Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 73
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Aronsson, Carina
    et al.
    Bohman, Mikael
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, Maria
    Loud voice during environmental noise exposure in patients with vocal nodules2007In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 60-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate how female patients with vocal nodules use their voices when trying to make themselves heard over background noise. Ten patients with bilateral vocal fold nodules and 23 female controls were recorded reading a text in four conditions, one without noise and three with noise from cafes/pubs, played over loudspeakers at 69, 77 and 85 dBA. The noise was separated from the voice signal using a high-resolution channel estimation technique. Both patients and controls increased voice sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (F0), subglottal pressure (Ps) and their subjective ratings of strain significantly as a main effect of the increased background noise. The patients used significantly higher Ps in all four conditions. Despite this they did not differ significantly from the controls in voice SPL, F0 or perceived strain. It was concluded that speaking in background noise is a risk factor for vocal loading. Vocal loading tests in clinical settings are important and further development of assessment methods is needed.

  • 2.
    Bohman, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, M.
    Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge.
    The use of channel estimation techniques for investigating vocal stress in noisy environments2003In: Ultragarsas, ISSN 1392-2114, Vol. 3, no 48, p. 9-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bresin, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Hansen, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Sound and Music Computing at KTH2012In: Trita-TMH, ISSN 1104-5787, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 33-35Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SMC Sound and Music Computing group at KTH (formerly the Music Acoustics group) is part of the Department of Speech Music and Hearing, School of Computer Science and Communication. In this short report we present the current status of the group mainly focusing on its research.

  • 4.
    Degirmenci, Niyazi Cem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Jansson, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Hoffman, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Arnela, Marc
    Sánchez-Martín, Patricia
    Guasch, Oriol
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    A Unified Numerical Simulation of Vowel Production That Comprises Phonation and the Emitted Sound2017In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association, INTERSPEECH 2017, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 3492-3496Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unified approach for the numerical simulation of vowels is presented, which accounts for the self-oscillations of the vocal folds including contact, the generation of acoustic waves and their propagation through the vocal tract, and the sound emission outwards the mouth. A monolithic incompressible fluid-structure interaction model is used to simulate the interaction between the glottal jet and the vocal folds, whereas the contact model is addressed by means of a level set application of the Eikonal equation. The coupling with acoustics is done through an acoustic analogy stemming from a simplification of the acoustic perturbation equations. This coupling is one-way in the sense that there is no feedback from the acoustics to the flow and mechanical fields. All the involved equations are solved together at each time step and in a single computational run, using the finite element method (FEM). As an application, the production of vowel [i] has been addressed. Despite the complexity of all physical phenomena to be simulated simultaneously, which requires resorting to massively parallel computing, the formant locations of vowel [i] have been well recovered.

  • 5.
    Ericsdotter, Christine
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Swedish2012In: The Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet in the Choral Rehearsal / [ed] Duane R. Karna, Scarecrow Press, 2012, p. 245-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Hellwagner, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Helgason, Pétur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Elovsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lemaitre, Guillaume
    Institute for Research and Coordination in Acoustics and Music, Paris, France.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Prediction of three articulatory categories in vocal sound imitations using models for auditory receptive fields2018In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal sound imitations provide a new challenge for understanding the coupling between articulatory mechanisms and the resulting audio. In this study, we have modeled the classification of three articulatory categories, phonation, supraglottal myoelastic vibrations, and turbulence from audio recordings. Two data sets were assembled, consisting of different vocal imitations by four professional imitators and four non-professional speakers in two different experiments. The audio data were manually annotated by two experienced phoneticians using a detailed articulatory description scheme. A separate set of audio features was developed specifically for each category using both time-domain and spectral methods. For all time-frequency transformations, and for some secondary processing, the recently developed Auditory Receptive Fields Toolbox was used. Three different machine learning methods were applied for predicting the final articulatory categories. The result with the best generalization was found using an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons. The cross-validated classification accuracy was 96.8 % for phonation, 90.8 % for supraglottal myoelastic vibrations, and 89.0 % for turbulence using all the 84 developed features. A final feature reduction to 22 features yielded similar results.

  • 7. Gramming, Patricia
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Leanderson, Rolf
    Perkins, William H.
    Relationship between changes in voice pitch and loudness1988In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Changes in mean fundamental frequency accompanying changes in loudness of phonation are analyzed in 9 professional singers, 9 nonsingers, and 10 male and 10 female patients suffering from vocal functional dysfunction. The subjects read discursive texts with noise in earphones, and some also at voluntarily varied vocal loudness. The healthy subjects phonated as softly and as loudly as possible at various fundamental frequencies throughout their pitch ranges, and the resulting mean phonetograms are compared. Mean pitch was found to increase by about half-semitones per decibel sound level. Grossly, the subject groups gave similar results, although the singers changed voice pitch more than the nonsingers. The voice pitch changes may be explained as passive results of changes of subglottal pressure required for the sound level variation.

  • 8.
    Grell, Anke
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ptok, Martin
    Altenmueller, Eckart
    Rapid pitch correction in choir singers2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 126, no 1, p. 407-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly and moderately skilled choral singers listened to a perfect fifth reference, with the instruction to complement the fifth such that a major triad resulted. The fifth was suddenly and unexpectedly shifted in pitch, and the singers' task was to shift the fundamental frequency of the sung tone accordingly. The F0 curves during the transitions often showed two phases, an initial quick and large change followed by a slower and smaller change, apparently intended to fine-tune voice F0 to complement the fifth. Anesthetizing the vocal folds of moderately skilled singers tended to delay the reaction. The means of the response times varied in the range 197- 259 ms depending on direction and size of the pitch shifts, as well as on skill and anesthetization.

  • 9. Guasch, O.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Arnela, M.
    Alias, F.
    Unified numerical simulation of the physics of voice: The EUNISON project2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this demo we will briefly outline the scope of the European EUNISON project, which aims at a unified numerical simulation of the physics of voice by resorting to supercomputer facilities, and present some of its preliminary results obtained to date.

  • 10.
    Guasch, Oriol
    et al.
    La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Some current challenges in unified numerical simulations of voice production: from biomechanics to the emitted sound2017In: ISSP 2017 Proceedings, Tianjin, China: Institute of linguistics, CASS , 2017, p. 87-89, article id S2-2Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice production all the way from muscle activation to sound - are we there yet? Three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of the entire process of voice generation appear to be very challenging. Muscle activations position the articulators, which define a vocal tract geometry and posture the vocal folds. Air emanating from the lungs induces self-oscillations of the vocal folds, which result in aeroacoustic sources and the subsequent propagation of acoustic waves inside the vocal tract (VT). There, many things could happen. For instance, the air could resonate to generate vowels, or, at constrictions, airflow may be accelerated to create turbulent sounds such as fricatives. The vocal tract walls are flexible and react to the inner acoustic pressure. Also, articulators can change the vocal tract geometry to generate vowel-vowel utterances or syllables. Sound is finally radiated from the mouth.Attempting unified 3D numerical simulations of all the above processes, which involve coupling of a biomechanical model and the mechanical, fluid and acoustic fields, may seem unwise. Most research to date has addressed a few selected aspects of voice production. Unified approaches have been shunned for their daunting complexity and high-performance parallel computation requirements. This situation now seems to be changing. In this paper, we briefly review recent approaches towards 3D realistic voice simulation that unify, at least to some extent, some of the involved physical fields. Remaining challenges will be highlighted. We will focus on those works which end with the production of a given sound, thus leaving aside the huge amount of literature solely devoted to the complex simulation of phonation.

  • 11. Gustafsson, J.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Södersten, M.
    Schalling, E.
    Motor-Learning-Based Adjustment of Ambulatory Feedback on Vocal Loudness for Patients With Parkinson's Disease2016In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate how the direct biofeedback on vocal loudness administered with a portable voice accumulator (VoxLog) should be configured, to facilitate an optimal learning outcome for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), on the basis of principles of motor learning. Study Design: Methodologic development in an experimental study. Methods: The portable voice accumulator VoxLog was worn by 20 participants with PD during habitual speech during semistructured conversations. Six different biofeedback configurations were used, in random order, to study which configuration resulted in a feedback frequency closest to 20% as recommended on the basis of previous studies. Results: Activation of feedback when the wearer speaks below a threshold level of 3dB below the speaker's mean voice sound level in habitual speech combined with an activation time of 500ms resulted in a mean feedback frequency of 21.2%. Conclusions: Settings regarding threshold and activation time based on the results from this study are recommended to achieve an optimal learning outcome when administering biofeedback on vocal loudness for individuals with PD using portable voice accumulators.

  • 12. Herbst, Christian T.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Svec, Jan G.
    Investigation of four distinct glottal configurations in classical singing-A pilot study2009In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 125, no 3, p. EL104-EL109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates four qualities of singing voice in a classically trained baritone: "naive falsetto," "countertenor falsetto," "lyrical chest" and "full chest." Laryngeal configuration and vocal fold behavior in these qualities were studied using laryngeal videostroboscopy, videokymography, electroglottography, and sound spectrography. The data suggest that the four voice qualities were produced by independently manipulating mainly two laryngeal parameters: (1) the adduction of the arytenoid cartilages and (2) the thickening of the vocal folds. An independent control of the posterior adductory muscles versus the vocalis muscle is considered to be the physiological basis for achieving these singing voice qualities.

  • 13. Herbst, Christian
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    A comparison of different methods to measure the EGG contact quotient2006In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 126-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from six published electroglottographic (EGG-based) methods for calculating the EGG contact quotient (CQEGG) were compared to closed quotients derived from simultaneous videokymographic imaging (CQKYM). Two trained male singers phonated in falsetto and in chest register, with two degrees of adduction in both registers. The maximum difference between methods in the CQEGG was 0.3 (out of 1.0). The CQEGG was generally lower than the CQKYM. Within subjects, the CQEGG co-varied with the CQkym, but with changing offsets depending on method. The CQEGG cannot be calculated for falsetto phonation with little adduction, since there is no complete glottal closure. Basic criterion-level methods with thresholds of 0.2 or 0.25 gave the best match to the CQKYM data. The results suggest that contacting and de-contacting in the EGG might not refer to the same physical events as do the beginning and cessation of airflow.

  • 14. Jers, H.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Intonation analysis of a multi-channel choir recording2004In: Proc of Baltic-Nordic Acoustics Meeting 2004, B-NAM 2004, Mariehamn, Åland, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15. Körner Gustafsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Södersten, Maria
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schalling, Ellika
    Long-term effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on daily voice use in Parkinson’s disease as measured with a portable voice accumulator2018In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, ISSN 1401-5439, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of an intensive voice treatment focusing on increasing voice intensity, LSVT LOUD¯ Lee Silverman Voice Treatment, on voice use in daily life in a participant with Parkinson’s disease, using a portable voice accumulator, the VoxLog. A secondary aim was to compare voice use between the participant and a matched healthy control. Participants were an individual with Parkinson’s disease and his healthy monozygotic twin. Voice use was registered with the VoxLog during 9 weeks for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 2 weeks for the control. This included baseline registrations for both participants, 4 weeks during LSVT LOUD for the individual with Parkinson’s disease and 1 week after treatment for both participants. For the participant with Parkinson’s disease, follow-up registrations at 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment were made. The individual with Parkinson’s disease increased voice intensity during registrations in daily life with 4.1 dB post-treatment and 1.4 dB at 1-year follow-up compared to before treatment. When monitored during laboratory recordings an increase of 5.6 dB was seen post-treatment and 3.8 dB at 1-year follow-up. Changes in voice intensity were interpreted as a treatment effect as no significant correlations between changes in voice intensity and background noise were found for the individual with Parkinson’s disease. The increase in voice intensity in a laboratory setting was comparable to findings previously reported following LSVT LOUD. The increase registered using ambulatory monitoring in daily life was lower but still reflecting a clinically relevant change.

  • 16.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Morsomme, Dominique
    Université Catholique de Louvain.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Not Just Sound II: an Investigation of Singer patient Self-Perceptions Mapped into the Voice Range Profile2008In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:  In aiming at higher specificity in clinical evaluations of the singing voice, singer perceptions were included and tested in conjunction with the voice range profile. Method:  The use of a commercial phonetograph supplemented by a hand-held response button was clinically tested with 13 subjects presenting voice complaints. Singer patients were asked to press a button to indicate sensations of vocal discomfort or instability during phonation. Each press was registered at the actual position in the Voice Range Profile (VRP) so as to mark areas of difficulty. Consistency of button press behavior was assessed with a method developed previously. Results:  In spite of their voice complaints, subjects did not press the button as much as healthy singers. Like healthy singers, the singer-patient group demonstrated consistent behavior but tended to press the button in completely different areas of the VRP space. The location of the presses was dominantly in the interior of the VRP and concentrated to a small fundamental frequency range.  An extensive discussion examines carefully the reasons for such outcomes. Conclusion:  The button augmented VRP could be a well needed resource for clinicians but requires further development and work.

  • 17.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    An Exploration of Skin Acceleration Level as a Measureof Phonatory Function in Singing2008In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: Two kinds of fluctuations are observed in phonetogram recordingsof singing. Sound pressure level (SPL) can vary due to vibrato and also due tothe effect of open and closed vowels. Since vowel variation is mostly a consequence of vocal tract modification and is not directly related to phonatory function, it could be helpful to suppress such variation when studying phonation. Skin acceleration level (SAL), measured at the jugular notch and on the sternum, might be less influenced by effects of the vocal tract. It is explored in this study as an alternative measure to SPL. Five female singers sang vowel series on selected pitches and in different tasks. Recorded data were used to investigate two null hypotheses: (1) SPL and SAL are equally influenced by vowel variation and (2) SPL and SAL are equally correlated to subglottal pressure (PS). Interestingly, the vowel variation effect was small in both SPL and SAL. Furthermore, in comparison to SPL, SAL correlated weakly to PS. SAL exhibited practically no dependence on fundamental frequency, rather, its major determinant was the musical dynamic. This results in a non-sloping, square-like phonetogram contour. These outcomes show that SAL potentially can facilitate phonetographic analysis of the singing voice.

  • 18.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Hertegård, Stellan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Not just sound: Supplementing the voice range profile with the singer's ownperceptions of vocal challenges2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial phonetograph was complemented with a response button, such that presses resulted in marked regions in the voice range profile (VRP). This study reports the VRP data of 16 healthy female professionally trained singers (7 mezzosopranos and 9 sopranos). Subjects pressed the button to indicate sensations of vocal instability or reduced control during phonation. Each press thereby marked potential areas of difficulty. A method is presented to quantify the consistency of button use for repeated tasks. The pattern of button presses was significantly consistent within subjects. As expected, the singers pressed at the extremes of VRP contours as well as at register transitions. These results and the potential of the method for the assessment of vocal problems of singers are discussed.

  • 19.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Pabon, Peter
    Royal Conservatory, the Hague/University Utrecht/Voice Quality Systems.
    The Singer’s Voice Range Profile: Female Professional Opera Soloists2010In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 410-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns the collection of 30 Voice Range Profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice . Objectives: We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer’s protocol in VRP aquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Method: Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Results: Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics: the voice area above a defined level threshold, and the dynamic range independent from F0, were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRP’s. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency based information. Conclusion: Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer’s voice evaluation.

  • 20. Lindström, Fredric
    et al.
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Sodersten, Maria
    McAllister, Anita
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Observations of the Relationship Between Noise Exposure and Preschool Teacher Voice Usage in Day-Care Center Environments2011In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the relationship between noise exposure and vocal behavior (the Lombard effect) is well established, actual vocal behavior in the workplace is still relatively unexamined. The first purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between noise level and both voice level and voice average fundamental frequency (F-0) for a population of preschool teachers in their normal workplace. The second purpose was to study the vocal behavior of each teacher to investigate whether individual vocal behaviors or certain patterns could be identified. Voice and noise data were obtained for female preschool teachers (n = 13) in their workplace, using wearable measurement equipment. Correlations between noise level and voice level, and between voice level and F-0, were calculated for each participant and ranged from 0.07 to 0.87 for voice level and from 0.11 to 0.78 for F-0. The large spread of the correlation coefficients indicates that the teachers react individually to the noise exposure. For example, some teachers increase their voice-to-noise level ratio when the noise is reduced, whereas others do not.

  • 21. McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Sederholm, E
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perturbation and hoarseness: a pilot study of six children's voices.1996In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 10, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental frequency (FO) perturbation has been found to be useful as an acoustic correlate of the perception of dysphonia in adult voices. In a previous investigation, we showed that hoarseness in children's voices is a stable concept composed mainly of three predictors: hyperfunction, breathiness, and roughness. In the present investigation, the relation between FO perturbation and hoarseness as well as its predictors was analyzed in running speech of six children representing different degrees of hoarseness. Two perturbation measures were used: the standard deviation of the distribution of perturbation data and the mean of the absolute value of perturbation. The results revealed no clear relation.

  • 22. Monson, B.
    et al.
    Lotto, A.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Detection of high-frequency energy changes in sustained vowels produced by singers2011In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 129, no 4, p. 2263-2268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human voice spectrum above 5 kHz receives little attention. However, there are reasons to believe that this high-frequency energy (HFE) may play a role in perceived quality of voice in singing and speech. To fulfill this role, differences in HFE must first be detectable. To determine human ability to detect differences in HFE, the levels of the 8- and 16-kHz center-frequency octave bands were individually attenuated in sustained vowel sounds produced by singers and presented to listeners. Relatively small changes in HFE were in fact detectable, suggesting that this frequency range potentially contributes to the perception of especially the singing voice. Detection ability was greater in the 8-kHz octave than in the 16-kHz octave and varied with band energy level.

  • 23. Morris, R.J.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    LoVetri, J.
    Berkun, D.
    Long-Term Average Spectra From a Youth Choir Singing in Three Vocal Registers and Two Dynamic Levels2012In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/HypothesisFew studies have reported the acoustic characteristics of youth choirs. In addition, scant data are available on youth choruses making the adjustments needed to sing at different dynamic levels in different registers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to acoustically analyze the singing of a youth chorus to observe the evidence of the adjustments that they made to sing at two dynamic levels in three singing registers.Study DesignSingle-group observational study.MethodsThe participants were 47 members of the Brooklyn Youth Chorus who sang the same song sample in head, mixed, and chest voice at piano and forte dynamic levels. The song samples were recorded and analyzed using long-term average spectra and related spectral measures.ResultsThe spectra revealed different patterns among the registers. These differences imply that the singers were making glottal adjustments to sing the different register and dynamic level versions of the song. The duration of the closed phase, as estimated from the amplitudes of the first two harmonics, differed between the chest and head register singing at both dynamic levels. In addition, the spectral slopes differed among all three registers at both dynamic levels.ConclusionsThese choristers were able to change registers and dynamic levels quickly and with minimal prompting. Also, these acoustic measures may be a useful tool for evaluating some singing skills of young choristers.

  • 24. Murphy, D.
    et al.
    Shelley, S.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Howard, D.
    The dynamically varying digital waveguide mesh2007In: Proceedings of the 19th International Congress on Acoustics / [ed] Calvo-Manzano, A. et al., 2007, p. 210-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The digital waveguide mesh (DWM) is a multi-dimensional numerical simulation technique used to model vibrating objects capable of supporting acoustic wave propagation, with the result being sound output for excitation by a given stimulus. To date most DWM based simulations result in the static system impulse response for given initial and boundary value conditions. This method is often applied to room acoustics modelling problems, where the offline generation of impulse responses for computationally large or complex systems might be rendered in real-time using convolution based reverberation. More recently, work has explored how the DWM might be extended to allow dynamic variation and the possibility for real-time interactive sound synthesis. This paper introduces the basic DWM model and how it might be extended to include dynamic changes and user interaction as part of the simulation. Example applications that make use of this new dynamic DWM are explored including the synthesis of simple sound objects and the more complex problem of articulatory speech and singing synthesis based on a multi-dimensional simulation of the vocal tract.

  • 25. Murphy, Damian T.
    et al.
    Jani, Mátyás
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Articulatory vocal tract synthesis in Supercollider2015In: Proc. of the 18th Int. Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-15), Norwegian University of Science and Technology , 2015, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The APEX system enables vocal tract articulation using a reduced set of user controllable parameters by means of Principal Component Analysis of X-ray tract data. From these articulatory profiles it is then possible to calculate cross-sectional area function data that can be used as input to a number of articulatory based speech synthesis algorithms. In this paper the Kelly-Lochbaum 1-D digital waveguide vocal tract is used, and both APEX control and synthesis engine have been implemented and tested in SuperCollider. Accurate formant synthesis and real-time control are demonstrated, although for multi-parameter speech-like articulation a more direct mapping from tract-to-synthesizer tube sections is needed. SuperCollider provides an excellent framework for the further exploration of this work.

  • 26.
    Nilsonne, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Askenfelt, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Measuring the rate of change of voice fundamental frequency in fluent speech during mental depression1988In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 716-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method of measuring the rate of change of fundamental frequency has been developed in an effort to find acoustic voice parameters that could be useful in psychiatric research. A minicomputer program was used to extract seven parameters from the fundamental frequency contour of tape‐recorded speech samples: (1) the average rate of change of the fundamental frequency and (2) its standard deviation, (3) the absolute rate of fundamental frequency change, (4) the total reading time, (5) the percent pause time of the total reading time, (6) the mean, and (7) the standard deviation of the fundamental frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated on (a) a material consisting of synthetic speech and (b) voice recordings of depressed patients who were examined during depression and after improvement.

  • 27.
    Pabon, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Howard, David M.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Kob, Malte
    Eckel, Gerhard
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Future Perspectives2017In: Oxford Handbook of Singing / [ed] Welch, Graham; Howard, David M.; Nix, John, Oxford University Press, 2017, Vol. 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter, through examining several emerging or continuing areas of research, serves to look ahead at possible ways in which humans, with the help of technology, may interact with each other vocally as well as musically. Some of the topic areas, such the use of the Voice Range Profile, hearing modeling spectrography, voice synthesis, distance masterclasses, and virtual acoustics, have obvious pedagogical uses in the training of singers. Others, such as the use of 3D printed vocal tracts and computer music composition involving the voice, may lead to unique new ways in which singing may be used in musical performance. Each section of the chapter is written by an expert in the field who explains the technology in question and how it is used, often drawing upon recent research led by the chapter authors.

  • 28.
    Pabon, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Stallinga, R.
    Södersten, M.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Effects on Vocal Range and Voice Quality of Singing Voice Training: The Classically Trained Female Voice2014In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 36-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesA longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study programme, using the Voice Range Profile (VRP). Study DesignPre- and post-training recordings were made of students that participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study programme. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals, was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a sub-group of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, that was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. MethodsThe VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of ‘mixed voice.’ VRP’s were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared to the self-assessed vocal changes. ResultsPre-post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum SPL values. The students’ self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. ConclusionsVRP’s of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the group average. High resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis as well as for groups comprised of singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focussed training programme, given by a faculty that has agreed on the goals.

  • 29.
    Pabon, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Royal Conservatoire, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Feature maps of the acoustic spectrum of the voiceIn: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The change in the spectrum of sustained /a/ vowels was mapped over the voice range from low to high fundamentalfrequency and low to high sound pressure level (SPL), in the form of the so-called voice range profile (VRP). In eachinterval of one semitone and one decibel, narrowband spectra were averaged both within and across subjects. Thesubjects were groups of 7 male and 12 female singing students, as well as a group of 16 untrained female voices. Foreach individual and also for each group, pairs of VRP recordings were made, with stringent separation of themodal/chest and falsetto/head registers. Maps are presented of eight scalar metrics, each of which was chosen toquantify a particular feature of the voice spectrum, over fundamental frequency and SPL. Metrics 1 and 2 chart the roleof the fundamental in relation to the rest of the spectrum. Metrics 3 and 4 are used to explore the role of resonances inrelation to SPL. Metrics 5 and 6 address the distribution of high frequency energy, while metrics 7 and 8 seek todescribe the distribution of energy at the low end of the voice spectrum. Several examples are observed ofphenomena that are difficult to predict from linear source-filter theory, and of the voice source being less uniform overthe voice range than is conventionally assumed. These include a high-frequency band-limiting at high SPL and anunexpected persistence of the second harmonic at low SPL. The two voice registers give rise to clearly different maps.Only a few effects of training were observed, in the low frequency end below 2 kHz. The results are of potentialinterest in voice analysis, voice synthesis and for new insights into the voice production mechanism.

  • 30. Pabon, Peter
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lamarche, Anick
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Fourier Descriptor Analysis and Unification of Voice Range Profile Contours: Method and Applications2011In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 755-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe a method for unified description, statistical modeling, and comparison of voice range profile (VRP) contours, even from diverse sources. Method: A morphologic modeling technique, which is based on Fourier descriptors (FDs), is applied to the VRP contour. The technique, which essentially involves resampling of the curve of the contour, is assessed and also is compared to density-based VRP averaging methods that use the overlap count. Results: VRP contours can be usefully described and compared using FDs. The method also permits the visualization of the local covariation along the contour average. For example, the FD-based analysis shows that the population variance for ensembles of VRP contours is usually smallest at the upper left part of the VRP. To illustrate the method's advantages and possible further application, graphs are given that compare the averaged contours from different authors and recording devices-for normal, trained, and untrained male and female voices as well as for child voices. Conclusions: The proposed technique allows any VRP shape to be brought to the same uniform base. On this uniform base, VRP contours or contour elements coming from a variety of sources may be placed within the same graph for comparison and for statistical analysis.

  • 31. Reid, Katherine L. P.
    et al.
    Davis, Pamela
    Oates, Jennifer
    Cabrera, Densil
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Black, Michael
    Chapman, Janice
    The acoustic characteristics of professional opera singers performing in chorus versus solo mode2007In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 35-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, members of a professional opera chorus were recorded using close microphones, while singing in both choral and solo modes. The analysis included computation of long-term average spectra (LTAS) for the two song sections performed and calculation of singing power ratio (SPR) and energy ratio (ER), which provide an indication of the relative energy in the singer's formant region. Vibrato rate and extent were determined from two matched vowels, and SPR and ER were calculated for these vowels. Subjects sang with equal or more power in the singer's formant region in choral versus solo mode in the context of the piece as a whole and in individual vowels. There was no difference in vibrato rate and extent between the two modes. Singing in choral mode, therefore, required the ability to use a similar vocal timbre to that required for solo opera singing.

  • 32. Rocchesso, D.
    et al.
    Lemaitre, G.
    Susini, P.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Boussard, P.
    Sketching sound with voice and gesture2015In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 38-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice and gestures are natural sketching tools that can be exploited to communicate sonic interactions. In product and interaction design, sounds should be included in the early stages of the design process. Scientists of human motion have shown that auditory stimuli are important in the performance of difficult tasks and can elicit anticipatory postural adjustments in athletes. These findings justify the attention given to sound in interaction design for gaming, especially in action and sports games that afford the development of levels of virtuosity. The sonic manifestations of objects can be designed by acting on their mechanical qualities and by augmenting the objects with synthetic and responsive sounds.

  • 33. Rossing, T D
    et al.
    Sundberg, J
    Ternström, Sten
    Acoustic comparison of voice use in solo and choir singing.1986In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 1975-1981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment was carried out in which eight bass/baritone singers were recorded while singing in both choral and solo modes. Together with their own voice, they heard the sound of the rest of the choir and a piano accompaniment, respectively. The recordings were analyzed in several ways, including computation of long-time-average spectra for each passage, analysis of the sound levels in the frequency ranges corresponding to the fundamental and the "singer's formant," and a comparison of the sung levels with the levels heard by the singers. Matching pairs of vowels in the two modes were inverse filtered to determine the voice source spectra and formant frequencies for comparison. Differences in both phonation and articulation between the two modes were observed. Subjects generally sang with more power in the singer's formant region in the solo mode and with more power in the fundamental region in the choral mode. Most singers used a reduced frequency distance between the third and fifth formants for increasing the power in the singer's formant range, while the difference in the fundamental was mostly a voice source effect. In a choral singing mode, subjects usually adjusted their voice levels to the levels they heard from the other singers, whereas in a solo singing mode the level sung depended much less on the level of an accompaniment.

  • 34. Rossing, T D
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Acoustic comparison of soprano solo and choir singing.1987In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 830-836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five soprano singers were recorded while singing similar texts in both choir and solo modes of performance. A comparison of long-term-average spectra of similar passages in both modes indicates that subjects used different tactics to achieve somewhat higher concentrations of energy in the 2- to 4-kHz range when singing in the solo mode. It is likely that this effect resulted, at least in part, from a slight change of the voice source from choir to solo singing. The subjects used slightly more vibrato when singing in the solo mode.

  • 35. Schalling, E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, J.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bulukin Wilén, F.
    Södersten, M.
    Effects of tactile biofeedback by a portable voice accumulator on voice intensity in speakers with Parkinson’s disease2013In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 729-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study the effects of biofeedback on voice sound level (SL) in subjects with reduced voice SL, secondary to Parkinson disease (PD), using a portable voice accumulator. Study Design: Prospective intervention study. Methods: Voice SL, phonation time, and level of background noise were registered with a portable voice accumulator during three consecutive registration periods. Six subjects with reduced voice SL secondary to PD participated. Biofeedback, in the form of a vibration signal when voice SL went below an individually set threshold level, was administered during the second registration period only. Mean voice SL was calculated for registration periods with and without feedback. Data on phonation time and level of background noise was also collected. Field registrations with the portable voice accumulator were also compared with registrations made in a recording studio. In addition, subjects were asked about subjective experiences of using the portable voice accumulator for up to 15 days. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in voice SL during the period when biofeedback of voice SL was administered. Subjects reported that using the portable voice accumulator was a positive experience. Several participants wished to continue using the device. In general, subjects handled the device independently with no major problems and did not report any negative experiences. Conclusions: Although this study was a first trial including six subjects with reduced voice SL secondary to PD, the findings indicate that biofeedback of voice SL administered via a portable voice accumulator may be a useful treatment tool for this group of patients and that further studies are needed.

  • 36.
    Selamtzis, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Analysis of vibratory states in phonation using spectral features of the electroglottographic signal2014In: The journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 136, no 5, p. 2773-2783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vocal folds can oscillate in several different ways, manifest to practitioners and clinicians as ‘registers’ or ‘mechanisms’, of which the two most commonly considered are modal voice and falsetto voice. Here these will be taken as instances of different ‘vibratory states’, i.e., distinct quasi-stationary patterns of vibration of the vocal folds. State transitions are common in biomechanical nonlinear oscillators; and they are often abrupt and impossible to predict exactly. Switching state is much like switching to a different voice. Therefore, vibratory states are a source of confounding variation, for instance, when acquiring a voice range profile (VRP). In the quest for a state-aware, non-invasive VRP, a semi-automatic method based on the short-term spectrum of the electroglottographic signal (EGG) was developed. The method identifies rapid vibratory state transitions, such as the modal-falsetto switch, and clusters the EGG data based on their similarities in the relative levels and phases of the lower frequency components. Productions of known modal and falsetto voice were accurately clustered by a Gaussian mixture model. When mapped into the VRP, this EGG-based clustering revealed connected regions of different vibratory sub-regimes in both modal and falsetto.

  • 37.
    Selamtzis, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Investigation of the relationship between electroglottogram waveform, fundamental frequency, and sound pressure level using clustering2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 393-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it has been shown in previous research (Orlikoff, 1991; Henrich et al, 2005; Kuang et al, 2014; Awan, 2015) that there exists a relationship between the electroglottogram (EGG) waveform and the acoustic signal, this relationship is still not fully understood. To investigate this relationship, the EGG and acoustic signals were measured for four male amateur choir singers who each produced eight consecutive tones of increasing and decreasing vocal intensity. The EGG signals were processed cycle-synchronously to obtain the discrete Fourier transform, and the data were used as an input to a clustering algorithm. The acoustic signal was analyzed in terms of sound pressure level (dB SPL) and fundamental frequency (f(o)) of vibration, and the results of both EGG and acoustic analysis were depicted on a two-dimensional plane with f(o) on the x-axis and SPL on the y-axis. All the subjects were seen to have a weak, near-sinusoidal EGG waveform in their lowest SPL range, whereas increase in SPL coincided with progressive enrichment in harmonic content of the EGG waveforms. The results of the clustering were additionally used to classify waveforms across subjects to enable inter-subject comparisons and assessment of individual strategies of exploring the f(o)-SPL dimensions. In these male subjects, the EGG waveform shape appeared to vary with SPL and to remain essentially constant with f(o) over one octave.

  • 38.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Perkins, William H
    University of Southern California.
    Gramming, Patricia
    Malmö General Hospital.
    Long-time average spectrum analysis of phonatory effects of noise and filtered auditory feedback1988In: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 16, p. 203-219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Szabo Portela, Annika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering. KI CLINTEC.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, M.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Vocal Behavior in Environmental Noise: Comparisons Between Work and Leisure Conditions in Women With Work-related Voice Disorders and Matched Controls2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 126.e23-126.e38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess vocal behavior in women with voice-intensive occupations to investigate differences between patients and controls and between work and leisure conditions with environmental noise level as an experimental factor. Methods: Patients with work-related voice disorders, 10 with phonasthenia and 10 with vocal nodules, were matched regarding age, profession, and workplace with 20 vocally healthy colleagues. The sound pressure level of environmental noise and the speakers’ voice, fundamental frequency, and phonation ratio were registered from morning to night during 1 week with a voice accumulator. Voice data were assessed in low (≀55 dBA), moderate, and high (\textgreater70 dBA) environmental noise levels. Results: The average environmental noise level was significantly higher during the work condition for patients with vocal nodules (73.9 dBA) and their controls (73.0 dBA) compared with patients with phonasthenia (68.3 dBA) and their controls (67.1 dBA). The average voice level and the fundamental frequency were also significantly higher during work for the patients with vocal nodules and their controls. During the leisure condition, there were no significant differences in average noise and voice level nor fundamental frequency between the groups. The patients with vocal nodules and their controls spent significantly more time and used their voices significantly more in high–environmental noise levels. Conclusions: High noise levels during work and demands from the occupation impact vocal behavior. Thus, assessment of voice ergonomics should be part of the work environmental management. To reduce environmental noise levels is important to improve voice ergonomic conditions in communication-intensive and vocally demanding workplaces.

  • 40.
    Södersten, M.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    McAllister, A.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Natural Voice Use in Patients With Voice Disorders and Vocally Healthy Speakers Based on 2 Days Voice Accumulator Information From a Database2015In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, ISSN 0892-1997, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 646.e11-646.e19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives and Study Design. Information about how patients with voice disorders use their voices in natural communicative situations is scarce. Such long-term data have for the first time been uploaded to a central database from different hospitals in Sweden. The purpose was to investigate the potential use of a large set of long-term data for establishing reference values regarding voice use in natural situations. Methods. VoxLog (Sonvox AB, Umeå, Sweden) was tested for deployment in clinical practice by speech-language pathologists working at nine hospitals in Sweden. Files from 20 patients (16 females and 4 males) with functional, organic, or neurological voice disorders and 10 vocally healthy individuals (eight females and two males) were uploaded to a remote central database. All participants had vocally demanding occupations and had been monitored for more than 2 days. The total recording time was 681 hours and 50 minutes. Data on fundamental frequency (F0, Hz), phonation time (seconds and percentage), voice sound pressure level (SPL, dB), and background noise level (dB) were analyzed for each recorded day and compared between the 2 days. Variations across each day were measured using coefficients of variation. Results. Average F0, voice SPL, and especially the level of background noise varied considerably for all participants across each day. Average F0 and voice SPL were considerably higher than reference values from laboratory recordings. Conclusions. The use of a remote central database and strict protocols can accelerate data collection from larger groups of participants and contribute to establishing reference values regarding voice use in natural situations and from patients with voice disorders. Information about activities and voice symptoms would supplement the objective data and is recommended in future studies.

  • 41. Södersten, M.
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    McAllister, A.
    Voice use during two days in patients with voice disorders and vocally healthy speakers based on voice accumulator information from a database2013In: Occupational Voice Symposium 2013, London, England, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42. Södersten, Maria
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bohman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Loud speech in realistic environmental noise: Phonetogram data, perceptual voice quality, subjective ratings, and gender differences in healthy speakers2005In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 29-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for cancelling background noise from running speech was used to study voice production during realistic environmental noise exposure. Normal subjects, 12 women and 11 men, read a text in five conditions: quiet, soft continuous noise (75 dBA to 70 dBA), day-care babble (74 dBA), disco (87 dBA), and loud continuous noise (78 dBA to 85 dBA). The noise was presented over loudspeakers and then removed from the recordings in an off-line processing operation. The voice signals were analyzed acoustically with an automatic phonetograph and perceptually by four expert listeners. Subjective data were collected after each vocal loading task. The perceptual parameters press, instability, and roughness increased significantly as an effect of speaking loudly over noise, whereas vocal fry decreased. Having to make oneself heard over noise resulted in higher SPL and F0, as expected, and in higher phonation time. The total reading time was slightly longer in continuous noise than in intermittent noise. The women had 4 dB lower voice SPL overall and increased their phonation time more in noise than did the men. Subjectively, women reported less success making themselves heard and higher effort. The results support the contention that female voices are more vulnerable to vocal loading in background noise.

  • 43.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Acoustics for Choral Singing2012In: Jahreskongress Bundesverband Deutscher Gesangspädagogen Dokumentation 2012, Dortmund: Bundesverband Deutscher Gesangspädagogen , 2012, p. 122-131Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Does the acoustic waveform mirror the voice?2005In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 30, no 3-4, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades, much effort has been invested in the search for acoustic correlates of vocal function and dysfunction. The convenience of non-invasive voice measurements has been a major incentive for this effort. The acoustic signal is a rich but also very diversified source of information. Computer literacy and technical curiosity in the voice care and voice performance communities are now higher than ever, and tools for voice analysis are proliferating. On such a busy scene, a review may be useful of some basic principles for what we can and cannot hope to determine from non-invasive acoustic analysis. One way of doing this is to consider communication by voice as though it were engineered, with layered protocols. This results in a scheme for systematizing the many sources of variation that are present in the acoustic signal, that can complement other strategies for extracting information.

  • 45.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Hearing myself with others: sound levels in choral performance measured with separation of one's own voice from the rest of the choir.1994In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 293-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choir singer has two acoustic signals to attend to: the sound of his or her own voice (feedback), and the sound of the rest of the choir (reference). The balance in loudness between feedback and reference is governed mainly by the room acoustics. Although earlier experiments have shown that singers have a fairly large tolerance for imbalance, with references ranging from -23 to +5 dB, experience suggests that, when singers are given control over this parameter, their preferences are much narrower. A quantification of the optimum balance would be useful in the design of concert stages and rehearsal halls. A method is described for measuring the feedback and reference levels as experienced by singers under live performance conditions. Recordings were made using binaural microphones worn by choir singer subjects. With the given combination of choir and room, it was possible to achieve adequate separation of the feedback and reference signals with simple signal processing. The feedback-to-reference ratio averaged over the 12 singers was found to be +3.9 dB, with extremes of +1.5 and +7.3 dB.

  • 46.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Hi-Fi voice: observations on the distribution of energy in the singing voice spectrum above 5 kHz2008In: Proc of Acoustics'08, 2008, p. 3171-3176Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Perceptual evaluations of voice scatter in unison choir sounds.1993In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preferences of experiences listerners for pitch and formant frequency dispersion in unison choir sounds were explored using synthesized stimuli. Two types of dispersion were investigated: (a) pitch scatter, which arises when voices in an ensemble exhibit small differences in mean fundamental frequency, and (b) spectral smear, defined as such dispersion of formants 3 to 5 as arises from differences in vocal tract length. Each stimulus represented a choir section of five bass, tenor, alto, or soprano voices, producing the vowel [u], [a], or [ae]. Subjects chose one dispersion level out of six available, selecting the "maximum tolerable" in a first run and the "preferred" in a second run. The listeners were very different in their tolerance for dispersion. Typical scatter choices were 14 cent standard deviation for "tolerable" and 0 or 5 cent for "preferred." The smear choices were less consistent; the standard deviations were 12 and 7%, respectively. In all modes of assessment, the largest dispersion was chosen for the vowel [u] on a bass tone. There was a vowel effect on the smear choices. The effects of voice category were not significant.

  • 48.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Physical and acoustic factors that interact with the singer to produce the choral sound1991In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 128-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the people who perform music do so in the capacity of choir singers. An understanding of the particular acoustic properties of the choral sound is of interest not only to performers, but also to educators, architectural acousticians, audio technicians, and composers. The goal of choir acoustics is to describe various aspects of choral sound in acoustic terms, thereby taking into account the acoustics of voice production, the acoustics of rooms, and psychoacoustic properties of the auditory system. This article is an overview of choir acoustics research done in Stockholm over the past 8 years. It is an abridged and adapted version of an overview given in the author’s dissertation, Acoustical Aspects of Choir Singing. Three different kinds of experiments were made: (a) the control of phonation frequency and the vowel articulation of choir singers were investigated, by having individual choir singers perform vocal tasks on demand or in response to auditory stimuli; (b) typical values of sound levels, phonation frequency scatter, and long-time averaged spectra were obtained by measurements on choir singers rehearsing in ensemble under normal or near-normal conditions; and (c) models for certain aspects of choral sound were formulated and evaluated by synthesis. The choir singer’s performance is based on two acoustic signals: her or his own voice (the feedback) and the rest of the choir (the reference). Intonation errors were found to be induced or increased by (a) large level differences between the feedback and the reference, (b) several perceptually unfavorable spectral properties of the reference, and (c) articulatory maneuvers, i.e., intrinsic pitch. The magnitude of the errors would be indirectly related to room acoustics (a and b) and to voice usage and musical/textual content (b and c). When singing alone, singers from one choir used a vowel articulation that was different from that in speech and also more unified; it was also in some respects different from solo singing. Long-time average spectrum effects of room acoustics and musical dynamics were large, as expected; those of choir type and musical material were smaller. To some extent, choirs adapted their sound level and voice usage to the room acoustics. Small random fluctuations in phonation frequency, called "€œflutter"€ and "€œwow,"€ are always present in human voices. With multiple voices, flutter and wow cause, through interference, a pseudorandom, independent amplitude modulation of partial tones, which is known to cue the perceptual "€œchorus effect." The chorus effect is also influenced by the reverberation properties of the room. Choral sounds were explored by means of synthesis, and the importance of realistic flutter was established. Flutter in choir singers was analyzed and simulated in single synthesized voices. Expert listeners were unable to discriminate between simulated and authentic flutter.

  • 49.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preferred self-to-other ratios in choir singing1999In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 3563-3574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choir singers need to hear their own voice in an adequate self-to-other ratio (SOR) over the rest ofthe choir. Knowing singers’ preferences for SOR could facilitate the design of stages and of choral formations. In an experiment to study the preferred SOR, subjects sang sustained vowels together with synthesized choir sounds, whose loudness tracked that of their own voice. They could control the SOR simply by changing their distance to the microphone. At the most comfortable location, the SOR was measured. Experimental factors included unison and four-part tasks, three vowels and two levels of phonation frequency. The same experiment was run four times, using sopranos, altos, tenors, and basses, with stimulus tones adapted for each category. The preferred self-to-other ratios were found to be similar to SORs measured previously in actual performance, if a little higher. Preferences were quite narrow, typically +/-2 dB for each singer, but very different from singer to singer, with intrasubject means ranging from -1 to +15 dB. There was no significant difference between the unison and the four-part tasks, although this might have been caused by systematic differences in the stimulus sounds. Some effects of phonation frequency and vowel were significant, but interdependent and difficult to interpret. The results and their relevance to live choir singing are discussed.

  • 50.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Andersson, Marie
    Scandinavian College of Manual Medicine.
    Bergman, Ulrika
    Scandinavian College of Manual Medicine.
    An effect of body massage on voice loudness and phonation frequency in reading2000In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 146-151Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 73
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf