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  • 1. Annibaldi, S. V.
    et al.
    Ivlev, A. V.
    Konopka, U.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Thomas, H. M.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Lipaev, A. M.
    Molotkov, V. I.
    Petrov, O. F.
    Fortov, V. E.
    Dust-acoustic dispersion relation in three-dimensional complex plasmas under microgravity2007In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of dedicated experiments with the Plasma Kristal Experiment ( PKE)-Nefedov ( Nefedov et al 2003 New J. Phys. 5 33) set-up were performed on board the International Space Station to measure the dispersion relation ( DR) for the longitudinal dust-acoustic ( DA) waves in quasi-isotropic three-dimensional ( 3D) complex plasmas. The waves were excited by applying ac electric modulation of variable frequency to the radio frequency ( rf) electrodes. The amplitude of excitation was varied with frequency to ensure a 'sufficiently linear' regime of the dust density perturbations. The DR was obtained by measuring the induced density perturbations, revealing fairly good agreement with a simple multispecies theory of DA waves.

  • 2.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Ogata, Douglas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Sahle, Wubeshet
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Material Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Studies of mobile dust in scrape-off layer plasmas using silica aerogel collectors2011In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 415, no 1, p. S1089-S1093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust capture with ultralow density silica aerogel collectors is a new method, which allows time resolved in situ capture of dust particles in the scrape-off layers of fusion devices, without substantially damaging the particles. Particle composition and morphology, particle flux densities and particle velocity distributions can be determined through appropriate analysis of the aerogel surfaces after exposure. The method has been applied in comparative studies of intrinsic dust in the TEXTOR tokamak and in the Extrap T2R reversed field pinch. The analysis methods have been mainly optical microscopy and SEM. The method is shown to be applicable in both devices and the results are tentatively compared between the two plasma devices, which are very different in terms of edge plasma conditions, time scale, geometry and wall materials.

  • 3. Bykov, I.
    et al.
    Rudakov, D. L.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    De Angeli, M.
    Hollmann, E. M.
    McLean, A. G.
    Lasnier, C. J.
    Riva, G.
    Modification of adhered dust on plasma-facing surfaces due to exposure to ELMy H-mode plasma in DIII-D2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 379-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transient heat load tests have been conducted in the lower divertor of DIII-D using DiMES manipulator in order to study the behavior of dust on tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) during ELMy H-mode discharges. Samples with pre- adhered, pre- characterized dust have been exposed at the outer strike point (OSP) in a series of discharges with varied intra-(inter-) ELM heat fluxes. We used C dust because of its high sublimation temperature and non-metal properties. Al dust as a surrogate for Be and W dust were employed as relevant to that in the ITER divertor. The poor initial thermal contact between the substrate and the particles led to overheating, sublimation and shrinking of the carbon dust, and wetting induced coagulation of Al dust. Little modification of the W dust was observed. An enhanced surface adhesion and improvement of the thermal contact of C and Al dust were the result of exposure. A post mortem "adhesive tape" sampling showed that 70% of Al, <5% of W and C particles could not be removed from the surface owing to the improved adhesion. Al and C but not W particles that could be lifted had W inclusions indicating damage to the substrate. This suggests that non destructive methods may be inefficient for removal of dust in ITER.

  • 4.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ogata, Douglas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Collection of mobile dust in the T2R reversed field pinch2012In: Nukleonika, ISSN 0029-5922, E-ISSN 1508-5791, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices result in the impurity production and the formation of films of redeposited material, debris and dust. In present day devices, with short pulses, the mobile dust does not pose any serious operational problems, but it is a matter of serious concern for ITER and for later power producing devices with a high duty cycle. We report results of a dust collection experiment carried out at the T2R reversed field pinch device and related heavy impurity flux measurements. Dust and impurities were collected on passive Si surface probes and on ultralow density silica aerogel collectors. The advantage of the latter method is the possibility of nondestructive capture of the micron- and submicron-sized dust particles. The toroidal and radial deposition fluxes of dust particles and impurities are estimated and discussed in the light of the dominant forces acting on the dust.

  • 5.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Possnert, G.
    Time resolved collection and characterization of dust particles moving in the TEXTOR scrape-off layer2013In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 438, no Suppl., p. S681-S685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Moving dust has been collected in the SOL of TEXTOR in a time-resolved way with silica aerogel collectors [1-3]. The collectors were exposed to the toroidal particle flux in NBI heated discharges during the startup and flat top phase. Intrinsic dust was collected in several discharges. Other discharges were accompanied with injection of known amounts of pre-characterized dust (W, C flakes and C microspheres) from a position toroidally 120° away from the collector. Particle flux, composition and dust size distribution have been determined with SEM and EDX. Calibration allowed particle velocity estimates to be made. Upper limits for the deuterium content of individual dust grains have been determined by NRA.

  • 6.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Banon, Jean-Philippe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Transport asymmetry and release mechanisms of metal dust in the reversed-field pinch configuration2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 035014-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data on dust resident in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch are reported. Mobile dust grains are captured in situ by silicon collectors, whereas immobile grains are sampled post mortem from the wall by adhesive tape. The simulation of collection asymmetries by the MIGRAINe dust dynamics code in combination with the experimental results is employed to deduce some characteristics of the mechanism of intrinsic dust release. All evidence suggests that re-mobilization is dominant with respect to dust production.

  • 7. Castaldo, C.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    de Angelis, U.
    On the feasibility of electro-optical detection of dust-impact ionization in tokamaks2010In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 105003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of the optical and electrical detection of dust-impact ionization events in the scrape-off layers of tokamak plasmas is evaluated. It is shown that the expected light emission and the charge released during a dust impact on a biased target can be measured above the light emission and the charge collected due to the background plasma. A scheme of an electro-optical probe for diagnostics of fast dust particles is proposed.

  • 8. Castaldo, C.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Pericoli, V.
    Rypdal, K.
    De Angelis, U.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Pieroni, L.
    Capobianco, G.
    De Angeli, M.
    Gabellieri, L.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Maddaluno, G.
    Marmolino, C.
    Orsitto, F.
    Romano, A.
    Rufoloni, A.
    Tuccillo, A. A.
    Fast dust particles in tokamak plasmas: Detection and effects2007In: 34th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2007, EPS 2007 - Europhysics Conference Abstracts, European Physical Society , 2007, no 2, p. 848-851Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Castaldo, C.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Pericoli, V.
    de Angelis, U.
    Rypdal, K.
    Pieroni, L.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Maddaluno, G.
    Marmolino, C.
    Rufoloni, A.
    Tuccillo, A.
    Kretschmer, M.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Diagnostics of fast dust particles in tokamak edge plasmas2007In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 47, no 7, p. L5-L9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electrostatic probes as a diagnostic tool of the dust particles in the tokamak edge plasmas is investigated. Probe measurements of electrostatic fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade revealed that some features of the signals can be explained only by a local non-propagating phenomenon. These signal features are shown to be both in qualitative and quantitative agreement with ionization, and consequent extra charge collected by the probes, due to the impact of micrometre-sized dust at a velocity of the order of 10 km s(- 1). Electron microscope analysis of the probe surface yielded direct support for such an interpretation.

  • 10. De Angeli, M.
    et al.
    Castaldo, C.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Grosso, G.
    Almaviva, S.
    Caneve, L.
    Colao, F.
    Maddaluno, G.
    Note: Simultaneous electrical and optical detection of expanding dense partially ionized vapour clouds2011In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 82, no 10, p. 106101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scheme and construction of an electro-optical probe able to collect charge and detect optical emission from expanding dense partially ionized vapour clouds are reported. The instrument can be applied to phenomena such as dust impact ionization and solid target laser ablation. First, results of measurements of expanding plasma cloud formed upon ablating W target are presented. Use of the instrument in different experimental facilities, including tokamak, is discussed.

  • 11.
    De Angeli, M.
    et al.
    CNR, Ist Sci & Tecnol Plasmi, Milan, Italy..
    Lazzaro, E.
    CNR, Ist Sci & Tecnol Plasmi, Milan, Italy..
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Castaldo, C.
    ENEA, CR Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Apicella, M. L.
    ENEA, CR Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Gervasini, G.
    CNR, Ist Sci & Tecnol Plasmi, Milan, Italy..
    Giacomi, G.
    ENEA, CR Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Giovannozzi, E.
    ENEA, CR Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Granucci, G.
    CNR, Ist Sci & Tecnol Plasmi, Milan, Italy..
    Iafrati, M.
    ENEA, CR Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Iraji, D.
    Amirkabir Univ Technol, Energy Engn & Phys Dept, Tehran, Iran..
    Maddaluno, G.
    ENEA, CR Frascati, I-00044 Rome, Italy..
    Riva, G.
    CNR, Ist Chim Mat Condensata & Tecnol Energia, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milan, Italy..
    Uccello, A.
    CNR, Ist Sci & Tecnol Plasmi, Milan, Italy..
    Pre-plasma remobilization of ferromagnetic dust in FTU and possible interference with tokamak operations2019In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 10, article id 106033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental evidence of the pre-plasma remobilization of ferromagnetic dust in FTU is presented. Thomson scattering data and IR camera observations document the occurrence of intrinsic dust remobilization prior to discharge start-up and allow for a rough calculation of the average mobilized dust density. Exposures of calibrated extrinsic non-magnetic and ferromagnetic dust to sole magnetic field discharges reveal that the magnetic moment force is the main mobilizing force, as confirmed by theoretical estimates. Pre-plasma remobilization probabilities are computed for varying dust sizes. The impact of prematurely remobilized dust on the breakdown and burn-through start-up phases is investigated together with the discharge termination induced once the plasma plateau is established.

  • 12. De Angeli, M.
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Ripamonti, D.
    Riva, G.
    Bardin, S.
    Morgan, T.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Remobilization of tungsten dust from castellated plasma-facing components2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 536-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of tungsten dust remobilization from castellated plasma-facing components can shed light to whether gaps constitute a dust accumulation site with important implications for monitoring but also removal. Castellated structures of ITER relevant geometry that contained pre-adhered tungsten dust of controlled deposition profile have been exposed in the Pilot-PSI linear device. The experiments were performed under steady state and transient plasma conditions, as well as varying magnetic field topologies. The results suggest that dust remobilization from the plasma-facing monoblock surface can enhance dust trapping in the gaps and that tungsten dust is efficiently trapped inside the gaps.

  • 13. de Angelis, U.
    et al.
    Regnoli, G.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Long-range attraction of negatively charged dust particles in weakly ionized dense dust clouds2010In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 043702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new Plasma Kristall Experiment (PK-4) is scheduled to fly on the International Space Station in 2012 with one of the experiments designed to investigate the existence of two fluid phases and a critical point in complex plasmas. A crucial issue is the parameter regime where the critical point could be found and this requires, as a first step, knowledge of the parameter range where dust-dust attraction can exist. This problem is addressed in the present work, extending previous works on long-range screening and attraction of negatively charged dust particles in plasmas. The roles of nonlinearities, ion-neutral collisions, electron dynamics, and plasma source on the depth and long-range behavior of the attractive well are established and the impact of these results on the PK-4 experiments is discussed.

  • 14. de Angelis, Umberto
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Effects of dust particles in plasma kinetics; ion dynamics time scales2012In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 073701-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-consistent kinetic theory of dusty plasmas [V. N. Tsytovich and U. de Angelis, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1093 (1999)] is extended to frequency regimes relevant for ion dynamics, accounting for both constant and fluctuating plasma sources. In contrast to earlier models, binary plasma collisions are no longer neglected with respect to collisions with dust; hence, the model developed here is also valid for low dust densities. Expressions are found for the system's permittivity, the ion collision integral, and the spectral densities of ion density fluctuations. The structure of the ion kinetic equation is analyzed, and applications of the model for both astrophysical and laboratory environments are discussed.

  • 15. Demidov, V. I.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Rypdal, K.
    Electric probes for plasmas: The link between theory and instrument2002In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 73, no 10, p. 3409-3439Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric probe methods for diagnostics of plasmas are reviewed with emphasis on the link between the appropriate probe theories and the instrumental design. The starting point is an elementary discussion of the working principles and a discussion of the physical quantities that can be measured by the probe method. This is followed by a systematic classification of the various regimes of probe operation and a summary of theories and methods for measurements of charged particle distributions. Application of a single probe and probe clusters for measurements of fluid observables is discussed. Probe clusters permit both instantaneous and time-averaged measurements without sweeping the probe voltage. Two classes of applications are presented as illustrations of the methods reviewed. These are measurements of cross sections and collision frequencies (plasma electron spectroscopy), and measurements of fluctuations and anomalous transport in magnetized plasma.

  • 16. Demidov, V. I.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Rypdal, K.
    Reducing influence of ion current on measurements of electron energy distributions in collisional plasmas2001In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 4106-4109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for reducing the influence of ion current on probe measurements of electron velocity distributions in plasmas has been developed and tested in noble gas afterglow plasmas. It is valid for diffusive transport of ions to the probe. Experiments have demonstrated high accuracy of the proposed method.

  • 17. Demidov, V. I.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Rypdal, K.
    The analysis of probe I-V characteristics in a magnetized low-temperature plasma2001In: Contributions to Plasma Physics, ISSN 0863-1042, E-ISSN 1521-3986, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 443-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The validity of probe theories based on the classical electron transport to probes in low-temperature magnetized plasma of the toroidal device `Blaamann has been demonstrated. The analysis was carried out for the conditions when global transport of charged particles in the device is anomalous, namely for magnetic field up to 0.3 T and pressure range 0.1 - 1 Pa. It was shown also that for the magnetic field larger than 0.1 T probes longer than 15 mm provide electron saturation current practically independent of probe potential, hence more accurate measurements of the plasma parameters. The experiments have revealed that application of long probes oriented parallel to the magnetic field may cause an anomaly of the I-V characteristics in the sense that a local increase of the electron current appears near the plasma potential.

  • 18. Fortov, V.
    et al.
    Morfill, G.
    Petrov, O.
    Thoma, M.
    Usachev, A.
    Hoefner, H.
    Zobnin, A.
    Kretschmer, M.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Fink, M.
    Tarantik, K.
    Gerasimov, Y.
    Esenkov, V.
    The project 'Plasmakristall-4' (PK-4) - a new stage in investigations of dusty plasmas under microgravity conditions: first results and future plans2005In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 47, p. B537-B549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PK-4 experiment is a continuation of the successful dusty plasma experiments PK-1, PK-2 and PK-3 conducted on board of the orbital space stations Mir and International Space Station. For all these experiments it is important to avoid the strong influence of gravity, exerting an external stress on the system. Whereas PK-3 and PK-3 Plus experiments are using a planar rf capacitive discharge, PK-4 studies complex plasmas in a long cylindrical chamber with a combined dc/rf discharge. Such a configuration of the chamber will provide a particular advantage for investigation of different dynamical phenomena in complex plasmas such as sheared laminar flow of a highly nonideal dusty liquid and its transition to the turbulent regime, nozzle flow, boundary layers and instabilities, shock waves (solitons) formation and propagation, dust particle lane formation, and space dust grain separation according to their size.

  • 19. Giovannozzi, E.
    et al.
    Castaldo, C.
    Apruzzese, G.
    Maddaluno, G.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rydzy, A.
    Dust in FTU with the Thomson scattering diagnostic2008In: AIP CONF PROC, 2008, Vol. 1041, p. 213-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to measure the dust present in plasma discharges on FTU tokamak after disruption. The vaporization of the dust particles due to die high power of the laser used by the Thomson scattering diagnostic imply that only a rough estimate of the particle size could be derived from the elastic scattering of the laser light. A simple model for dust particle evaporation has been used to infer the size of the dust particle from the scattered light data.

  • 20. Giovannozzi, E.
    et al.
    Castaldo, C.
    Maddaluno, G.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rydzy, A.
    Dust measurement with Thomson scattering in FTU2008In: AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X, E-ISSN 1551-7616, Vol. 988, p. 148-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The size distribution of dust particles present in FTU after disruptions has been evaluated in the range 0.05 mu m - 0.1 mu m using the Thomson scattering system. Rayleigh approximation has been used to estimate the dust size. The distribution, although the radii considered do not differ more than an order of magnitude, behave like a power law. The laser energy density far exceed that necessary to vaporize, at least partially, the particles. This can affect the previous estimate of the particle sizes, and suggests that the effective radii might be larger than the estimated values. A preliminary analysis on the broad band signal is presented.

  • 21. Joffrin, E.
    et al.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Fridström, Richard
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Garcia Carrasco, Alvaro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Hellsten, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Moon, Sunwoo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Petersson, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rachlew, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Rubel, Marek
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Stefániková, Estera
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ström, Petter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tholerus, Emmi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Vallejos, Pablo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Weckmann, Armin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zhou, Yushan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zychor, I
    et al.,
    Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall2019In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 11, article id 112021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.

  • 22. Kantor, M.
    et al.
    Tsalas, M.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Rudakov, D.
    Bozhenkov, S.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ashikawa, N.
    Pospieszczyk, A.
    Philipps, V.
    Characterization of dust particles in the TEXTOR tokamak with Thomson scattering diagnostic2013In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 438, no Suppl., p. S711-S714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of dust particles in a fusion plasma is recognized as a serious issue for safe and efficient operation of the ITER tokamak. The paper presents an in situ laser assisted method for characterization of dust from thermal emission of the particles. The method was developed in the TEXTOR tokamak with the use of Thomson scattering (TS). The diagnostic is capable to detect single particles and measure the dust density profile along the laser probing axis, velocity distribution of dust particles along this axis as well as surface temperature and size of the detected particles.

  • 23. Khrapak, S. A.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Zobnin, A. V.
    Usachev, A. D.
    Yaroshenko, V. V.
    Thoma, M. H.
    Kretschmer, M.
    Hofner, H.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Petrov, O. F.
    Fortov, V. E.
    Particle charge in the bulk of gas discharges2005In: Physical Review E, ISSN 1539-3755, Vol. 72, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental determination of particle charge in a bulk dc discharge plasma covering a wide range of neutral gas pressures, was recently reported [S. Ratynskaia , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 085001 (2004)]. The charges obtained were several times smaller than the predictions of collisionless orbital motion limited theory. This discrepancy was attributed to the effect of ion-neutral collisions. In the present paper a more detailed description of this experiment is provided and additional experimental results obtained with particles of different sizes are reported. The measurements are compared with molecular dynamics simulations of particle charging for conditions similar to those of the experiment, with other available experimental data on particle charge in the bulk of gas discharges, and with a simple analytical model accounting for ion-neutral collisions. All the considered evidence indicates that ion-neutral collisions represent a very important factor, which significantly affects (reduces) the particle charge under typical discharge conditions.

  • 24. Khrapak, S. A.
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Chaudhuri, M.
    Zobnin, A.
    Usachev, A.
    Rau, C.
    Thoma, M. H.
    Petrov, O. F.
    Fortov, V. E.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Grain charging in an intermediately collisional plasma2012In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 35001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The charges of mu m-size particles in the quasineutral bulk plasma of a dc discharge are determined experimentally in a pressure range between 100 and 500 Pa, spanning the transition between the weakly collisional and highly collisional (hydrodynamic) regimes, where the ion mean free path drops below the plasma screening length. The charge is determined using the force balance condition from the measured particle drift velocities in stable particle flows. A simple interpolation formula for the ion flux to the grain in the transitional regime is shown to fit quite well the experimental results.

  • 25. Komm, M.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Cavalier, J.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Gunn, J. P.
    Podolnik, A.
    On thermionic emission from plasma-facing components in tokamak-relevant conditions2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 9, article id 094002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first results of particle-in-cell simulations of the electrostatic sheath and magnetic pre-sheath of thermionically emitting planar tungsten surfaces in fusion plasmas are presented. Plasma conditions during edge localized modes (ELMs) and during inter-ELM periods have been considered for various inclinations of the magnetic field and for selected surface temperatures. All runs have been performed under two assumptions for the sheath potential drop; fixed or floating. The primary focus lies on the evaluation of the escaping thermionic current and the quantification of the suppression due to the combined effects of space-charge and Larmor gyration. When applicable, the results are compared with the predictions of analytical models. The heat balance in the presence of thermionic emission as well as the contribution of the escaping thermionic current to surface cooling are also investigated. Regimes are identified where emission needs to be considered in the energy budget.

  • 26. Komm, M.
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Gunn, J. P.
    Krieger, K.
    Podolnik, A.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Panek, R.
    Simulations of thermionic suppression during tungsten transient melting experiments2017In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, article id 014069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma-facing components receive enormous heat fluxes under steady state and especially during transient conditions that can even lead to tungsten (W) melting. Under these conditions, the unimpeded thermionic current density emitted from the W surfaces can exceed the incident plasma current densities by several orders of magnitude triggering a replacement current which drives melt layer motion via the J x B force. However, in tokamaks, the thermionic current is suppressed by space-charge effects and prompt re-deposition due to gyro-rotation. We present comprehensive results of particle-in-cell modelling using the 2D3V code SPICE2 for the thermionic emissive sheath of tungsten. Simulations have been performed for various surface temperatures and selected inclinations of the magnetic field corresponding to the leading edge and sloped exposures. The surface temperature dependence of the escaping thermionic current and its limiting value are determined for various plasma parameters; for the leading edge geometry, the results agree remarkably well with the Takamura analytical model. For the sloped geometry, the limiting value is observed to be proportional to the thermal electron current and a simple analytical expression is proposed that accurately reproduces the numerical results.

  • 27. Krieger, K.
    et al.
    Sieglin, B.
    Balden, M.
    Coenen, J. W.
    Goeths, B.
    Laggner, F.
    de Marne, P.
    Matthews, G. F.
    Nille, D.
    Rohde, V.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Faitsch, M.
    Giannone, L.
    Herrmann, A.
    Horacek, J.
    Komm, M.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Thorén, E.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, P.
    Investigation of transient melting of tungsten by ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade2017In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, article id 014030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repetitive melting of tungsten by power transients originating from edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied in the tokamak experiment ASDEX Upgrade. Tungsten samples were exposed to H-mode discharges at the outer divertor target plate using the Divertor Manipulator II system. The exposed sample was designed with an elevated sloped surface inclined against the incident magnetic field to increase the projected parallel power flux to a level were transient melting by ELMs would occur. Sample exposure was controlled by moving the outer strike point to the sample location. As extension to previous melt studies in the new experiment both the current flow from the sample to vessel potential and the local surface temperature were measured with sufficient time resolution to resolve individual ELMs. The experiment provided for the first time a direct link of current flow and surface temperature during transient ELM events. This allows to further constrain the MEMOS melt motion code predictions and to improve the validation of its underlying model assumptions. Post exposure ex situ analysis of the retrieved samples confirms the decreased melt motion observed at shallower magnetic field line to surface angles compared to that at leading edges exposed to the parallel power flux.

  • 28.
    Labit, B.
    et al.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SPC, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Jonsson, Thomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Thorén, Emil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Vallejos Olivares, Pablo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Zuin, M.
    Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padua, Italy..
    Dependence on plasma shape and plasma fueling for small edge-localized mode regimes in TCV and ASDEX Upgrade2019In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 59, no 8, article id 086020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EUROfusion MST1 work package, a series of experiments has been conducted on AUG and TCV devices to disentangle the role of plasma fueling and plasma shape for the onset of small ELM regimes. On both devices, small ELM regimes with high confinement are achieved if and only if two conditions are fulfilled at the same time. Firstly, the plasma density at the separatrix must be large enough (n(e,sep)/n(G) similar to 0.3), leading to a pressure profile flattening at the separatrix, which stabilizes type-I ELMs. Secondly, the magnetic configuration has to be close to a double null (DN), leading to a reduction of the magnetic shear in the extreme vicinity of the separatrix. As a consequence, its stabilizing effect on ballooning modes is weakened.

  • 29. Laguardia, L.
    et al.
    Cremona, A.
    De Angeli, M.
    Lazzaro, E.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Passoni, M.
    Dellasega, D.
    Gervasini, G.
    Grosso, G.
    Schiavone, R.
    Vassallo, E.
    Formation of dust in low-pressure magnetized hydrocarbon plasmas2011In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 13, p. 063006-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid formation of large molecules and the subsequent production of solid-state dust particles in a low-pressure discharge is unlikely, because of the low rates of the polymerization reactions and short lifetimes of the species. Here, we suggest that C dust particles can form in atypically low (10(-3) mbar)-pressure hydrocarbon plasmas if the dust charging time is much shorter than the gas residence time in the device; we present supporting experimental evidence for this. Such a condition can be obtained by the production of high-density plasmas. The results show that dust formation from the gaseous phase can occur in a much wider parameter range than is commonly assumed.

  • 30. Lazzaro, E.
    et al.
    Proverbio, I.
    Nespoli, F.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Castaldo, C.
    Deangelis, U.
    Deangeli, M.
    Banon, Jean-Philippe
    KTH.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH.
    Transport and effects of ferromagnetic dust in a tokamak with a metallic vessel2012In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 124043-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Important physics effects in contemporary and future devices for magnetic fusion experiments depend on the interface with a 'composite' plasma, consisting of multiple ion species and heterogeneous dust with variable charge. A selection of processes related to dust and occurring in existing tokamaks is presented, focusing on new results on the physics of isolated micrometric ferromagnetic dust particles in the SOL of a tokamak with a metallic vessel of circular meridian cross section. Such particles in particular, in addition to usual forces, are subjected to magnetic dipole interaction with the ambient magnetic field and to strong evaporation effects at high surface temperatures. Moreover, preliminary results of inclusion of gaps in the vessel geometry suggest the possibility of dust trapping. Also reported are the effects of nanometre dust on plasma when the dust is to be considered as a plasma component.

  • 31. Lazzaro, E.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Proverbio, I.
    Hypervelocity regime of dust particles in tokamaks2011In: AIP Conf. Proc., 2011, p. 103-109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobilization and acceleration of metallic dust in gap region between the last closed confinement surface and the vessel wall of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is studied numerically for the definition of appropriate location of diagnostics devoted to dust dynamics.

  • 32. Litnovsky, A.
    et al.
    Rudakov, D. L.
    Bozhenkov, S.
    Smirnov, R. D.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ashikawa, N.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Xu, Y.
    Krasheninnikov, S. I.
    Biel, W.
    Brezinsek, S.
    Coenen, J. W.
    Kreter, A.
    Kantor, M.
    Lambertz, H. T.
    Philipps, V.
    Pospieszczyk, A.
    Samm, U.
    Sergienko, G.
    Schmitz, O.
    Stoschus, H.
    Dust investigations in TEXTOR: Impact of dust on plasma-wall interactions and on plasma performance2013In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 438, no Suppl., p. S126-S132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust will have severe impact on ITER performance since the accumulation of tritium in dust represents a safety issue, a possible reaction of dust with air and steam imposes an explosion hazard and the penetration of dust in core plasmas may degrade plasma performance by increasing radiative losses. Investigations were performed in TEXTOR where known amounts of pre-characterized carbon, diamond and tungsten dust were mobilized into plasmas using special dust holders. Mobilization of dust changed a balance between plasma-surface interactions processes, significantly increasing net deposition. Immediately after launch dust was dominating both core and edge plasma parameters. Remarkably, in about 100 ms after the launch, the effect of dust on edge and core plasma parameters was vanished: no increase of carbon and tungsten concentrations in the core plasmas was detected suggesting a prompt transport of dust to the nearby plasma-facing components without further residence in the plasma.

  • 33. Nespoli, F.
    et al.
    Lazzaro, E.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Proverbio, I.
    De Angeli, M.
    Castaldo, C.
    De Angelis, U.
    Grosso, G.
    Modelling and diagnostics of hypervelocity dust particles in a tokamak2012In: 39th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics 2012, EPS 2012 and the 16th International Congress on Plasma Physics: Volume 1., 2012, p. 520-523Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Olson, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Miloch, W.J.
    Department of Physics and Technology, University of Tromsö, Norway.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Yaroshenko, V.
    Max-Planck-Institute für Extraterrestrische Physik, Germany.
    Potential structure around th Cassini spacecraft near the orbit of Enceladus2010In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 17, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of numerical simulations of the potential structure around an object in a streaming plasma with parameters relevant for the Cassini spacecraft passing through Saturn's plasma disk near the orbit of Enceladus. Two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell codes have been used allowing the potential of the simulated spacecraft body to develop self-consistently through the collection of charge by its surface. The dependence of the density and potential profiles on ambient plasma density, electron temperature, and ion drift speed is discussed. The spacecraft floating potential values, found in the simulations, are compared to those deduced from the analysis of Cassini Langmuir probe characteristics.

  • 35.
    Panarese, A.
    et al.
    Univ Bari, Dept Chem, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;CNR, Inst Nanotechnol NANOTEC, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Bruno, D.
    CNR, Inst Nanotechnol NANOTEC, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics. st Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Longo, S.
    Univ Bari, Dept Chem, I-70126 Bari, Italy.;CNR, Inst Nanotechnol NANOTEC, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    de Angelis, U.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Molecular dynamics calculation of the spectral densities of plasma fluctuations2018In: Journal of Plasma Physics, ISSN 0022-3778, E-ISSN 1469-7807, Vol. 84, no 3, article id 905840308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spectral densities of plasma fluctuations are calculated for the thermal case using classical molecular dynamics (MD) assuming Coulomb interactions and a short-range cutoff radius. The aim of the calculation is to verify limits and performances of such calculations in the light of possible generalizations, e.g. collisional or non-ideal plasmas. Results are presented for ideal, collisionless, fully ionized thermal plasmas. Comparison with the analytical theory reveals a generally satisfactory agreement with possibility for improvement when more strict numerical parameters are used albeit with a strong increase in computational cost. The largest deviations have been observed in the vicinity of the weakly damped eigenmodes. The agreement is strong in other parts of the spectrum, where Landau damping is prominent, and overcomes the effects stemming from the excess collisionality and coupling as well as from the exclusion of short-range collisions.

  • 36. Proverbio, I.
    et al.
    Lazzaro, E.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Castaldo, C.
    De Angelis, U.
    Grosso, G.
    De Angeli, M.
    The dynamics of ferromagnetic dust particles in the FTU tokamak2011In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 53, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobilization and acceleration of metallic dust in the gap region between the last closed confinement surface and the vessel wall of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is studied numerically for the definition of the appropriate location of diagnostics devoted to dust dynamics.

  • 37.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Dusty plasmas vs. multicomponent plasmas2012In: Nukleonika, ISSN 0029-5922, E-ISSN 1508-5791, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 307-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different approaches employed for dusty plasmas, ranging from single particle description (valid for low dust densities) to models appropriate in the presence of dense dusty clouds, are briefly reviewed. For environments with high dust density, a selection of examples is provided to elucidate phenomena arising in dusty plasmas when the effects of absorption of plasma particles on the dust surfaces and dust charge fluctuations are of importance and cannot be neglected.

  • 38.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Castaldo, C.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Rudakov, D.
    Diagnostics of mobile dust in scrape-off layer plasmas2011In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 074009-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust production and accumulation pose serious safety and operational implications for the next generation fusion devices. Mobile dust particles can result in core plasma contamination with impurities, and those with high velocities can significantly contribute to the wall erosion. Diagnostics for monitoring dust in tokamaks during plasma discharges are hence important as they can provide information on dust velocity and size, and-in some cases-on dust composition. Such measurements are also valuable as an input for theoretical models of dust dynamics in scrape-off layer plasmas. Existing in situ dust diagnostics, focusing on the range of dust parameters they can detect, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the diagnostics which allow us to detect tails of the dust velocity and size distributions, e.g. small and very fast particles. Some of the techniques discussed have been adopted from space-related research and have been shown to be feasible and useful for tokamak applications as well.

  • 39.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Dilecce, G.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    BABE - a brush cathode discharge for thermal fluctuation measurements2015In: Journal of Plasma Physics, ISSN 0022-3778, E-ISSN 1469-7807, Vol. 81, article id 345810202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For experimental tests of fluctuation theory in ideal plasmas and plasmas seeded with dust, the ideal environment would be that of stable quiescent plasma. In most laboratory plasmas the homogeneous state of the positive column is often unstable, rare exceptions are the so-called brush cathode discharges, proposed in the 60s, where a specially manufactured cathode allows stable operation in the abnormal glow regime and the only fluctuations present are those due the thermal motion of the particles. Such a device, the BAri Brush Electrode (BABE), has recently been built in a novel configuration that combines the advantages of the inverse design with those of the reflex geometry. The region between the two anodes is essentially field-free and extremely stable in wide range of plasma densities and collisionalities. Unprecedented low fluctuation levels of delta n/n <= 10(-5) in He and delta n/n <= 5 x 10(-6) in Ar discharges have been achieved.

  • 40.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Dilecce, G.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Nitrogen optical emission during nanosecond laser ablation of metals: prompt electrons or photo-ionization?2014In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 409-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments on the interaction of metal targets with a Nd:YAG laser beam ( = 1,064 nm, intensity -) are carried out in a finite Nitrogen pressure environment. The observed spectra are unambiguous evidence of the existence of an ionization and excitation source, arriving at the observation volume prior to the plume. Such a source can be either prompt electrons or VUV radiation. The analysis reveals that the prompt electron interpretation requires energies in excess of 1 keV, incompatible with any acceleration mechanisms relevant for such laser intensities. On the other hand, VUV radiation is sufficiently strong to explain the observed spectra.

  • 41.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Jacquemot, Sylvie
    41st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics Preface2015In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 010301-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Regnoli, Giorgio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Klumov, B.
    Rypdal, K.
    Grain transport in three-dimensional soft dusty plasma states2010In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 034502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations of aggregates of dust grains interacting via repulsive Yukawa forces, and subject to heating by neutrals and realistic boundary conditions, suggest that grain transport is ubiquitously anomalous for soft states at the transition between liquid and solid. These anomalies include self-similar, stretched-Gaussian, probability density distributions of grain displacements and superdiffusive displacement scaling on the short time scales for which the mean displacements sigma(tau) are less than the interparticle distance Delta. However, the details of the anomalous transport on these shorter time scales depend on system stiffness and confinement conditions. On time scales for which sigma(tau) >= Delta, humps can develop on the distribution at integer multiples of Delta, an effect of cooperative hopping of grains on the lattice. Relaxation toward Gaussian displacement distributions and normal diffusion takes place on time scales for which sigma(tau) > Delta. The simulations indicate that qualitative features previously found for hexatic states of two-dimensional aggregates by simulation and experiment are also present in three-dimensional configurations. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3334377]

  • 43.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    Rudakov, Dmitry
    De Angeli, Marco
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ripamonti, Dario
    Riva, Giulio
    Bardin, Sébastien
    van der Meiden, Hennie
    Vernimmen, Jordy
    Bystrov, Kirill
    De Temmerman, Gregory
    Interaction of adhered metallic dust with transient plasma heat loads2016In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 56, article id 066010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first study of the interaction of metallic dust (tungsten, aluminum) adhered on tungsten substrates with transient plasma heat loads is presented. Experiments were carried out in the Pilot-PSI linear device with transient heat fluxes up to 550 MW m(-2) and in the DIII-D divertor tokamak. The central role of the dust-substrate contact area in heat conduction is highlighted and confirmed by heat transfer simulations. The experiments provide evidence of the occurrence of wetting-induced coagulation, a novel growth mechanism where cluster melting accompanied by droplet wetting leads to the formation of larger grains. The physical processes behind this mechanism are elucidated. The remobilization activity of the newly formed dust and the survivability of tungsten dust on hot surfaces are documented and discussed in the light of implications for ITER.

  • 44.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Shalpegin, A.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas Tancrède Raymond
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angell, M.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bardin, S.
    Brochard, F.
    Ripamonti, D.
    den Harder, N.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Elastic-plastic adhesive impacts of tungsten dust with metal surfaces in plasma environments2015In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, p. 877-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust-surface collisions impose size selectivity on the ability of dust grains to migrate in scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas and to adhere to plasma-facing components. Here, we report first experimental evidence of dust impact phenomena in plasma environments concerning low-speed collisions of tungsten dust with tungsten surfaces: re-bouncing, adhesion, sliding and rolling. The results comply with the predictions of the model of elastic-perfectly plastic adhesive spheres employed in the dust dynamics code MIGRAINe for sub- to several meters per second impacts of micrometer-range metal dust.

  • 45.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Emmoth, Birger
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Kreter, A.
    Philipps, V.
    Capture by aerogel-characterization of mobile dust in tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas2009In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 49, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of the novel in situ dust diagnostic method-capture by aerogel targets. Aerogel, a highly porous material with a density of a few tens of kg m(-3), allows capturing of dust particles present during the discharge without destroying them. The first exposures in the TEXTOR scrape-off layer plasma showed that such targets are able to capture both slow and fast particles with sizes in the range from submicrometre to similar to 100 mu m. The technique provides information on dust velocity and size distribution as well as dust flux estimates. The composition and texture of the captured dust can also be studied in detail to shed light on dust formation processes.

  • 46.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Castaldo, C.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Rudakov, D.
    Morfill, G.
    Horanyi, M.
    Yu, J. H.
    Maddaluno, G.
    In situ dust detection in fusion devices2008In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 50, no 12, p. 124046-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diagnostics for monitoring dust in tokamaks during plasma discharges, both established and currently being developed, are discussed with a focus on the range of dust parameters they can detect. Visible imaging can currently be used for dust particles bigger than a few mu m and velocities below 1 km s(-1). The dust impact ionization phenomenon can be used for the detection of particles with velocities above a few km s(-1). Laser light scattering gives an insight into the amount of sub-micron dust. Aerogels, light porous materials, allow capturing of dust particles without destroying them and determining their velocity. Other methods include the microbalance technique and electrostatic dust detectors. A recent suggestion to use the effects of dust on collective scattering for diagnostic purposes is also discussed.

  • 47.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Castaldo, C.
    Rypdal, K.
    Morfill, G.
    de Angelis, U.
    Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.
    Rufoloni, A.
    Giovannozzi, E.
    Hypervelocity dust impacts in FTU scrape-off layer2008In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 48, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first evidence of dust-impact ionization processes in the scrape-off layer of the Frascati tokamak upgrade (FTU) was reported in Nucl. Fusion 47 L5 (2007). In this work an extended data analysis (both of electrostatic probe signals and probe surface analysis) is presented, using results of empirical studies of hypervelocity impacts. Within the accuracy and limits of application of such results to tokamak plasma environment, the data are shown to be consistent with occurrence of impacts by micrometre size iron particles at velocities of the order of 10 km s(-1).

  • 48.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    de Angelis, U.
    Marmolino, C.
    Capobianco, G.
    Lontano, M.
    Lazzaro, E.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Gervasini, G.
    Observation of the effects of dust particles on plasma fluctuation spectra2007In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 99, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Charged dust particles are theoretically expected to modify the amplitude and spectrum of plasma fluctuations, and this can eventually provide novel diagnostic tools. Direct experimental evidence of the effects of dust particles on the fluctuations of a low collisionality plasma is reported, in agreement with the expectations of kinetic theory.

  • 49. Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    et al.
    de Angelis, U.
    Khrapak, S.
    Klumov, B.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Electrostatic interaction between dust particles in weakly ionized complex plasmas2006In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 13, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrostatic potential around a dust particle in a complex plasma is calculated, taking into account ion-neutral collisions and collective effects, in a range of plasma parameters relevant for typical laboratory experiments. The existence of attractive wells and dependence of their shape on the main experimental control parameters, neutral gas pressure, and dust number density, is investigated.

  • 50. Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    et al.
    Demidov, V. I.
    Rypdal, K.
    A probe for measurements of electrostatic fluctuations in a low-temperature magnetized plasma2000In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 1367-1369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cylindrical probe with insulating end plugs for investigations of fluctuations of electron temperature and plasma potential is proposed. The radii of the metallic rod and plugs are chosen to optimize the ratio of ion saturation current to electron saturation current (> 1) for the probe oriented parallel to the magnetic field. This probe is applicable when the electron temperature is much larger than the ion temperature.

123 1 - 50 of 108
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