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  • 1. Bahar, B.
    et al.
    Herting, G.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära (stängd 20081231).
    Hakkila, K.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära (stängd 20081231).
    Virta, M.
    The interaction between concrete pavement and corrosion-induced copper runoff from buildings2008Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 140, nr 1-3, s. 175-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in chemical speciation of copper and the capacity of concrete pavement to retain copper in runoff water from external buildings have been investigated at urban field conditions, and in parallel laboratory experiments simulating outdoor scenarios. The research study showed the concrete surface to form a copper rich surface layer (approximate to 50 mu m thick) upon exposure, and a high capacity to significantly reduce the bioavailable fraction of released copper (20-95%). The retention capacity of copper varied between 5 and 20% during single runoff events in the laboratory, and between 10 and 40% of the total copper release during single natural runoff events. The capacity to retain and reduce the bioavailable fraction of non-retained copper increased with increasing wetness of the concrete surfaces, increasing pH of the runoff water and decreasing flow rates. Bioassay testing with bacterial and yeast bioreporters showed the bioavailable fraction of non-retained copper to be significantly lower than the total copper concentration in the runoff water, between 22 and 40% for bacteria and between 8 and 31% for yeast. The application of generated data to simulate a fictive outdoor scenario, suggests a significant reduction of bioavailable and total copper to background values during environmental entry as a result of dilution, and the interaction with solid surfaces, organic matter and complexing agents already in the drainage system.

  • 2. Berggren, D.
    et al.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Heijerick, D.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Koundakjian, P.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Release of Chromium, Nickel and Iron from Stainless Steel Exposed under Atmospheric Conditions and The Environmental Interaction of these Metals: A Combined Field and Laboratory Investigation2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Chang, Tingru
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Goidanich, S.
    Sánchez Amaya, J. M.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Le Bozec, N.
    Jin, Y.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    The role of Sn on the long-term atmospheric corrosion of binary Cu-Sn bronze alloys in architecture2019Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 149, s. 54-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of Sn on the atmospheric corrosion performance of binary Cu-Sn bronze alloys (4–6 wt.% Sn) compared with Cu metal used in outdoor architecture is elucidated in terms of microstructure, native surface oxide composition, patina evolution, corrosion rates, appearance and metal release. Results are presented for non-exposed surfaces and surfaces exposed at different urban and marine sites in Europe up to 5 years and based on multi-analytical findings from microscopic, spectroscopic, electrochemical and chemical investigations. Alloying influenced the corrosion, aesthetic appearance and patina evolution, differently for urban and marine sites, whereas no effects were observed on the release pattern.

  • 4. Goidanich, S.
    et al.
    Brunk, Jon
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Arenas, M. A.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Atmospheric corrosion of brass in outdoor applications Patina evolution, metal release and aesthetic appearance at urban exposure conditions2011Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 412, s. 46-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Short (days, weeks) and long-term (months, years) non-sheltered field exposures of brass (15, and 20 wt.% Zn) and copper sheet have been conducted in three European cities (Milan, Stockholm, Madrid) to generate an in-depth time-dependent understanding of patina evolution, corrosion rates, aesthetic appearance, metal release and degree of dezincification in relation to detailed bulk and surface characteristics prior to exposure. This has been accomplished by using a multitude of surface and bulk analytical tools, chemical analysis and colorimetric investigations. Small differences in surface finish and local variations in nobility observed for the non-exposed brass alloys resulted in slight differences in corrosion initiation. Despite different kinetic behaviour and relative surface distributions of zinc- and copper-rich patina constituents, similar phases were identified with copper-rich phases rapidly dominating the outermost patina layer in Milan, compared to Madrid and Stockholm showing both copper- and zinc-rich phases. As a consequence of differences in surface coverage of copper- and zinc-rich corrosion products at the different sites, the release ratios of copper to zinc varied concordantly. The released amount of zinc to copper (Zn/Cu) was for both alloys and test sites always higher compared to the bulk composition showing a preferential release of zinc. The amount of released copper from the brass alloys was on an average 30-40% lower compared to copper sheet at all test sites investigated. Significantly lower annual total release rates of copper and zinc compared with annual corrosion rates were evident for both brass alloys at all sites.

  • 5.
    Goidanich, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Corrosion induced metal release from copper based alloys compared to their pure elements2008Ingår i: Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, ISSN 1478-422X, E-ISSN 1743-2782, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 134-141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite numerous studies on atmospheric corrosion of copper and copper based alloys, the corrosion induced release processes of individual alloy constituents suffer from significant knowledge gaps. This investigation comprises metal release rate measurements of copper, zinc and tin from some copper based alloys including brass (20 wt-% Zn) and bronze (6 wt-% Sn), and their pure alloying metals, copper, zinc and tin. Data have been generated during a 2.5 year urban field exposure in Stockholm, Sweden and parallel laboratory investigations in a specially designed rain chamber using artificial rain. Brass shows significantly lower annual release rates of both copper and zinc compared to pure metal sheets of its alloy constituents. Zinc is preferentially released compared to copper. Dezincification of brass occurs both at field and laboratory conditions, a process influenced by rain characteristics. Alloying with tin does not largely reduce the release rate of copper from bronze compared to pure copper. No measurable amount of tin is released from the bronze surface.

  • 6.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Latvala, S.
    Elihn, K.
    Karlsson, H. L.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions2016Ingår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 81, s. 162-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5–7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10–12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy.

  • 7.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Risks of using membrane filtration for trace metal analysis and assessing the dissolved metal fraction of aqueous media - A study on zinc, copper and nickel2011Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 159, nr 5, s. 1144-1150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane filtration is commonly performed for solid liquid separation of aqueous solutions prior to trace metal analysis and when assessing "dissolved" metal fractions. Potential artifacts induced by filtration such as contamination and/or adsorption of metals within the membrane have been investigated for different membrane materials, metals, applied pressures and pre-cleaning steps. Measurements have been conducted on aqueous solutions including well-defined metal standards, ultrapure water, and on runoff water from corroded samples. Filtration using both non-cleaned and pre-cleaned filters revealed contamination and adsorption effects, in particular pronounced for zinc, evident for copper but non-significant for nickel. The results clearly show these artifacts to be non-systematic both for non-cleaned and pre-cleaned membranes. The applied pressure was of minor importance. Measurements of the labile fraction by means of stripping voltammetry clearly elucidate that membrane filtration followed by total metal analysis cannot accurately assess the labile or the dissolved metal fraction.

  • 8.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Surface rain interactions: Differences in copper runoff for copper sheet of different inclination, orientation, and atmospheric exposure conditions2015Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 196, s. 363-370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions of the diffuse dispersion of metals from outdoor constructions such as roofs and facades are necessary for environmental risk assessment and management. An existing predictive model has been compared with measured data of copper runoff from copper sheets exposed at four different inclinations facing four orientations at two different urban sites (Stockholm, Sweden, and Milan, Italy) during a 4-year period. Its applicability has also been investigated for copper sheet exposed at two marine sites (Cadiz, Spain, for 5 years, and Brest, France, for 9 years). Generally the model can be used for all given conditions. However, vertical surfaces should be considered as surfaces inclined 60-80 degrees due to wind-driven effects. The most important parameters that influence copper runoff, and not already included in the model, are the wind and rain characteristics that influence the actual rainfall volume impinging the surface of interest. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  • 9.
    Hedberg, Yolanda S.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Hedberg, Jonas F.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Critical Review: Copper Runoff from Outdoor Copper Surfaces at Atmospheric Conditions2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 1372-1381Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from. outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chloride, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.

  • 10.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Znidarsic, Monika
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. Univ Ljubljana, Fac Chem & Chem Technol, Vecna Pot 113, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Milosev, Ingrid
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Mechanistic insight on the combined effect of albumin and hydrogen peroxide on surface oxide composition and extent of metal release from Ti6Al4V2019Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials, ISSN 1552-4973, Vol. 107, nr 3, s. 858-867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The titanium–aluminium (6 wt%)–vanadium (4 wt%) (Ti6Al4V) alloy is widely used as an orthopedic and dental implant material due to its high corrosion resistance in such environments. The corrosion resistance is usually determined by means of electrochemical methods, which may not be able to detect other chemical surface reactions. Literature findings report a synergistic effect of the combination of the abundant protein albumin and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on the extent of metal release and corrosion of Ti6Al4V. The objectives of this study were to gain further mechanistic insight on the interplay of H 2 O 2 and albumin on the metal release process of Ti6Al4V with special focus on (1) kinetics and (2) H 2 O 2 and albumin concentrations. This was accomplished mainly by metal release and surface oxide composition investigations, which confirmed the combined effect of H 2 O 2 and albumin on the metal release process, although not detectable by electrochemical open circuit potential measurements. A concentration of 30 mM H 2 O 2 induced substantial changes in the surface oxide characteristics, an oxide which became thicker and enriched in aluminum. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) seemed to be able to deplete this aluminum content from the outermost surface or at least to delay its surface enrichment. This effect increased with increased BSA concentration, and for time periods longer than 24 h. This study hence suggests that short-term (accelerated) corrosion resistance measurements are not sufficient to predict potential health effects of Ti6Al4V alloys since also chemical dissolution mechanisms play a large role for metal release, possibly in a synergistic way.

  • 11. Henderson, Rayetta G.
    et al.
    Verougstraete, Violaine
    Anderson, Kim
    Arbildua, Jose J.
    Brock, Thomas O.
    Brouwers, Tony
    Cappellini, Danielle
    Delbeke, Katrien
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Hixon, Greg
    Wallinder, Inger Odnevall
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Rodriguez, Patricio H.
    Van Assche, Frank
    Wilrich, Peter
    Oller, Adriana R.
    Inter-laboratory validation of bioaccessibility testing for metals2014Ingår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 70, nr 1, s. 170-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioelution assays are fast, simple alternatives to in vivo testing. In this study, the intra- and inter-laboratory variability in bioaccessibility data generated by bioelution tests were evaluated in synthetic fluids relevant to oral, inhalation, and dermal exposure. Using one defined protocol, five laboratories measured metal release from cobalt oxide, cobalt powder, copper concentrate, Inconel alloy, leaded brass alloy, and nickel sulfate hexahydrate. Standard deviations of repeatability (S-r) and reproducibility (S-R) were used to evaluate the intra- and inter-laboratory variability, respectively. Examination of the s(R):s(r) ratios demonstrated that, while gastric and lysosomal fluids had reasonably good reproducibility, other fluids did not show as good concordance between laboratories. Relative standard deviation (RSD) analysis showed more favorable reproducibility outcomes for some data sets; overall results varied more between- than within-laboratories. RSD analysis of s(r) showed good within-laboratory variability for all conditions except some metals in interstitial fluid. In general, these findings indicate that absolute bioaccessibility results in some biological fluids may vary between different laboratories. However, for most applications, measures of relative bioaccessibility are needed, diminishing the requirement for high inter-laboratory reproducibility in absolute metal releases. The inter-laboratory exercise suggests that the degrees of freedom within the protocol need to be addressed.

  • 12.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Bioaccessibility of Stainless Steels: Importance of Bulk and Surface Features2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing environmental awareness, the desire to protect human beings and the environment from adverse effects induced by dispersed metals has become an issue of great concern and interest. New policies, such as REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) within the European Community, have been implemented to reduce hazards posed by the use of chemicals on producers and downstream users. The generation of exposure assessment data and relevant test procedures able to simulate realistic scenarios are essential in such legislative actions.

    This doctoral study was initiated to fill knowledge gaps related to the metal release process of stainless steels. A wide range of stainless steel grades, fourteen in total, were investigated. They cover a very broad range of applications, and the focus in the thesis was to simulate a few selected exposure scenarios: precipitation, the human body and food intake. Comparisons were made between metal release from stainless steel alloys and the pure metals that constitute each stainless steel in order to explore the differences between alloys and pure metals, and to provide quantitative data on metal release rates of different alloy constituents. Because of similar surface properties between stainless steel and pure chromium, this metal exhibits similar release rates, whereas iron and nickel exhibit significantly lower release rates as alloy components than as pure metals. Detailed studies were also performed to elucidate possible relations between metal release and steel surface properties. Key parameters turned out to be chromium enrichment of the self-passivating surface film, surface roughness, the electrochemically active surface area and the microstructure of the steel substrate. The degree of metal release increased with decreasing chromium content in the surface oxide, increasing surface roughness, and increasing presence of inhomogeneities in the bulk matrix.

    More detailed studies were initiated to possibly correlate the nucleation of metastable pits and the extent of metal release. Evidence was given that metastable pits exist even when the stainless steel is passive, and may cause extremely short-lived bursts of released metal before the surface film repassivates again.

  • 13.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Metal release from stainless steels and the pure metals in different media2004Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has been triggered by the fact that stainless steel is being increasingly used in new applications, where possible environmental effects may be a matter of concern. When stainless steel is exposed to a given environment, a key issue is the release of small amounts of the main alloying elements iron, chromium, nickel and molybdenum. Published release rate data of these elements turned out to be sparse. Furthermore, only little was known about the role of different parameters that may affect the release rate, such as degree of alloying, exposure time and surface finish. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop methodological means and to provide accurate metal release rates of alloying constituents from different grades of stainless steels- austenitic, ferritic and duplex- when exposed to selected environments: artificial rain and synthetic body fluids. The results and discussion have been summarised in this thesis by formulating and answering ten questions, all believed to be crucial for the understanding of possible environmental effects of stainless steels.

    Some common conclusions could be drawn, independent of stainless steel grade and exposure condition. Iron was always preferentially released, and the release rates of chromium, nickel and molybdenum (when measured) were significantly lower than of iron, also when considering the bulk proportion of these elements. The release rate of all elements was initially high and decreased with exposure time, mainly because of an observed enrichment of chromium in the passive film formed.

    The release rates of iron (2 μgcm-2week-1) and nickel (0.08 μgcm-2week-1) from stainless steel from grades 304 and 316 exposed to artificial rain were much lower than corresponding rates for the pure metals (750 μgcm-2week-1 released Fe and 15 μgcm-2week-1 released Ni), whereas chromium exhibited similar release rates from stainless steel and the pure metal (0.1 μgcm-2week-1). This implies that the common procedure to calculate release rates, based on the pure metals and the nominal steel composition, significantly overestimates release rates of iron and nickel from stainless steel, but not of chromium.

    Total release rates from seven stainless steel grades in synthetic body fluid were found to decrease with increasing alloy content in the following release rate order: grade 409 >> grade 430 > grades 316L ≈ 201 ≈ 2205 ≈ 304 > grade 310. The release rate was highly sensitive to pH of the synthetic body fluid but only slightly sensitive to stainless steel surface finish.

  • 14.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära (stängd 20081231).
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära (stängd 20081231).
    Corrosion-induced release of Cu and Zn into rainwater from brass, bronze and their pure metals. A 2-year field study2008Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 144, nr 1-3, s. 455-461Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-year field study has been conducted in an urban environment to provide annual release rates of copper and zinc from brass (20 wt% Zn) and copper and tin from bronze (6 wt% Sn) compared to sheets of their pure alloy constituents, copper and zinc. Despite relatively low nominal bulk alloy content, substantially more zinc was released from brass compared to copper. Both metals were released at a significantly slower rate from the brass alloy, compared to the pure metals. The proportion of release rates of copper and zinc from the alloy differed significantly from their proportions in the bulk alloy. Bronze showed relatively constant release rates of copper, being similar to that of pure copper sheet. The release of tin from bronze was negligible. The results clearly show that alloys and the pure metals behave very differently when exposed to rainwater. Accordingly, release rates from pure metals cannot be used to predict release rates of individual constituents from their alloys. Generated data are of importance within REACH, the new chemical policy of the European commission, where metal alloys erroneously are being treated as mixtures of chemical substances.

  • 15.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Jiang, Tao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Material characterization and elemental release studies in synthetic biological media, and OECD Transformation Dissolution protocol studies of ferrosilicon alloys2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Jiang, Tao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Material characterization and elemental release studies insynthetic biological media, and in the OECDTransformation Dissolution protocol media: Silicon2010Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 17.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Jiang, Tao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Material characterization and elemental release studies insynthetic biological media, and OECD TransformationDissolution protocol studies of a ferrosilicocalcium alloy: CaSi2010Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Jiang, Tao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Sjöstedt, Carin
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Release of Si from Silicon, a Ferrosilicon (FeSi) Alloy and a Synthetic Silicate Mineral in Simulated Biological Media2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 9, s. e107668-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unique quantitative bioaccessibility data has been generated, and the influence of surface/material and test media characteristics on the elemental release process were assessed for silicon containing materials in specific synthetic body fluids at certain time periods at a fixed loading. The metal release test protocol, elaborated by the KTH team, has previously been used for classification, ranking, and screening of different alloys and metals. Time resolved elemental release of Si, Fe and Al from particles, sized less than 50 mm, of two grades of metallurgical silicon (high purity silicon, SiHG, low purity silicon, SiLG), an alloy (ferrosilicon, FeSi) and a mineral (aluminium silicate, AlSi) has been investigated in synthetic body fluids of varying pH, composition and complexation capacity, simple models of for example dermal contact and digestion scenarios. Individual methods for analysis of released Si (as silicic acid, Si(OH)(4)) in synthetic body fluids using GF-AAS were developed for each fluid including optimisation of solution pH and graphite furnace parameters. The release of Si from the two metallurgical silicon grades was strongly dependent on both pH and media composition with the highest release in pH neutral media. No similar effect was observed for the FeSi alloy or the aluminium silicate mineral. Surface adsorption of phosphate and lactic acid were believed to hinder the release of Si whereas the presence of citric acid enhanced the release as a result of surface complexation. An increased presence of Al and Fe in the material (low purity metalloid, alloy or mineral) resulted in a reduced release of Si in pH neutral media. The release of Si was enhanced for all materials with Al at their outermost surface in acetic media.

  • 19.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Karlsson, Maria-Elisa
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    A novel method to assess mass loss of aluminium in concrete2018Ingår i: Materials and corrosion - Werkstoffe und Korrosion, ISSN 0947-5117, E-ISSN 1521-4176, Vol. 69, nr 12, s. 1811-1814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel pickling procedure for aluminium is elaborated for successful removal of corrosion products on aluminium embedded and exposed in concrete, allowing subsequent mass loss evaluation. The current recommended standard procedures for mass loss evaluation of aluminium are not sufficiently effective, either leaving significant amounts of concrete and corrosion products on the aluminium surfaces after pickling, or containing hazardous chemicals. Removal of both concrete and corrosion products from the aluminium surfaces require a stepwise combination of an aqueous glycine solution, nitric acid at elevated temperature and careful manual removal of adherent concrete.

  • 20.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Influence of Surface Finish on Stainless Steel AISI 304 on the Metal Release Process in Synthetic Biological Media2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to illuminate differences in metal release rates between varioussurface finishes on stainless steel. A large range of finishes exist on the market, and varies depending onarea of application and aesthetic appearance. The influence of surface finish is examined andexemplified using stainless steel grade AISI 304 in terms of individual metal release rates of the mainalloying elements: chromium, nickel and iron using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry,ICP-MS, differences in the electrochemically active surface area using electrochemical impedancespectroscopy, EIS, and changes in surface composition of the outermost surface oxide using x-rayphotoelectron spectroscopy, XPS. The study includes five different cold-rolled surface finishes, threecommercial surfaces, BA, 2B and 2D (as described in the Euronorm and ASTM specifications), oneelectropolished surface, and one electropolished and passivated surface, all separately immersed in asynthetic body fluid (artificial lysosomal fluid, pH 4.5), and sampled after 8 and 168 hours at 37 ºC.The electrochemically active surface area is found to have a significant influence on the total metalrelease rate, increasing as follows: electropolished and passivated < electropolished < BA ≈ 2B < 2D.

  • 21.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära (stängd 20081231).
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära (stängd 20081231).
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära (stängd 20081231).
    Multi-analytical investigation of stainless steel grade AISI 420 in simulated food contact2009Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 23-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Martensitic stainless steel grade AN 420 intended for cutlery knives and scissor blades has been investigated in all attempt to correlate microstructure and surface finish (polishing procedure) to metal release rates of the main alloy constituents, iron and chromium. Metallographic investigations proved the knife steel and, in particular the scissor steel to have very inhomogeneous microstructures. The knife steel contained bands of ferrite in the martensitic structure while the scissor steel revealed large amounts of tempered martensite and inclusions of manganese sulphides and silicon oxides. Samples of different surface finish were immersed in 3 vol% acetic acid at 40 degrees C from 1 to 10 days for metal release testing. simulating food contact. The largely inhomogeneous microstructure of the scissor steel results in high and greatly varying metal release rates. despite a fairly high chromium content Of the Surface oxide. Areas of inclusions seem to act as initiation points for accelerated metal release and the forming of a surface oxide depleted in chromium, but rich in copper. The generation Of high Surface temperatures during polishing was found beneficial from a metal release perspective as a result Of the formation of a surface oxide of improved passivating properties.

  • 22.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    A comparison of release rates of Cr, Ni and Fe from stainless steel alloys and the pure metals exposed to simulated rain events2005Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 152, nr 1, s. B23-B29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate differences in metal release rates of Cr, Ni, and Fe from pure metals and stainless steels alloys (grades 304 and 316) exposed to identical simulated rain events. Panels were exposed to two 8 h continuous rain periods, separated by a 40 day dry period, in a specially designed rain chamber which permits artificial rain of known composition to be introduced at a given intensity. The study is intended to provide further knowledge of the behavior of stainless steels exposed to atmospheric corrosion and to show the discrepancy between estimated release rates based on nominal alloy composition and actual, measured release rates. Release rates of Fe and Ni were found to be substantially higher from the pure metals than from the stainless steels due to the presence of a chromium-rich surface film. The release rate of Cr was similar for stainless steel alloys and pure chromium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations after single-rain events showed chromium to be enriched in the surface film upon rain exposure resulting in decreasing release rates of Cr, Ni, and Fe. Comparison between actual release rates of alloy constituents and calculated rates based on the pure metals and the nominal alloy composition, showed calculated data to substantially overestimate release rates of Ni and Fe.

  • 23.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Corrosion-induced release of chromium and iron from ferritic stainless steel grade AISI 430 in simulated food contact2008Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 87, nr 2, s. 291-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferritic stainless steel grade AISI 430 with three different surface finishes, glossy, line and abraded has been evaluated regarding changes in metal release rates and corresponding changes in surface composition when immersed in 3 vol% acetic acid at two different temperatures, 40 degrees C for ten days and 100 degrees C during three consecutive immersions of 30 min each. Test parameter intervals were set by one of the very few regulatory texts for metal release in food applications, the Italian law text D.M. 21-03-1973, Art. 37. The metal release process was found to be strongly dependent on surface area to solution volume ratio where a specific surface finish would be within the allowed limit, 0.1 mg Cr L-1 for the lowest ratio, 0.5 cm, but exceeded for the highest ratio, 2 cm(-1). The amount of released metal increased with increasing temperature and increasing surface roughness (surface finish).

    Generated data show the regulatory text insufficient and to provide large degrees of freedom, specifically in terms of defining the surface area to solution volume ratio and the acidic cleaning of test vessels, essential parameters to enable reproducible and relevant migration data.

  • 24.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Corrosion-induced release of the main alloying constituents of manganese-chromium stainless steels in different media2008Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, nr 9, s. 1084-1091Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this paper is the assessment of release rates of chromium, nickel, iron and manganese from manganese-chromium stainless steel grades of low nickel content. The manganese content varied between 9.7 and 1.5 wt% and the corresponding nickel content between 1 and 5 wt%. All grades were exposed to artificial rain and two were immersed in a synthetic body fluid of similar pH but of different composition and exposure conditions. Surface compositional studies were performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in parallel to correlate the metal release process with changes in surface oxide properties.

    All grades, independent of media, revealed a time-dependent metal release process with a preferential low release of iron and manganese compared to nickel and chromium while the chromium content of the surface oxide increased slightly. Manganese was detected in the surface oxide of all grades, except the grade of the lowest manganese bulk content. No nickel was observed in the outermost surface oxide. Stainless steel grades of the lowest chromium content (approximate to 16 wt%) and highest manganese content (approximate to 7-9 wt%), released the highest quantity of alloy constituents in total, and vice versa. No correlation was observed between the release rate of manganese and the alloy composition. Released main alloy constituents were neither proportional to the bulk alloy composition nor to the surface oxide composition.

  • 25.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Factors that influence the release of metals from stainless steels exposed to physiological media2006Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, nr 8, s. 2120-2132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Release rates of chromium, nickel and iron from grade 304 stainless steel with three different surface finishes, BA, 2B and 2D, have been determined after exposure to artificial lysosomal fluid. Metal release rates are discussed in relation to corrosion resistance, compositional changes of the outermost surface film of the stainless steel and to measurements of the effective surface area and roughness. The total metal release decreased in the following sequence: 2D > 2B approximate to BA, and was primarily related to the electrochemically active surface area. No direct correlation was observed between corrosion resistance and metal release rates.

  • 26.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Metal release from various grades of stainless steel exposed to synthetic body fluids2007Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 103-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Release rates of individual alloy constituents have been determined from seven grades of stainless steels exposed to two synthetic body fluids, used as surrogates for different areas of potential exposure in the lung: "Gamble's solution", (pH 7.4) that represents the interstitial fluid of the deep lung, and artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) that represents the more acidic (pH 4.5-5) milieu of particles following their phagocytosis by macrophages. Total metal release rates from all grades of stainless steel investigated were low (< 5 mu g cm(-2) week(-1)). The more acidic environment of ALF resulted in significantly higher total metal release rates (0.3-4.6 mu g cm(-2) week(-1)) compared to Gamble's solution (< 0.1 mu g cm(-2) week(-1)).

  • 27.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Metal release rate from AISI 316L stainless steel and pure Fe, Cr and Ni into a synthetic biological medium: a comparison2008Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 10, nr 9, s. 1092-1098Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal release rates from stainless steel grade 316L were investigated in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF), simulating a human inflammatory cell response. The main focus was placed on release rates of main alloying elements using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and changes in surface oxide composition by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. To emphasise that alloys and pure metals possess totally different intrinsic properties, comparative studies were performed on the pure alloying constituents: iron, nickel and chromium. Significant differences in release rates were observed due to the presence of a passive surface film on stainless steel. Iron and nickel were released at rates more than 300 times lower from the 316L alloy compared with the pure metals whereas the release rate of chromium was similar. Iron was preferentially released compared with nickel and chromium. Immersion in ALF resulted in the gradual enrichment of chromium in the surface film, a small increase of nickel, and the reduction of oxidized iron with decreasing release rates of alloy constituents as a result. As expected, released metals from stainless steel grade 316L were neither in proportion to the bulk alloy composition nor to the surface film composition.

  • 28.
    Herting, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Release of Cr, Ni and Fe from stainless steel alloys and the pure metals2004Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate differences in release rates of chromium, nickel and iron from stainless steel alloys (grade 304 and 316) and pure metals exposed under identical conditions. The study was initiated to fill significant gaps of knowledge on metal release from stainless steels in external constructions [1-2] and to elucidate the difference between estimated release rates from nominal alloy compositions and measured rates.The results are based on laboratory investigations in a specially designed chamber which permits artificial rain to be introduced at a given rain composition and intensity. Metal release rates, and its kinetics as a function of rain duration and volume, were investigated during continuous eight-hour rain events of constant intensity (≈4 mmhr-1) and pH (4.3). In addition, changes in surface composition with time were monitored with XPS for the stainless steel alloys.Selected results from the investigation show the release rate of nickel and iron from stainless steel alloys to be significantly lower than rates from the pure metals. Similar release rates of chromium are seen from stainless steel alloys and the pure metal as a result of the presence of a chromium-rich passive film on both surfaces. The proportion of release rates between chromium and nickel (<1) differs significantly from the corresponding bulk ratio (>1.5).

  • 29. Huuskonen, Sirpa
    et al.
    Heinala, Milla
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Santonen, Tiina
    Human health risk assessment of ferrosilicon alloys under REACH2012Ingår i: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, s. S178-S178Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 30.
    Jiang, Tao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Chemical Stability of Chromium Carbide and Chromium Nitride Powders Compared with Chromium Metal in Synthetic Biological Solutions2012Ingår i: ISRN Corrosion, ISSN 2090-8903, Vol. 2012, artikel-id 379697Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium carbide (Cr-C) and chromium nitride (Cr-N) powders were compared with a chromium metal powder (Cr-metal) to evaluate their chemical stability in solution. All three powders were exposed in five different synthetic biological solutions of varying pH and chemical composition simulating selected human exposure conditions. Characterisation of the powders, using GI-XRD, revealed that the predominant bulk crystalline phases were Cr7C3 and Cr2N for Cr-C and Cr-N respectively. The outermost surface of Cr-C, determined by XPS, contained Cr7C3 and Cr2O3 and the corresponding measurement on Cr-N revealed Cr2N and CrN apart from Cr2O3. The presence of Cr2O3 was verified by XPS investigations of the Cr-metal powder. The mean particle size was similar for Cr-metal and Cr-N but slightly smaller for Cr-C. All three powders were poorly soluble and released very low amounts of chromium (<0.00015 μg Cr/μg loaded particles) independent on test solution. Slightly higher chromium concentrations were determined in the more acidic media (pH 1.7 and 4.5) compared with the near-neutral solutions (pH 7.2 and 7.4). Cr-C released the lowest amount of Cr despite having the largest surface area a feature attributed to the strong covalent bonds within the matrix.

  • 31.
    Jiang, Tao
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Metal release studies of Cr from CrC and CrN in synthetic biological media and in the OECD T/D media2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 32. Julander, Anneli
    et al.
    Midander, Klara
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Thyssen, Jacob P.
    White, Ian R.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Liden, Carola
    New UK nickel-plated steel coins constitute an increased allergy and eczema risk2013Ingår i: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536, Vol. 68, nr 6, s. 323-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Nickel-plated steel coins have recently been introduced in the United Kingdom. Objectives. To compare the performance and allergy risk of the new nickel-plated coins (five and ten pence) with those of the cupro-nickel coins being replaced. Materials and methods. Coin handling studies with assessment of skin exposure and metal release in artificial sweat were performed. Six volunteers participated. Results. The amount of nickel deposited onto skin during the handling of nickel-plated coins for 1 hr was 7.5 mu g/cm(2), four times higher than that from cupro-nickel coins. The nickel content in the oxidized surface of nickel-plated coins was higher, explaining the higher skin dose. Initial nickel release rates were 10-27 times higher than 1-week rates, emphasizing that brief and repeated contact results in significant nickel exposure. Conclusions. Nickel-plated coins deposit higher levels of nickel onto skin than cupro-nickel coins, and hence pose an increased allergy risk. One-week release in artificial sweat is not suitable for determining the risk of handling items with high nickel release that come into short, repeated contact with the skin. The nickel skin dose is recommended for risk assessment. UK citizens are now, because of this change in coinage, unnecessarily exposed to higher levels of nickel on the skin. This is of public health concern.

  • 33.
    Leygraf, Christopher
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Chang, Tingru
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    The origin and evolution of copper patina colour2019Ingår i: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 157, s. 337-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The copper patina colour has been systematically explored through a large set of short- and long-term exposed copper metal samples. The initial brown-black appearance is attributed to semiconducting properties of cuprite (Cu2O) and fully attained at thickness 0.8 +/- 0.2 mu m. The characteristic green-blue appearance is due to the colour forming Cu(II)-ion in the outer patina layer which needs to be 12 +/- 2 mu m to fully cover the inner cuprite layer. No significant influence of atmospheric environment on patina colour is discerned. The green-blue patina colour on historic copper was attained after shorter exposures than in modem copper due to more inhomogeneous microstructure.

  • 34.
    Lundin, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Kärnkemi (stängd 20110630).
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Jiang, T.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Wang, X.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Thormann, Esben
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Adsorption and protein-induced metal release from chromium metal and stainless steel2012Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 366, nr 1, s. 155-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A research effort is undertaken to understand the mechanism of metal release from, e.g., inhaled metal particles or metal implants in the presence of proteins. The effect of protein adsorption on the metal release process from oxidized chromium metal surfaces and stainless steel surfaces was therefore examined by quartz crystal microbalance with energy dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). Differently charged and sized proteins, relevant for the inhalation and dermal exposure route were chosen including human and bovine serum albumin (HSA, BSA), mucin (BSM), and lysozyme (LYS). The results show that all proteins have high affinities for chromium and stainless steel (AISI 316) when deposited from solutions at pH 4 and at pH 7.4 where the protein adsorbed amount was very similar. Adsorption of albumin and mucin was substantially higher at pH 4 compared to pH 7.4 with approximately monolayer coverage at pH 7.4, whereas lysozyme adsorbed in multilayers at both investigated pH. The protein-surface interaction was strong since proteins were irreversibly adsorbed with respect to rinsing. Due to the passive nature of chromium and stainless steel (AISI 316) surfaces, very low metal release concentrations from the QCM metal surfaces in the presence of proteins were obtained on the time scale of the adsorption experiment. Therefore, metal release studies from massive metal sheets in contact with protein solutions were carried out in parallel. The presence of proteins increased the extent of metals released for chromium metal and stainless steel grades of different microstructure and alloy content, all with passive chromium(III)-rich surface oxides, such as QCM (AISI 316), ferritic (AISI 430), austentic (AISI 304, 316L), and duplex (LDX 2205).

  • 35.
    Mazinanian, Neda
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Metal release and corrosion resistance of different stainless steel grades in simulated food contact2016Ingår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 72, nr 6, s. 775-790Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technical guideline has been implemented by the Council of Europe (CoE) to ensure the stability and safety of food contact articles of metals and alloys, using 5 g/L citric acid (pH 2.4) and artificial tap water DIN 10531 (pH 7.5) as food simulants. The objectives of this study were: (i) to quantify the extent of metal release from austenitic (grades AISI 201, 204, 304, and 316L), ferritic (grades AISI 430 and EN 1.4003), and lean duplex stainless steel (grade EN 1.4162) in citric acid (5 g/L, pH 2.4) and in artificial tap water (pH 7.5); (ii) to compare the release of metals to the surface oxide composition, the open circuit potential-time dependence, and the corrosion resistance; and (iii) to elucidate the combined effect of high chloride concentrations (0.5 M NaCl) and citric acid at pH 2.2 and 5.5 on the extent of metal release from AISI 304 with and without prior surface passivation by citric acid. Exposures of all stainless steel grades in citric acid and artificial tap water up to 10 d (at 70°C/40°C) resulted in lower metal release levels than the specific release limits stipulated within the CoE protocol. For all grades, metals were released at levels close to the detection limits when exposed to artificial tap water, and higher release levels were observed when exposed to citric acid. Increased surface passivation, which resulted in reduced metal release rates with time, took place in citric acid for all grades and test conditions (e.g., repeated exposure at 100°C). There was no active corrosion in citric acid at pH 2.4. Fe (in citric acid) and Mn (in all solutions, but mostly tap water) were preferentially released, as compared to their bulk alloy content, from all stainless steel grades. Ni was released to the lowest extent. 0.5 M NaCl induced a very low (close to detection limits) metal release from grade AISI 304 at pH 5.5. When combined with citric acid (5 g/L) and at lower pH (2.2), 0.5 M NaCl induced slightly higher metal release compared to citric acid (pH 2.4) alone for coupons that were not pre-passivated. Pre-passivation in 5 g/L citric acid (pH 2.4) at 70°C for 2 h largely reduced this solution dependence. Pre-passivation resulted in an up to 27-fold reduced extent of metal release in solutions containing citric acid and/or NaCl at pH 2.2 to 5.5, and resulted in improved reproducibility among replicate samples.

  • 36.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Environmental fate of corrosion-induced metal release from stainless steel2005Ingår i: Nordic Steel & Mining Review, ISSN 0284-0448, nr 3, s. 32-34Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 37.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Release of chromium, nickel and iron from the metals and 304 and 316 stainless steel induced by atmospheric corrosion – a combined field and laboratory investigation2004Ingår i: ACOMArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Materialvetenskap.
    Runoff and fate of zinc from outdoor constructions - Selected results from a five-year exposure programme (short summary)2004Ingår i: ACOM (A corrosion management and applications engineering magazine from Outokumpu Stainless), Vol. 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Alloy Properties2010Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 40.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Alloys2010Ingår i: Health Risk Assessment Guidance for Metals, Eurofer , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Midander, Klara
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Corrosion-induced metal release from stainless steel and its alloy constituents inte different media2006Ingår i: Stainless steel industry, ISSN 0306-2988Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 42.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Frigörelse av zink från varmförzinkat stål i utomhusapplikationer2008Ingår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658XArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Lindström, David
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Varmförzinkat stål i samhället2008Ingår i: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, Vol. MajArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Zhang, Xian
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Goidanich, Sara
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Corrosion and runoff rates of Cu and three Cu-alloys in marine environments with increasing chloride deposition rate2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, s. 681-694Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bare copper sheet and three commercial Cu-based alloys, Cu15Zn, Cu4Sn and Cu5Al5Zn, have been exposed to four test sites in Brest, France, with strongly varying chloride deposition rates. The corrosion rates of all four materials decrease continuously with distance from the coast, i.e. with decreasing chloride load, and in the following order: Cu4Sn > Cu sheet > Cu15Zn > Cu5Al5Zn. The patina on all materials was composed of two main layers, Cu2O as the inner layer and Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl as the outer layer, and with a discontinuous presence of CuCl in between. Additional minor patina constituents are SnO2 (Cu4Sn), Zn-5(OH)(6)(CO3)(2) (Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn) and Zn6Al2(OH)(16)CO3 center dot 4H(2)O/Zn2Al(OH)(6)Cl center dot 2H(2)O/Zn5Cl2(OH)8 center dot H2O and Al2O3 (Cu5Al5Zn). The observed Zn- and Zn/Al-containing corrosion products might be important factors for the lower sensitivity of Cu15Zn and Cu5Al5Zn against chloride-induced atmospheric corrosion compared with Cu sheet and Cu4Sn. Decreasing corrosion rates with exposure time were observed for all materials and chloride loads and attributed to an improved adherence with time of the outer patina to the underlying inner oxide. Flaking of the outer patina layer was mainly observed on Cu4Sn and Cu sheet and associated with the gradual transformation of CuCl to Cu-2(OH)(3)Cl of larger volume. After three years only Cu5Al5Zn remains lustrous because of a patina compared with the other materials that appeared brownish-reddish. Significantly lower release rates of metals compared with corresponding corrosion rates were observed for all materials. Very similar release rates of copper from all four materials were observed during the fifth year of marine exposure due to an outer surface patina that with time revealed similar constituents and solubility properties.

  • 45. Olsson, Clas
    et al.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Nygammal nanoteknik - passivfilmer på rostfria stål2005Ingår i: Bergsmannen, ISSN 0284-0448, nr 6, s. 16-17Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 46. Olsson, Clas
    et al.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Passive films on stainless steel: recent nano-range research2006Ingår i: ACOM, ISSN 1101-0681, Vol. 2, nr 15Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 47. Ullman, Yolanda
    et al.
    Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Elaboration of a Metal Release Test for Massivemetal Sheet: Effect of Different Parameters on the Copper Release Rate2008Ingår i: Proc. 17th International Corrosion Congress, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A laboratory set-up has been elaborated to enable the generation of reproducible and accuratedata on metal release from massive or particulate metallic samples, defining the optimumconditions according to the OECD transformation/dissolution protocol. The OECD T/Dprotocol has been developed to evaluate short term and long term aquatic toxicity of solubleand available metal-ionic species released from metals and sparingly soluble inorganic metalcompounds in aqueous media at laboratory conditions.The influence of different experimental parameters on the metal release process has beenthoroughly investigated by varying critical parameters of the OECD test; immersion time,temperature, agitation, solution pH, aging time, preparation procedure and sample surfacearea to solution volume ratio. Even within the limits, set by the protocol for each parameter,the degree of metal release varies significantly.

  • 48.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi.
    Adsorption of bovine serum albumin on silver surfaces enhances the release of silver at pH neutral conditions2015Ingår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 17, nr 28, s. 18524-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic biomaterials are widely used to replace and/or restore the function of damaged bodily parts. The use of silver as antibacterial coatings onto implants has recently gained large interest in medical applications. The extent of silver that can be released into different biological fluids from such coatings is, except for the surface characteristics of the coating, governed by parameters such as protein characteristics, adsorbed layer properties, formation of silver-protein complexes as well as concentrations of proteins in the solution. This study aims to relate the structure of adsorbed net negatively charged bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is the most abundant protein in serum, to the release of silver from metallic silver surfaces in order to elucidate if the net charge of the protein has any effect of the silver release. Simultaneous adsorption measurements were performed in real time on the very same surface using combined ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements to provide a more comprehensive understanding on adsorption kinetics and layer structures. The amount of released silver into solution was measured by means of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS). The structure of the adsorbed BSA layer largely influenced the amount of released silver, an enhancement that increased with BSA concentration. These observations are in complete contrast to the effect of net positively charged lysozyme (LSZ) adsorbed on silver, previously studied by the authors, for which a complete surface coverage suppressed the possibility for silver release. The underlying mechanisms behind the enhanced release of silver in the presence of BSA were mainly attributed to surface complexation between BSA and silver followed by an enhanced exchange rate of these surface complexes with BSA molecules in the solution, which in turn increase the amount of released silver in solution.

  • 49.
    Wang, Xin
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. SP Technical Research Institute of Swede.
    Adsorption of Lysozyme on Silver and Its Influence on Silver Release2014Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, nr 46, s. 13877-13889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver is increasingly used in antimicrobial coatings of biomedical devices and implants to hinder infections. As proteins have been shown to largely influence the extent of released metals from various metal surfaces at biological conditions, silver may also be influenced in the same way. The aim of this study is to relate the structure of adsorbed lysozyme (LSZ) to the release of silver from metallic silver surfaces. Simultaneous adsorption measurements were performed in real time on the same surface using combined ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring measurements to provide a more comprehensive understanding on the adsorption kinetics and the layer structures. The concentration of LSZ in 0.15 M NaNO3 solution (pH 7, 25 degrees C) influences the structure of the adsorbed layer. Monolayer coverage is obtained at concentrations =0.1 g/L, while a bilayer structure with a rigid inner layer and a relatively loosely adsorbed outer layer is formed at 1 g/L. The inner layer of LSZ is assumed to bind firmly to silver via disulfide bridges, which makes it irreversibly adsorbed with respect to dilution. The amount of released silver is further influenced by the structure of the LSZ layer. At low LSZ concentrations (=0.1 g/L) the amount of released silver is not significantly different compared with non-protein-containing NaNO3 solutions; however, noticeable reduction was observed at higher concentrations (1 g/L). This reduction in silver release has several possible explanations, including (i) surface complexation between LSZ and silver ions that may result in the incorporation of silver in the irreversible adsorbed layer and, hence, reduce the amount of released silver into solution, and (ii) net charge reversal at the protein/solution interface to slightly positive surface potentials. Any release of silver will therefore exhibit an electrostatic repulsion during transportation through the protein layer results in a reduced amount of silver in solution.

  • 50.
    Wang, Xuying
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Bioaccessibility of nickel and cobalt in powders and massive forms of stainless steel, nickel- or cobalt-based alloys, and nickel and cobalt metals in artificial sweat2019Ingår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 106, s. 15-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel (Ni)and cobalt (Co)are the most common metal allergens upon skin contact at occupational settings and during consumer handling of metals and alloys. A standardized test (EN, 1811)exists to assess Ni release from articles of metals and alloys in massive forms intended for direct and prolonged skin contact, but no corresponding test exists for other materials such as powders or massive forms of alloys placed on the market or to determine the release of Co, for which only limited data is available. Differences in Ni and Co release from massive forms of a range of common stainless steels and some high-alloyed grades compared to Ni and Co metals were therefore assessed in artificial sweat for 1 week at 30 °C according to EN 1811. A comparable modified test procedure was elaborated and used for powders and some selected massive alloys. All alloys investigated released significantly less amount of Ni (100–5000-fold)and Co (200–400,000-fold)compared with Ni and Co metal, respectively. Almost all alloys showed a lower bioaccessible concentration (0.007–6.8 wt% Ni and 0.00003–0.6 wt% Co)when compared to corresponding bulk alloy contents (0.1–53 wt% Ni, 0.02–65 wt% Co). Observed differences are, among other factors, related to differences in bulk composition and to surface oxide characteristics. For the powders, less Ni and Co were released per surface area, but more per mass, compared to the corresponding massive forms. © 2019 The Authors

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