis of rotation in roll using two methods. The first method uses a linearised model of the combined system of vehicle, simulator, and vestibular models. The second method, to position the cabin longitudinal axis of rotation, is based on offline optimisation. The linear model can capture important characteristics of the specific forces and rotations that are fed to the driver through the motion cueing algorithms and offers a method to objectively analyse and potentially tune the motion cueing. The analysis is further complemented with a subjective evaluation of corresponding settings. The results from the linear model, the offline optimisation and the subjective evaluation shows that a reference point at the driver’s head has a clear advantage over the full frequency range compared to a reference point in the chassis roll axis and that the positioning of the cabin longitudinal axis of rotation has a significant effect on the perceived vehicle characteristics. 

  • 39.
    Hvitfeldt, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Objective development in driving simulator motion control: Evaluation of motion cueing using a linearised driving simulator model2021In: Proceedings of the Resource Efficient Vehicles Conference - 2021 (rev2021), 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle engineering and technical acoustics. Scan CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Rothhämel, Malte
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle engineering and technical acoustics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle engineering and technical acoustics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle engineering and technical acoustics.
    Simulation of transient rolling resistance of bicycle tyres at various ambient temperatures2024In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 6, article id e0302821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The range of an electrically assisted bicycle, which is constrained by the rider's cycling ability and the battery capacity, is heavily influenced by rolling resistance. Furthermore, the magnitude of rolling resistance affects commuters' motivation to decide whether to cycle or to choose another way to commute. This paper presents a way to simulate the transient rolling resistance of bicycle tyres as a function of ambient temperature. The significance of the change in driving resistance at different ambient temperatures is demonstrated through the range simulation of an electrically assisted bicycle at varying ambient temperatures. A representative driving cycle for bicycle commuters was created, enabling comparison of dynamic behaviour in a standardised set, to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on the battery capacity and the increase in driving resistances. To the authors' knowledge, this kind of model has not previously been created for bicycles. The model calculates tyre temperature based on the heat transfer, considering the heating-i. e., rolling resistance-and cooling effects-i. e., convective and radiative cooling. The decrease in tyre temperature results in an increase in rolling resistance and a decrease in the battery capacity, which was considered in the simulations. The results show significantly increased energy demand at a very low ambient temperature (down to -30 degrees C) compared to + 20 degrees C. The novelty of this article is simulating energy expenditure of bicycle dynamically as a function of ambient temperature. This model includes a temperature-dependent transient bicycle rolling resistance model as well as a battery capacity model. The findings provide researchers with a better comprehension of parameters affecting energy expenditure of bicycles at different ambient or tyre temperatures. The models can be used as a tool during the design process of bicycles to quantify the required battery capacities at different climates. In addition, traffic planners can use the model to assess the effect of changes in infrastructure on motivation to utilise bicycles.

  • 41.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. Scan CV AB, Granparksvagen 10, S-15148 Södertälje.
    Ussner, Matthias
    Scan CV AB, Granparksvagen 10, S-15148 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Osterlof, Rickard
    Scan CV AB, Granparksvagen 10, S-15148 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Väg- och spårfordon samt konceptuell fordonsdesign.
    Effect of Ambient and Tyre Temperature on Truck Tyre Rolling Resistance2022In: International Journal of Automotive Technology, ISSN 1229-9138, E-ISSN 1976-3832, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1651-1661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is consuming a large portion of the generated powertrain torque and thus have a substantial effect on truck energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. EU labelling of tyres mandates the manufacturers to measure rolling resistance at +25 degrees C ambient temperature after stabilised rolling resistance has been established. This is a convenient way of comparing rolling resistance but disregards aspects such as transient rolling resistance and influence of the ambient temperature. For many purposes, such as dimensioning batteries for electric vehicles, this value is not representative enough to give a good understanding of the rolling resistance. In this article, the rolling resistance of a truck tyre was measured at different ambient temperatures (-30 to +25 degrees C) in a climate wind tunnel and a considerable tyre and ambient temperature dependency on rolling resistance was found. The investigation shows that the temperature inside the tyre shoulder has a good correlation with rolling resistance. Measurements with spraying water on tyres were conducted showing a considerable increase in rolling resistance due to higher cooling effect. Driving range simulations of a long haulage battery-electric truck have been conducted with temperature-dependent rolling and aerodynamic resistance, showing a significant decrease in driving range at decreasing temperature.

  • 42.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Ussner, Matthias
    Scania.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. Scania.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Väg- och spårfordon samt konceptuell fordonsdesign.
    Do heat-insulated wheelhouses affect truck tyre temperature and rolling resistance?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to legislations introduced to prevent global warming, vehicle manufacturers must find new ways to reduce CO2 emissions. This paper explores a way to reduce rolling resistance by heat insulating and covering a truck's wheelhouse. The rolling resistance of a truck tyre was measured at +5 °C ambient temperature for consecutive speed steps in a climate wind tunnel with and without heat insulation. The study showed that by encapsulating and insulating the wheelhouse, already generated strain-induced heat could be kept in the tyre, consequently producing a lower rolling resistance. During the tests, the tyre shoulder temperature was monitored along with the tyre pressure. When the wheelhouses were encapsulated, a significant reduction in rolling resistance and an increase in tyre pressure and temperature were measured at all evaluated speed levels.

  • 43.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Ussner, Matthias
    Scania.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. Scania.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Effect of Ambient and Tyre Temperature on Truck Tyre Rolling Resistance2022In: International Journal of Automotive Technology, ISSN 1229-9138, E-ISSN 1976-3832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is consuming a large portion of the generated powertrain torque and thus have a substantial effect on truck energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. EU labelling of tyres mandates the manufacturers to measure rolling resistance at +25 °C ambient temperature after stabilised rolling resistance has been established. This is a convenient way of comparing rolling resistance but disregards aspects such as transient rolling resistance and influence of the ambient temperature. For many purposes, such as dimensioning batteries for electric vehicles, this value is not representative enough to give a good understanding of the rolling resistance. In this article, the rolling resistance of a truck tyre was measured at different ambient temperatures (-30 to +25 °C) in a climate wind tunnel and a considerable tyre and ambient temperature dependency on rolling resistance was found. The investigation shows that the temperature inside the tyre shoulder has a good correlation with rolling resistance. Measurements with spraying water on tyres were conducted showing a considerable increase in rolling resistance due to higher cooling effect. Driving range simulations of a long haulage battery-electric truck have been conducted with temperature-dependent rolling and aerodynamic resistance, showing a significant decrease in driving range at decreasing temperature.

  • 44.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH. Scania CV AB.
    Ussner, Matthias
    Scania CV AB, Scania CV AB.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    Scania CV AB, Scania CV AB.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Estimating Tire Pressure Based on Different Tire Temperature Measurement Points2024In: Automotive Technical Papers, WONLYAUTO 2024, SAE International , 2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing the tire pressure during driving is essential since it affects multiple tire properties such as rolling resistance, uneven wear, and how prone the tire is to tire bursts. Tire temperature and cavity pressure are closely tied to each other; a change in tire temperature will cause an alteration in tire cavity pressure. This article gives insights into which tire temperature measurement position is representative enough to estimate pressure changes inside the tire, and whether the pressure changes can be assumed to be nearly isochoric. Climate wind tunnel and road measurements were conducted where tire pressure and temperature at the tire inner liner, the tire shoulder, and the tread surface were monitored. The measurements show that tires do not have a uniform temperature distribution. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the tire pressure from the measured temperatures. The results indicate that of the compared temperature points, the inner liner temperature is the most accurate for estimating tire pressure changes (average error 0.63%), and the pressure changes during driving are nearly isochoric. This conclusion can be drawn because the ratio between inner liner temperature and tire pressure is nearly constant, and the pressure can be simulated well using the isochoric gas law.

  • 45.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Ussner, Matthias
    Scania.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    Scania.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Estimating tyre pressure based on different tyre temperature measurement pointsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowing the tyre pressure during driving is essential since it affects multiple tyre properties such as rolling resistance, uneven wear, and how prone the tyre is to tyre bursts. Tyre temperature and cavity pressure are closely tied to each other; a change in tyre temperature will cause an alteration in tyre cavity pressure. This article gives insights into which tyre temperature measurement position is representative enough to estimate pressure changes inside the tyre, and whether the pressure changes can be assumed to be nearly isochoric. Climate wind tunnel and road measurements were conducted where tyre pressure and temperature at the tyre inner-liner, the tyre shoulder, and the tread surface were monitored. The measurements show that tyres do not have a uniform temperature distribution. The ideal gas law is used to estimate the tyre pressure from the measured temperatures. The results indicate that of the compared temperature points, the inner-liner temperature is the most accurate for estimating tyre pressure changes (average error 0.63 %), and the pressure changes during driving are nearly isochoric. This conclusion can be drawn because the ratio between inner-liner temperature and tyre pressure is nearly constant, and the pressure can be simulated well using the isochoric gas law.

  • 46.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics. Scania CV AB, Granparksvagen 10, SE-15148 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Ussner, Matthias
    Scania CV AB, Granparksvagen 10, SE-15148 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Österlöf, Rickard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. Scania CV AB, Granparksvagen 10, SE-15148 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Truck tyre transient rolling resistance and temperature at varying vehicle velocities: Measurements and simulations2023In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 122, article id 108004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is causing a significant part of the energy consumption in truck applications, especially at lowspeed levels. To be able to better estimate the energy consumption or remaining driving range, the truck tyre rolling resistance must be understood well. Temperature is a vital parameter for rolling resistance estimations. This article shows truck tyre rolling resistance and temperature measurements in a climate wind tunnel and simulations of tyre temperature and rolling resistance. During the climate wind tunnel tests, tyre temperature at the shoulder and tread was measured. In addition, on-road driving was conducted with inner-liner infrared temperature measurements. Tyre temperature simulations were conducted using a thermal tyre model with speed-variable thermal inertia. The comparison of tyre temperature simulations with measured inner-liner and shoulder temperatures showed good agreement with the test data. The rolling resistance was simulated using the principle of time-temperature superposition, and a master curve for rolling resistance and a curve for tyre temperature shift were constructed. These curves were used to simulate rolling resistance at a wide range of speed levels with good agreement to the experimental results. The investigation showed that the tyre shoulder temperature is a better indicator of rolling resistance than infrared measurements from the tyre tread.

  • 47.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Wentzel, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Österlöf, Rickard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. Scania.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Väg- och spårfordon samt konceptuell fordonsdesign.
    Development and analysis of an on-road torque measurement device for trucksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rolling resistance and aerodynamic losses cause a significant part of a truck's energy consumption. Therefore there is an interest from both vehicle manufacturers and regulators to measure these losses to understand, quantify and reduce the energy consumption of vehicles. On-road measurements are particularly interesting because it enables testing in various ambient conditions and road surfaces with vehicles in service.

    Objective: Common driving loss measurement devices require unique instrumented measurement wheels, which hinders effective measurements of multiple tyre sets or measurements of vehicles in service. For this purpose, the objective is to develop a novel load-sensing device for measuring braking or driving torque.

    Methods: The strength of the measurement device is calculated using finite element methods, and the output signal is simulated using virtual strain gauge simulations. In addition to the signal simulation, the device is calibrated using a torsional test rig.

    Results: The simulation results confirm that the device fulfils the strength requirements and is able to resolve low torque levels. The output signal is simulated for the novel cascaded multi-Wheatstone bridge using the strains extracted from the finite element analysis. The simulations and measurements show that the measurement signal is linear and not sensitive to other load directions. The device is tested on a truck, and the effort of mounting the device is comparable to a regular tyre change.

    Conclusions: A novel driving loss measurement device design is presented with an innovative positioning of strain gauges decoupling the parasitic loads from the driving loss measurements. The design allows on-road testing using conventional wheels without requiring special measurement wheels or instrumentation of drive shafts, enabling more affordable and accurate measurements.

  • 48.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics. Scania.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    Scania.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Constitutive rubber model suitable for rolling resistance simulations of truck tyres2022In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tyres are a vital vehicle component forming an interface between a vehicle and the road, enabling the generation of braking, steering and traction forces. However, they also generate rolling resistance which researchers have tried to minimise through the years for environmental and economic reasons. Despite numerous attempts to model rolling resistance of tyres there still does not seem to exist a simple, flexible and accepted way of modelling rolling resistance in the time domain as well as parametrising models in an easy and accessible way. This study explores a simple and intuitive way of parametrising a hyperviscoplastic parallel rheological framework. In the experimental part of this study, rubber samples with various amounts of carbon black filler are extracted from a truck tyre section and tested using dynamic mechanical analysis. The test data was used to parametrise the material model. The model consists of Mooney-Rivlin hyperelasticity, 40 Prony elements and 8 perfectly plastic elements with Ogden hyperelasticity. The paper introduces a method to obtain a large number of parameters using only six tuneable parameters, which simplifies the tuning of the model drastically. The parametrised model is suitable for tyre rolling resistance simulations with frequency and strain amplitude dependency of the storage and loss modulus. A wide range of strain amplitudes and frequencies can be covered with the proposed method and it is possible to achieve a good fit for the storage and loss modulus values with the benefit of only a few tuneable parameters. Additional Prony or plastic networks do not increase the amount of tuneable parameters. Moreover, the method can be used to parametrise the material using manual iterations which is generally not possible for a parallel rheological framework with such a large amount of parameters. 

  • 49.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    Scania.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics.
    Finite element truck tyre rolling resistance simulation using a viscoplastic parallel rheological frameworkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A vehicle’s energy consumption is significantly affected by a resisting force created by the tyres. This resisting force, called rolling resistance, is an essential factor in the energy consumption of trucks, not only in terms of operational costs but also in terms of the range of electric trucks or other vehicles that run on sustainable energy sources. This article presents a method for calculating truck tyre rolling resistance in finite element software (MSC Marc). With the help of X-ray, 3D, and CT scanning, a representative tyre model is obtained. A viscoplastic model with separate viscoelastic and plastic parts is used to model rubber. The rolling resistance coefficient is obtained using two different methods: calculating it from the nodal contact forces at the contact patch and from contact body forces. Both methods produced comparable results, showing that the constitutive model produces realistic simulation results and, therefore, is suitable for rolling resistance simulations.

  • 50.
    Hyttinen, Jukka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics. Scania.
    Österlöf, Rickard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. Scania.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Simulation of a truck tyre using a viscoplastic constitutive rubber model2022In: IAVSD 2021: Advances in Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks II, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 1005-1014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tyres are a vital component for handling and load carrying while also contributing to the operating cost and environmental impact. The innovations in tyre design are driven by the need to reduce greenhouse gases and to make a better compromise between conflicting tyre properties. To accurately simulate tyres and to make these compromises a representative rubber model needs to be incorporated with strain amplitude dependency for the storage and loss modulus (the Fletcher-Gent effect). Prony series is a commonly used viscoelastic model in tyre simulations but it does not take into account the Fletcher-Gent effect and e.g. possible nonlinearities due to axle load variations are not feasible to simulate. The Fletcher-Gent effect can be modelled using parallel rheological framework (PRF), which can consist of any combination of parallel material models. Nonlinear viscoelastic models have strain amplitude dependency for the storage modulus but single nonlinear parameters lose their clarity in a PRF. Another approach is to combine a linear viscoelastic model with plasticity as is done in this article. Here, an FE truck tyre is developed and used with a viscoplastic PRF model that utilises Prony series with Mooney-Rivlin hyperelasticity and multiple plastic networks. The benefit of this combination is that the strain amplitude and frequency dependency of the storage and loss modulus are separated, which makes parameter studies simpler. The article shows that an FE truck tyre with a viscoplastic PRF model can be used in different simulations to study e.g. steady-state rolling, footprint, vertical stiffness and longitudinal tyre forces.

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