Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 57
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Aier, Stephan
    et al.
    Buckl, Sabine
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gleichauf, Bettina
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Schweda, Christian M.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Survival Analysis of Application Life Spans based on Enterprise Architecture Models2009In: Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Enterprise Modelling and Information Systems Architectures, EMISA 2009, 2009, Vol. P-152, p. 141-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern enterprises face the challenge to survive in an ever changing environment. One commonly accepted means to address this challenge and further enhance survivability is enterprise architecture (EA) management, which provides a holistic model-based approach to business/IT alignment. Thereby, the decisions taken in the context of EA management are based on accurate documentation of IT systems and business processes. The maintenance of such documentation causes high investments for enter-prises, especially in the absence of information on the change rates of different systems and processes. In this paper we propose a method for gathering and analyzing such in-formation. The method is used to analyze the life spans of the application portfolio of three companies from different industry sectors. Based on the results of the three case studies implications and limitations of the method are discussed.

  • 2.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Franke, Ulrik
    SICS Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Tariq, Muhammad Adnan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Varga, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Using Cyber Defense Exercises to Obtain Additional Data for Attacker Profiling2016In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI 2016), Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 37-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to be able to successfully defend an IT system it is useful to have an accurate appreciation of the cyber threat that goes beyond stereotypes. To effectively counter potentially decisive and skilled attackers it is necessary to understand, or at least model, their behavior. Although the real motives for untraceable anonymous attackers will remain a mystery, a thorough understanding of their observable actions can still help to create well-founded attacker profiles that can be used to design effective countermeasures and in other ways enhance cyber defense efforts. In recent work empirically founded attacker profiles, so-called attacker personas, have been used to assess the overall threat situation for an organization. In this paper we elaborate on 1) the use of attacker personas as a technique for attacker profiling, 2) the design of tailor-made cyber defense exercises for the purpose of obtaining the necessary empirical data for the construction of such attacker personas, and 3) how attacker personas can be used for enhancing the situational awareness within the cyber domain. The paper concludes by discussing the possibilities and limitations of using cyber defense exercises for data gathering, and what can and cannot be studied in such exercises.

  • 3.
    Brynielsson, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Franke, Ulrik
    SICS Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Varga, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Cyber Situational Awareness Testing2016In: Combatting Cybercrime and Cyberterrorism: Challenges, Trends and Priorities / [ed] Akhgar, Babak; Brewster, Ben, Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG , 2016, p. 209-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cyber security landscape, the human ability to comprehend and adapt to existing and emerging threats is crucial. Not only technical solutions, but also the operator’s ability to grasp the complexities of the threats affect the level of success or failure that is achieved in cyber defence. In this paper we discuss the general concept of situation awareness and associated measurement techniques. Further, we describe the cyber domain and how it differs from other domains, and show how predictive knowledge can help improve cyber defence. We discuss how selected existing models and measurement techniques for situation awareness can be adapted and applied in the cyber domain to measure actual levels of cyber situation awareness. We identify generic relevant criteria and other factors to consider, and propose a methodology to set up cyber situation awareness measurement experiments within the context of simulated cyber defence exercises. Such experiments can be used to test the viability of different cyber solutions. A number of concrete possible experiments are also suggested.

  • 4. Buckl, S.
    et al.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holschke, O.
    Matthes, F.
    Schweda, C. M.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A pattern-based approach to quantitative enterprise architecture analysis2009In: 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems 2009, AMCIS 2009, 2009, p. 2314-2324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture (EA) management involves tasks that substantially contribute to the operations of an enterprise, and to its sustainable market presence. One important aspect of this is the availability of services to customers. However, the increasing interconnectedness of systems with other systems and with business processes makes it difficult to get a clear view on change impacts and dependency structures. While management level decision makers need this information to make sound decisions, EA models often do not include quality attributes (such as availability), and very rarely provide quantitative means to assess them. We address these shortcomings by augmenting an information model for EA modeling with concepts from Probabilistic Relational Models, thus enabling quantitative analysis. A sample business case is evaluated as an example of the technique, showing how decision makers can benefit from information on availability impacts on enterprise business services.

  • 5.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A tool for enterprise architecture analysis using the PRM formalism2010In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture advocates model-based decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide decisionmaking support, enterprise architecture models should not only be descriptive but also enable analysis. This paper presents a software tool, currently under development, for the evaluation of enterprise architecture models. In particular, the paper focuses on how to encode scientific theories so that they can be used for model-based analysis and reasoning under uncertainty. The tool architecture is described, and a case study shows how the tool supports the process of enterprise architecture analysis.

  • 6.
    Buschle, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Tool for Enterprise Architecture Analysis Using the PRM Formalism2011In: INFORMATION SYSTEMS EVOLUTION / [ed] Soffer P; Proper E, 2011, Vol. 72, p. 108-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture advocates for model-based decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide decision-making support, enterprise architecture models should not only be descriptive but also enable analysis. This paper presents a software tool, currently under development, for the evaluation of enterprise architecture models. In particular, the paper focuses on how to encode scientific theories so that they can be used for model-based analysis and reasoning under uncertainty. The tool architecture is described, and a case study shows how the tool supports the process of enterprise architecture analysis.

  • 7.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerstrom, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Tool for Enterprise Architecture Analysis of Maintainability: CSMR 2009, PROCEEDINGS2009In: EUR CON SFTWR MTNCE REENGR / [ed] Winter A, Knodel J, Los Almitos: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, p. 327-328Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tool for Enterprise Architecture analysis using a probabilistic mathematical framework is demonstrated. The Model-View-Controller tool architecture is outlined, before the use of the tool is considered. A sample abstract maintainability model is created, showing the dependence of system maintainability on documentation quality. developer expertise, etc. Finally, a concrete model of an ERP system is discussed.

  • 8.
    Fazlollahi, Ariyan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems. Swedish Institute of Computer Science (RISE SICS), Box 1263, Kista, Sweden.
    Measuring the impact of enterprise integration on firm performance using data envelopment analysis2018In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 200, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, with rapidly developing technology and changing business models, organizations face rapid changes in both internal and external environments. To be able to rapidly respond to such changing environments, integration of software systems has become a top priority for many organizations. However, despite extensive use of software systems integration, quantitative methods for estimating the business value of such integrations are still missing. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and the microeconomic concept of marginal rates, this study proposes a method for quantifying the effects of enterprise integration on the firm performance. In the paper, we explain how DEA can be used to evaluate the marginal benefits of enterprise integration. Our proposed method is to measure and compare the productive efficiency of firms using enterprise integration, specifically by relating the benefits produced to the resources consumed in the process. The method is illustrated on data collected from 12 organizations. The defined method has a solid theoretical foundation, eliminating the need for a priori information about the relationship between different measures. Furthermore, the framework could be used not only to quantify the business value of enterprise integration, but also to estimate trade-offs and impacts of other subjective managerial goals on the results. The major limitation of the proposed method is the absence of a comprehensive theory relating IT architecture changes to organizational outcomes. The underlying model is strongly dependent on the relevancy and accuracy of the included variables, as well as number of data units, introducing uncertainties to the outcomes of the model.

  • 9.
    Fazlollahi, Ariyan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Benefits of enterprise integration: Review, classification, and suggestions for future research2012In: Enterprise Interoperability: 4th International IFIP Working Conference, IWEI 2012, Harbin, China, September 6-7, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Marten van Sinderen, Pontus Johnson, Xiaofei Xu, Guy Doumeingts, Springer, 2012, p. 34-45Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports the findings of a literature review concerning the potential benefits of Enterprise Integration (EI) for organizations. The review reveals the current state of the scientific literature concerning the potential benefits of EI, classified using a conceptual model of the enterprise. We believe that the results provide a consolidated and comprehensive picture of such potential benefits, useful as a baseline for future research. Additionally, the review is expected to assist practitioners in establishing business cases for EI by means of scientifically grounded reasoning about how EI benefits can contribute to the achievement of certain business goals. Additionally, results could be employed to develop methods or models capable of measuring such benefits in financial terms.

  • 10.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Analysis of enterprise IT service availability: Enterprise architecture modeling for assessment, prediction, and decision-making2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology has become increasingly important to individuals and organizations alike. Not only does IT allow us to do what we always did faster and more effectively, but it also allows us to do new things, organize ourselves differently, and work in ways previously unimaginable. However, these advantages come at a cost: as we become increasingly dependent upon IT services, we also demand that they are continuously and uninterruptedly available for use. Despite advances in reliability engineering, the complexity of today's increasingly integrated systems offers a non-trivial challenge in this respect. How can high availability of enterprise IT services be maintained in the face of constant additions and upgrades, decade-long life-cycles, dependencies upon third-parties and the ever-present business-imposed requirement of flexible and agile IT services?

    The contribution of this thesis includes (i) an enterprise architecture framework that offers a unique and action-guiding way to analyze service availability, (ii) identification of causal factors that affect the availability of enterprise IT services, (iii) a study of the use of fault trees for enterprise architecture availability analysis, and (iv) principles for how to think about availability management.

    This thesis is a composite thesis of five papers. Paper 1 offers a framework for thinking about enterprise IT service availability management, highlighting the importance of variance of outage costs. Paper 2 shows how enterprise architecture (EA) frameworks for dependency analysis can be extended with Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Bayesian networks (BN) techniques. FTA and BN are proven formal methods for reliability and availability modeling. Paper 3 describes a Bayesian prediction model for systems availability, based on expert elicitation from 50 experts. Paper 4 combines FTA and constructs from the ArchiMate EA language into a method for availability analysis on the enterprise level. The method is validated by five case studies, where annual downtime estimates were always within eight hours from the actual values. Paper 5 extends the Bayesian prediction model from paper 3 and the modeling method from paper 4 into a full-blown enterprise architecture framework, expressed in a probabilistic version of the Object Constraint Language. The resulting modeling framework is tested in nine case studies of enterprise information systems.

  • 11.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Optimal IT service availability: Shorter outages, or fewer?2012In: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 22-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High enterprise IT service availability is a key success factor throughout many industries. While understanding of the economic importance of availability management is becoming more widespread, the implications for management of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and thinking about availability risk management are just beginning to unfold. This paper offers a framework within which to think about availability management, highlighting the importance of variance of outage costs. The importance of variance is demonstrated using simulations on existing data sets of revenue data. An important implication is that when outage costs are proportional to outage duration, more but shorter outages should be preferred to fewer but longer, in order to minimize variance. Furthermore, two archetypal cases where the cost of an outage depends non-linearly on its duration are considered. An optimal outage length is derived, and some guidance is also given for its application when the variance of hourly downtime costs is considered. The paper is concluded with a discussion about the feasibility of the method, its practitioner relevance and its implications for SLA management.

  • 12.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES). SICS, Sweden.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES). Zeb Consulting, Sweden.
    Experimental Evidence on Decision-Making in Availability Service Level Agreements2016In: IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management, ISSN 1932-4537, E-ISSN 1932-4537, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 58-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more enterprises buy information technology services, studying their underpinning contracts becomes more important. With cloud computing and outsourcing, these service level agreements (SLAs) are now often the only link between the business and the supporting IT services. This paper presents an experimental economics investigation of decision-making with regard to availability SLAs, among enterprise IT professionals. The method and the ecologically valid subjects make the study unique to date among IT service SLA studies. The experiment consisted of pairwise choices under uncertainty, and subjects (N = 46) were incentivized by payments based on one of their choices, randomly selected. The research question investigated in this paper is: Do enterprise IT professionals maximize expected value when procuring availability SLAs, as would be optimal from the business point of view? The main result is that enterprise IT professionals fail to maximize expected value. Whereas some subjects do maximize expected value, others are risk-seeking, risk-averse, or exhibit non-monotonic preferences. The nonmonotonic behavior in particular is an interesting observation, which has no obvious explanation in the literature. For a subset of the subjects (N = 29), a few further hypotheses related to associations between general attitude to risk or professional experience on the one hand, and behavior in SLAs on the other hand, were investigated. No support for these associations was found. The results should be interpreted with caution, due to the limited number of subjects. However, given the prominence of SLAs in modern IT service management, the results are interesting and call for further research, as they indicate that current professional decision-making regarding SLAs can be improved. In particular, if general attitude to risk and professional experience do not impact decision-making with regard to SLAs, more extensive use of decision-support systems might be called for in order to facilitate proper risk management.

  • 13.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Saat, Jan
    Winter, Robert
    Trends in Enterprise Architecture Practice: A Survey2010In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing / [ed] Proper E; Lankhorst MM; Schonherr M; Barjis J; Overbeek S, 2010, Vol. 70, p. 16-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Enterprise Architecture (EA) has become a discipline for business and IT-system management. While much research focuses on theoretical contributions related to EA, very few studies use statistical tools to analyze empirical data. This paper investigates the actual application of EA, by giving a broad overview of the usage of enterprise architecture in Swedish, German, Austrian and Swiss companies. 162 EA professionals answered a survey originally focusing on the relation between IT/business alignment (ITBA) and EA. The dataset provides answers to questions such as: For how many years have companies been using EA models, tools, processes and roles? How is ITBA in relation to EA perceived at companies? In particular, the survey has investigated quality attributes of EA, related to IT-systems, business and IT governance. One important result is some interesting correlations between how these qualities are prioritized. For example, a high concern for interoperability correlates with a high concern for maintainability.

  • 14.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Flores Rocha, Waldo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture Dependency Analysis using Fault Trees and Bayesian Networks2009In: Proc. 42nd Annual Simulation Symposium, 2009, p. 209-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dependencies between technical systems and business processes is an important part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). However, EA models typically provide only visual and qualitative decision support. This paper shows how EA frameworks for dependency analysis can be extended into the realm of quantitative methods by use of the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Bayesian networks (BN) techniques. Using DoDAF ? the Department of Defense Architecture Framework ? as an example, we provide a method for how these EA models can be adapted for use of FTA and BN. Furthermore, we use this method to perform dependency analysis and scenario evaluation on a sample DoDAF model.

  • 15.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Flores, Waldo Rocha
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise architecture dependency analysis using fault trees and Bayesian networks2009In: Spring Simulation Multiconference 2009 - Co-located with the 2009 SISO Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2009, article id 55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dependencies between technical systems and business processes is an important part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). However, EA models typically provide only visual and qualitative decision support. This paper shows how EA frameworks for dependency analysis can be extended into the realm of quantitative methods by use of the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Bayesian networks (BN) techniques. Using DoDAF - the Department of Defense Architecture Framework - as an example, we provide a method for how these EA models can be adapted for use of FTA and BN. Furthermore, we use this method to perform dependency analysis and scenario evaluation on a sample DoDAF model.

  • 16.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holschke, O.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Rake-Revelant, J.
    IT consolidation - An optimization approach2010In: 2010 14th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops (EDOCW), IEEE , 2010, p. 21-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consolidation of IT resources is a frequently cited task for IT decision makers, aiming to remove redundancy and thereby to cut costs. However, while economically motivated, the methods described in the literature rarely address costs directly. Instead, the focus often remains on purely IT-related considerations. In this paper, IT consolidation is addressed from an operations research perspective, applying a binary integer programming model to find optimal solutions to consolidation problems. Since accurate cost estimates are vital to successful consolidation, and play an important role in the presented binary integer program, the paper also addresses the costs involved in consolidation, with a particular focus on the costs of modifying business processes. Applying the mathematical method, with accurate cost estimates, enables decision makers to make optimal decisions in a transparent and rigorous way. The use of the proposed method is demonstrated with an example based on a real consolidation problem from a large European power supplier.

  • 17.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    EAF(2) - A Framework for Categorizing Enterprise Architecture Frameworks2009In: SNPD 2009: 10TH ACIS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCES, NETWORKING AND PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING, PROCEEDINGS, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, p. 327-332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What constitutes an enterprise architecture framework is a contested subject. The contents of present enterprise architecture frameworks thus differ substantially. This paper aims to alleviate the confusion regarding which framework contains what by proposing a meta framework for enterprise architecture frameworks. By using this meta framework, decision makers are able to express their requirements on what their enterprise architecture framework must contain and also to evaluate whether the existing frameworks meets these requirements. An example classification of common EA frameworks illustrates the approach.

  • 18.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An Enterprise Architecture Framework for Application Consolidation in the Swedish Armed Forces2009In: 2009 13TH ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS (EDOCW 2009) / [ed] Tosic, V., NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 264-273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, application consolidation using Enterprise Architecture methods is considered, with an ongoing project in the Swedish Armed Forces as the point of departure. The decision-making features of application consolidation are first analyzed and formalized from the perspective of decision theory. Applying these insights, a more practical framework is then proposed, based primarily on the ISO/IEC 9126 standard, the Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework (MODAF), and the formalism of Probabilistic Relational Models (PRM). This framework supports cost-benefit analysis of application consolidation decision-making, thus helping to make these decisions more structured and transparent.

  • 19.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ericsson, Evelina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Rocha Flores, Waldo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture analysis using Fault Trees and MODAF2009In: Proceedings of the Forum at the CAiSE 2009 Conference, 2009, Vol. 453, p. 61-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of dependencies between information systems, business processes, and strategic goals is an important part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). However, EA models typically provide only visual and qualitative decision support. This paper shows how EA frameworks for dependency analysis can be extended into the realm of quantitative methods by the use of techniques from Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). Using MODAF, the UK Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework as an example, we give a list of criteria for the extraction of a metamodel for FTA use, and provide such a metamodel for MODAF. Furthermore, we use this MODAF FTA metamodel to perform dependency analysis on a sample MODAF model.

  • 20.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An architecture framework for enterprise IT service availability analysis2014In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1417-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an integrated enterprise architecture framework for qualitative and quantitative modeling and assessment of enterprise IT service availability. While most previous work has either focused on formal availability methods such as fault trees or qualitative methods such as maturity models, this framework offers a combination. First, a modeling and assessment framework is described. In addition to metamodel classes, relationships and attributes suitable for availability modeling, the framework also features a formal computational model written in a probabilistic version of the object constraint language. The model is based on 14 systemic factors impacting service availability and also accounts for the structural features of the service architecture. Second, the framework is empirically tested in nine enterprise information system case studies. Based on an initial availability baseline and the annual evolution of the 14 factors of the model, annual availability predictions are made and compared with the actual outcomes as reported in SLA reports and system logs. The practical usefulness of the method is discussed based on the outcomes of a workshop conducted with the participating enterprises, and some directions for future research are offered.

  • 21.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Liv
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Availability of enterprise IT systems: an expert-based Bayesian framework2012In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 369-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring the availability of enterprise IT systems is a challenging task. The factors that can bring systems down are numerous, and their impact on various system architectures is difficult to predict. At the same time, maintaining high availability is crucial in many applications, ranging from control systems in the electric power grid, over electronic trading systems on the stock market to specialized command and control systems for military and civilian purposes. This paper describes a Bayesian decision support model, designed to help enterprise IT systems decision makers evaluate the consequences of their decisions by analyzing various scenarios. The model is based on expert elicitation from 50 experts on IT systems availability, obtained through an electronic survey. The Bayesian model uses a leaky Noisy-OR method to weigh together the expert opinions on 16 factors affecting systems availability. Using this model, the effect of changes to a system can be estimated beforehand, providing decision support for improvement of enterprise IT systems availability. The Bayesian model thus obtained is then integrated within a standard, reliability block diagram-style, mathematical model for assessing availability on the architecture level. In this model, the IT systems play the role of building blocks. The overall assessment framework thus addresses measures to ensure high availability both on the level of individual systems and on the level of the entire enterprise architecture. Examples are presented to illustrate how the framework can be used by practitioners aiming to ensure high availability.

  • 22.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Marcks von Würtemberg, Liv
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Availability of enterprise IT systems: an expert-based Bayesian model2010In: Proc. Fourth International Workshop on Software Quality and Maintainability, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring the availability of enterprise IT systems is a challenging task. The factors that can bring systems down are numerous, and their impact on various system architectures is difficult to predict. At the same time, maintaining high availability is crucial in many applications, ranging from control systems in the electric power grid, over electronic trading systems on the stock market to specialized command and control systems for military and civilian purposes. The present paper desccribes a Bayesian decision support model, designed to help enterprise IT systems decision makers evaluate the consequences of their decisions by analyzing various scenarios. The model is based on expert elicitation from 50 academic experts on IT systems availability, obtained through an electronic survey. The Bayesian model uses a leaky Noisy-OR method to weigh together the expert opinions on 16 factors affecting systems availability. Using this model, the effect of changes to a system can be estimated beforehand, providing decision support for improvement of enterprise IT systems availability.

  • 23.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A formal method for cost and accuracy trade-off analysis in software assessment measures2009In: RCIS 2009: PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH CHALLENGES IN INFORMATION SCIENCE, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 295-302Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating accurate models of information systems is an important but challenging task. It is generally well understood that such modeling encompasses general scientific issues, but the monetary aspects of the modeling of software systems are not equally well acknowledged. The present paper describes a method using Bayesian networks for optimizing modeling strategies, perceived as a trade-off between these two aspects. Using GeNIe, a graphical tool with the proper Bayesian algorithms implemented, decision support can thus be provided to the modeling process. Specifically, an informed trade-off can be made, based on the modeler's prior knowledge of the predictive power of certain models, combined with his projection of their costs. It is argued that this method might enhance modeling of large and complex software systems in two principal ways: Firstly, by enforcing rigor and making hidden assumptions explicit. Secondly, by enforcing cost awareness even in the early phases of modeling. The method should be used primarily when the choice of modeling can have great economic repercussions.

  • 24.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Method for Choosing Software Assessment Measures using Bayesian Networks and Diagnosis: CSMR 2009, PROCEEDINGS2009In: 13TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE AND REENGINEERING: CSMR 2009, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Winter A, Knodel J, LOS ALAMITOS, CA.: IEEE COMPUTER SOC. , 2009, p. 241-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating accurate models of information systems is an important but challenging task. While the scienti c aspects of such modeling are generally acknowledged, the monetary aspects of the modeling of software systems are not. The present paper describes a Bayesian method for optimizing modeling strategies, perceived as a trade-off between these two aspects. Speci cally, an informed trade-off can be made, based on the modeler's prior knowledge of the predictive power of certain models, combined with her projection of the costs. It is argued that this method enhances modeling of large and complex software systems in two principal ways: Firstly, by enforcing rigor and making hidden assumptions explicit. Secondly, by enforcing cost awareness even in the early phases of modeling. The method should be used primarily when the choice of modeling can have great economic repercussions.

  • 25.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Pia
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Factors Affecting Successful Project Management of Technology-Intense Projects2010In: PICMET '10 - Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology, Proceedings - Technology Management for Global Economic Growth, New York: IEEE , 2010, p. 1538-1543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, engineering and other technology intense businesses are increasingly carried out in project form. This allows better use of scarce resources, a simplified decision-making process as well as specific organization forms being tailored to the task at hand. However, despite these advantages, complex industrial projects often fail in the sense that budgets, time-frames and customer requirements are not met. Organizations also spend lots of money on introducing project models and certifying their project managers. Are these actions really efficient, i.e. do they lead to improved management of projects? The aim of this article is to describe the impact of (i) use of project model, (ii) project manager certification, and (iii) size of organization on ( a) employment of risk analysis, (b) existence of project sponsor, ( c) existence of steering committee, and (d) existence of project manager task description, respectively. This paper presents correlations derived from N=59 semi-structured interviews with project managers of technology centered projects from several countries. Two statistically significant relations were found through a correlation analysis: between the use of a project models and the existence of steering committee and between the use of a project model and the existence of a project manager task description.

  • 26.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Defense graphs and Enterprise Architecture for Information Assurance analysis2008In: Proceedings of the 26th Army Science Conference, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The JQRR metrics for Information Assurance (IA)and Computer Network Defense (CND) are combinedwith a framework based on defense graphs. This enablesthe use of architectural models for rational decision making,based on the mathematical rigor of extended influencediagrams. A sample abstract model is provided,along with a simple example of its usage to assess accesscontrol vulnerability.

  • 27.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Decision Support oriented Enterprise Architecture Metamodel Management using Classification Trees2009In: 2009 13TH ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS (EDOCW 2009) / [ed] Tosic, V., NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 328-335Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are an integral part of the discipline of Enterprise Architecture (EA). To stay relevant to management decision-making needs, the models need to be based upon suitable metamodels. These metamodels, in turn, need to be properly and continuously maintained. While there exists several methods for metamodel development and maintenance, these typically focus on internal metamodel qualities and metamodel engineering processes, rather than on the actual decision-making needs and their impact on the metamodels used. The present paper employs techniques from information theory and learning classification trees to propose a method for metamodel management based upon the value added by entities and attributes to the decision-making process. This allows for the removal of those metamodel parts that give the least "bang for the bucks" in terms of decision support. The method proposed is illustrated using real data from an ongoing research project on systems modifiability

  • 28.
    Gingnell, Liv
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ericsson, Evelina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Quantifying Success Factors for IT Projects-An Expert-Based Bayesian Model2014In: Information systems management, ISSN 1058-0530, E-ISSN 1934-8703, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 21-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large investments are made annually to develop and maintain IT systems. Successful outcome of IT projects is therefore crucial for the economy. Yet, many IT projects fail completely or are delayed or over budget, or they end up with less functionality than planned. This article describes a Bayesian decision-support model. The model is based on expert elicited data from 51 experts. Using this model, the effect management decisions have upon projects can be estimated beforehand, thus providing decision support for the improvement of IT project performance.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Quantifying IT Impacts on Organizational Structure and Business Value with Extended Influence Diagrams2008In: PRACTICE OF ENTERPRISE MODELING, 2008, Vol. 15, p. 138-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for analysis of how IT systems add business value by causally affecting the structure of organizations. The well established theory of organizational behavior developed by Mintzberg combined with more recent research oil business value of IT is used to develop a quantitative theoretical framework showing which business values are affected by IT in relation to the organizational structure. This framework, which is based upon a qualitative equivalent developed in all earlier paper. describes relationships ill all Extended Influence Diagram for quantified conditional probability tables and open tip for all empirical appliance. Hence obtained data call be mathematically expressed for more Sound assessments. The intention is to create a fully functioning tool for analyses of what kind of IT system should be used by an organization with a given structure to maximize its business value.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Identifying IT impacts on organizational structure and business value2008In: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Business/IT Alignment and Interoperability, 2008, Vol. 344, p. 44-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a framework for analysis of how IT systems add business value by causally affecting the structuring of organizations. To aid our understanding of IT benefits related to organizational structure, we put the well established theory of organizational behavior developed by Mintzberg to use. Combining Mintzberg with more recent research on the business value of IT, the result is a qualitative multi-disciplinary theoretical framework that shows which business values are affected by IT in relation to the organizational structure. This framework can be used to analyze what kind of IT system should be used by an organization with a given structure to maximize its business value.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Höök, David
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Modeling the IT Impact on Organizational Structure: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE2009In: EDOC: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, p. 14-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact IT systems have on organizations is widely debated, both in academia and industry. This paper describes a quantitative framework for analyzing organizational impact from IT systems. The framework consists of an abstract model that is a metamodel suitable for expressing organizational structure incorporated with an extended influence diagram for analysis. The purpose is to create enterprise architecture (EA) models that can be used for analysis of the enterprise. The framework has been validated through a case study where the framework has been used to analyze the changes in organizational structure after the introduction of an IT system.

  • 32.
    Holm, Hannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Expert assessment on the probability of successful remote code execution attacks2011In: Proceedings of 8th International Workshop on Security in Information Systems - WOSIS 2011, 2011, p. 49-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a study on how cyber security experts assess the importance of three variables related to the probability of successful remote code execution attacks – presence of: (i) non-executable memory, (ii) access and (iii) exploits for High or Medium vulnerabilities as defined by the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. The rest of the relevant variables were fixed by the environment of a cyber defense exercise where the respondents participated. The questionnaire was fully completed by fifteen experts. These experts perceived access as the most important variable and availability of exploits for High vulnerabilities as more important than Medium vulnerabilities. Non-executable memory was not seen as significant, however, presumably due to lack of address space layout randomization and canaries in the network architecture of the cyber defense exercise scenario.

  • 33.
    Holm, Hannes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Success Rate of Remote Code Execution Attacks: Expert Assessments and Observations2012In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 732-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a study on how cyber security experts assess the importance of three variables related to the probability of successful remote code execution attacks: (i) non-executable memory, (ii) access and (iii) exploits for High or Medium vulnerabilities as defined by the Common Vulnerability Scoring System. The rest of the relevant variables were fixed by the environment of a cyber defense exercise where the respondents participated. The questionnaire was fully completed by fifteen experts. These experts perceived access as the most important variable and availability of exploits for High vulnerabilities as more important than Medium vulnerabilities. Non-executable memory was not seen as significant. Estimates by the experts are compared to observations of actual attacks carried out during the cyber defense exercise. These comparisons show that experts' in general provide fairly inaccurate advice on an abstraction level such as in the present study. However, results also show a prediction model constructed through expert judgment likely is of better quality if the experts' estimates are weighted according to their expertise.

  • 34.
    Jensen, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Sel, Cumhur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Availability of a SCADA/OMS/DMS system - A case study2010In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, ISGT Europe, Gothenburg, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of the smart grid, new challenges arise for electricity distribution. In particular, reliable power distribution will become evermore dependent upon information and communication technology (ICT). With this increasing dependency comes a need for a deeper understanding of the availability of those ICT components that maintain the power grid. This paper presents a study in which all components of a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), Outage Management (OMS) and Distribution Management (DMS) system at a power utility are analyzed from an availability perspective, identifying the parts of the system that contribute the most to overall system downtime. Furthermore, the case study involves a downsizing regarding the IT system architecture redundancy. This downsizing makes it very interesting to investigate how hardware redundancy relates to the overall SCADA/OMS/DMS system availability. Such knowledge is required to assess the rationality of the architectural restructuring decision, as well as for more general rational decision making when it comes to the ICT components of the power distribution grid. It is concluded that even in the new architecture, the remaining hardware redundancy level is enough. Instead, it is found that most of the downtime of the SCADA/OMS/DMS system is caused by failing software, causing all the redundant hardware to become unavailable at the same time. Since the software is a third party piece from the supplier of the system, one important source of downtime can be seen as emanating from the requirements and procurement process of the company.

  • 35.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    FOI - Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An architecture modeling framework for probabilistic prediction2014In: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 595-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design phase of business and IT system development, it is desirable to predict the properties of the system-to-be. A number of formalisms to assess qualities such as performance, reliability and security have therefore previously been proposed. However, existing prediction systems do not allow the modeler to express uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered system. Yet, in contemporary business, the high rate of change in the environment leads to uncertainties about present and future characteristics of the system, so significant that ignoring them becomes problematic. In this paper, we propose a formalism, the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (P(2)AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about business and IT architecture models, given in the form of Unified Modeling Language class and object diagrams. The proposed formalism is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL). To OCL, P(2)AMF adds a probabilistic inference mechanism. The paper introduces P(2)AMF, describes its use for system property prediction and assessment and proposes an algorithm for probabilistic inference.

  • 36.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    P2AMF: Predictive, probabilistic architecture modeling framework2013In: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 2013, p. 104-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design phase of business and software system development, it is desirable to predict the properties of the system-to-be. Existing prediction systems do, however, not allow the modeler to express uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered system. In this paper, we propose a formalism, the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (P 2AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about architecture models given in the form of UML class and object diagrams. The proposed formalism is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL). To OCL, P2AMF adds a probabilistic inference mechanism. The paper introduces P2AMF, describes its use for system property prediction and assessment, and proposes an algorithm for probabilistic inference.

  • 37.
    König, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Probabilistic Availability Analysis of Control and Automation Systems for Active Distribution Networks2010In: 2010 IEEE PES TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION: SMAR SOLUTIONS FOR A CHANGING WORLD, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future smart electricity grids will exhibit tight integration between control and automation systems and primary power system equipment. Optimal and safe operation of the power system will be completely dependent on well functioning information and communication (ICT) systems. Considering this, it is essential that the control and automation systems do not constitute the weak link in ensuring reliable power supply to society. At the same time, studies of reliability when considering complex interdependencies between integrated ICT systems becomes increasingly difficult to perform due to the large amount of integrated entities with varying characteristics involved. To manage this challenge there is a need for structured modeling and analysis methods that accommodate this characteristics and interdependencies. In other fields, the analysis of large interconnected systems is done using models that capture the systems and its context as well as its components and interactions. This paper addresses this issue by combining enterprise architecture methods that utilize these modeling concepts, with fault tree analysis and probabilistic relational models. This novel approach enables a holistic overview thanks to the use of formalized models. It also allows use of rigorous analysis thanks to the adaptation of the models to enable Fault Tree Analysis. The paper is concluded with an example of application of the analysis method on a proposed smart grid function in a distribution network.

  • 38.
    König, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    An extended framework for reliability analysis of ICT for power systems2011In: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011, IEEE , 2011, p. 6019343-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an extended probabilistic framework for reliability analysis of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for power systems. The framework is based on Probabilistic Relational Models (PRMs) and includes the analysis of both primary equipment and the supporting ICT systems. The framework also separates between the functional structure and the physical infrastructure. To be able to analyze architectural properties, such as redundancy, the framework is extended with logical gates which are based on AND and OR logic. The gates serve and important purpose when integrating the framework into an analysis tool that supports PRMs. The problem without logical gates is the dynamic sizing of the conditional probability tables which depend on the number of parent nodes. This problem is solved by using aggregation functions. The application of the extended framework is demonstrated by applying to an example system-architecture with two types of redundant configurations.

  • 39.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A method for creating entreprise architecture metamodels: applied to systems modifiability2009In: International Journal of Computer Science and Applications, ISSN 0972-9038, E-ISSN 0972-9038, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 89-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture models can be used in order to increase the general understanding of enterprise systems and specifically to perform various kinds of analysis. It is generally understood that such modeling encompasses general scientific issues, but the monetary aspects of the modeling of software systems and their environment are not equally well acknowledged. Even more so, creating a good metamodel for enterprise software systems analysis is an important but challenging task. The present paper describes a method for creating metamodels for such analysis. The enterprise architecture models are formalized using probabilistic relational models, which enables the combination of regular entityrelationship modeling aspects with means to perform enterprise architecture analysis. The proposed method for creating metamodels is general, however this paper presents the method by creating a metamodel for systems modifiability, i.e. the cost of making changes to enterprise-wide systems. The method and the method outcome, i.e. the metamodel, is validated based on survey and workshop data and the applicability of the metamodel is illustrated with an instantiated architectural model based on a software change project at a large Nordic software and hardware vendor.

  • 40.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Saat, Jan
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Aier, Stephan
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Meta Modeling Methods - Combining a Stakeholder-Oriented and a Causality-Based Approach2009In: ENTERPRISE, BUSINESS-PROCESS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS MODELING / [ed] Halpin T; Krogstie J; Nurcan S; Proper E; Schmidt R; Soffer P; Ukor R, 2009, Vol. 29, p. 381-393Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meta models are the core of enterprise architecture, but still few methods are available for the creation of meta models tailored for specific purposes. This paper presents two approaches, one focusing on the stakeholders' information demand of enterprise architecture and the other driven by causal analysis of enterprise system properties. The two approaches are compared and a combined best-of-breed method is proposed. The combined method has merged the strengths of both approaches, thus combining the stakeholder concerns with causality-driven analysis. Practitioners will, when employing the proposed method, achieve a relevant meta model with strong, and goal-adapted, analytic capabilities.

  • 41.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    König, Johan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture Availability Analysis Using Fault Trees and Stakeholder Interviews2014In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of enterprise information systems is a key concern for many organisations. This article describes a method for availability analysis based on Fault Tree Analysis and constructs from the ArchiMate enterprise architecture (EA) language. To test the quality of the method, several case-studies within the banking and electrical utility industries were performed. Input data were collected through stakeholder interviews. The results from the case studies were compared with availability of log data to determine the accuracy of the method's predictions. In the five cases where accurate log data were available, the yearly downtime estimates were within eight hours from the actual downtimes. The cost of performing the analysis was low; no case study required more than 20 man-hours of work, making the method ideal for practitioners with an interest in obtaining rapid availability estimates of their enterprise information systems.

  • 42.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessing the quality of service of Powel's netbas at a nordic utility2009In: IET Conference Publications, Prague, 2009, no 550 CPConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The power industry's overall need to become more efficient affects all parts of their business. With respect to asset management and workforce management business processes this is becoming increasingly apparent. One of the critical success factors of high process quality are high quality Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions. This paper proposes a method to assess the quality of ICT solutions for asset and workforce management applications within the power industry. The method has validated the method through an empirical case study at a Nordic utility.

  • 43.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Assessing the quality of service of Powel's netbas at a nordic utility2008Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Data Collection Prioritization for System Quality Analysis2009In: Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 2009, Vol. 233, no C, p. 29-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing software quality the cost of collecting the data needed for analysis is often quite substantial. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian networks for assessing software qualities combined with an algorithm for how to prioritize which data to collect in order to minimize the cost of the assessment. This algorithm, the Diagnosis algorithm, is implemented in the Bayesian network tool 'GeNIe'. An example evaluation of service interoperability in the paper demonstrates that using the algorithm may reduce time spent on data collection significantly.

  • 45. Saat, Jan
    et al.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Enterprise Architecture Meta Models for IT/Business Alignment Situations2010In: 14th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, EDOC 2010, 2010, p. 14-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Architecture models can be used to support IT/business alignment. However, existing approaches do not distinguish between different IT/business alignment situations. Since companies face divverse challenges in achieving a high degree of IT/business alignment, a universal ?one size fits all? approach does not seem appropriate. This paper proposes to decompose the IT/business alignment problem into tangible qualities for business, IT systems, and IT governance. An explorative study among 162 professionals is used to distinguish four IT/business alignment situations, i.e. four clusters of IT/business alignment problems. These situations each represent the current state according to certain qualities and also the priorities for future development. In order to increase IT/business alignment, enterprise architecture meta models are proposed for each identified situation. One core meta model (to reflect common priorities) as well as situation-specific extensions are presented.

  • 46. Saat, Jan
    et al.
    Winter, Robert
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Analysis of IT/Business Alignment Situations as a Precondition for the Design and Engineering of Situated IT/Business Alignment Solutions2011In: Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-44), IEEE , 2011, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IT/business alignment has constantly been among the top priorities for IT executives. From a prescriptive, design research perspective, our analysis of related work shows that neither is IT/business alignment sufficiently specified to allow systematic artifact construction, nor are existing approaches situational to reflect the diversity of IT/business alignment problems in the real world. We use goal decomposition to characterize IT/business alignment by qualities from (i) the IT systems, (ii) the business, and (iii) the IT governance perspective. A survey-based exploratory study among 174 professionals from various European countries is conducted that helps to identify four distinct IT/business alignment situations. This knowledge can now be used to construct methods and models that do not only operationalize alignment, but also can be adapted to the different situational needs.

  • 47.
    Sandels, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ingvar, Nicklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Hamrén, Robert
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Vehicle to grid - Monte Carlo simulations for optimal aggregator strategies2010In: 2010 International Conference on Power System Technology: Technological Innovations Making Power Grid Smarter, POWERCON2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work has shown that it could be profitable on some control markets to use Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) as control power resources. This concept, where battery driven vehicles such as PHEV s provide ancillary service to the grid is commonly referred to as Vehicle to Grid (V2G). The idea is to sell the capacity and energy of the parked PHEVs on the control market. Due to the fact that cars on average are parked 92% of the day, the availability of this capacity could be very high, even though it will be highly dependent on commuting patterns in peak hours. However, as each PHEV has a very small capacity from a grid perspective, it is necessary to implement an aggregating control system, managing a large number of vehicles. This paper presents strategies for an Aggregator to fulfill control bids on the German control markets. These strategies are tested with respect to reliability, efficiency and profitability in a Monte Carlo simulation model. The model is based on available data on the distributions of commuting departure times and travel distances, as well as average driving power consumption, PHEV battery capacities and the market constraints of the secondary control market in Germany. 

  • 48.
    Sandels, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Ingvar, Niklas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Hamrén, Robert
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Vehicle to grid - Reference architectures for the control markets in Sweden and Germany2010In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, ISGT Europe, Gothenburg, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work has shown that it could be profitable on some control markets to use plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) as control power resources. This concept, where battery driven vehicles such as PHEVs provide ancillary service to the grid is commonly referred to as Vehicle to Grid. The idea is to sell the capacity and energy of the parked PHEVs on the control market. Due to the fact that cars on average are parked 92% of the day, the availability of this capacity could be very high, even though it will be highly dependent on commuting patterns in peak hours. However, as each PHEV has a very small capacity from a grid perspective, it is necessary to implement an aggregating control system, managing a large number of vehicles. The present article investigates design requirements on such a system.

  • 49.
    Sandels, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vehicle to grid communication: Monte carlo simulations based on automated meter reading reliability2011In: 17th Power Systems Computation Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous work has shown that it could be profitableon some control markets to use Plug-in Hybrid ElectricVehicles (PHEV) as control power resources. This concept,where battery driven vehicles such as PHEVs provide ancillaryservice to the grid is commonly referred to as Vehicleto Grid (V2G). The idea is to sell the capacity and energy ofthe parked PHEVs on the control market. Due to the factthat cars on average are parked 92% of the day, the availabilityof this capacity could be very high, even though it willbe highly dependent on commuting patterns in peak hours.Further, as each PHEV has a very small capacity from a gridperspective, it is necessary to implement an aggregating controlsystem, managing a large number of vehicles. This paperpresents a Monte Carlo simulation model where technical issuessuch as the reliability in communication for a large fleetof PHEVs is included. The communication in the simulationmodel is based on data from Automated Meter Reading(AMR) systems, which share important charachteristics withV2G communications. Moreover, the simulation is based onavailable data on the distributions of commuting departuretimes and travel distances, as well as average driving powerconsumption, PHEV battery capacities and the market constraintsof the secondary control market in Germany.

  • 50.
    Sandels, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vehicle to grid: System reference architectures and Monte Carlo simulations2013In: International Journal of Vehicle Autonomous Systems, ISSN 1471-0226, Vol. 11, no 2-3, p. 205-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent data have shown that it could be profitable on some control markets to use Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) as control power resources. The concept where battery driven vehicles such as PHEVs provide ancillary service to the grid is commonly referred to as Vehicle to Grid (V2G). As each PHEV has a limited capacity, it is necessary to have a control system that aggregates a large number of vehicles. This paper investigates what is required in order to design such a system. The result is presented as reference architectures and contains propositions of important components, processes and information needs. It is shown that a PHEV can provide control power in two different ways that in turn generate several different system concepts. A mathematical model is presented that allows comparison between the different solutions.

12 1 - 50 of 57
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf