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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Haider, Arif
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    ESAT/ELECTA, K.U.Leuven, Belgium.
    Zhang, Lidong
    ABB Power Systems HVDC, Ludvika.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    HVDC SuperGrids with modular multilevel converters - The power transmission backbone of the future2012Inngår i: International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals and Devices, SSD 2012, IEEE , 2012, s. 6198119-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to transmit massive amounts of power generated by remotely located power plants, especially offshore wind farms, and to balance the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, the need for a stronger high voltage transmission grid is anticipated. Due to limitations in ac power transmission the most likable choice for such a grid is a high-voltage dc (HVDC) grid. However, the concept of the HVDC grid is still under active development as different technical challenges exist, and it is not yet possible to construct such a dc grid. This paper deals with prospects and technical challenges for future HVDC SuperGrids. Different topologies for a SuperGrid and the possibility to use modular multilevel converters (M2Cs) are presented. A comprehensive overview of different submodule implementations of M2C is given as well as a discussion on the choice between cables or overhead lines, the protection system for the dc grid and dc-side resonance issues.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling. ABB Corporate Research.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Performance of the modular multilevel converter with redundant submodules2015Inngår i: IECON 2015 - 41st Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, s. 3922-3927, artikkel-id 7392712Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) is the state-of-the-art voltage-source converter (VSC) topology used for various power-conversion applications. In the MMC, submodule failures can occur due to various reasons. Therefore, additional submodules called the redundant submodules are included in the arms of the MMC to fulfill the fault-safe operation requirement. The performance of the MMC with redundant submodules has not been widely covered in the published literature. This paper investigates the performance of the MMC with redundant submodules in the arms. Two different control strategies are used and compared for integrating redundant submodules. The response of the MMC to a submodule failure for the two strategies is also studied. Moreover, the operation of the MMC with redundant submodules is validated experimentally using the converter prototype in the laboratory.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Mahmood, Shahid
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Efficient Modeling of an MMC-Based Multiterminal DC System Employing Hybrid HVDC Breakers2015Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 1792-1801Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of future multiterminal dc (MTDC) systems depends largely on the capability to withstand dc-side faults. Simulation models of MTDC systems play a very important role in investigating these faults. For such studies, the test system needs to be accurate and computationally efficient. This paper proposes a detailed equivalent model of the modular multilevel converter (MMC), which is used to develop the MTDC test system. The proposed model is capable of representing the blocked-mode operation of the MMC, and can be used to study the balancing control of the capacitor voltages. In addition, the operation of the MMC when redundant submodules are included in the arms can also be studied. A simplified model of a hybrid high-voltage dc breaker is also developed. Hence, the developed test system is capable of accurately describing the behavior of the MMC-based MTDC system employing hybrid HVDC breakers, during fault conditions. Using time-domain simulations, permanent dc-side faults are studied in the MTDC system. In addition, a scheme to control the fault current through the MMC using thyristors on the ac side of the converter is proposed.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH.
    Mehmood, Shahid
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Efficient Modeling of an MMC-Based Multiterminal DC System Employing Hybrid HVDC Breakers2016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE POWER AND ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING (PESGM), IEEE , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    ABB Corporate Research Center, Sweden.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    ABB Corporate Research Center, Sweden.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    A computationally efficient continuous model for the modular multilevel converter2014Inngår i: IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, ISSN 2168-6777, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 1139-1148, artikkel-id 6840290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation models of the modular multilevel converter (MMC) play a very important role for studying the dynamic performance. Detailed modeling of the MMC in electromagnetic transient simulation programs is cumbersome, as it requires high computational effort and simulation time. Several averaged or continuous models proposed in the literature lack the capability to describe the blocked state. This paper presents a continuous model, which is capable of accurately simulating the blocked state. This feature is very important for accurate simulation of faults. The model is generally applicable, although it is particularly useful in high-voltage dc applications.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Efficient Modeling of Modular Multilevel Converters in HVDC-Grids Under Fault Conditions2014Inngår i: 2014 IEEE PES General Meeting | Conference & Exposition, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, s. 6939166-, artikkel-id 6939166Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) grids using modular multilevel converters (M2Cs) have strongly been considered for the integration of distant renewable energy sources and also as a backbone to the existing ac-grids. The dynamic performance of the M2C is of particular interest in these grids. For electromagnetic transient (EMT) programs, modeling of HVDC-grids using detailed M2C models is unrealistic, as it requires extremely high computational effort and simulation time. In this paper an HVDC-grid test system is developed using a continuous simulation model of the M2C. The model is also capable of describing the blocking events of the M2C. Using time-domain simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC, the dynamic performance of the M2C in HVDC-grids under fault conditions is investigated. Simulation results reveal that the continuous M2C model can efficiently be used to study the dynamic performance of the M2C in HVDC-grids with high computational speed, under different fault conditions.

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Noman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Validation of the continuous model of the modular multilevel converter with blocking/deblocking capability2012Inngår i: AC and DC Power Transmission (ACDC 2012), 10th IET International Conference on, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the continuous model for the Modular Multilevel Converter (M2C). The model operates in two modes, either operating as a voltage source in deblocked mode or as a rectifying diode bridge in blocked mode. The model is validated by comparison with a detailed M2C model having 36 submodules per arm, using different control strategies. The comparison is based on time-domain simulations in PSCAD/EMTDC. The continuous model shows a very good agreement with the detailed model.

  • 8.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Modular multilevel converter AC motor drives with constant torque from zero to nominal speed2014Inngår i: IEEE transactions on industry applications, ISSN 0093-9994, E-ISSN 1939-9367, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 1982-1993Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters are shown to have a great potential in the area of medium-voltage drives. Low-distortion output quantities combined with low average switching frequencies for the semiconductor devices create an ideal combination for very high-efficiency drives. However, the large number of devices and capacitors that have to conduct the fundamental-frequency current require more complex converter control techniques than its two-level counterpart. Special care needs to be taken for starting and operation at low speeds, where the low-frequency current may cause significant unbalance between the submodule capacitor voltages and disturb the output waveforms. In this paper, principles for converter operation with high torque in the whole speed range are investigated. Experimental results from a down-scaled 12-kVA prototype converter running a loaded motor at various speeds between standstill and the rated speed are also provided.

  • 9.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Modular multilevel converter ac motor drives with constant torque form zero to nominal speed2012Inngår i: 2012 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2012, IEEE , 2012, s. 739-746Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters (M2Cs) are shown to have a great potential in the area of medium-voltage drives. Low-distortion output quantities, combined with low average switching frequencies for the semiconductor devices create the ideal combination for very high-efficiency drives, both from an electric motor and an inverter point of view. With M2Cs the output voltage has such a low harmonic content that high-power motors can be operated without any derating. However, the large number of devices and the existence of capacitors that have to conduct the fundamental frequency current, requires more complex converter control techniques than its two-level counterpart. Special care needs to be taken under starting and operation with low frequency, where the low-frequency current may cause significant unbalance between the submodule capacitor voltages, disturb the output waveforms, and eventually cause the converter to trip. In this paper, principles for converter operation with high torque in the whole speed range, from standstill to rated speed will be investigated. The converter-control method utilizes estimation of the capacitor voltage variation, based on equations describing steady-state conditions. Experimental results from a down-scaled 12 kVA prototype converter running a loaded motor from zero up to the rated speed are provided in the paper.

  • 10.
    Bakas, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Nami, A.
    Ilves, K.
    Dijkhuizen, F.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Hybrid Topologies for Series and Shunt Compensation of the Line-Commutated Converter2016Inngår i: 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference - ECCE Asia, IPEMC 2016-ECCE Asia, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 3030-3035, artikkel-id 7512779Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents two concepts for enabling the operation of a line-commutated converter (LCC) at leading power angles. The concepts are based on voltage or current injection at the ac side of an LCC, which can be achieved in different ways. However, this paper focuses on the voltage and current injection by series-connected full-bridge cells that can generate voltages that approximate ideal sinusoids. Thus, hybrid configurations of an LCC connected at the ac side in series or in parallel with fullbridge cells are presented. Finally, these hybrid configurations are compared in terms of voltage and current rating.

  • 11.
    Bakas, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik. ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Nami, Alireza
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Ilves, Kalle
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Dijkhuizen, Frans
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    A Review of Hybrid Topologies Combining Line-Commutated and Cascaded Full-Bridge Converters2017Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 32, nr 10, s. 7435-7448, artikkel-id 7750589Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper presents a review of concepts for enabling the operation of a line-commutated converter (LCC) at leading power angles. These concepts rely on voltage or current injection at the ac or dc sides of the LCC, which can be achieved in different ways. We focus on the voltage and current injection by full-bridge (FB) arms, which can be connected either at the ac or dc sides of the LCC and can generate voltages that approximate ideal sinusoids. Hybrid configurations of an LCC connected at the ac side in series or in parallel with FB arms are presented. Moreover, a hybrid configuration of an LCC connected in parallel at the ac side and in series at the dc side with an FB modular multilevel converter (MMC) is outlined. The main contribution of this paper is an analysis and comparison of the mentioned hybrid configurations in terms of the capability to independently control the active (P) and reactive power (Q).

  • 12.
    Bakas, Panagiotis
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Papastergiou, K.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska maskiner och effektelektronik (stängd 20110930).
    Solar PV array-inverter matching considering impact of environmental conditions2011Inngår i: Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 2011, s. 001779-001784Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sizing of photovoltaic (PV) generators is an important issue which might affect the PV system overall yield and performance ratio. The procedure is realized according to inverter specifications with the most important one being the operating voltage range. The parameter that is affected by this specification is the number of PV modules per string and a software tool was developed in order to study the effects of this parameter on the system performance. Moreover, the PV generator voltage is highly affected by the ambient temperature of a specific location. Thus, the optimum number of PV modules per string will differ in locations with different environmental conditions. The importance of PV string sizing is high, since improper string length can lead to significant deficiencies on the overall inverter performance. A study of the effects of PV string size on annual system energy production and yield has been conducted for several locations in Europe with significantly different weather as well as for locations with extreme climatic conditions such as high altitude and desert areas.

  • 13.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Ilves, Kalle
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    A Method for the Calculation of the AC-Side Admittance of a Modular Multilevel Converter2018Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Connecting a modular multilevel converter to anac grid may cause stability issues, which can be assessed byanalyzing the converter ac-side admittance in relation to the gridimpedance. This paper presents a method for calculating theac-side admittance of modular multilevel converters, analyzingthe main frequency components of the converter variables individually.Starting from a time-averaged model of the converter,the proposed method performs a linearization in the frequencydomain, which overcomes the inherent nonlinearities of theconverter internal dynamics and the phase-locked loop usedin the control. The ac-side admittance obtained analytically isfirstly validated by simulations against a nonlinear time-averagedmodel of the modular multilevel converter. The tradeoff posedby complexity of the method and the accuracy of the result isdiscussed and the magnitude of the individual frequency componentsis shown. Finally, experiments on a down-scaled prototypeare performed to validate this study and the simplification onwhich it is based.

  • 14.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Ilves, Kalle
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Östlund, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Control of Direct AC/AC Modular Multilevel Converters Using Capacitor Voltage Estimation2016Inngår i: 2016 18TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND APPLICATIONS (EPE'16 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies a control method based on current control and sum-capacitor-voltage estimation to the direct ac/ac modular multilevel converter. As capacitor voltages are estimated, their measurements are not needed in the high-level control, which simplifies the communication between the main controller and the submodules of the converter. The stability of the internal dynamics of the converter, using the aforementioned control method, is studied using Lyapunov stability theory, proving that the system is globally asymptotically stable. The behavior of the converter is simulated focusing on three-phase 50 Hz to single-phase 16 (2)/(3) Hz conversion, which is typical for railway power supply systems of some European countries. Simulation results are in agreement with the expected behavior of the converter, both in steady-state and dynamic situations.

  • 15.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, Kalle
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Effects of Control on the AC-Side Admittance of a Modular Multilevel Converter2019Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 34, nr 8, s. 7206-7220, artikkel-id 8514034Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of a modular multilevel converter connected to an ac grid can be assessed by analyzing the converter ac-side admittance in relation to the grid impedance. The converter control parameters have a strong impact on the admittance and they can be adjusted for achieving system stability. This paper focuses on the admittance-shaping effect produced by different current-control schemes, either designed on a per-phase basis or in the $dq$ frame using space vectors. A linear analytical model of the converter ac-side admittance is developed, including the different current-control schemes and the phase-locked loop. Different solutions for computing the insertion indices are also analyzed, showing that for a closed-loop scheme a compact expression of the admittance is obtained. The impact of the control parameters on the admittance is discussed and verified experimentally, giving guidelines for designing the system in terms of stability. Moreover, recommendations on whether a simplified admittance expression could be used instead of the detailed model are given. The findings from the admittance-shaping analysis are used to recreate a grid-converter system whose stability is determined by the control parameters. The developed admittance model is then used in this experimental case study, showing that the stability of the interconnected system can be assessed using the Nyquist stability criterion.

  • 16.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Östlund, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Control and Admittance Modeling of an AC/AC Modular Multilevel Converter for Railway Supplies2019Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) can be configured to perform ac/ac conversion, which makes them suitable as railway power supplies. In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme for ac/ac MMCs for railway power supplies is devised and evaluated, considering the requirements and the operating conditions specific to this application. Furthermore, admittance models of the ac/ac MMC are developed, showing how the suggested hierarchical control scheme affects the three-phase and the single-phase side admittances of the converter. These models allow for analyzing the stability of the interconnected system using the impedance-based stability criterion and the passivity-based stability assessment. Finally, the findings presented in this paper are validated experimentally, using a down-scaled MMC. 

  • 17.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Modeer, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Modeling and control of a tapped-inductor buck converter with pulse frequency modulation2014Inngår i: Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), 2014 IEEE, 2014, s. 3672-3678Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The tapped-inductor buck (TI-buck) converter has shown to be a suitable solution for auxiliary power supply for modular multilevel converter submodules. Such application features a large step-down voltage conversion, made at relatively low output power. This converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode with zero voltage switching of the high-voltage valve. This paper treats the dynamic behaviour of the aforementioned converter. First, an average output current model of the converter is developed and a small signal model is obtained. Then, a closed-loop output voltage control, which uses the switching frequency as control variable, is designed and implemented using a microcontroller. Measurements on a down-scaled prototype shows that the control system provides a well-controlled average output voltage, which is stable under significant load variation. Finally, a solution for implementing the start-up of the converter is presented and tested.

  • 18.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Narula, Anant
    Bakas, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Design of a Modular Multilevel Converter Prototype for Research Purposes2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As modular multilevel converters gradually become the preferred topology for many high-voltage andhigh-power applications, they are widely studied among researchers, who need experimental results tovalidate their studies. This paper discusses the design of a down-scaled modular multilevel converterprototype for research purposes, equipped with 30 full-bridge submodules and 10 kW rating. The designof this prototype is aimed at safety, flexibility, orderliness, and compactness. The challenges posed by theimplementation of the converter prototype are examined, discussing the design of the prototype structure,the communication scheme, the full-bridge submodules, and the control hierarchy. The control systemis based on Xilinx Zynq system-on-chip, which integrates programmable logic and processing system,allowing for extensive computational capability as well as simple reconfiguration. Experimental resultsshowing the prototype in operation at nominal ratings are presented along with the devised graphical userinterface.

  • 19.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, K.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Ac-side admittance calculation for modular multilevel converters2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE 3rd International Future Energy Electronics Conference and ECCE Asia, IFEEC - ECCE Asia 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 308-312Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Power electronic converters may interact with the grid, thereby influencing dynamic behavior and resonances. Impedance and passivity based stability criteria are two useful methods that allow for studying the grid-converter system as a feedback system, whose behavior is determined by the ratio of grid and converter impedances. In this paper, the ac-side admittance of the modular multilevel converter is calculated using harmonic linearization and considering five specific frequency components of the converter variables. The proposed model features remarkable accuracy, verified through simulations, and insight into the influence of converter and control parameters on the admittance frequency characteristics, which is useful for understanding grid-converter interaction and designing the system.

  • 20.
    Bessegato, Luca
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, Kalle
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Control of Modular Multilevel Matrix Converters Based on Capacitor Voltage Estimation2016Inngår i: IEEE 8th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia), 2016, IEEE, 2016, s. 3447-3452, artikkel-id 7512848Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a control method based on capacitor voltage estimation is applied to the modular multilevel matrix converter topology. By using such control method, capacitor voltage measurement is not needed in the high-level control. A state-space model of the converter and the control method is developed. Lyapunov stability theory is used to prove global asymptotic stability of the internal dynamics of the converter. Simulation results showing the behavior of the converter in steady-state and dynamic situations are presented.

  • 21. Beza, M.
    et al.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Three-level converters with selective Harmonic Elimination PWM for HVDC application2010Inngår i: 2010 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2010: Proceedings, 2010, s. 3746-3753Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a voltage source converter (VSC) based HVDC system, the modulation scheme used is an important factor in achieving a desired harmonic performance with allowable semiconductor losses. In this paper, the use of selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (HEPWM) for a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) converter in VSC based HVDC application will be discussed. Steady state performance of theconverter system in terms of harmonics and losses will be evaluated using MATLAB and PSCAD/EMTDC simulation. Simulation results show a 37% improvement in total semiconductor loss with better harmonic performance by using the three-level solution compared to the two-level solution with the stated modulation scheme. 

  • 22.
    Blinov, Andrei
    et al.
    KTH.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Tibola, G.
    Operation of single-chip MOSFET and IGBT devices after failure due to repetitive avalanche: University in collaboration with industry2015Inngår i: Power Electronics and Applications (EPE’15 ECCE-Europe), 2015 17th European Conference on, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents analysis of post-failure behaviour of MOSFETs and IGBTs operating in a series connected string. The aim of this experimental study is to analyse the operation of devices in case of sudden loss of controllability, leading to repetitive avalanche conditions at relatively low current and subsequent failure due to overheat. For redundant designs it is important that the devices are locked in stable conducting state after the failure and the string continue its operation.

  • 23.
    Chaffey, Geraint
    et al.
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Jahn, Ilka
    Loenders, Rick
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Leterme, Willem
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Dejene, Firew Z.
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Wang, Mian
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Elektrotekniska system. KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    ELECTA, KU Leuven, Belgium and EnergyVille, Genk, Belgium.
    Requirements for functional testing of HVDC protection IEDs2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) for HVDC protection is underway, driven in part by the prospective demands of future multiterminal HVDC systems. There is, however, no consensus on how to test the functionality of an HVDC protection IED. Successful operation of a future multivendor HVDC protection system requires functional specifications and harmonised test procedures for protection system components, including the protection IED. This paper presents an introduction to functional testing methods for HVDC protection IEDs. Evaluating the protection algorithm characteristic using synthetic waveforms is first performed, i.e. ’functional type testing’. Given that test procedures are in part dependent on the protection algorithm, tests are developed and presented for several algorithms. The behaviour of the IED in a power system simulation is then examined during generalised yet representative fault transients, i.e. equivalent to ’dynamic validation type testing’ of AC protection algorithms. The combination of functional and dynamic validation type testing allows the generalised functionality of the IED to be evaluated - testing the algorithm, hardware and software implementation, and overall performance. To provide examples of test procedures, an open-source HVDC IED prototype is tested in a hardware-in-the-loop configuration using a real-time simulator. The operation and accuracy of the protection characteristics are first examined, before the IED performance under representative waveforms is determined. Through tests of several non-unit line protection algorithms, it is shown that, depending on the algorithm applied, the IED is dependable for simulated faults within the protection zone, and secure during external faults. Moreover,the test configurations and procedures required to evaluate the functionality and the criteria for success are developed.

  • 24.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Gross, James
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Kildehöj, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    A Proposal for Wireless Control of Submodules in Modular Multilevel Converters2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter is one of the most preferred converters for high-power conversion applications. Wireless control of the submodules can contribute to its evolution by lowering the material and labor costs of cabling and by increasing the availability of the converter. However, wireless control leads to many challenges for the control and modulation of the converter as well as for proper low-latency high-reliability communication. This paper investigates the tolerable asynchronism between phase-shifted carriers used in modulation from a wireless control point of view and proposes a control method along with communication protocol for wireless control. The functionality of the proposed method is validated by computer simulations in steady state.

  • 25.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Gross, James
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Simple Distributed Control for Modular Multilevel Converters2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The central control of MMC becomes demanding in computation power and communication bandwidth as the number of submodules increase. Distributed control methods can overcome these bottlenecks. In this paper, a simple distributed control method together with synchronization of modulation carriers in the submodules is presented. The proposal is implemented on a lab-scale MMC with asynchronous-serial communication on a star network between the central and local controllers. It is shown that the proposed control method works satisfactorily in the steady state. The method can be applied as is to MMCs with any number of submodules per arm.

  • 26. Dijkhuizen, F.
    et al.
    Norrga, Staffan
    ABB Corporate Research, Forskargränd 10, Västerås, Sweden.
    Fault tolerant operation of power converter with cascaded cells2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2011 14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 2011, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilevel converters based on cascaded cells are well suited for high power applications, due to good control performance, extensive modularity and excellent harmonic distortion. A vital requirement in high power converters is being fault-tolerant, so that a single fault in a cell does not lead to the trip of the entire converter. This paper presents a strategy for fault-tolerance on cell level with Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). The concept is based on initiating a surge in a phase leg in a failing cell, limited by a di/dt reactor leading to a short circuit failure mode of the IGCT thereby excluding the cell from the chain.

  • 27. Dijkhuizen, Frans
    et al.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Fault Tolerant Operation of Power Converter with Cascaded Cells2013Inngår i: EPE Journal: European Power Electronics and Drives Journal, ISSN 0939-8368, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 21-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of high power electronics for transmission applications there is currently a strong tendency towards using modular converter topologies employing cascaded cells. These multilevel converters are well suited for high power applications, due to good control performance, extensive modularity and excellent harmonic distortion. This paper concerns fault tolerance of Such a cascaded converter on cell level, and a method is proposed to exclude a cell from the chain of cells in case a semiconductor switching device fails. The described method concerns a semiconductor device in presspack encapsulation that normally fails into a permanent short circuit. In particular it is applicable to converters that use Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristors (IGCT). The application of the converter considered here is STATCOM, where several tens or even hundreds of these cells are involved. Hence, a failure in one of the applied semiconductor switching devices should not lead to a malfunction of the whole converter A feasible method for shorting out a failed cell is proposed and experimentally validated by two consecutive tests. The principle is to initiate a shoot-through in a cell hence discharging the DC cell capacitance completely where the circuitry for di/dt-reduction during turn-on limits the surge current. Hereby the used semiconductor switching devices are put into a permanently shorted state without using additional hardware. From the observations it can be concluded that the surge leads to a stable SCFM process (Short Circuit Failure Mode) which can conduct the converter current in both directions. The test is not fully conclusive as to how long the SCFM can be sustained. However, experiences from thyristors used in HVDC applications indicate that the SCFM state can be relied on to last for several years.

  • 28.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Dynamic Analysis of Modular Multilevel Converters2013Inngår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 60, nr 7, s. 2526-2537Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory for the dynamics of modular multilevel converters is developed in this paper. It is shown that the sum capacitor voltage in each arm often can be considered instead of the individual capacitor voltages, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the system model. Two selections of the so-called insertion indices, which both compensate for the sum-capacitor-voltage ripples, are considered. The dynamic systems which respectively result from these selections are analyzed. An effective dc-bus model, which takes into account the contribution from the submodule capacitors, is obtained. Finally, explicit formulas for the stationary sum-capacitor-voltage ripples are derived.

  • 29.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Dynamic modeling of modular multilevel converters2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011) / [ed] EPE Association, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory for the dynamics of modular multilevel converters is developed in this paper. It is shown that the sum capacitor voltage in each arm often can be considered instead of the individual capacitor voltages, thereby significantly reducing the complexity of the system model. A selection of the so-called insertion indices, which compensates for the sum-capacitor-voltage ripples, is considered. The system which results for this selection is analyzed, and is shown to be asymptotically stable. Finally, explicit formulas for the steady-state sum-capacitor-voltage ripples are derived.

  • 30.
    Hassanpoor, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Tolerance-band modulation methods for modular multilevel converters2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters (M2C) are increasingly used in high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems. The efficiency of M2Cs is highly related to the modulation method which determines the switching frequency and capacitor voltage ripple in the converter station. A new approach to modulation of M2C is presented in this paper. Tolerance-band methods are employed to obtain switching instants, and also cell selection. The proposed methods overcome the modulation problem for converters with few numbers of cells and also reduce the sorting efforts for cell balancing purposes while maintaining the cell-capacitor voltage limits. The evaluation is done by time-domain simulation by which the performance of each method is studied in both steady-state and transient cases. It is observed that using tolerance band methods not only reduces the switching frequency but also allows for handling severe fault cases in a grid connected system. Use of this method can reduce the switching losses and also allow for reduction of the cell capacitor size.

  • 31.
    Hassanpoor, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik. ABB Corporate Research Vasteras, Sweden.
    Nami, Alireza
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Tolerance Band Adaptation Method for Dynamic Operation of Grid-Connected Modular Multilevel Converters2016Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, nr 99, s. 1-1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of modular multilevel converters (MMC) in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems has grown significantly in the past decade. The efficiency, cell capacitor voltage ripple and dynamic performance are three contradictory aspects of the MMC which are related to the converter switching scheme. Previously introduced tolerance band-based schemes enable efficient and simple control for grid-connected MMCs. This paper addresses the dynamic operation of tolerance band switching schemes by proposing a dynamic boundary setting technique for steady-state operation and a switching scheme scheduling controller for transient fault handling. The performance of proposed methods are validated in a realistic point-to-point HVDC link, modeled in real-time digital simulator (RTDS) where two converters with 512 cells per arm are implemented. Utilizing the proposed methods will enable efficient implementation of tolerance band-based schemes for different operating points, and also a robust transient fault handling.

  • 32.
    Hassanpoor, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Lindgren, M.
    Switching pulse pattern optimisation for modular multilevel converters2014Inngår i: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2014, 2014, s. 4722-4728Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) are widely used in different applications such as high voltage direct current (HVDC) applications. The HVDC station loss is highly related to the converter switching pulse pattern which is generated by modulation algorithm and cell selection methods. This paper formulates the switching pulse pattern generation, as a versatile optimisation problem. The problem constraints and objectives are formulated for HVDC applications and compared with similar problems in the field of computer science. To overcome the computational complexity in solving the introduced optimisation problem, a heuristic method is proposed for cell selection algorithm. The method utilizes the current level in order to obtain lossless switching at zero-current crossings. The study of the proposed method, in a time-domain simulation platform, shows that the method can reduce the switching converter losses by 60% compared to carrier-based modulation, maintaining the same capacitor voltage ripple. Although this paper focuses on HVDC, the mathematical model is applicable for any MMC application.

  • 33.
    Hassanpoor, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Nami, Alireza
    Loss evaluation for modular multilevel converters with different switching strategies2015Inngår i: Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE-ECCE Asia), 2015 9th International Conference on, IEEE , 2015, s. 1558-1563Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Apparently, modular multilevel converter (MMC) has been extensively used in high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission links in recent years. The efficiency of MMC stations are highly related to the switching methods and semiconductor devices. So, various switching methods and semiconductor devices have been investigated and introduced in the field. This paper settles a benchmark for an HVDC link, based on a real project, and investigates the impact of six different switching methods on the converter loss, utilizing a commercial semiconductor device. The evaluation indicates that switching methods which consider the current level at switching instants are more efficient in comparison with the other methods which only consider the number of switching events. The result of this study is essential for more efficient converter stations.

  • 34.
    Hassanpoor, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska energisystem.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Evaluation of different carrier-based PWM methods for modular multilevel converters for HVDC application2012Inngår i: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE , 2012, s. 388-393Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The outstanding features of modular multilevel converters (M2C) make it attractive for high voltage direct current (HVDC) systems. In order to achieve high efficiency in HVDC converter stations, the switching frequency and the capacitor voltage ripple of the converter should be minimized. A suitable modulation algorithm should achieve an optimal tradeoff between these two requirements. This paper evaluates different carrier-based PWM algorithms and discusses the most challenging technical aspects of an efficient M2C. It is observed that decoupling the waveform synthesis from the selection of which cell to switch at each instant has beneficial impact on operation performance. The evaluation is done by time-domain simulation considering a grid connected, three-phase M2C converter and an advanced control system. Results of this study can be used for implementing more economical HVDC converters.

  • 35.
    Hassanpoor, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Roostaei, Amin
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Lindgren, Markus
    Optimization-Based Cell Selection Method for Grid-Connected Modular Multilevel Converters2016Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 2780-2790Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) are widely used in different applications. Due to low-loss operation, compactness, and high modularity, MMC is extremely attractive for high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission systems. The HVDC station loss is highly related to the converter switching pulse pattern, which is generated by modulation algorithm and cell selection methods. This paper formulates the switching pulse pattern generation, as a versatile optimization problem. The problem constraints and objectives are formulated for HVDC applications and compared with similar problems in the field of computer science. To overcome the computational complexity in solving the introduced optimization problem, a heuristic method is proposed for cell selection algorithm. The method utilizes the current level in order to obtain lossless switching at zero-current crossings. The study of the proposed method, in a time-domain simulation platform, shows that the method can reduce the switching converter losses by 60% compared to carrier-based modulation, maintaining the same capacitor voltage ripple. Eventually, the practical functionality of the proposed method is verified in a real-time digital simulator, RTDS, for a 512-level converter in a point to point HVDC link. Although this paper focuses on HVDC, the mathematical model is applicable for any MMC application.

  • 36.
    Hassanpoor, Arman
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Tolerance band modulation methods for modular multilevel converters2015Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 311-326, artikkel-id 6739183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modular multilevel converters (M2Cs) are increasingly used in high-voltage direct current (HVDC) systems. The efficiency of M2Cs is influenced by the modulation and cell selecting methods, which determines the switching frequency and capacitor voltage ripple in the converter station. A new approach to modulation of the M2C is presented in this paper. Tolerance band methods are employed to obtain the switching instants, and also cell selection. The proposed methods overcome the modulation problem for converters with few cells on one hand and also reduce the sorting efforts for cell balancing purposes of many cells converter on the other hand. Three different algorithms are also proposed to balance the cell capacitor voltages. The evaluation is done in time-domain simulation by which the performance of each method is studied in both the steady-state and transient cases. It is observed that using tolerance band methods not only reduces the switching frequency but also allows for handling severe fault cases in a grid-connected system. Eventually, the most promising tolerance band method has been implemented and verified in a real-time digital simulator, RTDS®. The average switching frequency of 70 Hz has been achieved for the system under study, while the capacitor voltage ripple is limited to 10% of the nominal cell voltage.

  • 37.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    On Energy Storage Requirements in Alternate Arm Converters and Modular Multilevel Converters2016Inngår i: 2016 18TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND APPLICATIONS (EPE'16 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparison of the energy storage requirements is performed for the modular multilevel converter (MMC) with half-bridge and full-bridge submodules as well as for the alternate arm converter (AAC). Concerning the AAC, the operational mode with overlap period is taken into account and an analytical relation between the overlap angle and the modulation index is presented. This ensures that the net energy exchange for the converter arms is zero over each half cycle.

  • 38.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Bessegato, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Bakas, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Implications of Capacitor Voltage Imbalance on the Operation of the Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule2019Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 34, nr 10, s. 9520-9535, artikkel-id 8598807Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Future meshed high-voltage direct current grids require modular multilevel converters with extended functionality. One of the most interesting new submodule topologies is the semi-full-bridge because it enables efficient handling of DC-side short circuits while having reduced power losses compared to an implementation with full-bridge submodules. However, the semi-full-bridge submodule requires the parallel connection of capacitors during normal operation which can cause a high redistribution current in case the voltages of the two submodule capacitors are not equal. The maximum voltage difference and resulting redistribution current have been studied analytically, by means of simulations and in a full-scale standalone submodule laboratory setup. The most critical parameter is the capacitance mismatch between the two capacitors. The experimental results from the full-scale prototype show that the redistribution current peaks at 500A if the voltage difference is 10V before paralleling and increases to 2500A if the difference is 40V. However, neglecting very unlikely cases, the maximum voltage difference predicted by simulations is not higher than 20-30V for the considered case. Among other measures, a balancing controller is proposed which reduces the voltage difference safely if a certain maximum value is surpassed. The operating principle of the controller is described in detail and verified experimentally on a down-scaled submodule within a modular multilevel converter prototype. It can be concluded that excessively high redistribution currents can be prevented. Consequently, they are no obstacle for using the semi-full-bridge submodule in future HVDC converters.

  • 39.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, Kalle
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik. ABB Corporate Research.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Implications of Capacitor Voltage Imbalance on the Operation of the Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule2017Inngår i: 2017 19th European Conference on Power Electronics andApplications (EPE'17 ECCE Europe), Warsaw, Poland, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of the voltage imbalance of the two capacitors of the semi-full-bridge submodule is performed. Since the capacitances are not exactly the same, there may be a difference between the capacitor voltages. The resulting current-spike when they are connected in parallel has been analyzed in a full-scale laboratory experiment.

  • 40.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Ilves, Kalle
    ABB Corp Res, Forskargrand 7, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Elkraftteknik.
    Reduction of Switching Frequency for the Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule Using Alternative Bypass States2018Inngår i: 2018 20TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON POWER ELECTRONICS AND APPLICATIONS (EPE'18 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As regards modular multilevel converter submodules, a different number of switches may be involved in the transitions between voltage levels depending on the submodule type and choice of switching states. In this paper, an investigation of the average switching frequency associated with different choices of bypass states is performed for the semi-full-bridge submodule. Theoretical considerations and simulation results show that the average switching frequency per device can be halved by using the proposed alternative bypass state. Moreover, the switching losses can be reduced by up to 60%. Finally, a comparative study with the full-bridge submodule has been conducted.

  • 41.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Modéer, Tomas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Soft-Switching Cells for High-Power Converters2014Inngår i: Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 1806-1812Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of the Auxiliary Reso-nant Commutated Pole (ARCP) converter topology for the cellsof a Modular Multilevel Converter. The workings of the ARCPtopology are explained as well as the calculation method usedto compare the efficiency to a conventional solution. Comparisonis done for an HVDC as well as for a STATCOM application.In both cases, use of the ARCP topology can lead to significantreductions in switching losses. The implications of these findingsare dealt with as well. These include a higher possible switchingfrequency and a higher practically feasible cell voltage.

  • 42. Ilves, K.
    et al.
    Bessegato, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Harnefors, L.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Semi-full-bridge submodule for modular multilevel converters2015Inngår i: Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE-ECCE Asia), 2015 9th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. 1067-1074Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy variations in each arm of the modular multilevel converter comprises two components. The first component relates to the difference between the instantaneous input and output power of each phase-leg, and the second component relates to the energy which is moved back and forth between the two arms of the phase-leg. The latter component can be reduced or even eliminated if the peak-to-peak amplitude of the alternating voltage is greater than the pole-to-pole voltage of the dc link. This will, however, require submodules which can insert negative voltages. Therefore, a semi-full-bridge submodule which uses less semiconductors than the conventional full-bridge is proposed. Simulation results shows that by using the negative voltage-levels the capacitor voltage ripple can be reduced by up to 59%. Experimental results also shows that a 7-level voltage waveform can be generated using only one semi-full-bridge submodule with two capacitors per arm.

  • 43.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Hans-Peter, Nee
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Circulating current control in modular multilevel converters with fundamental switching frequency2012Inngår i: Conference Proceedings - 2012 IEEE 7th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference - ECCE Asia, IPEMC 2012, IEEE , 2012, s. 249-256Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter is a suitable topology for high-voltage applications as it combines very low switching frequency and excellent harmonic performance. In fact, it has been shown that the modular multilevel converter can even be operated at the fundamental switching frequency. If the circulating current is not controlled, a second-order harmonic component will appear. This component increases the resistive losses and the capacitor voltage ripple. Different control methods have been developed for eliminating this component in the circulating current. These are, however, based on continuous representations of the system and no control method suitable for fundamental switching frequency have yet been proposed. This paper presents a control method that combines a fundamental switching frequency scheme with an active control of the circulating current. The controller is verified experimentally on a 10-kVA laboratory prototype with five submodules per arm. The experimental validation is performed in both inverter and rectifier modes.

  • 44.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Capacitor Voltage Ripple Shaping in Modular Multilevel Converters Allowing for Operating Region Extension2011Inngår i: IECON 2011: 37TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY, New York: IEEE , 2011, s. 4403-4408Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The second-order harmonic in the circulating current of a modular multilevel converter (M2C) influences the capacitor voltage ripple. If no measures are taken to control it, it is not possible to operate the converter with unity modulation index. An open-loop method that precalculates the instantaneous values of the circulating current and the capacitor voltages is used, in order to control the circulating current. A desired second-order harmonic is intentionally induced in the circulating current in order to make the peak of the capacitor voltage coincide with the maximum requested voltage, aiming either to extend the limits of the instantaneous available voltage or avoid unnecessarily high capacitor voltages. A method for numerical estimation of the appropriate amplitude and phase of the induced second-order harmonic is described. The method is experimentally evaluated on a three-phase down-scaled laboratory prototype. From the experiments it was found that significantly improved operating conditions could be obtained.

  • 45.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES).
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES).
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES). ABB, Sweden.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES).
    A new modulation method for the modular multilevel converter allowing fundamental switching frequency2011Inngår i: IEEE 8th International Conference on Power Electronics and ECCE Asia (ICPE & ECCE), 2011: 'Green World with Power Electronics' / [ed] IEEE, IEEE , 2011, s. 991-998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new modulation method for the modular multilevel converter. The proposed method is based on a fixed pulse pattern where harmonic elimination methods can be applied. Modulation methods with harmonic elimination based on calculated pulse patterns have been presented for other multilevel topologies. However, similar modulation schemes have not yet been presented for the modular multilevel topology. In the proposed modulation method, the pulse pattern is chosen in such a way that the stored energy in each submodule remains stable. It is shown that this can be done at the fundamental switching frequency without measuring the capacitor voltages or using any other form of feedback control. Such a modulation scheme has not been presented before. The theoretical results are verified by both simulations and experimental results. The simulation results show successful operation at the fundamental switching frequency with a larger number of submodules. When a smaller number of submodules are used, harmonic elimination methods may be applied. This is verified experimentally on a converter with eight submodules per phase leg. The experimental results verify that stable operation can be maintained at the fundamental switching frequency while successfully eliminating the fifth harmonic in the ac-side voltage.

  • 46.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    A New Modulation Method for the Modular Multilevel Converter Allowing Fundamental Switching Frequency2012Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 3482-3494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new modulation method for the modular multilevel converter. The proposed method is based on a fixed pulse pattern where harmonic elimination methods can be applied. In the proposed modulation method, the pulse pattern is chosen in such a way that the stored energy in each submodule remains stable. It is shown that this can be done at the fundamental switching frequency without measuring the capacitor voltages or using any other form of feedback control. Such a modulation scheme has not been presented before. The theoretical results are verified by both simulations and experimental results. The simulation results show successful operation at the fundamental switching frequency with a larger number of submodules. When a smaller number of submodules are used, harmonic elimination methods may be applied. This is verified experimentally on a converter with eight submodules per phase leg. The experimental results verify that stable operation can be maintained at the fundamental switching frequency while successfully eliminating the fifth harmonic in the ac-side voltage.

  • 47.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Steady-State Analysis of Interaction Between Harmonic Components of Arm and Line Quantities of Modular Multilevel Converters2012Inngår i: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 57-68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental frequency component in the arm currents of a modular multilevel converter is a necessity for the operation of the converter, as is the connection and bypassing of the submodules. Inevitably, this will cause alternating components in the capacitor voltages. This paper investigates how the arm currents and capacitor voltages interact when the submodules are connected and bypassed in a sinusoidal manner. Equations that describe the circulating current that is caused by the variations in the total inserted voltage are derived. Resonant frequencies are identified and the resonant behaviour is verified by experimental results. It is also found that the effective values of the arm resistance and submodule capacitances can be extracted from the measurements by least square fitting of the analytical expressions to the measured values. Finally, the analytical expression for the arm currents is verified by experimental results.

  • 48.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska maskiner och effektelektronik (stängd 20110930).
    Antonopoulos, Antonios
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska maskiner och effektelektronik (stängd 20110930).
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska maskiner och effektelektronik (stängd 20110930).
    Ängquist, Lennart
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska maskiner och effektelektronik (stängd 20110930).
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektriska maskiner och effektelektronik (stängd 20110930).
    Controlling the ac-side voltage waveform in a modular multilevel converter with low energy-storage capability2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011) / [ed] EPE Association, 2011, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During nominal operation of a modular multilevel converter the stored energy in the submodule capacitors will vary with time. If the energy storage capability of the capacitors is relatively small compared to the energy variations, this will give large variations in the capacitor voltages. These voltage variations will distort the ac-side voltage waveform and induce harmonic components in the current that is circulating between the dc terminals. The adverse effects on the ac-side voltage can be compensated for by identifying the factors that cause the distortion. It is shown that the compensation can be done by means of feed forward control while maintaining stable operating conditions and thus eliminating the need of additional stabilizing controllers. It is also shown that the voltage controller can be combined with a circulating current controller that removes the harmonics in the current that is circulating between the dc terminals. The functionality of the proposed controller is verified by both simulations and experimental results from a 10 kVA laboratory prototype. The simulations illustrate how the proposed controller successfully removes the distortion from the ac-side voltage waveform. The experimental results demonstrate stable operation during a step transient when the output power is increased by 125%.

  • 49.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Bessegato, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Semi-Full-Bridge Submodule for Modular Multilevel ConvertersManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Ilves, Kalle
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Bessegato, Luca
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elektrisk energiomvandling.
    Comparison of Cascaded Multilevel Converter Topologies for AC/ AC Conversion2014Inngår i: 2014 International Power Electronics Conference, IPEC-Hiroshima - ECCE Asia 2014, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, s. 1087-1094Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simplified qualitative comparison of previously presented cascaded multilevel converter topologies for ac-ac conversion with particular emphasis on motor drive applications. Performance criteria such as the pulsation of the stored energy in the cell capacitors and the total required semiconductor rating are derived by analytical methods. The main conclusion is that the back-to-back connected modular multilevel converter operates best at synchronous speed, whereas the modular matrix converter and Hexverter are better suited for low-frequency output. However, by injecting circulating currents in the phase arms the operating region can be extended for all of the studied topologies.

123 1 - 50 of 125
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