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  • 1.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Så skapas attraktiva städer2014Book (Refereed)
  • 2. Holt, Charles
    et al.
    Myers, Erica
    Wråke, Markus
    Mandell, Svante
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Institute.
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Teaching Opportunity Cost in an Emissions Permit Experiment2010In: International Review of Economics Education, ISSN 1477-3880, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an individual choice experiment that can be used to teach students how to correctly account for opportunity costs in production decisions. Students play the role of producers that require a fuel input and an emissions permit for production. Given fixed market prices, they make production quantity decisions based on their costs. Permits have a constant price throughout the experiment. In one treatment, students have to purchase both a fuel input and an emissions permit for each production unit. In a second treatment, they receive permits for free and any unused permits are sold on their behalf at the permit price. If students correctly incorporate opportunity costs, they will have the same supply function in both treatments.This experiment motivates classroom discussion of opportunity costs and emission permit allocation under cap and trade schemes.The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) provides a relevant example for classroom discussion, as industry earned significant “windfall profits” from free allocation of emissions permits in the early phases of the program.

  • 3.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The Icelandic housing market: the effect of the financial crisis in 2008-20112013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kopsch, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The Icelandic housing market: the effect of the financial crisis in 2008-20112013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Asymmetric Information and the Choice of Remuneration Principle2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Mandell, Svante
    Vti-Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Carbon Emission Values in Cost Benefit Analyses2011In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 888-892Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New infrastructure projects may affect CO(2) emissions and, thus, cost benefit analyses for these projects require a value to apply for CO(2). This may be based on the marginal social cost of emissions or on the shadow price resulting from present and future policies. This paper argues that both approaches are necessary, but for cost benefit analysis of infrastructure projects the latter should be the primary tool. A series of complications arise when applying this principle in practice. These are discussed in the paper. Even if the complications make the implementation of a shadow price approach difficult, we argue that the approach still is preferable to a social cost approach.

  • 7.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Carbon Emissions and Cost Benefit Analyses2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Freight transport, policy instruments and the climate2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ground Leases & Local Property Taxes2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lessor and Lessee Perspectives on Ground Lease Pricing2002In: Journal of Property Research, ISSN 0959-9916, E-ISSN 1466-4453, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 145-157Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Local Property Taxes and Moral Hazard2003In: Journal of Property Research, ISSN 0959-9916, E-ISSN 1466-4453, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 157-172Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Mandell, Svante
    VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Optimal Mix of Emissions Taxes and Cap-and-Trade2008In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, ISSN 0095-0696, E-ISSN 1096-0449, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 131-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In practice, different emitters of a particular pollutant are sometimes subjected to different control mechanisms. This paper focuses on the situation where a part of the economy is regulated by a cap-and-trade program, while the rest is subjected to an emissions tax. Using an extended version of Weitzman's 'Prices vs. Quantities' model [M.L. Weitzman, Prices vs. quantities, Revi. Econ. Stud. 41 (1974) 477-491], we analyze the conditions under which this is superior, from an efficiency point of view, to subjecting the whole economy to either of these control mechanisms. The paper addresses a crucial trade-off between two sources of efficiency loss, one due to cost-effectiveness issues and another due to emissions volume. This trade-off determines the optimal size of each sector. It is shown that the size of the taxed sector, at an optimum, increases with the relative steepness of the aggregate marginal abatement cost function.

  • 13.
    Mandell, Svante
    VTI-Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Policies towards a more efficient car fleet2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 12, p. 5184-5191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation within the EU, as in most of the industrialized world, shows an increasing trend in CO(2) emissions. This calls for measures to decrease the amount of transportation but also to increase the efficiency in the vehicle fleet. To achieve this, numerous policy measures are available, all of which targets the agents in the economy in various ways. Policy makers thus face a highly complex task. The present paper aims at providing a simple and transparent analytical model that illustrates how different policy measures address different parts of an interlinked system, which determines the composition of the future car fleet. Apart from being simple, and thereby providing an intuitive framework, the model provides important lessons for policy design, e.g., through highlighting the difference between initial responses to policies and the outcome in equilibrium both in the short and the long run.

  • 14.
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Steering the European transport greenhouse gas emissions under uncertainty2010In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector when abatement costs are uncertain. In an EU context, it is shown that a combination of a cap-and-trade system and emission taxes is preferable as it minimises the expected efficiency loss. The optimal design will depend on the relative cost structure within and outside the transport sector. It is argued that the optimal regime for the transport sector has similarities, but is not identical to, a pure emissions tax.

  • 15.
    Mandell, Svante
    Department of Economics, Stockholm University.
    The choice of multiple or single auctions in emissions trading2005In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 97-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether CO2 permit auctions should be held on one, several or many occasions per commitment period has not been discussed at any length in the literature. When at all observed, auction frequency has often been set at once per month or quarter. Here, it is argued that for reasons of efficiency, it is generally best to have just one single auction per commitment period. The arguments given relate to the role played by such factors as emission trading design, auction design, market power, transaction costs and, in particular, 'the winner's curse'.

  • 16.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    , Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Brunes, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Quantity Choice in Unit Price Contract Procurements2014In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 483-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A procurement approach commonly used for construction projects involves paying a fixed price per unit conducted — that is, unit price contracts. We develop an analytical model to study the optimal procurement quantity and monitoring intensity when the required quantities are uncertain. The optimum involves a trade-off between a risk of paying for more units than necessary, conducting costly renegotiations, and/or investing in monitoring. The paper adds to the understanding of both optimal behaviour in procurements and the presence of cost overruns. In particular, deliberately procuring low quantities, and thereby facing a high risk of cost overruns, is sometimes optimal, as it minimises the expected total cost.

  • 17.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Netzell, Olof
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Price discovery over space2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nilsson, Jan-Eric
    Vierth, Inge
    Freight transport, policy instruments and climate2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of policy instruments supposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from roadfreight transports may seem smaller than expected. Using insights from economics and contracttheory, the paper sorts out the (possible) instances of market failure in the freight transport market;operator market power, asymmetric information split incentives, and public goods. The primarylimitations of standard policy instruments are demonstrated to be linked to unobservable information.Some of these may be reduced but not eliminated as information technologies develop, making itpossible to observe, verify and provide contract-relevant information to the uninformed parties. Thereis little reason to believe that possible market failures present major limitations to the efficiency ofeconomic instruments geared toward protecting the climate, other than possibly in the short run.

  • 19.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nyström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Too much balance in unbalanced bidding2013In: Studies in Microeconomics, ISSN 2321-0222, Vol. 1, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article adds to the theoretical base of unbalanced bidding in auction theory. The importance of this concept is justified by being a decisive feature in the make-or-buy decision of a client who cannot rely on repeated interaction, often the case in public procurement, for example. Earlier theoretical models on unbalanced bidding often predict corner solutions, that is, zero bids for unit prices of expected overestimated quantities. However, anecdotal evidence indicates a lack of zero bids in the actual contracts. The article offers a possible explanation for this anomaly by focusing on the risk-aversion of the contractor. Using a simple model, it shows that a contractor with superior information may exploit this in the bidding process to increase her expected revenue. This increases risk exposure. A risk-averse contractor will typically avoid a corner solution to reach an optimal balance between risk and expected return.

  • 20.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Proost, Stef
    KULeuven.
    Why truck distance taxes are contagious and drive fuel taxes to the bottom2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how countries with international and local truck traffic decide to switch from a simple fuel tax system to a dual system of fuel and kilometer taxes. We show what drives a country to switch and how this affects the level of fuel taxes and the incentives for the other countries to also adopt the dual system. The model is partially able to explain the gradual extension of kilometer charging for trucks in Europe. The model also shows that, in the absence of diesel cars, the gradual introduction of kilometer charges will make fuel taxation for trucks virtually disappear and will lead to a system where truck use is (1) taxed mainly based on distance, but (2) is taxed too heavily. When the fuel tax must in addition serve as an externality tax for diesel cars, the introduction of distance charges for trucks will give rise to diesel taxes that are lower than the external cost of diesel cars. For trucks, this leads to a sum of diesel taxes and distance charges that are higher than the external cost of trucks.

  • 21.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. VTI, Sweden.
    Proost, Stefaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KULeuven, Belgium.
    Why truck distance taxes are contagious and drive fuel taxes to the bottom2016In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 93, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the way in which countries with international and local truck traffic decide to switch from a simple fuel tax system to a dual system of fuel and distance charge taxes. We show what drives a country to switch and how this affects the level of fuel taxes as well as incentives for other countries to also adopt the dual system. The model is partially able to explain the gradual extension of kilometer charging for trucks in Europe. The model also shows that, in the absence of diesel cars, the gradual introduction of kilometer charges will make fuel taxation for trucks virtually disappear and will lead to a system where truck use is (1) taxed mainly based on distance, (2) is taxed too heavily, and (3) where highest distance taxes are expected in transit countries with a strong market position. When the fuel tax must in addition serve as an externality tax for diesel cars, the introduction of distance charges for trucks will give rise to diesel taxes that are lower than the external cost of diesel cars. For trucks, this leads to a sum of diesel taxes and distance charges that are higher than the external cost of trucks.

  • 22.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Proost, Steph
    KU Leuven.
    Distance charges and fuel taxes on trucks – effects from strategic interactions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. Centre for Transport Studies (CTS), Sweden.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Financial infrastructure and house prices2015In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 47, no 30, p. 3175-3188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that banks operating in a local market possess better information about the local housing market than do nonlocal banks. Possessing this information may influence their willingness to grant loans to house buyers and the specifics of the loan terms, which in turn may affect house prices because credit facilitation makes the housing market more efficient. Using a panel data set covering a period from 1993 to 2007 and involving 274 municipalities in Sweden, we establish a positive causal influence of local bank presence on local house prices. There are significant spatial and spillover effects, that is, banks in a municipality affect the housing markets in neighbouring municipalities, although to a lesser extent than in their own municipality. Similar results are obtained through a gravity model. The results are robust over time and municipality size.

  • 24.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Willingness to pay for sustainable housing2011In: Journal of Housing Research, ISSN 1052-7001, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzed the differences between house buyers when valuing environmental characteristics associated with the house. The theoretical framework used is based on hedonic modeling, but the second stage is estimated by assuming a translog utility function. This technique is used to estimate the non-marginal willingness to pay for environmental housing attributes and whether an environmentally aware household has a higher willingness to pay or not. The findings reveal that there is a positive willingness to pay for environmental attributes and it is higher for households who (state that they) are environmentally aware. These results may justify policy measures such as information campaigns.

  • 25.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Andersson, Roland
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Explaining regional changes in employment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Mandell, Svante
    et al.
    VTI.
    Zetterberg, Lars
    Marcu, Marcu
    Clayton, Munnings
    Roth, Susanna
    Utvecklingen för EU:s system för handel medutsläppsrätter och den framtida internationella utsläppsmarknaden2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten syftar till att med utgångspunkt i gällande klimatpolitiska beslut, Naturvårdsverkets underlag till Färdplan 2050 och EU-kommissions rapport om utsläppsmarknadens funktion analysera hur EU:s system för handel med utsläppsrätter och den internationella utsläppsmarknaden kan utvecklas på lång sikt.

    EU:s klimat och energipaket innebär att utsläppen av växthusgaser inom EU ska minska med 20 procent från år 1990 till år 2020. Vidare ska, inom EU:s system för handel med utsläppsrätter (EU ETS), utsläppen minska med 21 procent mellan år 2005 och 2020, medan utsläppen i den icke handlande sektorn (IHS) ska minska med 10 procent under samma period (EU-kommissionen, 2013). Den större bördan i EU ETS motiveras av att åtgärdskostnaderna är lägre där och att det därför är mer kostnadseffektivt att minska utsläppen mer i EU ETS. I EU:s färdplan till 2050 anges en intention att minska utsläppen med 80 till 95 procent till 2050 (EU-kommissionen, 2011b). Utsläppsmålet för EU ETS till år 2020 säkerställs genom att utsläppstaket minskar med 1,74 procent per år. Den reduktionsfaktorn gäller även bortom 2020 och kommer att leda till en total minskning med cirka 70 procent till år 2050. Men eftersom det inte räcker för att uppfylla ambitionen till 2050 behöver ambitionsnivån höjas i EU ETS. Det finns i och för sig en flexibilitet i hur framtida reduktionsmål fördelas mellan ETS och IHS. Men eftersom åtgärdskostnaderna tycks vara billigare i ETS än i IHS är det sannolikt att man, på samma sätt som idag ökar bördan relativt sett mer i ETS än i IHS.

    EU-kommissionen presenterade 2012 en rapport, The State of the European Carbon Market in 2012, om hur EU:s handelssystem för utsläppsrätter fungerar och kan utvecklas på längre sikt (EU-kommissionen, 2012a). I rapporten konstateras att det finns ett stort överskott av utsläppsrätter vilket riskerar att allvarligt underminera handelssystemets funktion. Rapporten beskriver vidare sex strukturella åtgärder som kommissionen anser kan förbättra den nuvarande situationen inom EU ETS och det nu rådande och växande utbudsöverskottet. Med utgångspunkt i kommissionens rapport har vi analyserat förslagen utifrån ett nationalekonomiskt perspektiv. Vårt fokus har varit på EU ETS och hur dess funktion och effektivitet påverkas av förslagen. Vidare har vi försökt att måla upp ett antal scenarier för hur den internationella utsläppsmarknaden utvecklas i framtiden med utblick mot 2050, och vad det innebär för Sveriges förutsättningar att köpa utsläppsrätter på den internationella marknaden.

  • 27. Vierth, Inge
    et al.
    Schleussner, Heike
    Mandell, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Road freight transport policies and their impact: A comparative study of Germany and Sweden2017In: International Journal of Transport Economics, ISSN 0303-5247, E-ISSN 1724-2185, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 213-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By comparing two representative countries, Sweden and Germany, we study the impacts of different road freight transport policies. Sweden applies a time-based infrastructure charge, and has done so since the 1990ies. Germany has introduced distance-based charges and subsidized the purchase of low emission trucks. We find that the German road freight policy has resulted in substantially larger revenues and a cleaner truck fleet and mileage. Some support is found for that the German policy causes spill overs to the neighbouring countries as hauliers tend to use the cleanest trucks in countries with distance-based tolls. By comparing the actual composition of trucks using the Swedish network to a hypothetical case where the composition is the same as on the German toll roads, we estimate the environmental costs to be around (sic)39 million less per year in the latter case. This puts pressure on countries as Sweden to implement stronger policies.

  • 28. Wråke, Markus
    et al.
    Myers, Erica
    Burtraw, Dallas
    Mandell, Svante
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Holt, Charles
    Opportunity cost for Free Allocations of Emissions Permits: An Experimental Analysis2010In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 331-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important feature of emissions trading is how emissions permits are allocated. The choice between an auction and free allocation should not influence firms' production choices nor consumer prices according to economic theory. However, many parties expect the method of allocation to affect product prices. This paper describes an experimental investigation into price determination under a cap-and-trade program with different allocation methods. Participants initially display diverse pricing strategies. However, given a simple economic setting in which earnings depend on behavior, we find that subjects learn to consider the opportunity cost of permits and overall behavior moves toward the economic prediction.

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