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  • 1. Aier, Stephan
    et al.
    Buckl, Sabine
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gleichauf, Bettina
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Schweda, Christian M.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Survival Analysis of Application Life Spans based on Enterprise Architecture Models2009In: Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures, EMISA 2009, 2009, Vol. P-152, p. 141-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern enterprises face the challenge to survive in an ever changing environment. One commonly accepted means to address this challenge and further enhance survivability is enterprise architecture (EA) management, which provides a holistic model-based approach to business/IT alignment. Thereby, the decisions taken in the context of EA management are based on accurate documentation of IT systems and business processes. The maintenance of such documentation causes high investments for enter-prises, especially in the absence of information on the change rates of different systems and processes. In this paper we propose a method for gathering and analyzing such in-formation. The method is used to analyze the life spans of the application portfolio of three companies from different industry sectors. Based on the results of the three case studies implications and limitations of the method are discussed.

  • 2. Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Architectural integration styles for large scale enterprise software systems2001In: Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Enterprise Distributed Object Computing, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3. Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Extending attribute based architectural analysis to enterprise software systems2000In: Proceedings of the 3rd Australasian Workshop on Software and System Architectures, 2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    IT Infrastructure Architectures for Electric Utilities: A Comparative Analysis of Description Techniques2000In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 1530-1605, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The escalating development of Information Technology enables utilities to reorganize or migrate from their existing disparate software systems towards an integrated Enterprise Software System Infrastructure (ESSI) that embraces the total organization. Integration of software systems is expected to increase competitiveness and to cut costs. However, since utilities' present ESSI is heterogeneous as to type and technical platform, overlapping with regard to both data and functionality, and relying on ad-hoc low-level middleware, integration and management of ESSIs often turn out to be hazardous.This paper presents a comparative analysis of the architectural modeling capabilities of established notations widely used by object-oriented, information engineering and structured methods, applied to typical problems found in utilities' ESSI. Architectural descriptions may be used to visualize technical risks and opportunities in a utility's current and future ESSI, as well as to improve communication between different groups within the utility, e.g. management and technical staff, and between the utility and its vendors of software systems.

  • 5. Buckl, Sabine
    et al.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Matthes, Florian
    Schweda, Christian M.
    A meta-language for Enterprise Architecture analysis2011In: 12th International Conference on Business Process Modeling, Development and Support, BPMDS 2011 and 16th International Conference on Exploring Modeling Methods for Systems Analysis and Design, 2011, p. 511-525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) management is a commonly accepted instrument to support strategic decision making. The objective of EA management is to improve business IT alignment by making the impact of planned changes explicit. The increasing interconnectivity of applications with other applications and with business processes however makes it difficult to get a complete view on change impacts and dependency structures. This information is nevertheless required to support decision makers. Current meta-languages proposed for the context of EA management provide only limited support for modelling qualitative and quantitative dependencies. In this paper we propose a meta-language, which builds on the Meta Object Facility (MOF). This meta-language specifically accounts for the requirements of EA analysis. We discuss existing meta-languages from the field of EA management and related areas against these requirements. Building on the standard of the OMG, we present an extension of MOF designed to support EA analysis. The theoretic exposition of the extension is complemented by an example illustrating the applicability of the presented meta-language.

  • 6.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    The Enterprise Architecture Analysis Tool–Support for the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework2013In: 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2013 - Hyperconnected World: Anything, Anywhere, Anytime, Association for Information Systems, 2013, p. 3350-3364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business of contemporary organizations is heavily dependent on information systems. Business processes and IT are interwoven and numerous technologies are in use. How the involved systems affect each other or impact the organizations' business domain is often uncertain, thus decision-making regarding information technology is challenging. Enterprise architecture (EA) is a holistic, model-based management approach. Many of the available EA software tools focus on documenting and have limited analysis capabilities. In this article, a tool for EA analysis is presented, supporting the analysis of properties such as business fit, security, and interoperability. The tool is implemented to support the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework to specify and apply assessment frameworks for performing property analysis on EA models.

  • 7.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Factors in assessing performance of wide area communication networks for distributed control of power systems2007In: 2007 IEEE LAUSANNE POWERTECH, VOLS 1-5, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2007, p. 1682-1687Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper presents research that is being started on the subject of modeling and evaluating performance and related system quality concerns in design of information and communication technology platforms used for power system operation and control. The focus of the project is on how the performance and other quality aspects of such networks interact with modern power control system technologies such as for instance Wide Area Monitoring and Control (WAMC) systems. Specifically the paper presents an evaluation and modeling approach based on a set of theoretically grounded factors important for assessing performance of wide area control systems. These assessment factors are used to define the modeling semantics necessary for enhanced models of the information and communication technology platforms. The factors are further represented in Influence Diagrams, enabling analysis of their inter-dependence with for instance Bayesian analysis. This approach has the potential of offering decision support for design of high performance information and communication technology platforms, while at the same time considering other system qualities. The paper presents an overview of the suggested approach, complemented with influence diagrams describing the inter-dependence of performance factors. The paper also provides an example of application of the approach to a simple control system architecture.

  • 8.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerstrom, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Tool for Enterprise Architecture Analysis of Maintainability: CSMR 2009, PROCEEDINGS2009In: EUR CON SFTWR MTNCE REENGR / [ed] Winter A, Knodel J, Los Almitos: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, p. 327-328Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tool for Enterprise Architecture analysis using a probabilistic mathematical framework is demonstrated. The Model-View-Controller tool architecture is outlined, before the use of the tool is considered. A sample abstract maintainability model is created, showing the dependence of system maintainability on documentation quality. developer expertise, etc. Finally, a concrete model of an ERP system is discussed.

  • 9.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Exploring architectural analysis credibility from a developer perspective2002In: Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Workshop on Software and Systems Architecture, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture Modeling and Analysis of Quality Attributes: The Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL)2015In: Proceedings of the 1st Scandinavian Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems (SWESoS 2015) / [ed] Jakob Axelsson, SICS , 2015, p. 10-12Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gorton, Dan
    Foreseeti AB, Sweden.
    Nydren, Joakim
    Foreseeti AB, Sweden.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    Foreseeti AB, Sweden.
    securiCAD by foreseeti: A CAD tool for enterprise cyber security management2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE 19th International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops and Demonstrations, EDOCW 2015, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a CAD tool for enterprise cyber security management called securiCAD. It is a software developed during ten years of research at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, and it is now being commercialized by foreseeti (a KTH spin-off company). The idea of the tool is similar to CAD tools used when engineers design and test cars, buildings, etc. Specifically, the securiCAD user first models the IT environment, an existing one or one under development, and then securiCAD, using attack graphs, calculates and highlights potential weaknesses and avenues of attacks. The main benefits with securiCAD are; 1) built in security expertise, 2) visualization, 3) holistic security assessments, and 4) scenario comparison (decision-making) capabilities.

  • 12.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lindström, Åsa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gammelgård, Magnus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Plazaola, Leonel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Silva, Enrique
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Liliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Consistent enterprise software system architecture for the CIO: a utility-cost based approach2004In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, business operations of most large companies were supported by a number of isolated software systems performing diverse specific tasks, from real-time process control to administrative functions. In order to better achieve business goals, these systems have in recent years been extended, and more importantly, integrated into a company-wide system in its own right, the enterprise software system. Due to its history, this system is composed of a considerable number of heterogeneous and poorly understood components interacting by means of equally diverse and confusing connectors. To enable informed decision-making, the Chief Information Officer (CIO), responsible for the overall evolution of the company's enterprise software system, requires management tools. This paper proposes enterprise software system architecture (ESSA) as a foundation for an approach for managing the company's software system portfolio. In order to manage the overwhelming information amounts associated with the enterprise software system, this approach is based on two concepts. Firstly, the approach explicitly relates the utility of knowledge to the cost of its acquisition. The utility of knowledge is derived from the increased value of better-informed decision-making. The cost of knowledge acquisition is primarily related to the resources spent on information searching. Secondly, the approach focuses on ensuring the consistency of the architectural model.

  • 13.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Lindström, Åsa
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Management of Enterprise Software System Architectures: Focusing on Information Economy and Model Consistency2003In: Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice in Sweden, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Sjölin, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    The architectural information view for the power electricity industry2003In: Proceedings of the CIGRE SC D2´s Colloquium, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närmen, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Setting the Information Systems Goals2007In: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, p. 92-152Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Flores, Waldo Rocha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Indicators predicting similarities in maturity between processes: An empirical Analysis with 35 European organizations2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compliance audits and IT process evaluations are time-demanding to conduct and methods to simplify and support such evaluations are valuable. This article proposes a set of indicators that can be used to predict similarities in IT process maturity and thereby be used to optimize resource allocations when conducting process maturity evaluations and compliance audits. The indicators have been identified from the COBIT framework and tested against process maturity data from 35 European organizations. Four out of six proposed indicators were supported in the statistical analysis. These indicators can be used as an instrument in COBIT-based maturity evaluations and compliance audits to make the assessment process more resource-efficient.

  • 17.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Flores Rocha, Waldo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture Dependency Analysis using Fault Trees and Bayesian Networks2009In: Proc. 42nd Annual Simulation Symposium, 2009, p. 209-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dependencies between technical systems and business processes is an important part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). However, EA models typically provide only visual and qualitative decision support. This paper shows how EA frameworks for dependency analysis can be extended into the realm of quantitative methods by use of the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Bayesian networks (BN) techniques. Using DoDAF ? the Department of Defense Architecture Framework ? as an example, we provide a method for how these EA models can be adapted for use of FTA and BN. Furthermore, we use this method to perform dependency analysis and scenario evaluation on a sample DoDAF model.

  • 18.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Flores, Waldo Rocha
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise architecture dependency analysis using fault trees and Bayesian networks2009In: Spring Simulation Multiconference 2009 - Co-located with the 2009 SISO Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2009, article id 55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dependencies between technical systems and business processes is an important part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). However, EA models typically provide only visual and qualitative decision support. This paper shows how EA frameworks for dependency analysis can be extended into the realm of quantitative methods by use of the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Bayesian networks (BN) techniques. Using DoDAF - the Department of Defense Architecture Framework - as an example, we provide a method for how these EA models can be adapted for use of FTA and BN. Furthermore, we use this method to perform dependency analysis and scenario evaluation on a sample DoDAF model.

  • 19.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An Enterprise Architecture Framework for Application Consolidation in the Swedish Armed Forces2009In: 2009 13TH ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS (EDOCW 2009) / [ed] Tosic, V., NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 264-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, application consolidation using Enterprise Architecture methods is considered, with an ongoing project in the Swedish Armed Forces as the point of departure. The decision-making features of application consolidation are first analyzed and formalized from the perspective of decision theory. Applying these insights, a more practical framework is then proposed, based primarily on the ISO/IEC 9126 standard, the Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework (MODAF), and the formalism of Probabilistic Relational Models (PRM). This framework supports cost-benefit analysis of application consolidation decision-making, thus helping to make these decisions more structured and transparent.

  • 20.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ericsson, Evelina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Rocha Flores, Waldo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture analysis using Fault Trees and MODAF2009In: Proceedings of the Forum at the CAiSE 2009 Conference, 2009, Vol. 453, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dependencies between information systems, business processes, and strategic goals is an important part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). However, EA models typically provide only visual and qualitative decision support. This paper shows how EA frameworks for dependency analysis can be extended into the realm of quantitative methods by the use of techniques from Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Using MODAF, the UK Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework as an example, we give a list of criteria for the extraction of a metamodel for FTA use, and provide such a metamodel for MODAF. Furthermore, we use this MODAF FTA metamodel to perform dependency analysis on a sample MODAF model.

  • 21.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An architecture framework for enterprise IT service availability analysis2014In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1417-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated enterprise architecture framework for qualitative and quantitative modeling and assessment of enterprise IT service availability. While most previous work has either focused on formal availability methods such as fault trees or qualitative methods such as maturity models, this framework offers a combination. First, a modeling and assessment framework is described. In addition to metamodel classes, relationships and attributes suitable for availability modeling, the framework also features a formal computational model written in a probabilistic version of the object constraint language. The model is based on 14 systemic factors impacting service availability and also accounts for the structural features of the service architecture. Second, the framework is empirically tested in nine enterprise information system case studies. Based on an initial availability baseline and the annual evolution of the 14 factors of the model, annual availability predictions are made and compared with the actual outcomes as reported in SLA reports and system logs. The practical usefulness of the method is discussed based on the outcomes of a workshop conducted with the participating enterprises, and some directions for future research are offered.

  • 22.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Liv
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Availability of enterprise IT systems: an expert-based Bayesian framework2012In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 369-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring the availability of enterprise IT systems is a challenging task. The factors that can bring systems down are numerous, and their impact on various system architectures is difficult to predict. At the same time, maintaining high availability is crucial in many applications, ranging from control systems in the electric power grid, over electronic trading systems on the stock market to specialized command and control systems for military and civilian purposes. This paper describes a Bayesian decision support model, designed to help enterprise IT systems decision makers evaluate the consequences of their decisions by analyzing various scenarios. The model is based on expert elicitation from 50 experts on IT systems availability, obtained through an electronic survey. The Bayesian model uses a leaky Noisy-OR method to weigh together the expert opinions on 16 factors affecting systems availability. Using this model, the effect of changes to a system can be estimated beforehand, providing decision support for improvement of enterprise IT systems availability. The Bayesian model thus obtained is then integrated within a standard, reliability block diagram-style, mathematical model for assessing availability on the architecture level. In this model, the IT systems play the role of building blocks. The overall assessment framework thus addresses measures to ensure high availability both on the level of individual systems and on the level of the entire enterprise architecture. Examples are presented to illustrate how the framework can be used by practitioners aiming to ensure high availability.

  • 23.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Liv
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Availability of enterprise IT systems: an expert-based Bayesian model2010In: Proc. Fourth International Workshop on Software Quality and Maintainability, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring the availability of enterprise IT systems is a challenging task. The factors that can bring systems down are numerous, and their impact on various system architectures is difficult to predict. At the same time, maintaining high availability is crucial in many applications, ranging from control systems in the electric power grid, over electronic trading systems on the stock market to specialized command and control systems for military and civilian purposes. The present paper desccribes a Bayesian decision support model, designed to help enterprise IT systems decision makers evaluate the consequences of their decisions by analyzing various scenarios. The model is based on expert elicitation from 50 academic experts on IT systems availability, obtained through an electronic survey. The Bayesian model uses a leaky Noisy-OR method to weigh together the expert opinions on 16 factors affecting systems availability. Using this model, the effect of changes to a system can be estimated beforehand, providing decision support for improvement of enterprise IT systems availability.

  • 24.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A formal method for cost and accuracy trade-off analysis in software assessment measures2009In: RCIS 2009: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH CHALLENGES IN INFORMATION SCIENCE, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 295-302Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating accurate models of information systems is an important but challenging task. It is generally well understood that such modeling encompasses general scientific issues, but the monetary aspects of the modeling of software systems are not equally well acknowledged. The present paper describes a method using Bayesian networks for optimizing modeling strategies, perceived as a trade-off between these two aspects. Using GeNIe, a graphical tool with the proper Bayesian algorithms implemented, decision support can thus be provided to the modeling process. Specifically, an informed trade-off can be made, based on the modeler's prior knowledge of the predictive power of certain models, combined with his projection of their costs. It is argued that this method might enhance modeling of large and complex software systems in two principal ways: Firstly, by enforcing rigor and making hidden assumptions explicit. Secondly, by enforcing cost awareness even in the early phases of modeling. The method should be used primarily when the choice of modeling can have great economic repercussions.

  • 25.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Method for Choosing Software Assessment Measures using Bayesian Networks and Diagnosis: CSMR 2009, PROCEEDINGS2009In: 13TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE AND REENGINEERING: CSMR 2009, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Winter A, Knodel J, LOS ALAMITOS, CA.: IEEE COMPUTER SOC. , 2009, p. 241-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating accurate models of information systems is an important but challenging task. While the scienti c aspects of such modeling are generally acknowledged, the monetary aspects of the modeling of software systems are not. The present paper describes a Bayesian method for optimizing modeling strategies, perceived as a trade-off between these two aspects. Speci cally, an informed trade-off can be made, based on the modeler's prior knowledge of the predictive power of certain models, combined with her projection of the costs. It is argued that this method enhances modeling of large and complex software systems in two principal ways: Firstly, by enforcing rigor and making hidden assumptions explicit. Secondly, by enforcing cost awareness even in the early phases of modeling. The method should be used primarily when the choice of modeling can have great economic repercussions.

  • 26.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Defense graphs and Enterprise Architecture for Information Assurance analysis2008In: Proceedings of the 26th Army Science Conference, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The JQRR metrics for Information Assurance (IA)and Computer Network Defense (CND) are combinedwith a framework based on defense graphs. This enablesthe use of architectural models for rational decision making,based on the mathematical rigor of extended influencediagrams. A sample abstract model is provided,along with a simple example of its usage to assess accesscontrol vulnerability.

  • 27.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Decision Support oriented Enterprise Architecture Metamodel Management using Classification Trees2009In: 2009 13TH ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS (EDOCW 2009) / [ed] Tosic, V., NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 328-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are an integral part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). To stay relevant to management decision-making needs, the models need to be based upon suitable metamodels. These metamodels, in turn, need to be properly and continuously maintained. While there exists several methods for metamodel development and maintenance, these typically focus on internal metamodel qualities and metamodel engineering processes, rather than on the actual decision-making needs and their impact on the metamodels used. The present paper employs techniques from information theory and learning classification trees to propose a method for metamodel management based upon the value added by entities and attributes to the decision-making process. This allows for the removal of those metamodel parts that give the least "bang for the bucks" in terms of decision support. The method proposed is illustrated using real data from an ongoing research project on systems modifiability

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Quantifying IT Impacts on Organizational Structure and Business Value with Extended Influence Diagrams2008In: PRACTICE OF ENTERPRISE MODELING, 2008, Vol. 15, p. 138-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for analysis of how IT systems add business value by causally affecting the structure of organizations. The well established theory of organizational behavior developed by Mintzberg combined with more recent research oil business value of IT is used to develop a quantitative theoretical framework showing which business values are affected by IT in relation to the organizational structure. This framework, which is based upon a qualitative equivalent developed in all earlier paper. describes relationships ill all Extended Influence Diagram for quantified conditional probability tables and open tip for all empirical appliance. Hence obtained data call be mathematically expressed for more Sound assessments. The intention is to create a fully functioning tool for analyses of what kind of IT system should be used by an organization with a given structure to maximize its business value.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Identifying IT impacts on organizational structure and business value2008In: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment and Interoperability, 2008, Vol. 344, p. 44-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for analysis of how IT systems add business value by causally affecting the structuring of organizations. To aid our understanding of IT benefits related to organizational structure, we put the well established theory of organizational behavior developed by Mintzberg to use. Combining Mintzberg with more recent research on the business value of IT, the result is a qualitative multi-disciplinary theoretical framework that shows which business values are affected by IT in relation to the organizational structure. This framework can be used to analyze what kind of IT system should be used by an organization with a given structure to maximize its business value.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Modeling the IT Impact on Organizational Structure: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE2009In: EDOC: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, p. 14-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact IT systems have on organizations is widely debated, both in academia and industry. This paper describes a quantitative framework for analyzing organizational impact from IT systems. The framework consists of an abstract model that is a metamodel suitable for expressing organizational structure incorporated with an extended influence diagram for analysis. The purpose is to create enterprise architecture (EA) models that can be used for analysis of the enterprise. The framework has been validated through a case study where the framework has been used to analyze the changes in organizational structure after the introduction of an IT system.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise architecture: A framework supporting organizational performance analysis2009In: IET Conference Publications: Issue 550 CP, 2009, Prague, 2009, no 550 CPConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture is a model-based approach to business-oriented IT management. To promote good IT decision making, an enterprise architecture framework needs to explicate what kind of analyses it supports. It is desirable to create enterprise architecture models based on metamodels that support well-defined analyses. In this paper we use enterprise models to analyze the performance of the maintenance organization. A set of performance indicators from the area is presented in the shape of an extended influence diagram. An example illustrates that the theory-based metamodel does support organizational performance analysis.

  • 32.
    Höök, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An Enterprise Architecture Based Method Enabling Quantified Analysis of IT Support System's Impact on Maintenance Management2009In: PROCEEDINGS OF PICMET 09: TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT IN THE AGE OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGE, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 3092-3105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a model based tool enabling holistic management of an enterprise's IT-system portfolio and its relation and support to the business. A domain where the relation between IT-systems and business processes is crucial for cost efficient operation is maintenance of asset dense geographically distributed processes, such as distribution of electric power. Electric power utilities invest a lot of monetary resources in maintenance without having a clear perception of how its management and processes should be optimized. A large proportion of these investments are related to development and integration of IT-systems. The degree of efficiency of these investments runs a risk of being low unless there is a clear understanding of how specific IT system solutions impact the maintenance process. The suggested method provides managerial support for rationalizing decisions concerning IT-systems' support of maintenance management by combining EA with the concept of the Balanced Scorecard. Extended Influence Diagrams (EIDs) are introduced to enable quantitative analysis of how cause and effect between IT-systems and the performance of maintenance processes are related to each other.

  • 33.
    Höök, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, LarsKTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.Johnson, PontusKTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An Enterprise Architecture Based Method for Quantified Analysis of IT System Impact on Maintenance Management2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for quantified analysis of the impact ICT systems have on maintenance management. The method is based on Enterprise Architecture (EA) which is a model based tool enabling holistic management of an enterprise?s ICT system portfolio and its relation and support to the business. A domain where the relation between ICT systems and business processes is crucial for cost efficient operation is maintenance of asset intensive geographically distributed processes, such as distribution of electric power. Power utilities invest many monetary resources in maintenance, a large proportion of these investments being related to development and integration of ICT systems. Thus, there is a need for the power utilities to understand how the products of these investments influence the performance of the maintenance process. The degree of efficiency of these investments runs a risk of being low unless there is a clear understanding of how specific ICT system solutions affects the maintenance activities. The suggested method combines EA with the Maintenance Scorecard and introduces Extended Influence Diagrams (EIDs) to enable a quantitative analysis of how cause and effect between ICT systems and the performance of maintenance processes are related to each other. The method provides management support for rationale decisions concerning ICT systemsᅵ support of the domain of maintenance management. The paper is concluded with an example of how the method can be applied to a typical maintenance process within an electric power utility

  • 34.
    Jacobson, Ivar
    et al.
    IJI.
    Spence, Ian
    IJI.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Re-founding Software Engineering: SEMAT at the Age of Three (Keynote Abstract)2012In: Proceedings of the 27th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, 2012, p. 15-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering is gravely hampered by immature practices. Specific problems include: The prevalence of fads more typical of the fashion industry than an engineering discipline; a huge number of methods and method variants, with differences little understood and artificially magnified; the lack of credible experimental evaluation and validation; and the split between industry practice and academic research.

  • 35.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessment of Enterprise Information Security: The Importance of Information Search Cost2006In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 1530-1605, Vol. 9, p. 219a-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are today several methods and standards available for assessment of the level of information security in an enterprise. A problem with these assessment methods is that they neither provide an indication of the amount of effort required to obtain the assessment nor an approximation of this measure's credibility. This paper describes a part of a new method for assessing the level of enterprise information security expresses the credibility of the results in terms of confidence levels and make use of an estimation of the cost of searching for security evidence. Such methods for predicting information search cost of assessments are detailed in the paper. Search cost predictions are used for providing guidance on how to minimize the effort spent on performing enterprise information security assessments. The conclusions are based on a security assessment performed at a large European energy company and a statistical survey among Swedish security experts.

  • 36.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessment of Enterprise Information Security: An Architecture Theory Diagram Definition2005In: Proceedings CSER 2005, 2005, p. 136-146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to manage and improve something, it is normally necessary to be able to assess the current state of affairs. A problem with assessment, however, is that in order to assess, it is normally necessary to be able to define the assessment topic. These general statements are also true within the area of Enterprise Information Security. Although much has been written on the topic, there is little consensus on what Enterprise Information Security really is. The lack of consensus lessens the credibility of existing assessment approaches.

    This paper presents a well-defined, transparent, and quantified method for the assessment of Enterprise Information Security. The method is based on the consolidation of the most prominent sources on the topic and results in a single quantitative estimate of the level of Enterprise Information Security in a company.

    The usefulness of the presented method has been verified by a case study at a large European electric utility.

    The present paper is a part of an ongoing research project on a credible and cost-effective method for Enterprise Information Security assessment.

  • 37.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessment of Enterprise Information Security: Estimating the Credibility of the Results2005In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Requirements Engineering for Information Security (SREIS 05) at the 13th IEEE Requirements Engineering Conference (RE 05), 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessment of Enterprise Information Security: The Importance of Prioritization2005In: Ninth IEEE International EDOC Enterprise Computing Conference, Proceedings, 2005, p. 207-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the level of information, security in an enterprise is a serious challenge for many organizations. This paper considers the prioritization of the field of enterprise information security. The paper thus considers how we may know what parts Of information security are important for a company to address and what parts are not. Two methods for prioritization are used. The results demonstrate to what extent different standards committees, guideline authors and expert groups differ in their opinions on what the important issues are in enterprise information security. The ISOJEC 17799, the NIST SP 800-26, the ISF standards committees, the CMU/SEI OCTAVE framework authors and an expert panel at the Swedish Information Processing Society (DFS) are considered. The differences in prioritization have important consequences on enterprise information security assessments. The effects on the information security assessment results in a European energy company are presented in the paper.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Cegrell, Torsten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessment of Enterprise Information Security in Electric Utilities: The Importance of Prioritization2006In: Proceedings CIGRE Session 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s large electric utilities enterprise system is highly complex. Technically, they possess several hundreds of extensively interconnected and heterogeneous IT systems performing tasks that vary from Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) to real-time control and monitoring of the processes, such as Distributed Control System (DCS) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA). Organizationally, the enterprise system embraces business processes and business units using, as well as maintaining and acquiring, the IT systems. Information and systems are to a large extent becoming integrated in industry operations since communication and sharing of information are becoming more efficient and faster than before. However, the networking and interconnection of systems can increase the enterprise exposure to information security risks. The significance of information security has been continuously increasing in the management of organizations and in ensuring their operating ability as well as in maintaining disturbance-free and efficient operations. Thus, enterprise information security has become an increasingly important system quality. Assessing a sufficient level of information security is a necessary pre-requisite for the continuance and credibility of operations. But assessing the level of information security in an enterprise is a serious challenge for many organizations, since the area still lacks sufficient support for decision-making on a top-management level. One problem with such assessments is that there are various views on what, exactly, should be measured. There are different opinions on what the constituent parts of enterprise information security are and what these parts? relative importance is. Addressing that problem, this paper presents an operational definition and prioritization of the field of enterprise information security. First, the paper proposes a framework for capturing the semantic essence of enterprise information security. Then, the relative weights of the framework?s subdomains are quantified. Two methods for prioritization are used to obtain the weights. The results demonstrate to what extent different standards committees, guideline authors and expert groups differ in their opinions on what the important issues are in enterprise information security. As prioritization sources, the ISO/IEC 17799, the NIST SP 800-26, the ISF standards committees, the CMU/SEI OCTAVE framework authors and an expert panel at the Swedish Information Processing Society (DFS) are considered. To demonstrate the practical consequences, the effects of varying prioritizations on the enterprise information security assessment results in a European energy company are presented.

  • 40.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electrical Systems.
    Enterprise Software System Integration: An Architectural Perspective2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 41.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making2007Book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Exploring theory of cognition for general theory of software engineering: Predicting the effort of programming language comprehension2015In: Proceedings - 4th SEMAT Workshop on General Theory of Software Engineering, GTSE 2015, IEEE , 2015, p. 15-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in general theories of software engineering. In this article, we explore the utility of a theory of cognition, ACT-R, as a component of such a general theory. The ACT-R theory was instantiated to predict the effort of programming language comprehension for two cases: (i) a C program, and (ii) the corresponding Assembly program. An experiment was then conducted to generate empirical data on the two comprehension tasks. The theoretical predictions were compared to the empirical results. The theoretical model predicted that the effort of understanding the considered program in C is 37% of the effort of understanding a comparable program written in Assembly. The experiment generated 33% as the corresponding percentage number. The concordance between theoretical model and experimental data was surprisingly high, encouraging further investigations into the utility of cognitive theories in software engineering.

  • 43.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    In Search of a Unified Theory of Software Engineering2007In: 2nd International Conference on Software Engineering Advances - ICSEA 2007, 2007, p. 4299884-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly successful scientific disciplines have at least one common denominator; they have developed unified theories that span a large set of phenomena within the discipline. The discipline of software engineering today features a multitude of disparate and fragmented micro-theories. Among these micro-theories, many speak of different things, many speak differently of similar things, and few can be employed consistently together. Since these micro-theories are so numerous and diverse, software engineering also lacks a common vocabulary for communication and argumentation. There are no real rules for separating sound arguments from unsound ones. This article argues that the search for a single unified theory of software engineering is both viable and desirable. In order to do so, requirements for such a unified theory are outlined. Then three well-known software engineering theories that could constitute embryos to unified theories are considered in the light of the presented requirements.

  • 44.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Predicting the effort of program language comprehension: The case of HLL vs. Assembly2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One important aspect of the quality of programming languages is the effort required by a programmer to understand code written in the language. A historical case where this issue was at the forefront was in the debate between the proponents of high-level languages (HLL) and Assembly languages, where the main argument for HLLs were that they were easier for people to understand.

    Being one out of a series of articles arguing for a unified theory for software engineering, this article proposes the use of a specific theoretical model from the discipline of cognitive psychology as a tool for predicting language comprehension effort. Describing human problem solving faculties, the ACT-R model [Anderson and Lebiere 1998] predicts that the effort of understanding a program written in C is only 36,5% of the effort of understanding a comparable program written in Assembly.

    In order to validate the theory, an experiment was performed where a number of engineering students were exposed to tasks of program comprehension. This empirical assessment demonstrated that the effort of understanding a program written in C is 32,5% of the effort of understanding a comparable program written in Assembly. Comparing the results of the theoretical predictions and the empirical assessments of program comprehension effort, we find that the theoretical model performs surprisingly well. The prediction error for the execution of an Assembly program was 5,1% while the error for C was 6,8%. The prediction error for the ratio between the two program languages amounted to 12,6%. 

  • 45.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    The grand unified theory of software engineering2006Book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    The Tarpit - A general theory of software engineering2016In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 70, p. 181-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Recent years have seen an increasing interest in general theories of software engineering. As in other academic fields, these theories aim to explain and predict the key phenomena of the discipline. Objective: The present article proposes a general theory of software engineering that we have labeled the Tarpit theory, in reference to the 1982 epigram by Alan Perlis. Method: An integrative theory development approach was employed to develop the Tarpit theory from four underlying theoretical fields: (i) languages and automata, (ii) cognitive architecture, (iii) problem solving, and (iv) organization structure. Its applicability was explored in three test cases. Results: The theory demonstrates an explanatory and predictive potential for a diverse set of software engineering phenomena. It demonstrates a capability of explaining Brooks's law, of making predictions about domain-specific languages, and of evaluating the pros and cons of the practice of continuous integration. Conclusion: The presented theory appears capable of explaining and predicting a wide range of software engineering phenomena. Further refinement and application of the theory remains as future work.

  • 47.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gammelgård, Magnus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Setting the Business Goals2007In: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, p. 73-91Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Goedicke, Michael
    Jacobson, Ivar
    Towards general theories of software engineering2015In: Science of Computer Programming, ISSN 0167-6423, E-ISSN 1872-7964, Vol. 101, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The special issue of Science of Computer Programming focuses on the theme of general theories of software engineering. A general theory aims at answering the big questions in its field. Ideally, it should be able to explain and predict important phenomena in the field. A general theory of electromagnetism should help readers to understand why one transformer design is superior to another. Software engineering may be considered by pondering the big questions that general theories of software engineering would address. The software engineering discipline also features a multitude of well-known specific theories in addition to personal general theories.

  • 49.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Jacobson, I.
    Where's the theory for software engineering?2012In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 94-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering is a practical engineering discipline without scientific ambitions where rules of thumb and guidelines assume the role of theory. Most of the theories are casual, proposed by the authors but rarely subjected to extended studies, and they explain only a limited set of phenomena. Furthermore, most of these theories aren't subject to serious academic discussion; they aren't evaluated or compared with respect to traditional criteria of theoretical quality such as consistency, correctness, comprehensiveness, and precision. Without the predictive and prescriptive support of theory, software engineering would be relegated to the costly design process of trial and error. With theory, we rise from the labor of random action into intentional design. Software engineering is already full of implicit theory. It should be brought out into the open and subjected to the serious scientific treatment it deserves.

  • 50.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Collecting evidence2007In: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, p. 213-252Chapter in book (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 140
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