Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 83
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    SLU.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    Lund University.
    Karlsson, H
    SLU.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers.
    Strid, Ingrid
    SLU.
    LCA of biorefinieries -identification of key issues and methodological recommendations2013Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekman, Anna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Berlin, Johanna
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Janssen, Matty
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Review of methodological choices in LCA of biorefinery systems: key issues and recommendations2015In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 606-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in biomass conversion technologies is toward more efficient utilization of biomass feedstock in multiproduct biorefineries. Many life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies of biorefinery systems have been performed but differ in how they use the LCA methodology. Based on a review of existing LCA standards and guidelines, this paper provides recommendations on how to handle key methodological issues when performing LCA studies of biorefinery systems. Six key issues were identified: (i) goal definition, (ii) functional unit, (iii) allocation of biorefinery outputs, (iv) allocation of biomass feedstock, (v) land use, and (vi) biogenic carbon and timing of emissions. Many of the standards and guidelines reviewed here provide only general methodological recommendations. Some make more specific methodological recommendations, but these often differ between standards. In this paper we present some clarifications (e.g. examples of research questions and suitable functional units) and methodological recommendations (e.g. on allocation).

  • 3.
    Alverbro, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hagvall, J.
    A life cycle assessment of destruction of ammunition2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 2-3, p. 1101-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Armed Forces have large stocks of ammunition that were produced at a time when decommissioning was not considered. This ammunition will eventually become obsolete and must be destroyed, preferably with minimal impact on the environment and in a safe way for personnel. The aim of this paper is to make a comparison of the environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of three different methods of decommissioning/destruction of ammunition, and to identify the environmental advantages and disadvantages of each of these destruction methods: open detonation; static kiln incineration with air pollution control combined with metal recycling, and a combination of incineration with air pollution control, open burning, recovery of some energetic material and metal recycling. Data used are for the specific processes and from established LCA databases. Recycling the materials in the ammunition and minimising the spread of airborne pollutants during incineration were found to be the most important factors affecting the life cycle environmental performance of the compared destruction methods. Open detonation with or without metal recycling proved to be the overall worst alternative from a life cycle perspective. The results for the static kiln and combination treatment indicate that the kind of ammunition and location of the destruction plant might determine the choice of method, since the environmental impacts from these methods are of little difference in the case of this specific grenade. Different methods for destruction of ammunition have previously been discussed from a risk and safety perspective. This is however to our knowledge the first study looking specifically on environmentally aspect in a life cycle perspective.

  • 4.
    Ambell, Christine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    IVL Svenska Miljöinsitutet.
    Potential för ökad materialåtervinning av hushållsavfall och industriavfall2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportens övergripande syfte är att ge underlag för eventuella förslag till mål för ökad materialåtervinning i Sverige. Vi har gjort detta genom att beräkna potentialen (mängder) för ökad källsortering och materialåtervinning av avfall i Sverige, analysera miljömässiga och företagsekonomiska konsekvenser, samt samla information om den praktiska genomförbarheten.

    Utifrån befintlig avfallsstatistik har vi identifierat vilka mängder av fraktionerna plast, papper och papp, metall, glas, gummi, gips, textil och WEEE som förekommer i blandade avfallskategorier men som skulle kunna källsorteras och materialåtervinnas.

    Med ett scenario för hur avfallsmängderna kan antas öka till år 2030 har vi beräknat de potentiella miljöeffekterna i ett livscykelperspektiv av maximal källsortering och materialåtervinning jämfört med dagens nivåer. Klimatpåverkan, försurning, övergödning, bildning av fotooxidanter och total energianvändning utvärderades för plast, papper och papp, metall, glas och gummi. För samma scenario har de företagsekonomiska kostnaderna för ökad återvinning beräknats. Dessutom har olika aktörer intervjuats om vad de ser för hinder och möjligheter för ökad materialåtervinning.

    Trots väl utbyggd källsortering och återvinning är fortfarande potentialen för ökad källsortering i Sverige betydande. Miljöbedömningarna visar att dagens system för avfallshantering medför nettovinster för miljön i ett livscykelperspektiv, genom att de resurser som återvinns från avfall indirekt ger minskad miljöpåverkan från andra sektorer. Denna positiva indirekta miljöpåverkan från avfallshanteringen kan öka ytterligare genom att öka återvinningen. Med hänsyn till möjliga miljövinster per kton material och tillgängliga mängder återvinningsbart material i blandat avfall, framstår ökad återvinning av plastavfall och pappers- och pappavfall som miljömässigt prioriterat. Ökad återvinning av metallavfall och gummiavfall skulle ge mindre men tydliga miljövinster. Ökad återvinning av glasavfall framstår inte som prioriterat. För textilavfall, gipsavfall och WEEE har inga beräkningar gjorts, men av olika skäl som redovisas i rapporten finns anledning att undersöka dessa fraktioner vidare.

    Intervjuer och möten med representanter för olika avfallsbolag, återvinningsindustrier, byggsektorn och boendesektorn har gett en mångfald av synpunkter, idéer och förslag kring ökad källsortering och återvinning. Det rör allt ifrån internationell lagstiftning på avfallsområdet och övriga miljöområdet, till synpunkter på arkitekters ansvar att ta hänsyn till källsortering vid nyproduktion. Resultatet kan tolkas som att det finns praktiska förutsättningar att öka källsortering och återvinning i Sverige. Inga synpunkter om avgörande praktiska hinder framfördes. Överlag verkar det finnas en vilja att bidra till ökad källsortering och återvinning, förutsatt att det är motiverat ur miljösynpunkt, men det finns önskemål om tydligare målformuleringar och regelverk.

    De företagsekonomiska kostnaderna för avfallshantering ökar med ökad återvinning, men i jämförelse med tillgängliga beräknade åtgärdskostnader för reduktion av växthusgaser inom transportsektorn, framstår kostnaderna som rimliga.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Eriksson, Ola
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Stenmarck, Asa
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 6.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Eriksson, Ola
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    ORWARE: an aid to Environmental Technology Chain Assessment2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 265-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the ORWARE tool, a model originally developed for environmental systems analysis of waste management systems, and shows its prospect as a tool for environmental technology chain assessment. Different concepts of technology assessment are presented to put ORWARE into context in the discussion that has been going for more than two decades since the establishment of the US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). An even-handed assessment is important in different ways such as reproducibility, reliability, credibility, etc. Conventional technology assessment (TA) relied on the judgements and intuition of the assessors. A computer-based tool such as ORWARE provides a basis for transparency and a structured management of input and output data that cover ecological and economic parameters. This permits consistent and coherent technology assessments. Using quantitative analysis as in ORWARE makes comparison and addition of values across chain of technologies easier. We illustrate the application of the model in environmental technology chain assessment through a study of alternative technical systems linking waste management to vehicle fuel production and use. The principles of material and substance flow modelling, life cycle perspective, and graphical modelling featured in ORWARE offer a generic structure for environmentally focused TA of chains and networks of technical processes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Environmental System Analysis of Waste Management: Experiences from Applications of the ORWARE Model2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has gone through a history of shiftingproblems, demands, and strategies over the years. In contrastto the long prevailing view that the problem could be solved byhiding or moving it, waste is now viewed as a problem rangingfrom local to global concern, and as being an integral part ofseveral sectors in society. Decisive for this view has beensociety’s increasing complexity and thus the increasingcomplexity of waste, together with a general development ofenvironmental consciousness, moving from local focus on pointemission sources, to regional and global issues of more complexnature.

    This thesis is about the development and application orware;a model for computer aided environmental systems analysis ofmunicipal waste management. Its origin is the hypothesis thatwidened perspectives are needed in waste managementdecision-making to avoid severe sub-optimisation ofenvironmental performance. With a strong foundation in lifecycle assessment (LCA), orware aims to cover the environmentalimpacts over the entire life cycle of waste management. It alsoperforms substance flow analysis (SFA) calculations at a ratherdetailed level of the system.

    Applying orware has confirmed the importance of applyingsystems perspective and of taking into account site specificdifferences in analysis and planning of waste manage-ment,rather than relying on overly simplified solutions. Somefindings can be general-ised and used as guidelines to reduceenvironmental impact of waste management. Recovery of materialand energy resources from waste generally leads to netreductions in energy use and environmental impact, because ofthe savings this brings about in other sectors. Waste treatmentwith low rate of energy and materials recovery should thereforebe avoided. The exact choice of technology however depends onwhat products can be recovered andhow they are used.

    Despite the complexity of the model and a certain degree ofuser unfriendliness, involved stakeholders have expressed thevalue of participating in orware case studies. It providesimproved decision-basis, but also wider understanding of thecomplexity of waste management and of environmental issues ingeneral.

    The thesis also contains a first suggestion of a frameworkto handle uncertainty in orware, based on a review of types ofuncertainty in LCA and tools to handle it.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Environmental systems analysis waste management: with emphasis on substance flows and environmental impact1998Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Life cycle assessment as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment. Lessons learned from a case study on municipal energy planning in Sweden2012In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is explored as an analytical tool in strategic environmental assessment (SEA), illustrated by case where a previously developed SEA process was applied to municipal energy planning in Sweden. The process integrated decision-making tools for scenario planning, public participation and environmental assessment. This article describes the use of LCA for environmental assessment in this context, with focus on methodology and practical experiences. While LCA provides a systematic framework for the environmental assessment and a wider systems perspective than what is required in SEA, LCA cannot address all aspects of environmental impact required, and therefore needs to be complemented by other tools. The integration of LCA with tools for public participation and scenario planning posed certain methodological challenges, but provided an innovative approach to designing the scope of the environmental assessment and defining and assessing alternatives.

  • 10.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Survey of Approaches to Improve Reliability in LCA2002In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 64-72, article id 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limitations of data quality and difficulties to assess uncertainty are long since acknowledged problems in LCA. During recent years a range of tools for improvement of reliability in LCA have been presented, but despite this there is still a lack of consensus about how these issues should be handled. To give basic understanding of data quality and uncertainty in LCA, key concepts of data quality and uncertainty in the context of LCA are explained. A comprehensive st~rvey of methods and approaches for data quality management, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty analysis published in the LCA literature is presented. It should serve as a guide to further reading for LCA practitioners interested in improving data quality management and uncertainty assessment in LCA projects. The suitability of different tools for addressing different types of uncertainty and future needs in this field is discussed.

  • 11.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Waste Modelling Using Substance Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment1998In: Proceedings of the Air & Waste Management Association’s Annual Meeting, Stockholm: KTH , 1998, p. 15pp-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer models of municipal waste management have been developed initially to focus on cost minimization. As focus in local planning changed, the objective of these models now include environmental optimization. The development of life-cycle assessment (LCA) as a standard means to quantify environmental impact, and of substance flow analysis (SFA) as a means to track down causes of environmental problems has offered new possibilities in this field. The ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) connects LCA and SFA for evaluation of environmental impact in waste planning. Despite the holistic approach of waste planning models, they do not necessarily facilitate decision making.

  • 12.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Planning biodegradable waste handling in StockholmManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Planning Biodegradable Waste Management in Stockholm1999In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of the management of biodegradable waste in Stockholm, based mainly on incineration and landfilling, was compared to systems with significant nutrient recycling; large-scale composting, anaerobic digestion, and separate collection and utilization of urine. The systems' emissions, residual products, energy turnover, and resource consumption were evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, using a computerized model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch model).

    Transportation was of relatively low importance to overall environmental impact, even at high rates of nutrient recycling. This is remarkable considering the geographical setting of Stockholm, with high population density and little nearby farmland. Ancillary systems, such as generation of electricity and district heating, were crucial for the overall outcome.

    Increased recycling of nutrients in solid biodegradable waste in Stockholm can reduce net environmental impact, whereas separation of human urine to be spread as fertilizer cannot yet be introduced without increased acidification. Increased nutrient recycling from solid biodegradable waste inevitably increases spreading of metals on arable land. Urine is by far the least contaminated residual product. Spreading of all other residuals would be limited by their metal content.

  • 14.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    System boundaries in waste management models-Comparing different approaches1998In: Systems engineering models for waste management : proceedings from the international workshop held in Gothenburg, Sweden 25-26 February 1998 / [ed] Sundberg, Johan, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Evaluating a municipal waste management plan using ORWARE1999In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 271-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental consequences of implementing Uppsala's waste management plan have been analysed using ORWARE, a computerized static substance flow model based on life cycle assessment methodology. Normalizing emissions from waste management to total emission loadings in the municipality was tested as a means to improve the evaluation. It was found that anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste can reduce net environmental impact, while large-scale composting either increases environmental impact or gives less reduction than anaerobic digestion. In either case, metal contamination of digester sludge or compost may limit the feasibility of the systems. Increased materials recycling has the potential of reducing environmental impact, provided that processing of recycled materials causes equal or less environmental impact than extraction and processing of virgin raw materials. Normalization showed that all impact categories were of roughly equal importance. It was shown that easy accessible data published by a Swedish municipality were sufficient to do a relatively comprehensive normalization.

  • 16.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Life cycle assessment of a national policy proposal - The case of a Swedish waste incineration tax2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1046-1058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence waste management in the direction of the waste hierarchy. In 2001 a governmental commission assessed the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a weight-based tax on waste incineration, the purpose of which would be to encourage waste reduction and increase materials recycling and biological treatments This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the waste incineration tax proposal. It was done in the context of a larger research project concerning the development and testing of a framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The aim of this paper is to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of the waste incineration tax proposal, and to investigate whether there are any possibilities of more optimal design of such a tax. The proposed design of the waste incineration tax results in increased recycling, but only in small environmental improvements. A more elaborate tax design is suggested, in which the tax level would partly be related to the fossil carbon content of the waste.

  • 17.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Recycling revisited - life cycle comparisons of global warming impact and total energy use of waste management strategies2005In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 309-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of waste materials has been analysed from a life cycle perspective in a number of studies over the past 10-15 years. Publications comparing the global warming impact and total energy use of recycling versus incineration and landfilling were reviewed in order to find out to what extent they agree or contradict each other, and whether there are generally applicable conclusions to be drawn when certain key factors are considered. Four key factors with a significant influence on the ranking between recycling, incineration, and landfilling were identified. Producing materials from recycled resources is often, but not always, less energy intensive and causes less global warming impact than from virgin resources. For non-renewable materials the savings are of such a magnitude, that apparently the only really crucial factor is what material is replaced. For paper products, however, the savings of recycling are much smaller. The ranking between recycling and incineration of paper is sensitive to for instance paper quality, energy source avoided by incineration, and energy source at the mill.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, K.-H
    Johansson, J
    Mårtensson, A
    Stenlund, J
    Viklund, P
    Viklund, H
    Energiplanering med strategisk miljöbedömning i Finspång2007Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Roth, Liselott
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Application of LCA to waste management2010In: Solid Waste Technology & Management / [ed] Christensen, T.H, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 137-160Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Roth, Liselott
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Giftfria och resurssnåla kretslopp: Åtgärdsstrategier under olika omvärldsutveckling2007Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Melaina, Marc
    Keoleian, Gregory
    Hydrogen as a transportation fuel produced from thermal gasification of municipal solid waste: an examination of two integrated technologies2001In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1209-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative technologies are required to offset increasing consumption and declining stocks of non-renewable resources. This study examines a possible enhancement of waste management and transportation by integrating two emerging technologies: municipal solid waste (MSW) gasification and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs), by fueling FCVs with hydrogen produced from gasified MSW. Material and energy flows were modeled in four MSW management scenarios (incineration, landfill, gasification, gasification with recycling) and four transportation scenarios (hybrid gasoline-electric, methanol FCVs, hydrogen FCVs using hydrogen from natural gas or municipal solid waste). Technological performance deemed feasible within 2010–2020 was assumed. Greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy use were used to assess overall system performance. Gasification with hydrogen production performs as efficiently as incineration, but is advantageous compared to landfilling. Taking into account additional environmental criteria, the model suggests that hydrogen from MSW gasification for FCVs may provide benefits over conventional MSW treatment and transportation systems.

  • 22.
    Carlsson, Annica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Palm, V.
    Wadeskog, A.
    IPP-indicators for private and public consumption based on environmental accounts and LCA2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23. Dalemo, M.
    et al.
    Sonesson, U.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Mingarini, K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Frostell, Björn M
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Environmental Technology and Work Science.
    Jönsson, H.
    Nybrant, T.
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Thyselius, L.
    ORWARE – A simulation model for organic waste handling systems.: Part 1: Model description1997In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch), for the handling of organic waste in urban areas has been constructed. The model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental effects, plant nutrient utilisation and energy turnover for this large and complex system. The ORWARE model consists of several sub-models; sewage plant, incineration, landfill, compost, anaerobic digestion, truck transport, transport by sewers, residue transport and spreading of residues on arable land. The model is intended for simulating different scenarios, and the results are: emissions to air and water, energy turnover and the amount of residues returned to arable land. All results are presented, both as the gross figure for the entire system and figures for each process. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of 43 substances. This extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. In this paper, the model is described. Results from a hypothetical case study are presented in a companion paper.

  • 24. Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Effects of including nitrogen emissions from soil in environmental systems analysis of waste management strategies1998In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, p. 363-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of nitrogen emissions from soil resulting from the use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, are large compared with the corresponding impacts of mineral fertilizers. However, soil emissions are rarely included in systems analysis of waste management strategies. This study examines whether the inclusion of soil emissions can affect the environmental ranking of systems for managing solid biodegradable waste. Waste management scenarios based on incineration, anaerobic digestion and composting, respectively, were compared. The scenarios were analysed using the organic waste research (ORWARE) simulation model. A simplified model for calculating nitrogen availability and emissions was also constructed. Life-cycle analysis methodology was used for choosing system boundaries and evaluating the results. Global warming, acidification and eutrophication were the impact categories considered. The results indicate the vital importance of considering nitrogen emissions from soil when comparing biological waste management systems with other waste management methods, especially with regard to eutrophication effects. Soil emissions are also important when comparing the environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and composting systems. However, the variation in nitrogen emissions from soil is large and depends on the spreading technique used, climate, drainage and soil texture

  • 25.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Integrating sustainability in research.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26. Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 989-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  • 27.
    Engström, Rebecka
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Åtgärdspaket och omvärldsscenarier för de svenska miljömålen2007Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Eriksson, Elina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Kramers, Anna
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Edvardsson Björnberg, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Sustainable development for ICT engineering students: “What’s in it for me”?2016In: / [ed] Mazijn, Bernard, Brugge, Belgium: Instituut vóór Duurzame Ontwikkeling vzw , 2016, p. 165-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of sustainable development (SD) is hardly possible to refute; however, sustainable development has been a relatively peripheral subject in computer-related engineering educations. Sustainability, with its global and potentially all-encompassing connotations, is still seen by many Information and Communication Technology (ICT) students as a topic of little relevance to their future careers. So how can teachers convince these students that sustainability is a topic that can be both relevant and interesting for them? From the point of view of the student; “What’s in it for me?”.

    In this paper we describe and compare our efforts to plan and teach three introductory courses on SD in three different ICT-related educational programmes at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. The courses were planned separately, but they will be analysed together. We discuss two dimensions that we have found to be imperative in our endeavour to engage our students. The first dimension is to handle the balance between sustainability on a general level versus sustainability as specifically related to ICT. The second dimension is to handle the tension between teaching facts versus an emphasis on students’ reflections and/or practicing skills. We argue that overcoming the challenge of making sustainability relevant to the students is central for successfully teaching these courses. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Carlsson Reich, M.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sundqvist, J-O
    Granath, J
    Baky, A
    Thyselius, L
    Municipal Solid Waste Management from a Systems Perspective2005In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 241-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different waste treatment options for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of biodegradable waste, were studied and compared to landfilling. The evaluation covered use of energy resources, environmental impact and financial and environmental costs. In the study, a calculation model ( ) based on methodology from life cycle assessment (LCA) was used. Case studies were performed in three Swedish municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Älvdalen.

    The study shows that reduced landfilling in favour of increased recycling of energy and materials lead to lower environmental impact, lower consumption of energy resources, and lower economic costs. Landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, partly because of the negative environmental impacts from landfilling, but mainly because of the low recovery of resources when landfilling.

    Differences between materials recycling, nutrient recycling and incineration are small but in general recycling of plastic is somewhat better than incineration and biological treatment somewhat worse.

    When planning waste management, it is important to know that the choice of waste treatment method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as generation of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 30. Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: A comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 1346-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Swed. Environ. Res. Institute (IVL), Stockholm.
    Granath, J.
    Swed. Environ. Res. Institute (IVL), Stockholm.
    Carlsson, M.
    Department of Economy, Swed. Univ. for Agric. Sci. (SLU), Uppsala.
    Baky, A.
    Swed. Inst. of Agric./E. E. (JTI), Uppsala.
    Thyselius, L.
    Swed. Inst. of Agric./E. E. (JTI), Uppsala.
    ORWARE: a simulation tool for waste management2002In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 287-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) is described. The model is mainly used as a tool for researchers in environmental systems analysis of waste management. It is a computer-based model for calculation of substance flows, environmental impacts, and costs of waste management. The model covers, despite the name, both organic and inorganic fractions in municipal waste. The model consists of a number of separate submodels, which describes a process in a real waste management system. The submodels may be combined to design a complete waste management system. Based on principles from life cycle assessment the model also comprises compensatory processes for conventional production of e.g. electricity, district heating and fertiliser. The compensatory system is included in order to fulfil the functional units, i.e. benefits from the waste management that are kept constant in the evaluation of different scenarios. ORWARE generates data on emissions, which are aggregated into different environmental impact categories, e.g. the greenhouse effect, acidification and eutrophication. Throughout the model all physical flows are described by the same variable vector, consisting of up to 50 substances. The extensive vector facilitates a thorough analysis of the results, but involves some difficulties in acquiring relevant data. Scientists have used ORWARE for 8 years in different case studies for model testing and practical application in the society. The aims have e.g. been to evaluate waste management plans and to optimise energy recovery from waste.

  • 32.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, J
    A Life Cycle Assessment of Destruction of Ammunition2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Alverbro, Karin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Hägvall, J
    Environmental Aspects of Disposal of Ammunition2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson, A
    Palm, V
    Wadeskog, A
    Energy indicators for Integrated Product Policy (IPP) in a life-cycle perspective2007In: Proceedings of the 14th SETAC-Europe LCA Case Study Symposium, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carlsson Reich, Markus
    Eriksson, Ola
    Sörblom, Adrienne
    Robusta och flexibla strategier för utnyttjande av energi ur avfall2005Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ekvall, T
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Models for waste management: Possibilities and limitations2006In: Proceedings of the ISWA/DAKOFA Congress, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Environmental and economic assessment methods for waste management decision-support: possibilities and limitations2007In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 263-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of methods and approaches that can be used for supporting waste management decisions at different levels in society have been developed. In this paper an overview of methods is provided and preliminary guidelines for the choice of methods are presented. The methods introduced include: Environmental Impact Assessment, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Cost-effectiveness Analysis, Life-cycle Costing, Risk Assessment, Material Flow Accounting, Substance Flow Analysis, Energy Analysis, Exergy Analysis, Entropy Analysis, Environmental Management Systems, and Environmental Auditing, The characteristics used are the types of impacts included, the objects under study and whether the method is procedural or analytical The different methods can be described as systems analysis methods. Waste management systems thinking is receiving increasing attention. This is, for example, evidenced by the suggested thematic strategy on waste by the European Commission where life-cycle analysis and life-cycle thinking get prominent positions. Indeed, life-cycle analyses have been shown to provide policy-relevant and consistent results. However, it is also clear that the studies will always be open to criticism since they are simplifications of reality and include uncertainties. This is something all systems analysis methods have in common. Assumptions can be challenged and it may be difficult to generalize from case studies to policies. This suggests that if decisions are going to be made, they are likely to be made on a less than perfect basis.

  • 38.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, M
    Johansson, J
    About the Role of LCA in the Analytical Phase of SEA2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, M
    Johansson, J
    Strategic Environmental Assessment and Life Cycle Assessment of a Waste Incineration Tax Proposal2005In: Waste Management in the Focus of Controversial Interests / [ed] Lechner, P, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Reich, Marcus Carlsson
    Eriksson, Ola
    Sorbom, Adrienne
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. S1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 41.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Ekvall, T
    Assefa, G
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Eriksson, O
    Limitations and amendments in life-cycle assessment on waste management2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Arushanyan, Yevgenia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ljungren Söderman, Maria
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Sundberg, Johan
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle.
    Forsfält, Tomas
    Guath, Mona
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 841-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: “Information”; “Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials”; “Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems”; “Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals”, “Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures”; and “Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services”. Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management
  • 43.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Forsfält, Thomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    IVL.
    Stemarck, Åsa
    IVL.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olof
    IVL.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Regeringen måste satsa på resurseffektivt samhälle2013In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2013-04-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Regeringen förbereder en avfallspolitisk proposition. Den kommer förhoppningsvis att klargöra vem som ska ha ansvaret att samla in våra förpackningar. Men fokus borde också ligga på hur vi kan gå mot ett samhälle där resurser används så effektivt som möjligt, skriver forskare på miljöområdet.

  • 44.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Eriksson, O
    Ekvall, T
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    LCA of Solid Waste Compared to other fuels in a district heating system2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Roth, L
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Förutsättningar för ökad insamling och materialåtervinning av hushållens säck och kärlavfall i materialströmmar2007Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Goronovski, Andrei
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Tkaczyk, Alan H.
    University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Impact assessment of enhanced exposure from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) within LCA2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 2824-2839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impact of ionising radiation from enhanced exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) to humans and the environment is not currently accounted for sufficiently in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Here we present midpoint and endpoint characterisation factors resulting from the implementation of impact assessment models for human health and ecosystems for NORM exposure. These models build upon existing fate, exposure and effect models from the LCA and radiological literature. The newly developed models are applied to a theoretical study of the utilisation of bauxite residue, a by-product of alumina processing enriched in natural radionuclides, in building materials. The ecosystem models have significant sensitivity to uncertainties surrounding the differential environmental fate of parent and daughter radionuclides that are produced as a part of decay chains, and to assumptions regarding long term releases from landfill sites. However, conservative results for environmental exposure suggest that in addition to landfill of materials, power consumption (burning coal and mining uranium) is a potentially significant source of radiological impact to the environment. From a human perspective, exposure to NORM in the use phase of building materials is the dominant source of impact, with environmental releases of nuclides playing a comparatively minor role. At an endpoint level, the impact of NORM exposure is highly significant in comparison to other impact categories in the area of protection of human health. The dose increase is of an order of magnitude comparable to lifestyle factors. The results highlight the importance within LCA of having sufficient impact assessment models to capture all potential impacts, such that issues of burden shifting between impact measures can be captured, interpreted and resolved in the optimisation of product systems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Accepted manuscript
  • 47.
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Umair, Shakila
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle cost and environmental effect analysis for a Ro-Pax superstructure in composite material2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48. Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    Johansson, Jessica
    Viklund, Per
    Wiklund, Hans
    New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment2010In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a model for local energy planning and its application in a full-scale experiment in a Swedish municipality. The model is based on legal requirement,research findings and standards of good practice and includes a combination ofanalytical and procedural tools intended to support rational decision-making: external scenarios, a citizens’ panel, life cycle analysis and qualitative environmental assessment (EA). The application of the model indicates that the decision-support tools selected can give several new and valuable inputs to local energy planning, suchas local knowledge and values through citizen dialogue and comprehensive EAs.However, the experiment also shows that there are several challenges involved in applying the tools, for example, it is difficult to get citizens and the industry to participate and that it is complicated to combine several different tools for decision making into a single planning process. Moreover, the experiences from the application suggest that the model for local energy planning show great potential but needs to be improved before it can be used as a standard of good practice.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Reducing Life Cycle Environmental Impacts of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Recycling: Case Study on Dishwashers2010In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 258-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collection and treatment of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regulated in the European Union by the WEEE Directive. Producers are responsible for take-back and recycling of discarded equipment. Valuable materials are, however, at risk of "getting lost" in current processes. Thus, strategies to minimize losses are sought after. The material hygiene (MH) concept was introduced to address this issue. Structural features, which are important for the outcome of reuse, recovery, and recycling, were investigated in an earlier field study of discarded dishwashers. It was proposed that a prestep, manual removal of copper prior to shredding could increase the purity of recovered material fractions. This article builds on the field study and theoretical reasoning underlying the MH concept. Dishwashers are assumed to be designed for disassembly when the prestep is introduced. A limited life cycle assessment was performed to determine whether the proposed prestep may be environmentally beneficial in a life cycle perspective. Two alternatives were analyzed: Case 1: the current shredding process. Case 2: prestep removal of copper before shredding. Targeted disassembly prior to shredding may reduce the abiotic depletion and global warming potential in a life cycle perspective. The prestep results in increased copper recovery, but, more important, copper contamination of the recovered steel fractions is reduced. The results also highlight the importance of minimizing energy consumption in all process stages.

  • 50.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Identifying hotspots of environmental impact in the development of novel inorganic polymer paving blocks from bauxite residueIn: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High bauxite residue content inorganic polymer paving blocks have the potential not only to provide a solution to the ongoing waste management issues faced by the alumina sector, but to simultaneously provide low environmental impact building materials to the construction sector. In order to realise the potential of this emerging technology, it is important to understand where the hotspots of environmental impact are likely to occur, and identify routes to reduce this impact, at an early stage of development. In this study we use anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to identify hotspots of environmental impact in the production of paving blocks made from inorganic polymers derived from bauxite residue. This technology has only been demonstrated at laboratory scale; however, production was modelled at industrial scale. The bauxite residue is fired in a rotary kiln in the presence of a carbon and silica source, in order to create a reactive precursor. When mixed with an alkali the precursor forms a solid block. Our results identify the firing process as the major hotspot of environmental impact, primarily due to the combustion of fossil fuels in the rotary kiln. Steps to reduce the impact of the firing step or to reduce the amount of fired precursor used in the final paving block are suggested as routes for future impact reduction. Optimisation of the environmental aspects of these building materials at an early stage in their development could lead to a promising future for high-volume bauxite residue valorisation at low environmental cost.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-10 15:01
12 1 - 50 of 83
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf