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  • 1. Airila, M. I.
    et al.
    Aho-Mantila, L.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Kirschner, A.
    Likonen, J.
    Matveev, D.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Strachan, J. D.
    Widdowson, A.
    Wiesen, S.
    ERO modelling of local deposition of injected C-13 tracer at the outer divertor of JET2009Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T138, s. 014021-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2004 tracer experiment of JET with the injection of (CH4)-C-13 into H-mode plasma at the outer divertor has been modelled with the Monte Carlo impurity transport code ERO. EDGE2D solutions for inter-ELM and ELM-peak phases were used as plasma backgrounds. Local two-dimensional (2D) deposition patterns at the vertical outer divertor target plate were obtained for comparison with post-mortem surface analyses. ERO also provides emission profiles for comparison with radially resolved spectroscopic measurements. Modelling indicates that enhanced re-erosion of deposited carbon layers is essential in explaining the amount of local deposition. Assuming negligible effective sticking of hydrocarbons, the measured local deposition of 20-34% is reproduced if re-erosion of deposits is enhanced by a factor of 2.5-7 compared to graphite erosion. If deposits are treated like the substrate, the modelled deposition is 55%. Deposition measurements at the shadowed area around injectors can be well explained by assuming negligible re-erosion but similar sticking behaviour there as on plasma-wetted surfaces.

  • 2. Airila, M. I.
    et al.
    Jarvinen, A.
    Groth, M.
    Belo, P.
    Wiesen, S.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Lawson, K.
    Borodin, D.
    Kirschner, A.
    Coad, J. P.
    Heinola, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Preliminary Monte Carlo simulation of beryllium migration during JET ITER-like wall divertor operation2015Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, s. 800-804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration of beryllium into the divertor and deposition on tungsten in the final phase of the first ITER-like-wall campaign of JET are modelled with the 3D Monte Carlo impurity transport code ERO. The simulation covers the inner wall and the inner divertor. To generate the plasma background for Monte Carlo tracing of impurity particles, we use the EDGE2D/EIRENE code set. At the relevant regions of the wall, the estimated plasma conditions vary around T-e approximate to 5eV and n(e) 2 x 10(17) m(-3) (far-scrape-off layer; more than 10 cm away from the LCFS). We calculate impurity distributions in the plasma using the main chamber source as a free parameter in modelling and attempt to reproduce inter-ELM spectroscopic BeII line (527 nm) profiles at the divertor. The present model reproduces the level of emission close to the inner wall, but further work is needed to match also the measured emission peak values and ultimately link the modelled poloidal net deposition profiles of beryllium to post mortem data.

  • 3. Airila, M. I.
    et al.
    Makkonen, T.
    Järvinen, A.
    Groth, M.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Jachmich, S.
    Kirschner, A.
    Likonen, J.
    Meigs, A.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Re-deposition dynamics of trace 13C in H-mode divertor conditions2013Ingår i: 40th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, EPS 2013, 2013, s. 629-632Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4. Allen, S. L.
    et al.
    Wampler, W. R.
    McLean, A. G.
    Whyte, D. G.
    West, W. P.
    Stangeby, P. C.
    Brooks, N. H.
    Rudakov, D. L.
    Phillips, V.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Nagy, A.
    Ellis, R.
    Bozek, A. S.
    C-13 transport studies in L-mode divertor plasmas on DIII-D2005Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 337-39, nr 03-jan, s. 30-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    (CH4)-C-13 was injected with a toroidally-symmetric gas system into 22 identical lower-single-null L-mode discharges on DIII-D. The injection level was adjusted so that it did not significantly perturb the core or divertor plasmas, with a duration of similar to 3 s on each shot, for a total of similar to 300 T L of injected particles. The plasma shape remained very constant; the divertor strike points were controlled to similar to 1 cm at the divertor plate. At the beginning of the subsequent machine vent, 29 carbon tiles were removed for nuclear reaction analysis of C-13 content to determine regions of carbon deposition. It was found that only the tiles inboard of the inner strike point had appreciable 1 3 C above background. Visible spectroscopy measurements of the carbon injection and comparisons with modeling are consistent with carbon transport by means of scrape-off layer flow.

  • 5. Badziak, J.
    et al.
    Czarnecka, A.
    Gasior, P.
    Parys, P.
    Philipps, V.
    Rosinski, M.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Wolowski, J.
    Application of ion diagnostics to control the laser-induced removal of surface layer of a carbon substrate2006Ingår i: Plasma 2005, 2006, Vol. 812, s. 295-298Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among other methods of detritiation of in-vessel tokamak components the application of lasers for removal of fuel trapped in co-deposited layers is under investigation. The paper presents preparation and tests of ion diagnostic methods for on-line measurement of the amount and characteristics of ablated carbon, hydrogen/deuterium and contaminant species from the graphite target (plate) of the main toroidal limiter of the TEXTOR tokamak. For removal of the surface layer from the graphite limiter plate Nd:YAG laser was used. Determination of the characteristics of laser-produced ions has been performed by means of ion collectors and an electrostatic ion-energy analyser. The main ion stream parameters were measured depending on the number of laser shots and the laser power density on the target surface. The properties of modified carbon sample surface were determined with the use of optical methods and compared with the results of the ion measurements.

  • 6. Bailescu, V.
    et al.
    Burcea, G.
    Balan, N.
    Dinuta, G.
    Serban, G.
    Lungu, C. P.
    Mustata, I.
    Lungu, A. M.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Coad, P.
    Pedrick, L.
    Handley, R.
    Inconel tiles coated with beryllium by thermal evaporation2008Ingår i: EPS Conf. Plasma Phys., EPS - Europhys. Conf. Abstr., 2008, nr 3Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7. Baron-Wiechec, A.
    et al.
    Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    Grzonka, J.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Ayres, C.
    Coad, J. P.
    Hardie, C.
    Heinola, K.
    Matthews, G. F.
    First dust study in JET with the ITER-like wall: sampling, analysis and classification2015Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 11, artikel-id 113033Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of the first dust survey in JET with the ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW) are presented. The sampling was performed using adhesive stickers from the divertor tiles where the greatest material deposition was detected after the first JET-ILW campaign in 2011-2012. The emphasis was especially on sampling and analysis of metal particles (Be and W) with the aim to determine the composition, size, surface topography and internal dust structure using a large set of methods: high-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy, focused ion beam, electron diffraction and also wavelength and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The most important was the identification of beryllium dust both in the form of flakes and droplets with dimensions in the micrometer range. Tungsten, molybdenum, inconel constituents were identified along with many impurity species. The particles are categorised and the origin of the various constituents discussed.

  • 8. Baron-Wiechec, A.
    et al.
    Widdowson, A.
    Alves, E.
    Ayres, C. F.
    Barradas, N. P.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Catarino, N.
    Heinola, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Mayer, M.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    van Renterghem, W.
    Uytdenhouwen, I.
    Global erosion and deposition patterns in JET with the ITER-like wall2015Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, s. 157-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of Be and W tiles removed after the first ITER-like wall campaigns (JET-ILW) from 2011 to 2012 has been analysed. The results indicate that the primary erosion site is in the main chamber (Be) as in previous carbon campaigns (JET-C). In particular the limiters tiles near the mid-plane are eroded probably during the limiter phases of discharges. W is found at low concentrations on all plasma-facing surfaces of the vessel indicating deposition via plasma transport initially from the W divertor and from main chamber W-coated tiles; there are also traces of Mo (used as an interlayer for these coatings). Deposited films in the inner divertor have a layered structure, and every layer is dominated by Be with some W and O content.

  • 9. Batistoni, P.
    et al.
    Likonen, J.
    Bekris, N.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coad, P.
    Horton, L.
    Matthews, G.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Sips, G.
    Syme, B.
    Widdowson, A.
    The JET technology program in support of ITER2014Ingår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 89, nr 7-8, s. 896-900Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the current and planned technological activities at JET in support of ITER operation and safety. The scope is very broad and it ranges from analysis of components from the ITER-like Wall (ILW) to determine material erosion and deposition, dust generation and fuel retention to neutronics measurements and analyses. Preliminary results are given of the post-mortem analyses of samples exposed to JET plasmas during the first JET-ILW operation in 2011-2012, and retrieved during the following in-vessel intervention. JET is the only fusion machine capable of producing significant neutron yields, up to nearly 10(19) n/s (14.1 MeV) in DT operations. Recently, the technological potential of a new DT campaign at JET in support of ITER has been explored and the outcome of this assessment is presented. The expected 14 MeV neutron yield, the use of tritium, the preparation and implementation of safety measures will provide a unique occasion to gain experience in several ITER relevant technological areas. A number of projects and experiments to be conducted in conjunction with the DT operation have been identified and they are described in this paper.

  • 10. Brezinsek, S.
    et al.
    Fundamenski, W.
    Eich, T.
    Coad, J. P.
    Giroud, C.
    Huber, A.
    Jachmich, S.
    Joffrin, E.
    Krieger, K.
    McCormick, K.
    Lehnen, M.
    Loarer, T.
    de la Luna, E.
    Maddison, G.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Mertens, Ph.
    Nunes, I.
    Philipps, V.
    Riccardo, V.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stamp, M. F.
    Tsalas, M.
    Overview of experimental preparation for the ITER-Like Wall at JET2011Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 415, nr 1, s. S936-S942Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments in JET with carbon-based plasma-facing components have been carried out in preparation of the ITER-Like Wall with beryllium main chamber and full tungsten divertor. The preparatory work was twofold: (i) development of techniques, which ensure safe operation with the new wall and (ii) provision of reference plasmas, which allow a comparison of operation with carbon and metallic wall. (i) Compatibility with the W divertor with respect to energy loads could be achieved in N-2 seeded plasmas at high densities and low temperatures, finally approaching partial detachment, with only moderate confinement reduction of 10%. Strike-point sweeping increases the operational space further by re-distributing the load over several components. (ii) Be and C migration to the divertor has been documented with spectroscopy and QMBs under different plasma conditions providing a database which will allow a comparison of the material transport to remote areas with metallic walls. Fuel retention rates of 1.0-2.0 x 10(21) D s(-1) were obtained as references in accompanied gas balance studies.

  • 11. Brezinsek, S.
    et al.
    Widdowson, A.
    Mayer, M.
    Philipps, V.
    Baron-Wiechec, P.
    Coenen, J. W.
    Heinola, K.
    Huber, A.
    Likonen, J.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Stamp, M. F.
    Borodin, D.
    Coad, J. P.
    Carrasco, Alvaro Garcia
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Kirschner, A.
    Krat, S.
    Krieger, K.
    Lipschultz, B.
    Linsmeier, Ch.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Schmid, K.
    Beryllium migration in JET ITER-like wall plasmas2015Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, nr 6, artikel-id 063021Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    JET is used as a test bed for ITER, to investigate beryllium migration which connects the lifetime of first-wall components under erosion with tokamak safety, in relation to long-term fuel retention. The (i) limiter and the (ii) divertor configurations have been studied in JET-ILW (JET with a Be first wall and W divertor), and compared with those for the former JET-C (JET with carbon-based plasma-facing components (PFCs)). (i) For the limiter configuration, the Be gross erosion at the contact point was determined in situ by spectroscopy as between 4% (E-in = 35 eV) and more than 100%, caused by Be self-sputtering (E-in = 200 eV). Chemically assisted physical sputtering via BeD release has been identified to contribute to the effective Be sputtering yield, i.e. at E-in = 75 eV, erosion was enhanced by about 1/3 with respect to the bare physical sputtering case. An effective gross yield of 10% is on average representative for limiter plasma conditions, whereas a factor of 2 difference between the gross erosion and net erosion, determined by post-mortem analysis, was found. The primary impurity source in the limiter configuration in JET-ILW is only 25% higher (in weight) than that for the JET-C case. The main fraction of eroded Be stays within the main chamber. (ii) For the divertor configuration, neutral Be and BeD from physically and chemically assisted physical sputtering by charge exchange neutrals and residual ion flux at the recessed wall enter the plasma, ionize and are transported by scrape-off layer flows towards the inner divertor where significant net deposition takes place. The amount of Be eroded at the first wall (21 g) and the Be amount deposited in the inner divertor (28 g) are in fair agreement, though the balancing is as yet incomplete due to the limited analysis of PFCs. The primary impurity source in the JET-ILW is a factor of 5.3 less in comparison with that for JET-C, resulting in lower divertor material deposition, by more than one order of magnitude. Within the divertor, Be performs far fewer re-erosion and transport steps than C due to an energetic threshold for Be sputtering, and inhibits as a result of this the transport to the divertor floor and the pump duct entrance. The target plates in the JET-ILW inner divertor represent at the strike line a permanent net erosion zone, in contrast to the net deposition zone in JET-C with thick carbon deposits on the CFC (carbon-fibre composite) plates. The Be migration identified is consistent with the observed low long-term fuel retention and dust production with the JET-ILW.

  • 12. Brezinsek, Sebastijan
    et al.
    Wirtz, Marius
    Dorrow-Gesprach, Daniel
    Loewenhoff, Thorsten
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    16th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications2017Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, artikel-id 010201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 13. Catarino, N.
    et al.
    Barradas, N. P.
    Corregidor, V.
    Widdowson, A.
    Baron-Wiechec, A.
    Coad, J. P.
    Heinola, K.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH. EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, UK.
    Alves, E.
    Assessment of erosion, deposition and fuel retention in the JET-ILW divertor from ion beam analysis data2017Ingår i: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, s. 559-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-mortem analyses of individual components provide relevant information on plasma-surface interactions like tungsten erosion, beryllium deposition and plasma fuel retention with divertor tiles via implantation or co-deposition. Ion Beam techniques are ideal tools for such purposes and have been extensively used for post-mortem analyses of selected tiles from JET following each campaign. In this contribution results from tiles removed from the JET ITER-Like Wall (JET-ILW) divertor following the 2013-2014 campaign are presented. The results summarize erosion, deposition and fuel retention along the poloidal cross section of the divertor surface and provide data for comparison with the first JET-ILW campaign, showing a similar pattern of material migration with the exception of Tile 6 where the strike point time on the tile was similar to 4 times longer in 2013-2014 than in 2011-2012, which is likely to account for more material migration to this region. The W deposition on top of the Mo marker coating of Tile 4 shows that the enrichment takes place at the strike point location.

  • 14. Catarino, N.
    et al.
    Widdowson, A.
    Baron-Wiechec, A.
    Coad, J. P.
    Heinola, K.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH.
    Alves, E.
    Time-resolved deposition in the remote region of the JET-ILW divertor: measurements and modelling2017Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, artikel-id 014059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One crucial requirement for the development of fusion power is to know where, and how much, impurities collect in the machine, and how much of the fuelling isotope tritium will be trapped therein. The most relevant information on this issue comes from the operation of the Joint European Tokamak (JET), which is the world's largest operating tokamak and has the same interior plasma-facing materials as the next step machine, ITER. Much of the information gained so far has been from post-mortem analysis of samples collected after whole campaigns involving varied types of operation. This paper describes time-resolved measurements of the deposition rate using rotating collectors (RC) placed in remote areas of the JET divertor during the 2013-2014 campaign with the ITER-like Wall (ILW). These techniques allow the effects of different types of operation to be distinguished. Rotating collectors made of silicon discs housed behind an aperture are exposed to the plasma. Each time the magnetic field coils are ramped up for a discharge the disc rotates, providing a linear relationship between the exposed region and the discharge number. Post-mortem ion beam analyses provide information on the deposit composition as a function of the discharge number. The results show that the Be deposition average for the RC in the corners of the inner and outer divertor are 4.9 x 10(16) cm(-2) and 1.8 x 10(17) cm(-2), respectively, accumulated over an average of similar to 25 pulses. Data from the rotating collector below Tile 5 in the central region of divertor indicate a Be deposition rate of 9.3 x 10(15) cm(-2), per similar to 25 pulses.

  • 15. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Andrew, P.
    Erents, S. K.
    Hole, D. E.
    Likonen, J.
    Mayer, M.
    Pitts, R.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Strachan, J. D.
    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.
    Widdowson, A.
    Erosion and deposition in the JET MkII-SRP divertor2007Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 363, s. 287-293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon-13 labelled methane was injected into the outer divertor during a series of H-mode discharges on the last day of operations with the JET MkII-SRP divertor. Tiles from around the vessel were removed during the subsequent shutdown and surface deposits were analysed by IBA techniques and SIMS. First attempts to model the pattern of 13 C deposition using EDGE2D are reported. Erosion of W markers at the outer divertor was observed, with implications for the ITER-like wall experiment planned for JET, whilst thin film growth in the same region has been followed by the effect on infrared measurements. The composition of thick films deposited at the inner divertor during the MkII-SRP campaign, and the migration to the inner corner of the divertor observed by a quartz micro-balance, provide further information on divertor transport. Crown

  • 16. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Andrew, P.
    Hole, D. E.
    Lehto, S.
    Likonen, J.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Erosion/deposition in JET during the period 1999-20012003Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 313, s. 419-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coated divertor and wall tiles exposed in JET for the 1999-2001 operations have been used to assess erosion/deposition. Deposited films of up to 90 mum thickness at the inner wall of the divertor tiles are, for the most part, enriched in beryllium and other metals, whilst carbon is probably chemically sputtered from these tiles and transported to shadowed regions of the inner divertor. However, from the composition at the surface of the tiles, it appears that the chemical erosion was 'switched off' by reducing the JET vessel wall temperature for the last part of the operations to 200 degreesC. Thick powdery deposits localised at the ion transport limit at each corner of the divertor may be due to physical sputtering. Erosion of the coatings is seen at the outer divertor wall, and on all the inner wall and outer limiter tiles.

  • 17. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Esser, H. -G
    Likonen, J.
    Mayer, M.
    Neill, G.
    Philipps, V.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Vince, J.
    Diagnostics for studying deposition and erosion processes in JET2005Ingår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 74, nr 1-4, s. 745-749Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimates of erosion, deposition and H-isotope retention in JET from previous divertor campaigns have relied on analysis of in-vessel components removed at shutdowns. The components analysed have also provided an incomplete coverage of the vessel. In 2004, new diagnostics are being installed to give a more complete picture (such as smart tiles) and to provide some time resolution. The latter includes further quartz microbalances (QMB), following the successful operation of a prototype in 2002-2004 [H.-G. Esser, G. Neill, P. Coad, G.F. Matthews, D. Jolovic, D. Wilson, M. Freisinger, V. Philipps, Quartz microbalance: a time-resolved diagnostic to measure material deposition in JET, Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 (2003) 855-860; H.-G. Esser, V. Philipps, M. Freisinger, G.F. Matthews, J.P. Coad, G.F. Neill, JET EFDA Contributors, Effect of plasma configuration on carbon migration measured in the inner divertor of JET using quartz microbalance, J. Nucl. Mater. 337-339 (2005) 84-87], which will also have temperature control. Other diagnostics include rotating collectors and deposition monitors [M. Mayer, V. Rohde, P. Coad, P. Wienhold, ASDEX Upgrade Team, JET EFDA Contributors, Carbon erosion and migration in fusion devices, Phys. Scr. T111 (2004) 55-59]. Units are also being installed to provide information on mirrors for ITER.

  • 18. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Gruenhagen, S.
    Hole, D. E.
    Hakola, A.
    Koivuranta, S.
    Likonen, J.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Overview of JET post-mortem results following the 2007-9 operational period, and comparisons with previous campaigns2011Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T145, s. 014003-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2010, all the plasma-facing components were removed from JET so that the carbon-based surfaces could be replaced with beryllium (Be) or tungsten as part of the ITER-like wall (ILW) project. This gives unprecedented opportunities for post-mortem analyses of these plasma-facing surfaces; this paper reviews the data obtained so far and relates the information to studies of tiles removed during previous JET shutdowns. The general pattern of erosion/deposition at the JET divertor has been maintained, with deposition of impurities in the scrape-off layer (SOL) at the inner divertor and preferential removal of carbon and transport into the corner. However, the remaining films in the SOL contain very high Be/C ratios at the surface. The first measurements of erosion using a tile profiler have been completed, with up to 200 microns erosion being recorded at points on the inner wall guard limiters.

  • 19. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Hole, D. E.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Vince, J.
    Deposition results from rotating collector diagnostics in JET2009Ingår i: Physica scripta. T, ISSN 0281-1847, Vol. T138, s. 014023-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotating collectors (RC) were installed in JET during the period 2005-2007, each providing a time-resolved deposition pattern on the surface of a rotating silicon disc, which could be analysed once retrieved from the vessel. This paper reports results from the silicon disc removed from the RC located under the load-bearing septum replacement plate in JET in 2007. Nuclear reaction analysis results of the deposits on the disc have been correlated directly with the pattern of erosion and deposition observed by the quartz microbalance (QMB) located in an equivalent position. The thickest film in the time-resolved region (i.e. deposited in similar to 60 pulses) was similar to 250 nm, and the Be/C ratio was generally found to be 0.1 or lower, with two regions where the ratio rose to 0.2. The deposition observed with the QMB appears to be about a factor of four less.

  • 20. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Likonen, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.
    Hole, D. E.
    Sajavaara, T.
    Renvall, T.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Overview of material re-deposition and fuel retention studies at JET with the Gas Box divertor2006Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 350-366Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    in the period 1998-2001 the JET tokamak was operated with the MkII Gas Box divertor. On two occasions during that period a number of limiter and divertor tiles were retrieved from the torus and then examined ex situ with surface sensitive techniques. Erosion and deposition patterns were determined in order to assess the material erosion, material migration and fuel inventory on plasma facing components. Tracer techniques, e.g. injection of C-13 labelled methane and tiles coated with a low-Z and high-Z marker layer, were used to enhance the volume of information on the material transport. The results show significant asymmetry in the distribution of fuel and plasma impurity species between the inner (net deposition area) and the outer (net erosion) divertor channels. No significant formation of highly hydrogenated carbon films has been found in the Gas Box structure. The important processes for material migration, and the influence of operation scenarios on the morphology of the deposits are discussed. Comparison is also made with results obtained following previous divertor campaigns.

  • 21. Coad, J. P.
    et al.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Bekris, N.
    Brennan, D.
    Hole, D.
    Likonen, J.
    Vainonen-Ahlgren, E.
    Distribution of hydrogen isotopes, carbon and beryllium on in-vessel surfaces in the various jet divertors2005Ingår i: Fusion science and technology, ISSN 1536-1055, E-ISSN 1943-7641, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 551-556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    JET has operated with divertors of differing geometries since 1994. Impurities accumulated in the inner leg of all the divertors, and operation of the first (Mk I) divertor with beryllium tiles demonstrated that most are eroded from the main chamber walls and swept along the scrape-off layer to the inner divertor. Carbon deposited at the inner divertor is then locally transported to shadowed regions such as the inner louvres, where, for example, most of the tritium was trapped during the deuterium-tritium experiment (DTE1). Factors affecting these transport processes (e.g. temperature) are important for ITER, but are not well understood.

  • 22. Counsell, G.
    et al.
    Coad, P.
    Grisola, C.
    Hopf, C.
    Jacob, W.
    Kirschner, A.
    Kreter, A.
    Krieger, K.
    Likonen, J.
    Philipps, V.
    Roth, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Salancon, E.
    Semerok, A.
    Tabares, F. L.
    Widdowson, A.
    Tritium retention in next step devices and the requirements for mitigation and removal techniques2006Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 48, nr 12B, s. B189-B199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanisms underlying the retention of fuel species in tokamaks with carbon plasma-facing components are presented, together with estimates for the corresponding retention of tritium in ITER. The consequential requirement for new and improved schemes to reduce the tritium inventory is highlighted and the results of ongoing studies into a range of techniques are presented, together with estimates of the tritium removal rate in ITER in each case. Finally, an approach involving the integration of many tritium removal techniques into the ITER operational schedule is proposed as a means to extend the period of operations before major intervention is required.

  • 23. De Temmerman, G.
    et al.
    Doerner, R. P.
    John, P.
    Lisgo, S.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Marot, L.
    Porro, S.
    Petersson, P.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    Rudakov, D. L.
    Van Rooij, G.
    Westerhout, J.
    Wilson, J. I. B.
    Interactions of diamond surfaces with fusion relevant plasmas2009Ingår i: Physica scripta. T, ISSN 0281-1847, Vol. T138, s. 014013-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The outstanding thermal properties of diamond and its low reactivity towards hydrogen may make it an attractive plasma-facing material for fusion and calls for a proper evaluation of its behaviour under exposure to fusion-relevant plasma conditions. Micro and nanocrystalline diamond layers, deposited on Mo and Si substrates by hot filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD), have been exposed both in tokamaks and in linear plasma devices to measure the erosion rate of diamond and study the modification of the surface properties induced by particle bombardment. Experiments in Pilot-PSI and PISCES-B have shown that the sputtering yield of diamond (both physical and chemical) was a factor of 2 lower than that of graphite. Exposure to detached plasma conditions in the DIII-D tokamak have evidenced a strong resistance of diamond against erosion under those conditions.

  • 24. De Temmerman, G.
    et al.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Coad, J. P.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Drake, James Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Mirror test for ITER: Optical characterisation of metal mirrors in divertor tokamaks2005Ingår i: 32nd EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2005, EPS 2005, Held with the 8th International Workshop on Fast Ignition of Fusion Targets: Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2005, s. 586-589Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Emmoth, Birger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Khartsev, Sergiy
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Materialfysik, Materialfysik, MF.
    Pisarev, A.
    Grishin, Alexander
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Karlsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Wienhold, P.
    Fuel removal from bumper limiter tiles by using a pulsed excimer laser2005Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 337-39, nr 1-3, s. 639-643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of a limiter tile from the TEXTOR tokamak were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and nuclear reaction analysis both before and after laser heating. SEM images showed spheres and thin flakes covering the surface which are the areas modified by plasma particles striking under grazing angles. Due to roughness of the surface there are shadowed regions between the 'flakes'. Laser pulses did not lead to expected common ablation of the surface. Features that looked like 'melting' of thin surface layers were rather observed. The initial deuterium content in the surface layer of tiles was of the order of 10(18) D atoms per cm(2). After the laser light impact the content decreased with 60-70%; by reducing the deposited power by a factor four, the deuterium content was decreased by 40-50%. We make the interpretation that we approach a threshold of the laser detritiation method in fusion devices.

  • 26.
    Emmoth, Birger
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Kreter, A.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Jakubowski, M.
    Lehnen, M.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Petersson, P.
    Philipps, V.
    Possnert, G.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Schweer, B.
    Sundelin, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Unterberg, B.
    Wienhold, P.
    In-situ measurements of carbon and deuterium deposition using the fast reciprocating probe in TEXTOR2009Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 390-91, s. 179-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon samples were exposed in the scrape-off layer of the TEXTOR plasma using a fast reciprocating probe, with the aim of studying carbon deposition and deuterium retention during Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) operation. Separate samples were exposed for 300 ms at the flat-top phase of neutral beam heated discharges. The exposure conditions were varied on a shot-to-shot basis by external magnetic perturbations generated by the DED in the m/n = 3/1, DC regime, base configuration. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was used to characterise collector sample surfaces after their exposure. Enhanced concentrations of both carbon and deuterium (C 3-10 x 10(16) at./cm(2), D 8-60 x 10(15) at./cm(2)) were found. The D/C ratio was less than unity which indicates that most of the carbon and deuterium were co-deposited. Carbon e-folding lengths of about 2 cm were found on both toroidal sides of the probe independent of DED perturbations.

  • 27.
    Emmoth, Birger
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Mikroelektronik och informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Wienhold, P.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Schweer, B.
    Zagorski, R.
    Particle collection at the plasma edge by a fast reciprocating probe at the TEXTOR tokamak2003Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 313, s. 729-733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast reciprocating probe system capable of transferring different types of heads has been constructed and implemented at the TEXTOR tokamak for diagnosing the plasma edge. It gives the possibility of using a particle collector technique to extend studies of material transport from the scrape-off layer to the near plasma edge. For the first time, the system was used for exposures of graphite samples (pure and coated with a-C:H or W) at positions both within and outside the last closed flux surface. Various surface analysis methods were applied to investigate the probe morphology and, by this, to determine radial deposition profiles of boron impurities and deuterium. The profiles for boron are remarkably flat whilst those for deuterium are characterised by a steep decay with the e-folding length of approximately 15 mm. On tungsten-coated samples almost no deuterium was found, most likely because of little carbon co-deposition, shallow implantation and low trapping coefficient of deuterons in the tungsten layer. Reconstruction of experimental results by means of a multifluid TECXY code helped to identify the contribution of impurity sources (limiters, wall) to the observed radial distribution of species.

  • 28. Esser, H. G.
    et al.
    Philipps, V.
    Freisinger, M.
    Widdowson, A.
    Heinola, K.
    Kirschner, A.
    Moeller, S.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Huber, A.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Sergienko, G.
    Material deposition on inner divertor quartz-micro balances during ITER-like wall operation in JET2015Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, s. 796-799Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of beryllium, tungsten and carbon to remote areas of the inner JET-ILW divertor and the accompanying co-deposition of deuterium has been investigated using post-mortem analysis of the housings of quartz-micro balances (QMBs) and their quartz crystals. The analysis of the deposition provides that the rate of beryllium atoms is significantly reduced compared to the analogue deposition rate of carbon during the carbon wall conditions (JET-C) at the same locations of the QMBs. A reduction factor of 50 was found at the entrance gap to the cryo-pumps while it was 14 under tile 5, the semi-horizontal target plate. The deposits consist of C/Be atomic ratios of typically 0.1-0.5 showing an enrichment of carbon in remote areas compared to directly exposed areas with less carbon. The deuterium retention fraction D/Be is between 0.3 and 1 at these unheated locations in the divertor.

  • 29. Fortuna, E.
    et al.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Philipps, V.
    Kurzydlowski, K. J.
    Mertens, Ph.
    Miskiewicz, M.
    Pisarek, M.
    Van Oost, G.
    Zielinski, W.
    Properties of co-deposited layers on graphite high heat flux components at the TEXTOR tokamak2007Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 367, nr B, s. 1507-1511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to examine the structure, composition and properties of co-deposited films from the TEXTOR tokamak. Hydrogenated films formed on the toroidal belt pump limiter (ALT-II), and on the ICRF antenna grill were studied using a set of material analysis techniques. Plasma edge diagnostics were used to assess the parameters influencing the film formation during discharges auxiliary heated by ICRF. The essential results are summarized as follows: (i) the distribution of plasma impurities co-deposited in the films is non-uniform and (ii) the surface topography, crystallographic structure, fuel retention and composition (i.e., content of re-deposited plasma impurities) of the films show significant diversity depending on the location where they were formed. These differences are associated with the local geometry, the tokamak operation scenarios and the resulting plasma edge properties.

  • 30. Fortuna, E.
    et al.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Psoda, M.
    Andrzejczuk, M.
    Kurzydlowski, K. J.
    Miskiewicz, M.
    Philipps, V.
    Pospieszczyk, A.
    Sergienko, G.
    Spychalski, M.
    Zielinski, W.
    Plasma-induced damage of tungsten coatings on graphite limiters2007Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T128, s. 162-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vaccum plasma sprayed tungsten coatings with an evaporated sandwich Re - W interlayer on graphite limiter blocks were studied after the experimental campaign in the TEXTOR tokamak. The coating morphology was modified by high-heat loads and co-deposition of species from the plasma. Co-deposits contained fuel species, carbon, boron and silicon. X-ray diffractometer phase analysis indicated the coexistence of metallic tungsten and its carbides (WC and W2C) and boride (W2B). In the Re - W layer the presence of carbon was detected in a several micrometres thick zone. In the overheated part of the limiter, the Re - W layer was transformed into a sigma phase.

  • 31. Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    et al.
    Grzonka, J.
    Moon, Sunwoo
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Fine metal dust particles on the wall probes from JET-ILW2017Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, artikel-id 014038Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collection and ex situ studies of dust generated in controlled fusion devices during plasma operation are regularly carried out after experimental campaigns. Herewith results of the dust survey performed in JET after the second phase of operation with the metal ITER-like wall (2013-2014) are presented. For the first-time-ever particles deposited on silicon plates acting as dust collectors installed in the inner and outer divertor have been examined. The emphasis is on analysing metal particles (Be and W) with the aim to determine their composition, size and surface topography. The most important is the identification of beryllium dust in the form of droplets (both splashes and spherical particles), flakes of co-deposits and small fragments of Be tiles. Tungsten and nickel rich (from Inconel) particles are also identified. Nitrogen from plasma edge cooling has been detected in all types of particles. They are categorized and the origin of various constituents is discussed.

  • 32. Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    et al.
    Grzonka, J.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Baron-Wiechec, A.
    Ciupinski, L.
    Studies of dust from JET with the ITER-Like Wall: Composition and internal structure2017Ingår i: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, s. 582-587Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results are presented for the dust survey performed at JET after the second experimental campaign with the ITER-Like Wall: 2013-2014. Samples were collected on adhesive stickers from several different positions in the divertor both on the tiles and on the divertor carrier. Brittle dust-forming deposits on test mirrors from the inner divertor wall were also studied. Comprehensive characterization accomplished by a wide range of high-resolution microscopy techniques, including focused ion beam, has led to the identification of several classes of particles: (i) beryllium flakes originating either from the Be coatings from the inner wall cladding or Be-rich mixed co-deposits resulting from material migration; (ii) beryllium droplets and splashes; (iii) tungsten and nickel-rich (from Inconel) droplets; (iv) mixed material layers with a various content of small (8-200 nm) W-Mo and Ni-based debris. A significant content of nitrogen from plasma edge cooling has been identified in all types of co-deposits. A comparison between particles collected after the first and second experimental campaign is also presented and discussed.

  • 33. Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    et al.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Grozonka, J.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Esser, H. G.
    Freisinger, M.
    Kreter, A.
    Kischner, A.
    Sergienko, G.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Dust Survey Following the Final Shutdown of TEXTOR: Metal Particles and Fuel Retention2016Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T167, artikel-id 014059Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presents results of a broad TEXTOR dust survey in terms of its composition, structure, distribution and fuel content. The dust particles were collected after final shutdown of TEXTOR in December 2013. Fuel retention, as determined by thermal desorption, varied significantly, even by two orders of magnitude, dependent on the dust location in the machine. Dust structure was examined by means of scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, focused ion beam and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Several categories of dust have been identified. Carbon-based stratified and granular deposits were dominating, but the emphasis in studies was on metal dust. They were found in the form of small particles, small spheres, flakes and splashes which formed “comet”-like structures clearly indicating directional effects in the impact on surfaces of plasma-facing components. Nickel-rich alloys from the Inconel liner and iron-based ones from various diagnostic holders were the main components of metal-containing dust, but also molybdenum and tungsten debris were detected. Their origin is discussed.

  • 34.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Möller, S.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Ivanova, Darya
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Kreter, A.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Wauters, T.
    Impact of ion cyclotron wall conditioning on fuel removal from plasma-facing components at TEXTOR2014Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T159, s. 014017-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) is based on low temperature and low density plasmas produced and sustained by ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) pulses in reactive or noble gases. The technique is being developed for ITER. It is tested in tokamaks in the presence of toroidal magnetic field (0.2-3.8 T) and heating power of the order of 10(5) W. ICWC with hydrogen, deuterium and oxygen-helium mixture was studied in the TEXTOR tokamak. The exposed samples were pre-characterized limiter tiles mounted on specially designed probes. The objectives were to assess the reduction of deuterium content, the uniformity of the reduction and the retention of seeded oxygen. For the last objective oxygen-18 was used as a marker. ICWC in hydrogen caused a drop of deuterium content in the tile by a factor of more than 2: from 4.5x10(18) to 1.9x10(18) D cm(-2). A decrease of the fuel content by approximately 25% was achieved by the ICWC in oxygen, while no reduction of the fuel content was measured after exposure to discharges in deuterium. These are the first data ever obtained showing quantitatively the local decrease of deuterium in wall components treated by ICWC in a tokamak. The oxygen retention in the tiles exposed to ICWC with oxygen-helium was analyzed for different orientations and radial positions with respect to plasma. An average retention of 1.38x10(16) O-18 cm(-2) was measured. A maximum of the retention, 4.4x10(16) O-18 cm(-2), was identified on a sample surface near the plasma edge. The correlation with the gas inlet and antennae location has been studied.

  • 35.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    Jachmich, S.
    Brix, M.
    Marot, L.
    Plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET2017Ingår i: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, s. 506-512Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical systems for plasma diagnosis in ITER. This contribution provides a comprehensive account on plasma impact on diagnostic mirrors in JET with the ITER-Like Wall. Specimens from the First Mirror Test and the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied by spectrophotometry, ion beam analysis and electron microscopy. Test mirrors made of molybdenum were retrieved from the main chamber and the divertor after exposure to the 2013-2014 experimental campaign. In the main chamber, only mirrors located at the entrance of the carrier lost reflectivity (Be deposition), while those located deeper in the carrier were only slightly affected. The performance of mirrors in the JET divertor was strongly degraded by deposition of beryllium, tungsten and other species. Mirrors from the lithium-beam diagnostic have been studied for the first time. Gold coatings were severely damaged by intense arcing. As a consequence, material mixing of the gold layer with the stainless steel substrate occurred. Total reflectivity dropped from over 90% to less than 60%, i.e. to the level typical for stainless steel.

  • 36.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Wauters, T.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Drenik, A.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Crombé, K.
    Douai, D.
    Fortuna, E.
    Kogut, D.
    Kreter, A.
    Lyssoivan, A.
    Möller, S.
    Pisarek, M.
    Vervier, M.
    Nitrogen removal from plasma-facing components by ion cyclotron wall conditioning in TEXTOR2015Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, s. 688-692Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of ion cyclotron wall conditioning (ICWC) in the removal of nitrogen from plasma-facing components in TEXTOR was assessed. In two experiments the wall was loaded with nitrogen and subsequently cleaned by ICWC in deuterium and helium. The retention and removal of nitrogen was studied in-situ by means of mass spectrometry, and ex-situ by surface analysis of a set of graphite, tungsten and TZM plates installed on test limiter systems. N-15 rare isotope was used as a marker. The results from the gas balance showed that about 25% of the retained nitrogen was removed after ICWC cleaning, whereas surface analysis of the plates based on ToF-HIERDA showed an increase of the deposited species after the cleaning. This indicates that during ICWC operation on carbon devices, nitrogen is not only pumped out but also transported to other locations on the wall. Additionally, deuterium surface content was studied before and after ICWC cleaning.

  • 37.
    Garcia-Carrasco, Alvaro
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Integrerade komponenter och kretsar.
    Grzonka, J.
    Gilbert, M. R.
    Fortuna-Zalesna, E.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Impact of helium implantation and ion-induced damage on reflectivity of molybdenum mirrors2016Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, ISSN 0168-583X, E-ISSN 1872-9584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum mirrors were irradiated with Mo and He ions to simulate the effect of neutron irradiation on diagnostic first mirrors in next-generation fusion devices. Up to 30 dpa were produced under molybdenum irradiation leading to a slight decrease of reflectivity in the near infrared range. After 3×1017 cm-2 of helium irradiation, reflectivity decreased by up to 20%. Combined irradiation by helium and molybdenum led to similar effects on reflectivity as irradiation with helium alone. Ion beam analysis showed that only 7% of the implanted helium was retained in the first 40nm layer of the mirror. The structure of the near-surface layer after irradiation was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy and the extent and size distribution of helium bubbles was documented. The consequences of ion-induced damage on the performance of diagnostic components are discussed.

  • 38. Gasior, P.
    et al.
    Badziak, J.
    Czarnecka, A.
    Parys, P.
    Wolowski, J.
    Rosinski, M.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Philipps, V.
    Characterization of laser-irradiated co-deposited layers on plasma facing components from a tokamak2006Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T123, s. 99-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental setup and ion diagnostic method for laser-induced fuel removal and decomposition of co-deposited layers on plasma facing components from tokamaks are described. Nd:YAG 3.5 ns pulse laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz and single-pulse energy of up to 0.8J at 1.06 mu m has been used for irradiation of a graphite limiter tile from the TEXTOR tokamak. Comparative studies have been performed for a pure graphite plate as a reference target. Energy of emitted ions has been measured using a time-of-flight method. Early results show that laser pulses efficiently ablate the co-deposit removing both fuel species and heavy components such as Si, Ni, Cr, Fe and W present in the layers. Surface topography of the irradiated targets is also presented.

  • 39. Gasior, P.
    et al.
    Czarnecka, A.
    Parys, P.
    Rosinski, M.
    Wolowski, J.
    Hoffman, J.
    Szymanski, Z.
    Philipps, V.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Effective laser-induced removal of co-deposited layers from plasma-facing components in a tokamak2006Ingår i: Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, ISSN 0011-4626, E-ISSN 1572-9486, Vol. 56, s. B67-B72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental set-up and spectroscopy diagnostic method for laser-induced fuel removal and decomposition of co-deposited layers on plasma-facing components from tokamaks are described. For irradiation of a graphite limiter tile from the TEXTOR tokamak Nd:YAG 3.5-ns pulse laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz and single pulse energy of up to 0,8 J at 1,06 mu m has been used. The spectroscopy system allowed recording of spectra in the visible wavelength range including CII and D alpha spectral lines. The evolution of CII and Da spectral lines was observed pulse-by-pulse during the co-deposit removal. The efficient ablation of the 45 mu m thick co-deposit occured after approximately 50 laser pulses.

  • 40. Gasior, P.
    et al.
    Irrek, F.
    Petersson, P.
    Penkalla, Hj.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Schweer, B.
    Sundelin, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Wessel, E.
    Linke, J.
    Philipps, V.
    Emmoth, Birger
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och Informationsteknik, IMIT.
    Wolowski, J.
    Hirai, T.
    Laser-induced removal of co-deposits from graphitic plasma-facing components: Characterization of irradiated surfaces and dust particles2009Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 390-91, s. 585-588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser-induced fuel desorption and ablation of co-deposited layers on limiter plates from the TEXTOR tokamak have been studied. Gas phase composition was monitored in situ, whereas the ex situ studies have been focused on the examination of irradiated surfaces and broad analysis of dust generated by ablation of co-deposits. The size of the dust grains is in the range of few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers. These are fuel-rich dust particles, as determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The presence of deuterium in dust indicates that not all fuel species are transferred to the gas phase during irradiation. This also suggests that photonic removal of fuel and the ablation of co-deposit from plasma-facing components may lead to the redistribution of fuel-containing dust to surrounding areas.

  • 41. Grisolia, C.
    et al.
    Counsell, G.
    Dinescu, G.
    Semerok, A.
    Bekris, N.
    Coad, P.
    Hopf, C.
    Roth, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Tsitrone, E.
    Treatment of ITER plasma facing components: Current status and remaining open issues before ITER implementation2007Ingår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 82, nr 15-24, s. 2390-2398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The in-vessel tritium inventory control is one of the most ITER challenging issues which has to be resolved to fulfil safety requirements. This is due mainly to the presence of carbon as a constituent of plasma facing components (PFCs) which leads to a high fuel permanent retention. For several years now, physics studies and technological developments have been undertaken worldwide in order to develop reliable techniques which could be used in ITER severe environment (magnetic field, vacuum, high temperature) for in situ tritium recovery. The scope of this contribution is to review the present status of these achievements and define the remaining work to be done in order to propose a dedicated work program. Different treatment techniques (chemical treatments, photonic cleaning) will be reviewed. In the frame of ITER, they will be compared in terms of fuel removal rate as well as surface accessibility, type of production (gas or particulates), ability to clean mixed material. And lastly, consequences of bulk trapping observed in tokamak on the techniques currently under development will be addressed.

  • 42. Grisolia, C.
    et al.
    Rosanvallon, S.
    Coad, P.
    Bekris, N.
    Braet, J.
    Brennan, D.
    Brichard, B.
    Counsell, G.
    Day, C.
    Likonen, J.
    Piazza, G.
    Poletiko, C.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Semerok, A.
    JET contributions to ITER technology issues2006Ingår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 81, nr 07-jan, s. 149-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Joint European Torus (JET) fusion machine is the only device capable of operation with tritium and of handling Be and therefore is best suited to the study of tritium and fusion-related issues. A large variety of activities are performed within the JET fusion technology task force (FT-TF). In this paper, some topics such as erosion/deposition and material transport, characterisation of flakes and detritiation techniques are highlighted. Recent examples of results obtained on waste management studies are also given. Data on some ITER-relevant components that have been tested at JET, such as a pumping cryopanel and hardened optics fibers, are presented. In all fields, the work to be addressed in future JET work programmes is discussed.

  • 43. Hakola, A.
    et al.
    Airila, M. I.
    Björkas, C.
    Borodin, D.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coad, J. P.
    Groth, M.
    Järvinen, A.
    Kirschner, A.
    Koivuranta, S.
    Krieger, K.
    Kurki-Suonio, T.
    Likonen, J.
    Lindholm, V.
    Makkonen, T.
    Mayer, M.
    Miettunen, J.
    Mueller, H. W.
    Neu, R.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Rohde, V.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Widdowson, A.
    Global migration of impurities in tokamaks2013Ingår i: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 55, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of impurities in tokamaks has been studied with the help of tracer-injection (C-13 and N-15) experiments in JET and ASDEX Upgrade since 2001. We have identified a common pattern for the migrating particles: scrape-off layer flows drive impurities from the low-field side towards the high-field side of the vessel. Migration is also sensitive to the density and magnetic configuration of the plasma, and strong local variations in the resulting deposition patterns require 3D treatment of the migration process. Moreover, re-erosion of the deposited particles has to be taken into account to properly describe the migration process during steady-state operation of the tokamak.

  • 44. Hirai, T.
    et al.
    Linke, J.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Coad, J. P.
    Likonen, J.
    Lungu, C. P.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Philipps, V.
    Wessel, E.
    Thermal load testing of erosion-monitoring beryllium marker tile for the ITER-Like Wall Project at JET2008Ingår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 83, nr 7-9, s. 1072-1076Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ITER-Like Wall Project has been launched at JET in order to perform a fully integrated test of plasma-facing materials. During the next major shutdown a full metal wall will be installed: tungsten in the divertor and beryllium in the main chamber. Beryllium erosion is one of key issues to be addressed. Special marker tiles have been designed for this purpose. Test coupons of such markers have been manufactured and examined. The performance test under high power deposition was carried in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The results of material characterization before and after high heat flux loads are presented. The samples survived, without macroscopic damage, power loads of up to 4.5 MW/m(2) for 10s (surface temperature similar to 650 degrees C) and 50 cyclic loads at 3.5 MW/m(2) lasting 10s each (surface temperature similar to 600 degrees C).

  • 45. Hirai, T.
    et al.
    Linke, J.
    Sundelin, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik. KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Centra, Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Kuehnlein, W.
    Wessel, E.
    Coad, J. P.
    Lungu, C. P.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Pedrick, L.
    Piazza, G.
    Characterization and heat flux testing of beryllium coatings on Inconel for JET ITER-like wall project2007Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T128, s. 166-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to perform a fully integrated material test, JET has launched the ITER-like wall project with the aim of installing a full metal wall during the next major shutdown. The material foreseen for the main chamber wall is bulk Be at the limiters and Be coatings on inconel tiles elsewhere. R&D process comprises global characterization ( structure, purity etc) of the evaporated films and testing of their performance under heat loads. The major results are (i) the layers have survived energy loads of 20 MJ m(-2) which is significantly above the required level of 5 - 10 MJ m(-2), (ii) melting limit of beryllium coating would be at the energy level of 30 MJ m(-2), (iii) cyclic thermal load of 10 MJ m(-2) for up to 50 cycles have not induced any noticeable damage such as flaking or detachment.

  • 46. Hirai, T.
    et al.
    Maier, H.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Fusionsplasmafysik.
    Mertens, Ph
    Neu, R.
    Gauthier, E.
    Likonen, J.
    Lungu, C.
    Maddaluno, G.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Mitteau, R.
    Neubauer, O.
    Piazza, G.
    Philipps, V.
    Riccardi, B.
    Ruset, C.
    Uytdenhouwen, I.
    R&D on full tungsten divertor and beryllium wall for JET ITER-like wall project2007Ingår i: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 82, nr 15-24, s. 1839-1845Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ITER reference materials have been tested separately in tokamaks, plasma simulators, ion beams and high heat flux test beds. In order to perform a fully integrated material test JET has launched the ITER-like Wall Project with the aim of installing a full metal wall during the next major shutdown. As a result of R&D projects in 2005-2006, bulk tungsten tiles are foreseen at the outer horizontal target and tungsten coating at the other divertor tiles. In some regions of the main chamber, beryllium coated Inconel tiles and bulk beryllium tiles are utilised which include marker tiles as erosion diagnostics. This paper gives an overview of the R&D carried out in the frame of the ITER-like Wall Project on the development of an inertially cooled bulk tungsten tile design and the characterization of tungsten and beryllium coating technologies.

  • 47. Hirai, T.
    et al.
    Philipps, V.
    Huber, A.
    Sergienko, G.
    Linke, J.
    Wakui, T.
    Tanabe, T.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Wada, M.
    Ohgo, T.
    Pospieszczyk, A.
    Ohya, K.
    Barabash, V.
    Performance and erosion of a tungsten brush limiter exposed at the TEXTOR tokamak2003Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 313, s. 67-71Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the performance of a castellated structure under plasma loading, a hemispherical solid tungsten brush limiter was exposed to the plasma in the TEXTOR-94 tokamak. Due to the thermally isolated column of W segments, IR camera showed a non-uniform temperature distribution. The maximum incident power density was calculated to be about 35-40 MW/m(2). Concerning impurity generation, the structure did not show any particular effects. During plasma exposure, only some minor cracks developed in one of the columns, however, the crack propagation was interrupted by a groove. It can be concluded that the W brush limiter had comparable performance and superior mechanical behaviour compared to a solid W limiter. To study erosion and long-range transport of W atoms, a graphite limiter was exposed simultaneously with the brush limiter. As a result, the deposited W atoms via long-range transportation were estimated to be 10(15) cm(-2) shot(-1) at 46.5 cm from the plasma centre of TEXTOR.

  • 48. Hirai, T.
    et al.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Philipps, V.
    Huber, A.
    Tanabe, T.
    Wada, M.
    Ohgo, T.
    Pospieszczyk, A.
    Sergienko, G.
    Wienhold, P.
    Testing of tungsten and tantalum limiters at the TEXTOR tokamak: Material performance and deuterium retention2003Ingår i: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T103, s. 59-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungsten and tantaium were examined in the TEXTOR tokamak as test limiters in order to compare their performance under plasma operation and to recognise fuel recycling on endothermic (W) and exothermic (Ta) hydrogen absorbers. Differences have been noticed in the distribution and microstructure of co-deposits. in the fuel inventory in the bulk of metals and, in the deuterium release mechanism (ratio of molecules to atoms). As a result of poor thermal conductivity. the surface temperature of Ta during the power deposition was higher than that of W and it increased shot-by-shot because of the degradation of thermal properties due to surface modification. Results on thermal response, fuel recycling and inventory show that. as a candidate material for plasma facing components. tungsten is superior to tantalum.

  • 49. Huber, A.
    et al.
    Mayer, M.
    Philipps, V.
    Pospieszczyk, A.
    Ohgo, T.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Schweer, B.
    Sergienko, G.
    Tanabe, T.
    In-situ measurement of trapped hydrogen by laser desorption in TEXTOR-942001Ingår i: Physica scripta. T, ISSN 0281-1847, Vol. T94, s. 102-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    First measurements on laser induced desorption of deuterium incorporated in a boron layer formed by plasma chemical vapor deposition on tungsten and graphite limiter surfaces have been performed. A ruby laser (lambda = 694 nm) with maximum energy of 50 J and a pulse length of about 0.5 ms was used as a heat source. The desorbed deuterium was detected by mass spectroscopy and total pressure analysis in the residual gas. The amount of desorbed deuterium is about 10(17) D atoms cm(-2). The majority of the deuterium is released during the first laser pulse. The limiter heads were investigated post-mortem by means of ion beam analysis to determine the spatial distribution of boron and deuterium and to investigate the effect of the laser pulse on the release of deuterium and sublimation of boron in the laser spot. All the deuterium has been released by the laser pulse. The boron is sublimated partly from the graphite and removed nearly completely from the tungsten surface.

  • 50. Huber, A.
    et al.
    Philipps, V.
    Pospieszczyk, A.
    Kirschner, A.
    Lehnen, M.
    Ohgo, T.
    Ohya, K.
    Rubel, Marek J.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Alfvénlaboratoriet.
    Schweer, B.
    von Seggern, J.
    Sergienko, G.
    Tanabe, T.
    Wada, M.
    Comparison of impurity production, recycling and power deposition on carbon and tungsten limiters in TEXTOR-942001Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 290, s. 276-280Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Impurity production, hydrogen recycling and power deposition on carbon and tungsten limiters have been investigated in TEXTOR-94 using a C-W twin test limiter. Considerable differences have been observed on W and C surfaces, which can be explained by the different particle and energy reflection coefficients of hydrogen on these surfaces. The measurements show in addition that the majority of the carbon release is from recycled carbon and that only a small part (below 10%) is due to net-erosion from the bulk carbon material. The heat deposition on C and W sides differs under the same plasma conditions significantly and is typically about 30% larger on the cal bon surface. The behaviour of the impurity production: recycling and power deposition for various discharge conditions is presented.

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