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  • 1.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Gau, Ming-Horn
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lo, Ikal
    Jimenez, Juan
    Aitor Postigo, Pablo
    Miguel Morales, Fransisco
    Hernandez, Jesus
    Molina, Sergio
    Abdessamad, Aouni
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Pirouz, Pirouz
    Defect reduction in heteroepitaxial InP on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth2014Ingår i: Materials Express, ISSN 2158-5849, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 41-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP has been grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on Si substrates with a thin seed layer of InP masked with SiO2. Openings in the form of multiple parallel lines as well as mesh patterns from which growth occurred were etched in the SiO2 mask and the effect of different growth conditions in terms of V/III ratio and growth temperature on defects such as threading dislocations and stacking faults in the grown layers was investigated. The samples were characterized by cathodoluminescence and by transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the cause for threading dislocations present in the overgrown layers is the formation of new dislocations, attributed to coalescence of merging growth fronts, possibly accompanied by the propagation of pre-existing dislocations through the mask openings. Stacking faults were also pre-existing in the seed layer and propagated to some extent, but the most important reason for stacking faults in the overgrown layers was concluded to be formation of new faults early during growth. The formation mechanism could not be unambiguously determined, but of several mechanisms considered, incorrect deposition due to distorted bonds along overgrowth island edges was found to be in best agreement with observations.

  • 2.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Julian, Nick
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA. Ghent University, Dept. of Information Technology, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent, Belgium .
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Bowers, John
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Study of planar defect filtering in InP grown on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowth2013Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 3, nr 11, s. 1960-1973Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    InP thin films have been grown on InP/Si substrate by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG). The nature, origin and filtering of extended defects in ELOG layers grown from single and double openings in SiO2 mask have been investigated. Whereas ELOG layers grown from double openings occasionally exhibit threading dislocations (TDs) at certain points of coalescence, TDs are completely absent in ELOG from single openings. Furthermore, stacking faults (SFs) observed in ELOG layers grown from both opening types originate not from coalescence, but possibly from formation during early stages of ELOG or simply propagate from the seed layer through the mask openings. A model describing their propagation is devised and applied to the existent conditions, showing that SFs can effectively be filtered under certain conditions. ELOG layers grown from identical patterns on InP substrate contained no defects, indicating that the defect-forming mechanism is in any case not inherent to ELOG itself.

  • 3.
    Junesand, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Julian, Nick
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Bowers, John
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Study of planar defect filtering in InP gwoun on Si by epitaxial lateral overgrowthManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Wang, Zhechao
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Bazin, Alexandre
    CNRS.
    Raineri, Fabrice
    CNRS.
    Mages, Phil
    UCSB.
    Julian, Nick
    UCSB.
    Bowers, John
    UCSB.
    Towards a monolithically integrated III-V laser on silicon: Optimization of multi-quantum well growth of InP on Si2013Ingår i: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 28, nr 9, s. 094008-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the isolated areas of indium phosphide on silicon necessary for realizing a monolithically integrated silicon laser is achieved. Indium phosphide layer on silicon, the pre-requisite for the growth of quantum wells is achieved via nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG) technique from a defective seed indium phosphide layer on silicon. This technique makes use of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) from closely spaced (1 m) e-beam lithography-patterned nano-sized openings (∼300 nm) by low-pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy. A silicon dioxide mask with carefully designed opening patterns and thickness with respect to the opening width is used to block the defects propagating from the indium phosphide seed layer by the so-called necking effect. Growth conditions are optimized to obtain smooth surface morphology even after coalescence of laterally grown indium phosphide from adjacent openings. Surface morphology and optical properties of the NELOG indium phosphide layer are studied using atomic force microscopy, cathodoluminescence and room temperature -photoluminescence (-PL) measurements. Metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of InGaAsP/InP MQWs on the NELOG indium phosphide is conducted. The mask patterns to avoid loading effect that can cause excessive well/barrier thickness and composition change with respect to the targeted values is optimized. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope studies show that the coalesced NELOG InP on Si is defect-free. PL measurement results indicate the good material quality of the grown MQWs. Microdisk (MD) cavities are fabricated from the MQWs on ELOG layer. PL spectra reveal the existence of resonant modes arising out of these MD cavities. A mode solver using finite difference method indicates the pertinent steps that should be adopted to realize lasing.

  • 5.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Junesand, Carl
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Loududoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Monolithic integration of InP based structures on silicon for optical interconnects2014Ingår i: 2014 ECS and SMEQ Joint International Meeting, 2014, nr 6, s. 523-531Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Monolithic integration of InP based structures on Si for optical interconnects is presented. Different strategies are demonstrated to achieve requisite InP platform on Si. In the first strategy, defect free isolated areas of epitaxially and laterally overgrown InP are obtained on Si and the InGaAsP based quantum wells directly grown on these templates have shown high material quality with uniform interfaces. In the second strategy, selective area growth is exploited to achieve InP nano pyramids on Si which can be used for the growth of quantum dot structures. In the third and the final strategy, a method is presented to achieve direct interface between InP and Si using corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth.

  • 6.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Nagarajan, Murali
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Carrier-transport, optical and structural properties of large area ELOG InP on Si using conventional optical lithography2013Ingår i: 2013 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 6562592-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the carrier-transport, optical and structural properties of InP deposited on Si by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth (ELOG) in a Low Pressure-Hydride Vapor phase epitaxy (LP-HVPE). Hall measurements, micro photoluminescence (μ-PL) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to study the above-mentioned respective properties at room temperature. It is the first time that electrical properties of ELOG InP on Si are studied by Hall measurements. Prior to ELOG, etching of patterned silicon dioxide (SiO2) mask leading to a high aspect ratio, i. e. mask thickness to opening width >2 was optimized to eliminate defect propagation even above the opening. Dense high aspect ratio structures were fabricated in SiO2 to obtain ELOG InP on Si, coalesced over large area, making it feasible to perform Hall measurements. We examine this method and study Hall mobility, strain and optical quality of large area ELOG InP on Si.

  • 7.
    Lankinen, A.
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Tuomi, T.
    Optoelectronics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Karilahti, M.
    Optoelectronics Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Zytkiewicz, Z. R.
    Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Domagala, J. Z.
    Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences.
    McNally, P. J.
    Research Institute for Networks and Communications Engineering, Dublin City University.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Crystal Defects and Strain of Epitaxial InP Layers Laterally Overgrown on Si2006Ingår i: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 1096-1100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Defects in epitaxial laterally overgrown (ELO) InP layers are examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and synchrotron X-ray back-reflection and transmission topography. X-ray diffraction maps produce information about the overall crystal quality of the epitaxial layers in the InP ELO sample. The topographs show small angle boundaries, and the associated dislocations are located at the boundaries between the crystallites; allowing for their relative tilt, the maximum value for this is 0.06 degrees. No defects inside the crystallites can be seen in the topographs, except for a small bending of 0.04 degrees at most, of the ELO lattice planes. The section topographs show deformed X-ray interference fringes resulting from the large strain of the silicon lattice below the seeding areas.

  • 8.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    Kataria, Himanshu
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Wang, Zhechao
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Trends in heteroepitaxy of III-Vs on silicon for photonic and photovoltaic applications2017Ingår i: SMART PHOTONIC AND OPTOELECTRONIC INTEGRATED CIRCUITS XIX / [ed] Eldada, LA Lee, EH He, S, 2017, artikel-id UNSP 1010705Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present and compare the existing methods of heteroepitaxy of III-Vs on silicon and their trends. We focus on the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) method as a means of achieving good quality III-Vs on silicon. Initially conducted primarily by near-equilibrium epitaxial methods such as liquid phase epitaxy and hydride vapour phase epitaxy, nowadays ELOG is being carried out even by non-equilibrium methods such as metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. In the ELOG method, the intermediate defective seed and the mask layers still exist between the laterally grown purer III-V layer and silicon. In a modified ELOG method called corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method, it is possible to obtain direct interface between the III-V layer and silicon. In this presentation we exemplify some recent results obtained by these techniques. We assess the potentials of these methods along with the other existing methods for realizing truly monolithic photonic integration on silicon and III-V/Si heterojunction solar cells.

  • 9.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Dev, Apurba
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Materialfysik, MF.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Tommila, Juha
    Pozina, Galia
    Hultman, Lars
    Guina, Mircea
    Niemi, Tapio
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    High quality InP nanopyramidal frusta on Si2014Ingår i: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 16, nr 21, s. 4624-4632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanosized octagonal pyramidal frusta of indium phosphide were selectively grown at circular hole openings on a silicon dioxide mask deposited on indium phosphide and indium phosphide pre-coated silicon substrates. The eight facets of the frusta were determined to be {111} and {110} truncated by a top (100) facet. The size of the top flat surface can be controlled by the diameter of the openings in the mask and the separation between them. The limited height of the frusta is attributed to kinetically controlled selective growth on the (100) top surface. Independent analyses with photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence and scanning spreading resistance measurements confirm certain doping enrichment in the frustum facets. This is understood to be due to crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation. The blue shift from the respective spectra is the result of this enrichment exhibiting the Burstein-Moss effect. Very bright panchromatic cathodoluminescence images indicate that the top surfaces of the frusta are free from dislocations. The good optical and morphological quality of the nanopyramidal frusta indicates that the fabrication method is very attractive for the growth of site-, shape-, and number-controlled semiconductor quantum dot structures on silicon for nanophotonic applications.

  • 10.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Optimization of InP growth directly on Si by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth2015Ingår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 045102-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an attempt to achieve an InP-Si heterointerface, a new and generic method, the corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) technique in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor, was studied. An InP seed layer on Si (0 0 1) was patterned into closely spaced etched mesa stripes, revealing the Si surface in between them. The surface with the mesa stripes resembles a corrugated surface. The top and sidewalls of the mesa stripes were then covered by a SiO2 mask after which the line openings on top of the mesa stripes were patterned. Growth of InP was performed on this corrugated surface. It is shown that growth of InP emerges selectively from the openings and not on the exposed silicon surface, but gradually spreads laterally to create a direct interface with the silicon, hence the name CELOG. We study the growth behavior using growth parameters. The lateral growth is bounded by high index boundary planes of {3 3 1} and {2 1 1}. The atomic arrangement of these planes, crystallographic orientation dependent dopant incorporation and gas phase supersaturation are shown to affect the extent of lateral growth. A lateral to vertical growth rate ratio as large as 3.6 is achieved. X-ray diffraction studies confirm substantial crystalline quality improvement of the CELOG InP compared to the InP seed layer. Transmission electron microscopy studies reveal the formation of a direct InP-Si heterointerface by CELOG without threading dislocations. While CELOG is shown to avoid dislocations that could arise due to the large lattice mismatch (8%) between InP and Si, staking faults could be seen in the layer. These are probably created by the surface roughness of the Si surface or SiO2 mask which in turn would have been a consequence of the initial process treatments. The direct InP-Si heterointerface can find applications in high efficiency and cost-effective Si based III-V semiconductor multijunction solar cells and optoelectronics integration.

  • 11.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Simozrag, B.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA. Epiclarus AB, Sweden .
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Carras, M.
    Blanchard, R.
    Capasso, F.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Demonstration of a Quick Process to Achieve Buried Heterostructure QCL Leading to High Power and Wall Plug Efficiency2014Ingår i: LASER TECHNOLOGY FOR DEFENSE AND SECURITY X, 2014, Vol. 9081, s. 90810O-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with the optimal basic design, buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser (BH-QCL) with semi-insulating regrowth offers unique possibility to achieve an effective thermal dissipation and lateral single mode. We demonstrate here for the first time realization of BH-QCLs with a single step regrowth of highly resistive (>1x10(8) ohm.cm) semi-insulating InP:Fe in less than 45 minutes in a flexible hydride vapour phase epitaxy process for burying ridges etched down to 10-15 mu m deep both with and without mask overhang. The fabricated BH-QCLs emitting at similar to 4.7 mu m and similar to 5.5 mu m were characterized. 2 mm long 5.5 mu m lasers with ridge width 17-22 mu m, regrown with mask overhang, exhibited no leakage current. Large width and high doping in the structure did not permit high current density for CW operation. 5 mm long 4.7 mu m BH-QCLs of ridge widths varying from 6-14 mu m regrown without mask overhang, besides being spatially monomode, TM00, exhibited WPE of similar to 8-9% with an output power of 1.5 - 2.5 W at room temperature and under CW operation. Thus, we demonstrate a simple, flexible, quick, stable and single-step regrowth process with extremely good planarization for realizing buried QCLs leading to monomode, high power and high WPE.

  • 12.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Simozrag, Bouzid
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA. Epiclarus AB, Sweden.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Carras, Mathieu
    Blanchard, Romain
    Capasso, Federico
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Demonstration of a quick process to achieve buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser leading to high power and wall plug efficiency2014Ingår i: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 53, nr 8, s. 087104-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with the optimal basic design, buried heterostructure quantum cascade laser (BH-QCL) with semi-insulating regrowth offers a unique possibility to achieve an effective thermal dissipation and lateral single mode. We demonstrate here the realization of BH-QCLs with a single-step regrowth of highly resistive (>1 x 10(8) ohm . cm) semi-insulating InP: Fe in <45 min for the first time in a flexible hydride vapor phase epitaxy process for burying ridges etched down to 10 to 15 mu m depth, both with and without mask overhang. The fabricated BH-QCLs emitting at similar to 4.7 and similar to 5.5 mu m were characterized. 2-mm-long 5.5-mu m lasers with a ridge width of 17 to 22 mu m, regrown with mask overhang, exhibited no leakage current. Large width and high doping in the structure did not permit high current density for continuous wave (CW) operation. 5-mm-long 4.7-mu m BH-QCLs of ridge widths varying from 6 to 14 mu m regrown without mu mask overhang, besides being spatially monomode, TM00, exhibited wall plug efficiency (WPE) of similar to 8 to 9% with an output power of 1.5 to 2.5 W at room temperature and under CW operation. Thus, we demonstrate a quick, flexible, and single-step regrowth process with good planarization for realizing buried QCLs leading to monomode, high power, and high WPE.

  • 13.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Dagur, Pritesh
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Alternative Approaches in Growth of Polycrystalline InP on Si2014Ingår i: 26th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE , 2014, s. 6880571-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    III-V semiconductors are suitable for high efficiency and radiation resistant solar cells. However, the high cost of these materials limited the application of these solar cells only for specialty application. High quality polycrystalline III-V thin films on low cost substrate are the viable solutions for the problem. In this work we demonstrate two new approaches to grow polycrystalline InP on Si(001) substrate. (i) A simple chemical solution route which makes use of deposition of In2O3 on Si and its subsequent phosphidisation and (ii) In assisted growth that involves deposition of In metal on Si and subsequent growth of InP from its precursors in hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Both techniques are generic and can be applied to other semiconductors on low cost and flexible substrates.

  • 14.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Pietralunga, Silvia M.
    Zani, Maurizio
    Tagliaferri, Alberto
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, nr 3, s. 033519-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 mu m/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3 mu m polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III-V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  • 15.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Pietralunga, SIlvia M.
    Zani, Maurizio
    Tagliaferri, Alberto
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Polycrystalline InP on Si by using In metal assisted growth in hydride  vapor phase epitaxy2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Tommila, J.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Guina, M.
    Niemi, T.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik (Stängd 20120101), Halvledarmaterial, HMA (Stängd 20120101).
    Selective area heteroepitaxy of InP nanopyramidal frusta on Si for nanophotonics2013Ingår i: Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), 2012 International Conference on, IEEE , 2013, s. 81-84Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    InP nanopyramidal frusta on InP and InP precoated Si substrates were grown selectively from nano-imprinted circular openings in silicon dioxide mask using a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The grown InP nanopyramidal frusta, octagonal in shape, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Photoluminescence. The growth is extremely selective and uniform over the entire patterned area on both substrates. The measured diagonal of the top surface is 30 nm and 90 nm for the nanopyramidal frusta grown from 120 nm and 300 nm diameter openings, respectively. The size and morphology as well as the optical quality of these pyramidal frusta make them suitable templates for quantum dot structures for nano photonics and silicon photonics.

  • 17.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Mion, Gaël
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Sun, YanTing
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Sundgren, Petrus
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Baskar, Krishnan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Armani, N.
    Hammar, Mattias
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Selective area growth of GaInNAs/GaAs by MOVPE2004Ingår i: Physica. E, Low-Dimensional systems and nanostructures, ISSN 1386-9477, E-ISSN 1873-1759, Vol. 23, nr 04-mar, s. 347-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective area growth (SAG) of GaInNAs/GaAs systems has been studied by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) for the first time. This also includes a comparative study of SAG of the GaInAs/GaAs. The patterns consisted of various filling factors (F). The band gap changes and the growth morphology have been investigated. A red-shift observed for SAG GaInAs is similar to100 nm with respect to the planar GaInAs which can be attributed to both In enrichment and quantum well (QW) thickness enhancement. Selectively grown GaInNAs structures exhibit a maximum wavelength of 1.3 mum, corresponding to a red-shift of similar to80 nm with respect to the planar GaInNAs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) scans reveal a three-dimensional growth behaviour for SAG GaInNAs unlike SAG GaInAs. This can be related to a certain amount of phase separation or strain that are often the signatures of N incorporation. The cathodoluminescence (CL) intensities (spectral line width) for SAG GaInNAs are larger (smaller) than those for SAG GaInAs at low F's but smaller (larger) at high F's. This indicates that at low F's, GaInAs has degraded due to very high strain but certain amount of strain compensation occurs in GaInNAs.

  • 18.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Martinez Sacristan, Oscar
    Univ Valladolid, Dept Fis Mat Condensada, GdS Optronlab Grp, Edificio LUCIA,Paseo Belen 19, Valladolid 47011, Spain..
    Marcinkevičius, Saulius
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Uzdavinys, Tomas Kristijonas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Jimenez, Juan
    Univ Valladolid, Dept Fis Mat Condensada, GdS Optronlab Grp, Edificio LUCIA,Paseo Belen 19, Valladolid 47011, Spain..
    Ali, Hasan
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Appl Mat Sci, Box 534, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Leifer, Klaus
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Appl Mat Sci, Box 534, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik.
    Optical and interface properties of direct InP/Si heterojunction formed by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth2019Ingår i: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, E-ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 1488-1500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We fabricate and study direct InP/Si heterojunction by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG). The crystalline quality and depth-dependent charge carrier dynamics of InP/Si heterojunction are assessed by characterizing the cross-section of grown layer by low-temperature cathodoluminescence, time-resolved photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy. Compared to the defective seed InP layer on Si, higher intensity band edge emission in cathodoluminescence spectra and enhanced carrier lifetime of InP are observed above the CELOG InP/Si interface despite large lattice mismatch, which are attributed to the reduced threading dislocation density realized by the CELOG method. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

  • 19.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Stergiakis, Stamoulis
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Sahgal, Abhishek
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaxIn1-xP toward direct GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunction2017Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 214, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of GaInP by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) was studied on planar GaAs, patterned GaAs for epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG), and InP/Si seed templates for corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG). First results on the growth of direct GaInP/Si heterojunction by CELOG is presented. The properties of GaxIn(1-x)P layer and their dependence on the process parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction, including reciprocal lattice mapping (XRD-RLM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. The fluctuation of Ga composition in the GaxIn(1-x)P layer was observed on planar substrate, and the strain caused by the composition variation is retained until relaxation occurs. Fully relaxed GaInP layers were obtained by ELOG and CELOG. Raman spectroscopy reveals that there is a certain amount of ordering in all of the layers except those grown at high temperatures. Orientation dependent Ga incorporation in the CELOG, but not in the ELOG GaxIn(1-x)P layer, and Si incorporation in the vicinity of direct GaxIn(1-x)P/Si heterojunction from CELOG are observed in the SEM-EDS analyses. The high optical quality of direct GaInP/Si heterojunction was observed by cross-sectional micro-PL mapping and the defect reduction effect of CELOG was revealed by high PL intensity in GaInP above Si.

  • 20.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Stergiakis, Stamoulis
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Sahgal, Abhishek
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Sychugov, Ilya
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaxIn1-xP towards coherent GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunction by hydride vapor phase epitaxy2016Ingår i: 2016 Compound Semiconductor Week, CSW 2016 - Includes 28th International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, IPRM and 43rd International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors, ISCS 2016, IEEE, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of GaInP on GaAs by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is carried out as a pre-study to obtain GaInP/Si heterointerface. We present first results on the growth of GaInP/Si by a modified ELOG technique, corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG).

  • 21.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Reuterskiöld-Hedlund, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elektronik, Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Paillard, Valerie
    Almae Technologies.
    Lelarge, François
    Almae Technologies.
    Browne, Jack
    Tyndall National Institute.
    Justice, John
    Tyndall National Institute.
    Corbett, Brian
    Tyndall National Institute.
    Electrically pumped 1.5 μm gain material on InP/SiManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Wang, Chengru
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Xie, Chaoying
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Composition and interface studies of GaxIn1-xP/Si heterojunctionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23. Parillaud, O.
    et al.
    De Naurois, G. -M
    Simozrag, B.
    Trinite, V.
    Maisons, G.
    Garcia, M.
    Gerard, B.
    Carras, M.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Sun, Yanting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Multi-regrowth steps for the realization of buried single ridge and μ-stripes quantum cascade lasers2013Ingår i: 2013 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), IEEE , 2013, s. 6562597-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the realization of buried single ridge and μ-stripes quantum cascade lasers using HVPE and MOVPE regrowth steps of semi-insulating InP:Fe and Si doped layers. We present here the preliminary results obtained on these devices. The reduction of the thermal resistance achieved using semi-insulating InP:Fe for regrowth planarization and μ-stripe arrays approaches are shown and performance perspectives are addressed.

  • 24.
    Silfvenius, Christofer
    et al.
    Comlase AB.
    Yanting, Sun
    Comlase AB.
    Blixt, Peter
    Comlase AB.
    Lindström, Carsten
    Comlase AB.
    Feitisch, Alfred O.
    Comlase AB.
    Nitride facet passivation raises reliability, COMD, and enables high-temperature operation of InGaAsP, InGaAs, and InAlGaAs lasers2005Ingår i: High-Power Diode Laser Technology and Applications III / [ed] Mark S. Zediker, 2005, s. 189-200Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The laser diode technology, underpinning applications such as data storage, industrial lasers and optical telecommunications, still suffers from reliability and longevity limitations, especially in high power applications. A main problem for these lasers arises from facet oxidation, leading to increased absorption, power degradation and COMD device failure. Typically, high power devices initially show a low linear degradation and after some 100 hours, the degradation accelerates in a nonlinear fashion, indicating a degradation runaway condition. This article reports performance and reliability improvements that are based on a process which atomically seals surfaces and eliminates oxidation by forming stable nitrides on laser facets. The dangling bond terminating technology suppresses accelerated degradation associated with optical density and heat at laser facets. The dangling bond termination is demonstrated by improved COMD, decreased degradation at CW operation and a constant linear degradation rate at different QW temperature conditions (nonlinear degradation indicates advancement in the oxidation/optical absorption/facet heating/oxidation spiral). The technology is applicable to a range of material systems and has previously been demonstrated on InAlGaAs and InGaAs (increased COMD to >270 and 470mW/μm respectively). The devices with the typically lowest COMD levels (AlInGaAs) show a remarkably low linear degradation rate of <0.5%/kh during at CW life test operation at 90°C and a power level corresponding to 80W bar power. In addition to long term AlInGaAs laser life test results, this paper presents results on nitride facet passivation applied to 805nm InGaAsP devices, showing improved COMD to 400mW/μm and the initial CW life data confirms the general behavior of the previously life-tested InGaAs and InAlGaAs based devices.

  • 25.
    Strömberg, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Mu, Tangjie
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Natesan, Pooja Vardhini
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Tofa, Tajka Syeed
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Bailly, Myriam
    Grisard, Arnaud
    Gérard, Bruno
    Jang, Hoon
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Laserfysik.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Laserfysik.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Laserfysik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Direct Heteroepitaxy of Orientation-Patterned GaP on GaAs by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy for Quasi-Phase-Matching Applications2019Ingår i: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heteroepitaxial growth of orientation‐patterned (OP) GaP (OP‐GaP) on wafer‐bonded OP‐GaAs templates is investigated by low‐pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy for exploiting the beneficial low two‐photon absorption properties of GaP with the matured processing technologies and higher‐quality substrates afforded by GaAs. First, GaP homoepitaxial selective area growth (SAG) is conducted to investigate the dependence of GaP SAG on precursor flows and temperatures toward achieving a high vertical growth rate and equal lateral growth rate in the [110] and [-110]‐oriented openings. Deteriorated domain fidelity is observed in the heteroepitaxial growth of OP‐GaP on OP‐GaAs due to the enhanced growth rate on domain boundaries by threading dislocations generated by 3.6% lattice matching in GaP/GaAs. The dependence of dislocation dynamics on heteroepitaxial growth conditions of OP‐GaP on OP‐GaAs is studied. High OP‐GaP domain fidelity associated with low threading dislocation density and a growth rate of 57 μm h−1 are obtained by increasing GaCl flow. The properties of heteroepitaxial GaP on semi‐insulating GaAs is studied by terahertz time‐domain spectroscopy in the terahertz range. The outcomes of this work will pave the way to exploit heteroepitaxial OP‐GaP growth on OP‐GaAs for frequency conversion by quasi‐phase‐matching in the mid‐infrared and terahertz regions.

  • 26. Sun, Y. T.
    et al.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    Crystallographic orientation dependence of impurity incorporation during epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP2002Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 237, s. 1418-1422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27. Sun, Y. T.
    et al.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Elektronik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Crystallographic orientation dependence of impurity incorporation during epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP2002Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 237, s. 1418-1422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporally resolved epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of 12 alternating layers of unintentionally-doped and S-doped InP layers has been conducted in a low-pressure hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The growth was conducted in the openings on a (0 0 1) n-InP substrate and oriented along 30degrees off the [1 1 0] direction. Based on the analysis of the cleaved cross-sections by scanning electron microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy, an inhomogeneous dopant distribution has been observed within the same ELO layer. This is explained by invoking different bonding configurations exposed to the incorporating dopant atoms in the different emerging planes.

  • 28. Sun, Y. T.
    et al.
    Messmer, E. R.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    Ahopelto, J.
    Rennon, S.
    Reithmaier, J. P.
    Forchel, A.
    Selective growth of InP on focused-ion-beam-modified GaAs surface by hydride vapor phase epitaxy2001Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 79, nr 12, s. 1885-1887Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 29. Sun, Y. T.
    et al.
    Messmer, E. R.
    Soderstrom, D.
    Jahan, D.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    Temporally resolved selective area growth of InP in the openings off-oriented from 110 direction2001Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 225, nr 1, s. 9-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Sun, Yanting
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Junesand, Carl
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Julian, N.
    Bowers, J.
    Pozina, G.
    Hultman, L.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped ELOG InP on Si2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, nr 21, artikel-id 215303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical and structural properties of sulfur-doped epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) InP grown from nano-sized openings on Si are studied by room-temperature cathodoluminescence and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The dependence of luminescence intensity on opening orientation and dimension is reported. Impurity enhanced luminescence can be affected by the facet planes bounding the ELOG layer. Dark line defects formed along the [011] direction are identified as the facet planes intersected by the stacking faults in the ELOG layer. XTEM imaging in different diffraction conditions reveals that stacking faults in the seed InP layer can circumvent the SiO<inf>2</inf> mask during ELOG and extend to the laterally grown layer over the mask. A model for Suzuki effect enhanced stacking fault propagation over the mask in sulfur-doped ELOG InP is constructed and in-situ thermal annealing process is proposed to eliminate the seeding stacking faults.

  • 31.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Kataria, Himanshu
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Realization of an atomically abrupt InP/Si heterojunction via corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth2014Ingår i: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 16, nr 34, s. 7889-7893Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A coherent InP/Si heterojunction with an atomically abrupt interface and low defect density is obtained by conducting corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth of InP on an engineered (001) Si substrate, with InP seed mesa oriented at 30[degree] from the [110] direction in a hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. Ohmic conduction across the InP/Si heterojunction can be achieved.

  • 32.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of III-V semiconductors on Si for photonic integration2019Ingår i: FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN SILICON PHOTONICS / [ed] Lourdudoss, S Bowers, JE Jagadish, C, ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC , 2019, s. 163-200Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 33.
    Sun, Yanting
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Sulfur doped indium phosphide on silicon substrate grown by epitaxial lateral overgrowth2004Ingår i: 2004 International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials, Conference Proceedings, 2004, s. 334-337Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of sulfur doped InP from ring shaped openings on SiNx masked InP/Si substrate in low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy system was investigated. Octahedral shaped ELOG InP templates with smooth surface were formed and studied by cathodoluminescence (CL). High energy transition at 825 nm (1.52 eV) due to the band filling effect caused by high concentration sulfur atoms trapped in threading dislocations was observed in spectra at 80 K. The band edge transition at 875 nm (1.42 eV) in CL spectra has no red shift caused by thermal strain. As observed in panchromatic image, defect free area was surrounded by high density threading dislocations that were pined by sulfur atoms due to impurity hardening. The quality of the ELOG InP templates is promising for the integration of photonic active layer on Si substrate.

  • 34.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Avella, M.
    Jimenez, J.
    Sulfur-doped indium phosphide on silicon substrate brown by ELOG2004Ingår i: Electrochemical and solid-state letters, ISSN 1099-0062, E-ISSN 1944-8775, Vol. 7, nr 11, s. G269-G271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) of sulfur-doped InP on masked InP/Si substrate in a low-pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy system was investigated. Octahedral shaped ELOG InP templates with smooth surface were formed and studied by cathodoluminescence (CL). High-energy transition at 825 nm due to the band-filling effect was observed in spectra at 80 K. The band edge transition at 875 nm has no red shift caused by thermal strain. As observed in panchromatic image, defect free area was surrounded by high density threading dislocations pinned by sulfur atoms due to impurity hardening.

  • 35.
    Sun, Yanting
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Metaferia, Wondwosen
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Direct Heterojunction of Polycrystalline InP/Si by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy for Photovoltaic Application2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct heterojunction of polycrystalline InP on (001) and (111) silicon substrates was realized by indium assisted heteroepitaxy in a hydride vapor phase epitaxy system. The poly-InP growth under various temperatures and dopant incorporation were investigated. A coherent InP/Si interface and poly-InP growth rate > 20 μm/hour was observed by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effective n-type sulfur doping was revealed by stain-etching. The material properties of poly-InP were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy. A preferential crystalline orientation of (111) plane with substrate orientation dependent grain size was observed. Raman spectroscopy characterization at different locations on poly-InP surface reveals residual tensile strain in InP on silicon. High optical quality of poly-InP is revealed by PL measurement.

  • 36.
    Sun, Yanting
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik, Halvledarmaterial, HMA.
    An InP/Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by self-aligned corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth2015Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, nr 21, artikel-id 213504Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiode fabricated by corrugated epitaxial lateral overgrowth (CELOG) method is presented. N-InP/p-Si heterojunction has been achieved from a suitable pattern containing circular shaped openings in a triangular lattice on the InP seed layer on p-Si substrate and subsequent CELOG of completely coalesced n-InP. To avoid current path through the seed layer in the final photodiode, semi-insulating InP: Fe was grown with adequate thickness prior to n-InP growth in a low pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy reactor. The n-InP/p-Si heterointerface was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Room temperature cross-sectional photoluminescence (PL) mapping illustrates the defect reduction effect in InP grown on Si by CELOG method. The InP PL intensity measured above the InP/Si heterojunction is comparable to that of InP grown on a native planar substrate indicating low interface defect density of CELOG InP despite of 8% lattice mismatch with Si. The processed n-InP/p-Si heterojunction photodiodes show diode characteristics from the current-voltage (I-V) measurements with a dark current density of 0.324 mA/cm(2) at a reverse voltage of -1V. Under the illumination of AM1.5 conditions, the InP/Si heterojunction photodiode exhibited photovoltaic effect with an open circuit voltage of 180 mV, a short circuit current density of 1.89 mA/cm(2), an external quantum efficiency of 4.3%, and an internal quantum efficiency of 6.4%. This demonstration of epitaxially grown InP/Si heterojunction photodiode will open the door for low cost and high efficiency solar cells and photonic integration of III-Vs on silicon.

  • 37. Wang, Z.
    et al.
    Liang, Y.
    Meng, B.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Gini, E.
    Beck, M.
    Sergachev, I.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Faist, J.
    Scalari, G.
    Over 2W room temperature lasing on a large area photonic crystal quantum cascade laser2019Ingår i: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2019, artikel-id SW4N.4Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a large-area (1.5 mm × 1.5 mm) photonic crystal quantum cascade laser, with over 2 W peak power at room temperature (289 K), and symmetrical, narrow (&lt; 1◦), single-lobed surface-emitting beam.

  • 38.
    Wang, Zhixin
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Liang, Yong
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Meng, Bo
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Gini, Emilio
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, FIRST Lab, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Beck, Mattias
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Sergachev, Ilia
    Wyss Zurich, Weinbergstr 35, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Faist, Jerome
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Scalari, Giacomo
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Large area photonic crystal quantum cascade laser with 5 W surface-emitting power2019Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 27, nr 16, s. 22708-22716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Room temperature surface emission is realized on a large area (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) photonic crystal quantum cascade laser (PhC-QCL) driven under pulsed mode, at the wavelength around 8.75 mu m. By introducing in-plane asymmetry to the pillar shape and optimizing the current injection with a grid-like window contact, the maximum peak power of the PhC-QCL is up to 5 W. The surface emitting beam has a crossing shape with 10 degrees divergence.

  • 39.
    Wang, Zhixin
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Liang, Yong
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Meng, Bo
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Omanakuttan, Giriprasanth
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Gini, Emilio
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, FIRST Lab, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Beck, Mattias
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Sergachev, Ilia
    Wyss Zurich, Weinbergstr 35, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Fotonik.
    Faist, Jerome
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Scalari, Giacomo
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Quantum Elect, Auguste Piccard Hof 1, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Over 2W room temperature lasing on a large area photonic crystal quantum cascade laser2019Ingår i: 2019 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS (CLEO), IEEE , 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a large-area (1.5 mm x 1.5 mm) photonic crystal quantum cascade laser, with over 2 W peak power at room temperature (289 K), and symmetrical, narrow (<1 degrees), single-lobed surface-emitting beam.

  • 40. Zheng, Qiye
    et al.
    Kim, Honggyu
    Zhang, Runyu
    Sardela, Mauro
    Zuo, Jianmin
    Manavaimaran, Balaji
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Lourdudoss, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Sun, Yan-Ting
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Material- och nanofysik.
    Braun, Paul V.
    Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, nr 22, artikel-id 224303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured GaxIn1-xP (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.

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