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  • 1. Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Kawnine, Tanvir
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Edman, Anneli
    Informell coachning på nätet2011In: Mer om nätbaserad utbildnig: Fördjupning och exempel / [ed] Stefan Hrastinski, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1, 113-126 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2. Bengtsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Eriksson Lundström, Jenny
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design, MID.
    Ozan, Håkan
    Sustainability Impact of Open Innovation Software2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3. Carlsson, S.A.
    et al.
    Henningsson, S.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    Keller, C.
    An approach for designing management support systems: The design science research process and its outcomes2009In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST '09, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research involves creating and evaluating innovative methods and approaches to be used in design practice. We present an approach to be used in the process of designing Management Support Systems (MSS). The nature of managerial work makes the design, development, and implementation of MSS a major challenge. The MSS literature suggests that determining MSS requirements and specification of MSS are the most critical phases in MSS design and development. We present an approach that can be used as a guide for MSS design, with a primary focus on MSS requirements determination and how requirements can be fulfilled using information and communication technologies (ICT). The approach builds on Quinn and associates competing values model (CVM) of organizational effectiveness. The approach can guide MSS designers in designing MSS that support different managerial roles, i.e., the development of MSS that support managerial cognition, decision, and action.

  • 4. Carlsson, S.A.
    et al.
    Henningsson, S.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    Keller, C.
    Towards a design science research approach for IS use and management: Applications from the areas of knowledge management, e-learning and IS integration2008In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, Atlanta, 2008, 111-131 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research is an essential part of IS research since the field should not only try to understand how the world is but also how to change it. We argue that the aim of IS design science research should be to develop practical knowledge not only for the design and improvement of IS but also for IS use and management. Whereas substantial methodological support exists for researchers engaged in behavioral IS research, only limited methodological support exists for researchers with the ambition to develop new IS design theories and new IT artifacts. For the development of design theories for IS use and management the methodological support is even weaker. To overcome this shortcoming we suggest an approach for design research on IS use and management. We give three examples of the proposed approach in use by applying it to the areas of knowledge management systems, e-learning and IS integration.

  • 5. Casanovas, I.
    et al.
    Fernandez, G.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    Keller, C.
    Lindh, J.
    Teachers perception of institutional strategies in e-learning implementations: A comparative study of an Argentinean and a Swedish university2008In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on e-Learning, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the complexity and dependence on cultural, geographical, social and technological aspects on e-Learning implemenation, we performed a joint research between an Argentinan and a Swedish university to compare teachers perception of individual and organizational factors affecting e-Learning initiatives. The method of doing this has been to conduct a survey at both universities, distributing a questionnare among teachers. Collected data was then analyzed to see if there are similarities and differences. In this work, within cultural aspects, we will focus on the organizatonal aspects and institutional strategies for e-Learning developments though the results about attitudes, purposes, barriers, and driving factors will be referred in order to enlighten the analysis of the institutional frame. We have seen that the results are quite similar for the two universities. The major barriers to e-Learning at both sites were lack of time and lack of knowledge about technology. Although the findings seem to be related to individual concerns, they can also be seen as a consequence of an institutional culture that restricts the time for updating and training. The teachers experienced that they gained limited support from the university managment in their ambitions to develop e-Learning. Hofstede´s Power Distance dimension, although not equal, is middle ranked for both countries. According to this, both academic staff, in more or less degree, coincides in thinking of universities as central managed institutions that have to lead and support their e-Learning initiatives by funding them, and recognizing and rewarding individual efforts.

  • 6. Cleveland-Innes, M.
    et al.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Bälter, Olle
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Wiseman, C.
    Pedagogical development, E-learning and teaching in higher education2015In: International Handbook of E-learning Volume 1: Theoretical Perspectives and Research, Taylor and Francis , 2015, 93-114 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7. Cleveland-Innes, M.
    et al.
    Stenbom, Stefan
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Faculty change in engineering education: Case study of a blended course about blended and online learning2015In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, 2015, no 122nd ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Making Value for SocietyConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a case study of teaching development in engineering education at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, in answer to the research question "what impact, if any, does participation in a blended course about teaching in blended face-to-face and online formats have on faculty views about teaching in engineering education?" Early results indicate that 1) faculty can assess the value of online and blended learning through this experience, 2) faculty engaged actively in online and face-to-face discussions of pedagogy, 3) disciplinary differences in the application of online and blended learning are a concern to STEM faculty, and 4) the evaluation and implementation, if any, of online and blended learning in engineering education has to include discussions beyond the use of applicable technologies.

  • 8.
    Cleveland-Innes, Martha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning. Athabasca University.
    Stenbom, Stefan
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Presence in a Case of Online Math Coaching2014In: Challenges for Research into Open & Distance Learning: Doing Things Better – Doing Better Things. Proceedings of the European Distance and E-Learning Network 2014 Research Workshop , Oxford, 2014, 87-94 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Math Coach program provides help with mathematics instruction using online coaching. Instructive communication using text-based CMC with additional whiteboard capacity is used. Coachees range from sixth to ninth year of compulsory school, and upper secondary school (aged 12–19). Coaches are enrolled from students at teacher training colleges. Stenbom, Cleveland-Innes, & Hrastinski (2012) introduced a framework for analyzing online coaching called the Relationship of Inquiry. That framework is a modification of the well-researched and verified theoretical framework the online Community of Inquiry (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer ( 2000, 2001). Transcript analysis of Math Coach conversations indicates that emotional expression is a natural part of the practical inquiry process that constitutes cognitive presence.

  • 9. Edenius, Mats
    et al.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Managing corporate open innovation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Elevant, Katarina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Web Weather 2.0: Improving Weather Information with User-generated Observations2013In: AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1944-3900, E-ISSN 1944-3900, Vol. 5, no 1, 28-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing web weather 2.0, this paper suggests that active participation by civil society may arise through sharing of environmental data through observations of weather and other measurable variables in the environment performed by individuals. Collecting data from individuals is here suggested for improving weather data currently used by weather research centers and practitioners. Extending these current sets of weather data by using web 2.0 may address some issues stated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) regarding spatial and temporal resolutions of meteorological data including knowledge on different processes between the air and other environmental systems. To test the concept of web weather 2.0, the usability of weather data collected from individuals and the expected quantities of such data need to be determined. In addition, collection methods should be developed. Aiming at the design of an artifact that can meet these needs, this paper presents some important steps of the design process of a “share weather” system, including several demonstrations and experiments performed on different user groups, i.e. school children performing weather observations as a part of their daily tasks and education, and adults interested in weather due to their daily dependence on traffic conditions. This paper provides new knowledge about user-generated observations of weather, including quality and motivation to contribute, and guidance on how future systems for collection of environmental data from individuals may be created. After testing the feasibility of the designed “share weather” artifact, we conclude that the potential role of individuals in producing valuable information beneficial to society should be considered within several branches of environmental sciences as well as policy-making.

  • 11. Eriksson Lundström, Jenny
    et al.
    Wiberg, MikaelHrastinski, StefanKTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.Edenius, MatsÅkerfalk, Pär J.
    Managing Open Innovation Technologies2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 12. Henningsson, S
    et al.
    Rukanova, B
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Resource dependencies in socio-technical information systems design research2010In: Communications of the AIS, Vol. 27, no 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An Information Systems (IS) design research project is in many aspects fundamentally different from that of traditional behaviorist research. IS design research projects with the ambition to provide socio-technical solutions to real world problems require the contribution of external stakeholders to the development, testing, and implementation of the design contribution. This article analyzes socio-technical IS design research from a resource dependency perspective. Our objective is to identify and describe critical resources that need to be secured for completion of the research. We investigate three socio-technical IS design research projects. The first project is a small-scale project on design of eLearning courses, the second is a medium-scale industry-driven project on IS integration in corporate mergers and acquisitions, and the third is a large collaborative research project with the ambition to redesign European customs using IT. The most prominent resources are human (knowledge and skills) and organizational (reputation and trust). The main strategy to deal with dependencies is incorporation of resource controllers, which create reciprocal and sequential dependencies internally. Our study shows the importance of extending the existing view of IS design research, when applied to socio-technical research, with an “initiation phase” and an “impact phase,” which are especially important in large-scale design research projects.

  • 13. Henningsson, Stefan
    et al.
    Carlsson, Sven A.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Keller, Christina
    Socio-technical IS design science research: developing design theory for IS integration management2011In: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 9, no 1, 109-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research is an essential part of IS research since the field should not only try to understand how the world is, but also how to change it. We argue that the aim of IS design science research should be to develop practical knowledge not only for the design of novel information technology (IT), but also for IS governance and management. Whereas at least some methodological support exists for researchers engaged in IT-centric design science research, limited support is available for researchers who want to develop design knowledge and theory for IS governance and management. To overcome this shortcoming, we suggest a socio-technical IS design science research approach. The approach has four main activities: (1) identifying problem situations and desired outcomes, (2) reviewing extant theories, knowledge and data, (3) proposing/refining design theory and knowledge, and (4) testing design theory and knowledge. The applicability and usefulness of the proposed approach is shown by means of a design science research project concerning IS integration management in the context of mergers and acquisitions.

  • 14.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Computer and Systems Science, Department of Information Science.
    A theory of online learning as online participation2009In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 52, no 1, 78-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an initial theory of online learning as online participation is suggested. It is argued that online learner participation (1) is a complex process of taking part and maintaining relations with others, (2) is supported by physical and psychological tools, (3) is not synonymous with talking or writing, and (4) is supported by all kinds of engaging activities. Participation and learning are argued to be inseparable and jointly constituting. The implication of the theory is straightforward: If we want to enhance online learning, we need to enhance online learner participation.

  • 15. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Asynchronous and synchronous e-learning2008In: EDUCAUSE Quarterly, ISSN 1528-5324, Vol. 31, no 4, 51-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s workforce is expected to be highly educated and to continually improve skills and acquire new ones by engaging in lifelong learning. E-learning, here defined as learning and teaching online through network technologies, is arguably one of the most powerful responses to the growing need for education.1 Some researchers have expressed concern about the learning outcomes for e-learners, but a review of 355 comparative studies reveals no significant difference in learning outcomes, commonly measured as grades or exam results, between traditional and e-learning modes of delivery.2

    For e-learning initiatives to succeed, organizations and educational institutions must understand the benefits and limitations of different e-learning techniques and methods. Research can support practitioners by studying the impact of different factors on e-learning’s effectiveness. Two basic types of e-learning are commonly compared, asynchronous and synchronous. Until recently, e-learning initiatives mainly relied on asynchronous means for teaching and learning.3 However, recent improvements in technology and increasing bandwidth capabilities have led to the growing popularity of synchronous e-learning.4

    My work has focused on the benefits and limitations of asynchronous and synchronous e-learning and addresses questions such as when, why, and how to use these two modes of delivery. Many organizations and educational institutions are interested in using and developing both asynchronous and synchronous e-learning, but have a limited understanding of the benefits and limitations of the two. I began with a view of learning as participation in the social world,5 which implies that learning is a dialogue carried out through both internal and social negotiation

  • 16. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Dimensions of synchronous online education2007In: Principles of Effective Online Teaching: A Handbook for Experienced Teachers Developing eLearning, Informing Science Press, 2007, 105-119 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Exploring informal and formal dimensions of computer-mediated communication: Towards an enhanced model for research and practice2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recognized for many years that informal communication is an important part of effective work and thus vitally important in organizations. However, research on informal dimensions of information systems is rare. In this paper, Fish et al.’s (1990) model that distinguishes characteristics of informal and formal dimensions of computer-mediated communication (CMC) is further developed. The enhanced model is exemplified and tested by analysing three applications of CMC, in which different media are used for different purposes. The applications illustrated that a medium may be more or less useful for supporting informal or formal communication. However, the most important influence on the degree of formality was the task and how the medium was used, rather than the medium itself. It is argued that, even though the model proposed here needs to be  further developed, itcan be useful as support for researching, choosing and designing CMC of varying degrees of formality.

  • 18.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    How do e-learners participate in synchronous online discussions?: Evolutionary and social psychological perspectives2010In: Evolutionary psychology and information systems research: A new approach to studying the effects of modern technologies on human behavior, Springer, 2010, 119-147 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been adopted in most e-learning settings. However, few research studies have considered the effect of different CMCs in such settings. This study examined how and why synchronous communication , as a complement to asynchronous communication , affected participation in online discussions . Two online classes that participated in two asynchronous and two synchronous online discussions were examined. The analysis of empirical data was supported by a combination of evolutionary and social psychological theories. Actual and perceived measures of participation indicated that synchronous communication induced personal participation , which should be regarded as a complement to cognitive participation . Personal participation describes more intense interaction better supported by synchronous communication while cognitive participation is a more reflective type of participation better supported by asynchronous communication. In synchronous discussions, the e-learners felt that they worked together and were not restricted to only discuss course content. This was likely to induce arousal and motivation and increased convergence on meaning, especially in small groups.

  • 19.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Illustrating knowledge networks as sociograms2008In: Knowledge networks: The social software perspective, Idea Group Inc., 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter looks at the concept of sociograms that has great illustrative importance in some circumstances, especially for studying small knowledge networks. It is argued that the sociogram approach might be particularly useful for those who view learning and participation in knowledge networks as an inherently social phenomenon. Then, the sociogram approach is described and benefits and limitations of different approaches are discussed. The chapter also includes an exercise, web resources, further readings, and suggestions for possible paper titles.

  • 20. Hrastinski, Stefan
    IM support for informal synchronous e-collaboration2007In: Encyclopedia of E-Collaboration, Idea Group Inc., 2007, 349-354 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to review how IM may be used to support e-collaboration. This is addressed by reviewing studies on IM in both work and in higher education settings. These two settings “share the problem of creating and sustaining a positive work and learning environment” (Haythornthwaite, 2000, p. 201) and by including research from both areas a deeper understanding may be obtained.

  • 21.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Department of Information Science, Uppsala University.
    Informal and formal dimensions of computer-mediated communication: A model2010In: International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, ISSN 1470-9503, E-ISSN 1741-5225, Vol. 7, no 1, 23-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recognised for many years that informal communication is an important part of effective work and, thus, vitally important in organisations. However, research on the informal dimensions of information systems is rare. In this paper, Fish et al.'s (1990) model that distinguishes between the characteristics of the informal and formal dimensions of Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) is further developed. The enhanced model is exemplified and tested by analysing three applications of CMC, in which different media are used for different purposes. The applications illustrated that a medium may be more or less useful for supporting informal or formal communication. However, the most important influence on the degree of formality was the task and how the medium was used, rather than the medium itself. The model was useful for exploring the informal and formal dimensions of CMC. It is argued that even though the model proposed here needs to be further developed, it can be useful as support for researching, choosing and designing CMC media and applications of varying degrees of formality. Finally, future research challenges on the formal and informal dimensions of CMC are suggested.

  • 22.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Instant messaging use and its effect on student participation in online group work2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving active participation has been argued as one of the most important challenges in distance education. This research examines whether a new and emerging synchronous communication medium, instant messaging (IM), may enable students to participate more actively in online group work. When comparing groups that adopted the IM system with groups that did not, it was found that the adopters reported a higher sense of participation, and spent more time working with content and communicating with peers. The study indicates that the groups that adopted the IM system may have operated with a higher level of participation than those who did not

  • 23.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Introducing an informal synchronous medium in a distance learning course: How is participation affected?2006In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 9, no 2, 117-131 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving active participation has been argued to be an intrinsic part of learning and has become a central issue in debates on online education. This research examines whether an emerging synchronous communication medium, instant messaging (IM), may enable students in participating more actively in a distance learning course. In doing this, it is first evaluated how the system was used. When comparing two offerings of the course, where the first was delivered asynchronously and the second was complemented with an IM system, results indicated that the first class operated with a higher level of participation. However, when comparing students that adopted the IM system with those that did not it was found that the adopters operated with a higher level of participation. Since the results are tentative, the paper is concluded by calling for further research that tests the results of this study in both similar and different contexts. (Contains 1 table and 6 tables.)

  • 24.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Mer om nätbaserad utbildning: fördjupning och exempel2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildning på nätet: en historisk exposé -- Framgångsfaktorer för utbildning på nätet --Överföring, interaktion eller samarbete? -- Goda dialoger som förstärker lärande -- Handledning på nätet -- Informell coachning på nätet -- Sociala medier som stöd för lärande -- Socialt prat i nätbaserad utbildning -- Flexibilitet och självreglerande lärande på nätet -- Kamratgranskning: att orientera mot lärande -- Lärares professionella utveckling på nätet

  • 25.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Nätbaserad utbildning: en introduktion2013 (ed. 2)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Nätbaserad utbildning: En introduktion2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nätbaserad utbildning: en bakgrund -- Nätbaserad utbildning: en ny typ av utbildning -- Teknik för nätbaserad utbildning -- Kommunikation på nätet -- Att lära och samarbeta på nätet -- Formell och informell nätbaserad utbildning -- Hur lyckas man med nätbaserad utbildning?

  • 27.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Online research networks across developed and developing countries: A case study of a postgraduate network on ICT4D2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how online learning technology can be used to support research networks that include both developed and developing countries in the area of ICT for development (ICT4D). The paper reports a case study of a postgraduate network on ICT4D. The data collection was performed by interviews, document analysis and a web survey distributed to 456 members. It is argued that online learning technology has the potential to support more equal participation, as compared with face-to-face activities. Content delivery, such as e-newsletters, online repositories and recorded events are useful, but promote social relations to a limited extent. Suggestions on appropriate online social activities include arranging virtual conferences, taking advantage of social media and further development of a collaborative wiki. During the roundtable we will discuss how online learning technology can be used to sustain research networks in the area of ICT4D.

  • 28.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design, MID.
    Open innovation as in use today: Theoretical underpinnings and lessons from related research fields2012In: Managing Open Innovation Technologies / [ed] Eriksson Lundström, Jenny S. Z., Wiberg, Mikael, Hrastinski, Stefan, Edenius, Mats, Ågerfalk, Pär J., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Lund University.
    Participating in synchronous online education2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for education since the workforce of today is expected to be highly educated and continuously learn. Distance education is a powerful response to meet the growing need for education. Online education, here concisely defined as distance education mediated online, is the most common type of distance education. It mainly relies on asynchronous communication although it is well known that many students regard the lack of synchronous communication as disadvantageous. This thesis aims to achieve a deeper understanding of how, why and when synchronous communication, as a complement to asynchronous communication, affects student participation in online education.

    In order to study the complex phenomenon of online student participation, various qualitative and quantitative data collection methods for assessing both perceived participation and actual participation were used. The aim was investigated in two offerings of an online undergraduate course and two series of online discussions on master level, and by conducting focus group interviews with experienced practitioners.

    The findings indicate that synchronous communication has the potential to enhance online student participation. Light was shed on two dimensions of participation, which were labelled personal participation and cognitive participation. The thesis suggests that synchronous communication, as a complement to asynchronous communication, may better support personal participation. This is likely to induce arousal and motivation, and increased convergence on meaning, especially in smaller groups. Synchronous communication seems particularly beneficial for supporting task and social support relations, and to exchange information with a lower degree of complexity. By drawing on the studies of the thesis and previous research, propositions on when to support synchronous communication in online education were suggested.

  • 30. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Participation patterns in small-group asynchronous and synchronous online seminars2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most researchers seem too agree on the usefulness of asynchronous media in online education.However, recently some have called for mixed media approchaes since each medium of communication may privilege but also marginalize certain ways of learning. A challenge of research is to gain a deeper understanding of how asynchronous and synchronous media may support and limit participation. This is explored by analyzing four online seminars with a small group of students from Argentina (n=3) and Sweden (n=5). Since the group of students was small the results need to be interpreted cautiously. In two of the seminars an asynchronous discussion forum was used and in the other two synchronous chat. Data on both actual and perceived participation was collected through questionnaires and electronic logs. The data indicated that the synchronous medium enabled students to contribute more frequently and equally. The combination of media seemed beneficial since the students participated in different ways when using different media. As known since previous research, the asynchronous seminares were found to be very content-focused. However, in the synchronous seminars, students not only exchanged information about course content but also planned work and interacted socially. Notably, different students dominated the discussions by different media. The Argentineans contributed most frequently in the synchronous seminars but not in the asynchronous ones. Finally, it is argued that there is a need for both means of communitaion in online education since the two types of media may be exploited for different pedagogicall purposes

  • 31. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Programmering B Visual Basic .NET2004Book (Refereed)
  • 32. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Programmering B Visual Basic: NET Lärarhandledning2004Book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Research on computer-mediated communication in education: Summarizing the past to prepare for the future2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of research on computer-mediated communication (CMC) in education is a relatively new research area. A summary of the latest research is useful to show what methodologies and research topics that have been emphasized in order to be better prepared for the future by uncovering areas where there is a lack of research. The study examines articles published in the Computers & Education and Educational Media International journals between 2000 and 2004. It reveals that the field is dominated by empirical articles that adopt a pluralistic approach which investigate the usage of asynchronous text-based CMC systems by learners and instructors engaged in blended education. We conclude by exemplifying how these findings may guide future research.

  • 34. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Synkron kommunikation i en distanskurs: (Synchronous communication in a distance learning course)2006In: Att skapa lärgemenskaper och mötesplatser på nätet, Lunds studentlitteratur , 2006, 215-230 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    The potential of synchronous communication to enhance participation in online discussions: A case study of two e-learning courses2008In: Information and managment, ISSN 0378-7206, Vol. 45, no 7, 499-506 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-mediated communication (CMC) has been adopted in most e-learning settings. However, few research studies have considered the effect of different CMC. This study examined how and why synchronous communication affected participation in online discussions. Two online classes that participated in two asynchronous and two synchronous online discussions were examined. Actual and perceived measures of participation indicated that synchronous communication induced personal participation. which could be regarded as a complement to cognitive participation. Personal participation involves more intense interaction better supported by synchronous communication while cognitive participation is a more reflective type of participation supported by asynchronous communication. In synchronous discussions, the e-learners felt that they worked together and were not restricted to only discuss course content. This was likely to induce arousal and motivation and increased convergence on meaning, especially in small groups. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 36. Hrastinski, Stefan
    The relationship between adopting a synchronous medium and participation in online group work: An explorative study2006In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, Vol. 14, no 2, 137-152 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. Achieving student participation, it has been argued, is one of the most important challenges in distance education. This explorative study examines whether a synchronous communication medium, instant messaging (IM), may enable students to participate more actively in online group work. When comparing two groups that adopted IM with two groups that didn't it was found that the adopters had a higher sense of participation and spent more time working with the content and communicating with their peers. Moreover, the social networks of the adopters were slightly denser. Thus, the study indicates that the groups that adopted IM operated with a higher level of participation, although it should be noted that these results are based on a small group of students. All groups used e-mail for group interactions but the adopters also used IM as a complement to e-mail. This paper concludes by calling for more research to test the results of this study in other contexts. (Contains 6 tables and 2 figures.)

  • 37.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Towards understanding how and why learners participate in online seminars2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online education is continuing to gain popularity in educational institutions and organizations. Hitherto, most research has occurred at aggregated levels, while few researchers have studied how and why individuals participate in online education. It is essential to examine individual perceptions and relationships in order to understand how learners behave in relation to others. This paper investigates how learners participate in online seminars and why they participate in certain ways. An online class that attended asynchronous and synchronous online seminars was studied. Electronic logs were used to examine how online learners participated and interviews were used to explain why they participated. It was revealed that the learners took on different roles and that these roles changed depending on what mean of communication that was being used. A number of participation inhibitors were identified and it was also suggested how these inhibitors can be addressed.

  • 38. Hrastinski, Stefan
    Using chat as a complement to discussion board in small-group online seminars: How is student participation affected?2007In: International Journal of Knowledge and Learning, ISSN 1741-1009, E-ISSN 1741-1017, Vol. 3, no 4-5, 483-500 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the use of synchronous chat, as a complement to asynchronous discussion board, affects participation in small-group online seminars. Questionnaires and interviews were used to study perceived social networks and students' sense of participation while electronic logs were used to analyse the interactions in the seminars. All measures indicate that the level of student participation was higher in the synchronous seminars. Two explanations were proposed. Firstly, the students felt that they worked together in the synchronous seminars. Secondly, there seemed to be too few students to get discussions started in the asynchronous setting. Moreover, some students dominated the asynchronous discussions while others dominated the synchronous discussions, which imply that combining asynchronous and synchronous media may enhance participation. It was also reflected on the consequence of culture on participation in the two types of seminars.

  • 39.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    What is online learner participation?: A literature review2008In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 51, no 4, 1755-1765 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly argued that a key challenge for e-learning is to encourage learner participation. Even though this challenge has received increased attention by researchers, little effort has been put into developing a sound theoretical understanding of what online participation actually is and how it may be studied empirically. This paper examines the conceptions and research approaches that underlie research on online participation in e-learning settings. A classification scheme was iteratively developed and used when publications on the topic were reviewed. It was found that research is dominated by low-level conceptions of online participation, which relies on frequency counts as measures of participation. However, some researchers aim to study more complex dimensions of participation, such as whether participants feel they are taking part and are engaged in dialogues, reflected by using a combination of perceived and actual measures of participation. In conclusion, a definition of online learner participation that acknowledges its more complex dimensions, such as doing, communicating, thinking, feeling, and belonging, is proposed

  • 40. Hrastinski, Stefan
    What is online participation and how may it be studied in e-learning settings?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly argued that a key challenge for e-learning is to encourage learner participation. Even though this challenge has received increased attention by researchers, little effort has been put into developing a sound theoretical understanding of what online participation actually is and how it may be studied empirically. This paper examines the conceptions and research approaches that underlie research on online participation in e-learning settings. A classification scheme was  teratively developed and used when publications on the topic were reviewed. It was found that  esearch is dominated by low-level conceptions of online participation, which relies on frequency counts as measures of participation. However, some researchers aim to study more complex dimensions of participation, such as whether participants feel they are taking part and are engaged in dialogues, reflected by using a combination of perceived and actual measures of participation. In conclusion, a definition of online learner participation that more explicitly acknowledges its more complex dimensions, such as doing, thinking, feeling, and belonging, is proposed.

  • 41.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design.
    Aghaee, Naghmeh
    How are campus students using social media to support their studies? An explorative interview study2012In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 17, no 4, 451-464 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media hype has created a lot of speculation among educators on how these media can be used to support learning, but there have been rather few studies so far. Our explorative interview study contributes by critically exploring how campus students perceive using social media to support their studies and the perceived benefits and limitations compared with other means. Although the vast majority of the respondents use social media frequently, a “digital dissonance” can be noted, because few of them feel that they use such media to support their studies. The interviewees mainly put forth e-mail and instant messaging, which are used among students to ask questions, coordinate group work and share files. Some of them mention using Wikipedia and YouTube for retrieving content and Facebook to initiate contact with course peers. Students regard social media as one of three key means of the educational experience, alongside face-to-face meetings and using the learning management systems, and are mainly used for brief questions and answers, and to coordinate group work. In conclusion, we argue that teaching strategy plays a key role in supporting students in moving from using social media to support coordination and information retrieval to also using such media for collaborative learning, when appropriate.

  • 42.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Carlsson, Sven A.
    Henningsson, Steffan
    Keller, Christina
    On how to develop design theories for IS use and management2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research is an essential part of IS research since the field should not only try to understand how the world is but also how to change it. We argue that the aim of IS design science research should be to develop practical knowledge not only for the design and improvement of IS but also for IS use and management. Whereas substantial methodological support exists for researchers engaged in behavioural IS research, only limited methodological support exists for researchers with the ambition to develop new IS design theories and new IT artefacts. For the development of design theories for IS use and management the methodological support is even weaker. To overcome this shortcoming we suggest an approach for design research on IS use and management. We give two examples of the proposed approach in use by applying it to the areas of knowledge management systems and e-learning.

  • 43.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Cleveland-Innes, Martha
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Stenbom, Stefan
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Tutoring online tutors: Using digital badges to encourage the development of online tutoring skills2018In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 49, no 1, 127-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online tutors play a critical role in e-learning and need to have an appropriate set of skills in addition to subject matter expertise. This paper explores how digital badges can be used to encourage the development of online tutoring skills. Based on previous research, we defined three digital badges, which are examples of essential tutoring skills.These skills were self-assessed during two weeks by online tutors in K-12 mathematics, who also wrote a self-reflection based on their experience. The digital badges motivated tutors to reflect on online tutoring practices. The tutors described that they gained a more detailed understanding of the tutoring process when continuously analyzing ongoing conversations. However, it was a challenge for the tutors to balance the private activity, reflection on tutoring skills, and the social activity, communication with the K-12 students. It is essential to take into account when tutors will have time to reflect, for example, by scheduling time for reflection or enabling opportunities for reflection that is flexible in time. A challenge for further research is to better understand the potential benefits of different types of badges

  • 44.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media.
    Dennen, Vanessa
    Social media in higher education: Introduction to the special issue2012In: The Internet and higher education, ISSN 1096-7516, E-ISSN 1873-5525, Vol. 15, no 1, 1-2 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Information Science Uppsala University.
    Edenius, M
    Kviselius, N
    Collaboration systems for open innovation2011In: International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, ISSN 1470-9503, E-ISSN 1741-5225, Vol. 9, no 2, 103-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open innovation paradigm suggests that organizations increasingly need to team up with other organizations and customers in developing and refining ideas, services and products. Hitherto, research on IT and open innovation has mainly explored how open innovation practices can stimulate the development of novel technologies. However, little research has studied how information technologies can support open innovation practices. For example, the networked nature of open innovation suggests that collaboration systems can support innovation practices. In this minitrack, we welcome papers that explore how various collaboration systems can enable and support open innovation in inter-organizational and intra-organizational settings, and in user and consumer networks.

  • 46.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Edenius, M.
    Kviselius, N.Z.
    Ozan, H.
    How can software support open innovation?: Extending community and marketplace perspectives2012In: International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, ISSN 1470-9503, E-ISSN 1741-5225, Vol. 10, no 1, 1-17 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuelled by increased interest among organisations to team up with customers and partners, software for supporting open innovation is emerging. In this paper, we explore how current open innovation software are designed, by whom they are used and reflect on their potential to support open innovation processes. We classified a sample of 51 systems and found, based on a correlation analysis, that most open innovation software focus on supporting online communities of innovation and some software support online marketplaces of innovation. A vast majority of open innovation software focuses on the front end of open innovation through an emphasis on the collection of ideas or problem solutions requested by authorities in technology industries. In the end of the paper, we suggest key questions that need to be addressed in order to design the next wave of open innovation software.

  • 47.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Edman, A.
    Andersson, F.
    Kawnine, T.
    Soames, C.A.
    Informal math coaching by instant messaging: Two case studies of how university students coach K-12 students2014In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, Vol. 22, no 1, 84-96 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe and explore how instant messaging (IM) can be used to support informal math coaching. We have studied two projects where university students use IM to coach K-12 students in mathematics. The coaches were interviewed with a focus on how informal coaching works by examining coaching challenges, how coaching can be organized, whether coaching should be anonymous or personal, which tools can be used and how informal math coaching supports learning. Research shows that generating and answering questions are important in the process of understanding and learning, which means that both the students and the coaches can learn math through this type of project. The coaches perceive informal math coaching as complementing online math forums. For students to learn effectively, the coaches need to be able to interpret the students' competence level in order to coach on a level that is within their development zone. It seems particularly challenging to coach at the right level when using IM and, therefore, it is important to establish a personal relationship with the students.

  • 48.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design.
    Jaldemark, J.
    How and why do students of higher education participate in online seminars?2012In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 17, no 3, 253-271 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online education is continuing to gain popularity in educational institutions and organizations. Hitherto, most research has occurred at aggregated levels, while few researchers have studied how and why individuals participate in online education. It is essential to examine individual perceptions and relationships in order to understand how students behave in relation to others. This paper investigates how students of higher education participate in online seminars and why they participate in certain ways. An online class that attended asynchronous and synchronous online seminars was studied. Electronic logs were used to examine how students participated and interviews were used to illustrate why they participated. It was revealed that the participation of students varied between aspects such as exchanging information, managing tasks and providing social support and the emphasis of these aspects were related to the tool they communicated through. A number of participation inhibitors were identified and it was also suggested how these inhibitors can be addressed.

  • 49. Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    Keller, Christina
    An examination of research approaches that underlie research on educational technology: A review from 2000 to 20042007In: Journal of educational computing research (Print), ISSN 0735-6331, E-ISSN 1541-4140, Vol. 36, no 2, 175-190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the research approaches that underlie research on educational technology. A classification framework was developed and used when examining all articles published in four well-known journals between 2000 and 2004 (n = 660). The aim of the study was to contribute toward an understanding of the research approaches that characterize research on educational technology. It was found that research is increasingly dominated by empirical articles that adopt a pluralistic approach, both regarding research methods but also regarding different types of non-empirical research. The focus has been to apply rather than develop frameworks, concepts, and theory. Published articles in the four journals were more different from each other than what the aims and scopes of the journals led the authors to believe. Finally, researchers are challenged to reflect on the state of the field and how it may be further developed. (Contains 6 tables and 5 figures.) [An earlier version of this article was presented at the Netlearning conference in 2006. This research was partly supported by The Swedish Research School of Management and IT where both authors are members.]

  • 50. Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    Keller, Christina
    Computer-mediated communication in education: A summary of recent research2007In: Educational Media International, ISSN 0952-3987, E-ISSN 1469-5790, Vol. 44, no 1, 61-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of research on computer-mediated communication (CMC) in education is a relatively new research area. A summary of the latest research is useful to show what methodologies and research topics have been emphasized in order to be better prepared for the future by uncovering areas where there is a lack of research. The study examines articles published in Computers & Education, Educational Media International, Journal of Educational Computing Research and Journal of Educational Media between 2000 and 2004. It reveals that the field is dominated by empirical articles that adopt a pluralistic approach and investigate the use of asynchronous text-based CMC systems by learners and instructors engaged in blended education. The article is concluded by suggesting how these findings may guide future research. (Contains 4 tables and 7 figures.)

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