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  • 1. Bowallius, O.
    et al.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Nordell, N.
    Landgren, Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Karlsson, S.
    Scanning capacitance microscopy investigations of SiC structures2001In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 4, no 03-jan, p. 209-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have applied scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) to investigate SIC structures grown by vapour-phase epitaxy. The SCM technique is evaluated using n- and p-type doping staircase structures with doping concentrations ranging from 10(16) to 10(20) cm(-3). The n- and p-type doping was obtained by doping SiC with nitrogen and aluminium, respectively. The sample cross-sections for SCM were obtained by simple cleaving. For doping levels above 10(17) cm(-3) the SCM data are consistent with doping data obtained independently from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Treating the samples with diluted hydrofluoric acid significantly improves the SCM signal for the low-doped regions. The SCM technique has been used to investigate doping redistribution in patterned regrowth of n- and p-type SIC around dry-etched mesas. In both cases, contrast variations were seen close to the mesa walls, indicative of doping variations; lower and higher incorporation for p- and n-type, respectively. The observations are shown to be consistent with the expected trends in dopant incorporation in the SiC material.

  • 2. Capano, M A
    et al.
    Ryu, S
    Cooper, J A
    Melloch, M R
    Rottner, K
    Karlsson, S
    Nordell, N
    Powell, A
    Walker, D E
    Surface roughening in ion implanted 4H-silicon carbide1999In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 214-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Dalibor, T
    et al.
    Pensl, G
    Matsunami, H
    Kimoto, T
    Choyke, W J
    Schoner, A
    Nordell, N
    Deep defect centers in silicon carbide monitored with deep level transient spectroscopy1997In: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 162, no 1, p. 199-225Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Dalibor, T
    et al.
    Pensl, G
    Nordell, N
    Schoner, A
    Electrical properties of the titanium acceptor in silicon carbide1997In: Physical Review B Condensed Matter, ISSN 0163-1829, E-ISSN 1095-3795, Vol. 55, no 20, p. 13618-13624Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Dalibor, T
    et al.
    Pensl, G
    Nordell, N
    Schoner, A
    Choyke, W J
    Ground states of the ionized isoelectronic Ti acceptor in SiC1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 537-540Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Doyle, J P
    et al.
    Aboelfotoh, M O
    Svensson, B G
    Schoner, A
    Nordell, N
    Characterization of electrically active deep level defects in 4H and 6H SiC1997In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 1388-1391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Doyle, J. P.
    et al.
    Abolfotoh, M. O.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Schoener, A.
    Nordell, Nils
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Harris, C.
    Lindström, J. L.
    Janzen, E.
    Hemmingsson, C.
    Characterization of deep level defects in 4H and 6H SiC via DLTS, SIMS and MeV e-beam irradiation1996In: III-nitride, SiC and diamond materials for electronic devices: Proceedings of the Symposium, San Francisco, CA; UNITED STATES; 8-12 Apr. 1996., 1996, p. 519-524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    Electrically active defects in both 4H and 6H polytypes of SiC have been observed through the use of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Schottky contacts were grown by VPE with doping concentrations, the epitaxial layer having a doping concentration in the range of 10 exp 14/cu cm to 10 exp 17/cu cm. Numerous levels have been found in the as-grown n-type 6H-SiC samples, and SIMS and MeV electron irradiation have been employed to correlate the defect levels to impurities or structural defects. In contrast, only a single level is observed in the as-grown 4H-SiC samples.
  • 8.
    Doyle, J. P.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Pellegrino, Paolo
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Keskitalo, N.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Svensson, B. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Schöner, A.
    Nordell, N.
    Lindström, J. L.
    Electrically active point defects in n-type 4H–SiC1998In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrically active defect has been observed at a level position of ∼ 0.70 eV below the conduction band edge (Ec) with an extrapolated capture cross section of ∼ 5×10−14 cm2 in epitaxial layers of 4H–SiC grown by vapor phase epitaxy with a concentration of approximately 1×1013 cm−3. Secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed no evidence of the transition metals Ti, V, and Cr. Furthermore, after electron irradiation with 2 MeV electrons, the 0.70 eV level is not observed to increase in concentration although three new levels are observed at approximately 0.32, 0.62, and 0.68 eV below Ec with extrapolated capture cross sections of 4×10−14, 4×10−14, and 5×10−15 cm2, respectively. However, the defects causing these levels are unstable and decay after a period of time at room temperature, resulting in the formation of the 0.70 eV level. Our results suggest strongly that the 0.70 eV level originates from a defect of intrinsic nature. The unstable behavior of the electron irradiation-induced defects at room temperature has not been observed in the 6H–SiC polytype.

  • 9. Doyle, J P
    et al.
    Schoner, A
    Nordell, N
    Galeckas, A
    Bleichner, H
    Linnarsson, M K
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Linnros, J
    Svensson, B G
    Observation of near-surface electrically active defects in n-type 6H-SiC1998In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 83, p. 3649-3651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In n-type 6H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by vapor phase epitaxy, we find that in contrast to the majority of the epitaxial layer, where electrically active defects are observed with a concentration less than 1 X 10(-13) cm(-3), a region near the front surface contains defects with concentrations approaching 10(14) cm(-3). A relationship between the near-surface defects and metallic impurities is suggested by a Ti concentration of 1 X 10(16) cm(-3) in this region. The high concentration of near surface defects is found to significantly reduce the carrier lifetime. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-8979(98)03007-2].

  • 10. Frank, T
    et al.
    Troffer, T
    Pensl, G
    Nordell, N
    Karlsson, S
    Schoner, A
    Incorporation of the D-center in SiC controlled either by coimplantation of Si/B and C/B or by site-competition epitaxy1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 681-684Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11. Galeckas, A
    et al.
    Linnros, J
    Frischholz, M
    Rottner, K
    Nordell, N
    Karlsson, S
    Grivickas, V
    Investigation of surface recombination and carrier lifetime in 4H/6H-SiC1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 239-243Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Hemmingsson, C
    et al.
    Son, N T
    Kordina, O
    Bergman, J P
    Janzen, E
    Lindstrom, J L
    Savage, S
    Nordell, N
    Deep level defects in electron-irradiated 4H SiC epitaxial layers1997In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 81, no 9, p. 6155-6159Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Hemmingsson, C
    et al.
    Son, N T
    Kordina, O
    Janzen, E
    Lindstrom, J L
    Savage, S
    Nordell, N
    Capacitance transient studies of electron irradiated 4H-SiC1997In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 46, no 1-3, p. 336-339Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Ivanov, P A
    et al.
    Kon'kov, O I
    Konstantinov, A O
    Panteleev, V N
    Samsonova, T P
    Nordell, N
    Karlsson, S
    Harris, C I
    SiC surface engineering for high voltage JFET applications1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 1081-1084Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Janson, M S
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Nordell, Nils
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Karlsson, S
    Svensson, B G
    Dissociation energy of the passivating hydrogen-aluminum complex in 4H-SiC2001In: Materials Science Forum, 2001, Vol. 353-356, p. 427-430Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal stability of the passivating hydrogen-aluminum complex ((HAl)-H-2) in 4H-silicon carbide has been studied by determining the effective diffusion constant for hydrogen in an AI-doped epitaxial layer. Assuming a complex comprised of one H-2 and one AI acceptor ion, the extracted diffusivities provide the dissociation frequency of the complex. The extracted frequencies cover three orders of magnitude and yield a close to perfect fit to an Arrhenius equation with the extracted dissociation energy for the (HAl)-H-2-complex equal to 1.66 (+/-0.05) eV and a pre-exponential attempt frequency nu (0) = 1.7x10(13) s(-1) in good agreement with the expected value for a first order dissociation process.

  • 16. Janson, M. S.
    et al.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Nordell, N.
    Bleichner, H.
    Transient enhanced diffusion of implanted boron in 4H-silicon carbide2000In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 76, no 11, p. 1434-1436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental evidence is given for transient enhanced diffusion of boron (B) in ion-implanted silicon carbide (SiC). The implanted B is diffusing several mu m into the samples when annealed at 1600 and 1700 degrees C for 10 min, but the in-diffused tails remain unaffected when the annealing times are increased to 30 min at the same temperatures. A lower limit of the effective B diffusivity at 1600 degrees C is determined to 7x10(-12) cm(2)/s, which is 160 times larger than the equilibrium B diffusivity given in the literature.

  • 17.
    Janson, Martin S.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Svensson, Bengt Gunnar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Nordell, Nils
    IMC, Sweden.
    Karlsson, S.
    Electric-field-assisted migration and accumulation of hydrogen in silicon carbide2000In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 61, no 11, p. 7195-7198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of deuterium (H-2) in epitaxial 4H-SiC layers with buried highly Al-acceptor doped regions has been studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. H-2 was introduced in the near surface region by the use of 20-keV implantation after which the samples were thermally annealed. As a result, an anomalous accumulation of H-2 in the high doped layers was observed. To explain the accumulation kinetics, a model is proposed where positively charged H-2 ions are driven into the high doped layer and become trapped there by the strong electric field at the edges. This effect is important for other semiconductors as well, since hydrogen is a common impurity present at high concentrations in many semiconductors.

  • 18. Karlsson, S
    et al.
    Nordell, N
    AFM study of in situ etching of 4H and 6H SiC substrates1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 363-366Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Karlsson, S.
    et al.
    Nordell, Nils
    Industrial Microelectronic Center (IMC), Sweden.
    Spadafora, F.
    Linnarsson, Margareta
    KTH.
    Epitaxial growth of SiC in a new multi-wafer VPE reactor1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-62, p. 143-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SiC epitaxial layers have been grown in a commercial multi-wafer reactor. Results from the initial growth runs are presented. The reactor is vertical and has a high speed rotating susceptor that can support up to six 50 mm diameter wafers. The surface morphology of the grown layers are specular and show no indication of step-bunching. The unintentional background doping is p-type in the low 10(15) cm(-3) range, consisting mainly of Al. Both N and Al have been used for doped layers showing wide doping range capability and sharp transients. The best uniformity in thickness and doping achieved so far on the same 35 mm wafer are +/- 7% and +/- 10%, respectively. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Kassamakova, L
    et al.
    Kakanakov, R D
    Kassamakov, I V
    Nordell, N
    Savage, S
    Hjorvarsson, B
    Svedberg, E B
    Abom, L
    Madsen, L D
    Temperature stable Pd ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC formed at low temperatures1999In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 605-611Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Kassamakova, L
    et al.
    Kakanakov, R
    Kassamakov, I
    Nordell, N
    Savage, S
    Svedberg, E B
    Madsen, L D
    Al/Si ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC for power devices2000In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS - 1999 PTS, 1 & 2, 2000, p. 1009-1012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Kassamakova, L
    et al.
    Kakanakov, R
    Nordell, N
    Savage, S
    Thermostable ohmic contacts on p-type SiC1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 787-790Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Kassamakova, L
    et al.
    Kakanakov, R
    Nordell, N
    Savage, S
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, A
    Marinova, T
    Study of the electrical, thermal and chemical properties of Pd ohmic contacts to p-type 4H-SiC: dependence on annealing conditions1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 291-295Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Konstantinov, A O
    et al.
    Ivanov, P A
    Nordell, N
    Karlsson, S
    Harris, C I
    High-voltage operation of field-effect transistors in silicon carbide1997In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 521-522Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Konstantinov, A O
    et al.
    Nordell, N
    Wahab, Q
    Lindefelt, U
    Temperature dependence of avalanche breakdown for epitaxial diodes in 4H silicon carbide1998In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 73, no 13, p. 1850-1852Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Konstantinov, A O
    et al.
    Wahab, Q
    Nordell, N
    Lindefelt, U
    Ionization rates and critical fields in 4H SiC junction devices1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 513-516Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Konstantinov, A O
    et al.
    Wahab, Q
    Nordell, N
    Lindefelt, U
    Ionization rates and critical fields in 4H silicon carbide1997In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 90-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. Konstantinov, A O
    et al.
    Wahab, Q
    Nordell, N
    Lindefelt, U
    Study of avalanche breakdown and impact ionization in 4H silicon carbide1998In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 335-341Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Linnarsson, M K
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Janson, M S
    Karlsson, S
    Schoner, A
    Nordell, N
    Svensson, B G
    Diffusion of light elements in 4H-and 6H-SiC1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deuterium and lithium were introduced in p-type SiC by implantation of 20 keV H-2(+) or 30 keV Li-7(+) ions in order to form a diffusion source. The samples were subsequently annealed in vacuum in the temperature range 400-700 degrees C for 0.25 to 16 h. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to measure the deuterium and the lithium distribution after heat treatments. Both deuterium and lithium readily decorate the bombardment-induced defects in the vicinity of the ion implantation profile and they are also trapped, most likely by residual boron impurities, during diffusion into the bulk. An effective diffusion coefficient, reflecting the dissociation of trapped lithium, with an activation energy of 2.1 eV is extracted for lithium diffusion in p-type 6H SIG. Furthermore, a capture radius for trapping (most likely by boron) of deuterium is estimated as 10 Angstrom. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  • 30. Linnarsson, M K
    et al.
    Janson, M
    Schoner, A
    Nordell, N
    Karlsson, S
    Svensson, B G
    Deuterium incorporation in acceptor doped epitaxial layers of 6H-SiC1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 761-764Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Applied Physics, MAP.
    Janson, Martin S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Nordell, Nils
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Electrum Laboratory, ELAB.
    Wong-Leung, J.
    Schoner, A.
    Formation of precipitates in heavily boron doped 4H-SiC2006In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 252, no 15, p. 5316-5320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are utilized to study precipitation and the solubility of B in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers super saturated with B. Heat treatments are performed in Ar atmosphere in an rf-heated furnace at temperatures between 1700 and 2000 degrees C. SIMS ion images, and TEM micrographs reveal the formation of two types of precipitates where the larger, more thermally stable one is suggested to be B4C. The boron solubility is determined from SIMS depth profiles and is shown to follow the Arrhenius expression: 7.1 x 10(22) exp(-1.4 eV/k(B)T) cm(-3) over the studied temperature range.

  • 32. MASSEBOEUF, E
    et al.
    SAHLEN, O
    OLIN, U
    NORDELL, N
    RASK, M
    LANDGREN, G
    LOW-POWER OPTICAL BISTABILITY IN A THERMALLY STABLE ALGAAS ETALON1989In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 54, no 23, p. 2290-2292Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. N, NORDELL
    et al.
    G, ANDERSSON
    Hetero:epitaxially grown silicon carbide single crystal|in which inner walls of tube are at least closer to susceptor coated by thin heat-reflecting film1995Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Andersson, S G
    Schoner, A
    A new reactor concept for epitaxial growth of SiC1996In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 1995, 1996, p. 81-84Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    ANDERSSON, SG
    LANDGREN, G
    DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF A NEW REACTOR FOR METAL ORGANIC VAPOR-PHASE EPITAXIAL-GROWTH OF EXTREMELY UNIFORM LAYERS1992In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 139, no 2, p. 583-590Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    BORGLIND, J
    IMPROVED INP REGROWTH PROPERTIES IN METALORGANIC VAPOR-PHASE EPITAXY BY ADDITION OF CCL41992In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 22-24Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    BORGLIND, J
    MOVPE GROWTH OF INP AROUND REACTIVE ION ETCHED MESAS1991In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 114, no 1-2, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    BORGLIND, J
    KJEBON, O
    LOURDUDOSS, S
    MOVPE REGROWTH OF SEMIINSULATING INP AROUND REACTIVE ION ETCHED LASER MESAS1991In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 926-927Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    BORGLIND, J
    LANDGREN, G
    INFLUENCE OF MOVPE GROWTH-CONDITIONS AND CCL4 ADDITION ON INP CRYSTAL SHAPES1992In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 125, no 3-4, p. 597-611Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Bowallius, O
    Anand, S
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, A
    Yakimova, R
    Madsen, L D
    Karlsson, S
    Konstantinov, A O
    Polytype homogeneity and doping distribution in homoepitaxial 4H SiC grown on nonplanar substrates2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, no 10, p. 1755-1757Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Karlsson, S
    Konstantinov, A O
    Equilibrium crystal shapes for 6H AND 4H SiC grown on non-planar substrates1999In: Materials Science & Engineering: B. Solid-state Materials for Advanced Technology, ISSN 0921-5107, E-ISSN 1873-4944, Vol. 61-2, p. 130-134Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Karlsson, S
    Konstantinov, A O
    Growth of 4H and 6H SiC in trenches and around stripe mesas1998In: SILICON CARBIDE, III-NITRIDES AND RELATED MATERIALS, PTS 1 AND 2, 1998, p. 131-134Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Karlsson, S
    Konstantinov, A O
    Homoepitaxy 6H and 4H SiC on nonplanar substrates1998In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 197-199Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    NISHINO, S
    YANG, JW
    JACOB, C
    PIROUZ, P
    GROWTH OF SIC USING HEXAMETHYLDISILANE IN A HYDROGEN-POOR AMBIENT1994In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 64, no 13, p. 1647-1649Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    NISHINO, S
    YANG, JW
    JACOB, C
    PIROUZ, P
    INFLUENCE OF H-2 ADDITION AND GROWTH TEMPERATURE ON CVD OF SIC USING HEXAMETHYLDISILANE AND AR1995In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 142, no 2, p. 565-571Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Savage, S
    Schoner, A
    Aluminium doped 6H SiC: CVD growth and formation of ohmic contacts1996In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 1995, 1996, p. 573-576Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47. Nordell, N
    et al.
    Schoner, A
    Andersson, S G
    Design and performance of a new reactor for vapor phase epitaxy of 3C, 6H, and 4H SiC1996In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 143, no 9, p. 2910-2919Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Nordell, N.
    et al.
    Schöner, A.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Electronics.
    Control of Al and B doping transients in 6H and 4H SiC grown by vapor phase epitaxy1997In: Journal of Electronic Materials, ISSN 0361-5235, E-ISSN 1543-186X, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atomic concentration profiles in 4H and 6H SiC created by Al and B doping turn-on and turn-off during vapor phase epitaxy (VPE) was investigated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). It was found that dopant traces were adsorbed to the reactor walls and re-evaporated after the dopant precursor flow was switched off. This adsorption/re-evaporation process limits the doping dynamic range to about three orders of magnitude for Al, and two orders of magnitude for B. An order of magnitude in doping dynamics could be gained by simultaneously switching the gases and changing the C:Si precursor ratio. By adding a 10 min growth interruption with an H or HC1 etch at the doping turn-off, the background doping tail could be considerably suppressed. In total, a doping dynamics for Al of almost five orders of magnitude can be controlled within a 30 nm layer. For B, the dynamic range is more than three orders of magnitude, and the abruptness is most probably diffusion limited. Abackground doping level of 2 × 1015 cm−3 for Al and 2 × 1016 cm−3 for B was obtained. For Al, the background doping is most probably due to the adsorption/re-evaporation of dopants at the reactor walls; while for B, the background doping may in addition be limited by diffusion.

  • 49. NORDELL, N
    et al.
    WILLEN, B
    OLSSON, COA
    WESTERGREN, U
    LANDGREN, G
    GROWTH AND PERFORMANCE OF ALGAAS/GAAS HETEROSTRUCTURE BIPOLAR-TRANSISTORS1991In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 107, no 1-4, p. 909-914Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Nordell, Nils
    et al.
    Andersson, G.
    Controlled growth of single crystal films of silicon carbide|includes susceptor to receive substrate, tube to lead gas over and past substrate and heater1995Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
12 1 - 50 of 64
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