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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Seyed Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Shames, Iman
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Scotton, Francesco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Huang, Lirong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Towards more efficient building energy management systems2012In: Proceedings - 2012 7th International Conference on Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems, KICSS 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 118-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a first step towards developing efficient building energy management techniques, in this paper, we first study the energy consumption patterns of heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems across the KTH Royal Institute of Technology campus and we identify some possible areas where energy consumption can be made less wasteful. Later, we describe a test-bed where wireless sensor networks are used to collect data and eventually control the HVAC system in a distributed way. We present some of the data, temperature, humidity, and CO2 measurements, that are collected by the aforementioned network and compare them with the measurements collected by the legacy sensors already in place. In the end we present a preliminary result on modelling the dynamics of the temperature, humidity, and CO2 using the data gather by the sensor network. We check the validity of the model via comparing the out put of the system with measured data. As a future work we identify the possibility of using the models obtained here for model based control, and fault detection and isolation techniques.

  • 2.
    Altaf, Faisal
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Araujo, José
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hernandez, Aitor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wireless event-triggered controller for a 3D tower crane lab process2011In: 2011 19th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, MED 2011, 2011, p. 994-1001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the design and real-time implementation of an event-triggered controller for a nonlinear 3D tower crane where the communication between the controller and the actuators is performed over a low-power wireless network. A flexible Event-Generation Circuit (EGC) is proposed in order to implement event-driven controllers for Networked Control Systems. Furthermore, a detailed experimental analysis on the performance of the event-triggered controller and the influence of packet losses on the transmitted actuation messages are presented. The results show that the event-triggered controllers in networked control systems are able to maintain the same level of performance as compared to periodic controllers, while increasing the sensors/actuators lifetime by reducing network bandwidth utilization.

  • 3.
    Anderson, James
    et al.
    Oxford University.
    Teixeira, André
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Papachristodoulou, Antonis
    Oxford University.
    Dynamical System Decomposition Using Dissipation Inequalities2011In: Proceedings of the 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference,  Orlando, Florida, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate stability and inter-action measures for interconnected systems that have beenproduced by decomposing a large-scale linear system into aset of lower order subsystems connected in feedback. We beginby analyzing the requirements for asymptotic stability throughgeneralized dissipation inequalities and storage functions. Usingthis insight we then describe various metrics based on a system’senergy dissipation to determine how strongly the subsystemsinteract with each other. From these metrics a decompositionalgorithm is described.

  • 4. Andersson, G.
    et al.
    Esfahani, P. M.
    Vrakopoulou, M.
    Margellos, K.
    Lygeros, J.
    Teixeira, André
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Dán, György
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Cyber-security of SCADA systems2012In: 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 6175543-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a general introduction of the VIKING EU FP7 project two specific cyber-attack mechanisms, which have been analyzed in the VIKING project, will be discussed in more detail. Firstly an attack and its consequences on the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) in a power system are investigated, and secondly the cyber security of State Estimators in SCADA systems is scrutinized.

  • 5.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Amin, Saurabh
    TRUST Center, University of California, Berkeley.
    Schwartz, Galina
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sastry, Shankar
    TRUST Center, University of California, Berkeley.
    Correlated Failures of Power Systems: Analysis of the Nordic Grid2011In: Preprints of Workshop on Foundations of Dependable and Secure Cyber-Physical Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we have analyzed the effectsof correlated failures of power lines on the total systemload shed. The total system load shed is determined bysolving the optimal load shedding problem, which is thesystem operator’s best response to a system failure.We haveintroduced a Monte Carlo based simulation framework forestimating the statistics of the system load shed as a functionof stochastic network parameters, and provide explicitguarantees on the sampling accuracy. This framework hasbeen applied to a 470 bus model of the Nordic power systemand a correlated Bernoulli failure model. It has been foundthat increased correlations between Bernoulli failures ofpower lines can dramatically increase the expected valueas well as the variance of the system load shed.

  • 6.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed vs. centralized power systems frequency control2013In: 2013 European Control Conference, ECC 2013, 2013, p. 3524-3529Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers a distributed control algorithm for frequency control of electrical power systems. We propose a distributed controller which retains the reference frequency of the buses under unknown load changes, while asymptotically minimizing a quadratic cost of power generation. For comparison, we also propose a centralized controller which also retains the reference frequency while minimizing the same cost of power generation. We derive sufficient stability criteria for the parameters of both controllers. The controllers are evaluated by simulation on the IEEE 30 bus test network, where their performance is compared.

  • 7.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Control of MTDC Transmission Systems under Local Information2014In: Decision and Control (CDC), 2014 IEEE 53rd Annual Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 1335-1340Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance electric power transmission, mainly due to its low resistive losses. In this paper a distributed controller for multi-terminal high-voltage direct current (MTDC) transmission systems is considered. Sufficient conditions for when the proposed controller renders the closed-loop system asymptotically stable are provided. Provided that the closed loop system is asymptotically stable, it is shown that in steady-state a weighted average of the deviations from the nominal voltages is zero. Furthermore, a quadratic cost of the current injections is minimized asymptotically.

  • 8.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed controllers for multiterminal HVDC transmission systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Control of Network Systems, ISSN 2325-5870, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 564-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance electric power transmission, mainly due to its low resistive losses. In this paper the voltagedroop method (VDM) is reviewed, and three novel distributed controllers for multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) transmission systems are proposed. Sufficient conditions for when the proposed controllers render the closed-loop system asymptotically stable are provided. These conditions give insight into suitable controller architecture, e.g., that the communication graph should be identical with the graph of the MTDC system, including edge weights. Provided that the closed-loop systems are asymptotically stable, it is shown that the voltages asymptotically converge to within predefined bounds. Furthermore, a quadratic cost of the injected currents is asymptotically minimized. The proposed controllers are evaluated on a four-bus MTDC system.

  • 9.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed PI-Control with Applications to Power Systems Frequency Control2014In: American Control Conference (ACC), 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 3183-3188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers a distributed PI-controller for networked dynamical systems. Sufficient conditions for when the controller is able to stabilize a general linear system and eliminate static control errors are presented. The proposed controller is applied to frequency control of power transmission systems. Sufficient stability criteria are derived, and it is shown that the controller parameters can always be chosen so that the frequencies in the closed loop converge to nominal operational frequency. We show that the load sharing property of the generators is maintained, i.e., the input power of the generators is proportional to a controller parameter. The controller is evaluated by simulation on the IEEE 30 bus test network, where its effectiveness is demonstrated.

  • 10.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed Control of Networked Dynamical Systems: Static Feedback, Integral Action and Consensus2014In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1750-1764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes distributed control protocols for first- and second-order networked dynamical systems. We propose a class of nonlinear consensus controllers where the input of each agent can be written as a product of a nonlinear gain, and a sum of nonlinear interaction functions. By using integral Lyapunov functions, we prove the stability of the proposed control protocols, and explicitly characterize the equilibrium set. We also propose a distributed proportional-integral (PI) controller for networked dynamical systems. The PI controllers successfully attenuate constant disturbances in the network. We prove that agents with single-integrator dynamics are stable for any integral gain, and give an explicit tight upper bound on the integral gain for when the system is stable for agents with double-integrator dynamics. Throughout the paper we highlight some possible applications of the proposed controllers by realistic simulations of autonomous satellites, power systems and building temperature control.

  • 11.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Nazari, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Ghandhari, Mehrdad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Distributed Voltage and Current Control of Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems2014In: Proceedings of the 19th IFAC World Congress, 2014, IFAC Papers Online, 2014, Vol. 19, p. 11910-11916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance power transmission, due to its low resistive losses and low costs. In this paper, a novel distributed controller for multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) systems is proposed. Under certain conditions on the controller gains, it is shown to stabilize the MTDC system. The controller is shown to always keep the voltages close to the nominal voltage, while assuring that the injected power is shared fairly among the converters. The theoretical results are validated by simulations, where the affect of communication time-delays is also studied.

  • 12.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Distributed integral action: stability analysis and frequency control of power systems2012In: 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE , 2012, p. 2077-2083Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes distributed proportional-integral controllers. We prove that integral action can be successfully applied to consensus algorithms, where attenuation of static disturbances is achieved. These control algorithms are applied to decentralized frequency control of electrical power systems. We show that the proposed algorithm can attenuate step disturbances of power loads. We provide simulations of the proposed control algorithm on the IEEE 30 bus test system that demonstrate its efficiency.

  • 13.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sjödin, Emma
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM). KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Coherence in Synchronizing Power Networks with Distributed Integral Control2017In: 2017 IEEE 56th Annual Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2017, IEEE , 2017, p. 6683-6688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider frequency control of synchronous generator networks and study transient performance under both primary and secondary frequency control. We model random step changes in power loads and evaluate performance in terms of expected deviations from a synchronous frequency over the synchronization transient; what can be thought of as lack of frequency coherence. We compare a standard droop control strategy to two secondary proportional integral (PI) controllers: centralized averaging PI control (CAPI) and distributed averaging PI control (DAPI). We show that the performance of a power system with DAPI control is always superior to that of a CAPI controlled system, which in turn has the same transient performance as standard droop control. Furthermore, for a large class of network graphs, performance scales unfavorably with network size with CAPI and droop control, which is not the case with DAPI control. We discuss optimal tuning of the DAPI controller and describe how internodal alignment of the integral states affects performance. Our results are demonstrated through simulations of the Nordic power grid.

  • 14.
    Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Tegling, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, ACCESS Linnaeus Ctr, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Performance and Scalability of Voltage Controllers in Multi-Terminal HVDC Networks2017In: 2017 AMERICAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ACC), IEEE , 2017, p. 3029-3034Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare the transient performance of a multi-terminal high-voltage DC (MTDC) grid equipped with a slack bus for voltage control to that of two distributed control schemes: a standard droop controller and a distributed averaging proportional-integral (DAPI) controller. We evaluate performance in terms of an H-2 metric that quantifies expected deviations from nominal voltages, and show that the transient performance of a droop or DAPI controlled MTDC grid is always superior to that of an MTDC grid with a slack bus. In particular, by studying systems built up over lattice networks, we show that the H-2 norm of a slack bus controlled system may scale unboundedly with network size, while the norm remains uniformly bounded with droop or DAPI control. We simulate the control strategies on radial MTDC networks to demonstrate that the transient performance for the slack bus controlled system deteriorates significantly as the network grows, which is not the case with the distributed control strategies.

  • 15.
    Araujo, Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Ariba, Yassine
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Control over a Hybrid MAC Wireless Network2010In: 2010 IEEE 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SMART GRID COMMUNICATIONS, 2010, p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks and Control Systems are an essential part of the Smart Grid. We consider the problem of performing control over large complex networked systems with packet drops. More specifically, we are interested in improving the performance of the regulation of control loops when the communication is made over low-cost wireless networks. In control over wireless networks it is common to use Contention-Free (CF) schemes where no losses occur with the price of low scalability and complicated scheduling policies. In this work we propose a hybrid MAC and control architecture, where a small number of control loops with high demand of attention are scheduled in a CF scheme and well regulated loops are scheduled in a lossy, asynchronous and highly scalable, Contention-Access (CA) scheme. We model and analyze the performance of such system with Markov Jump Linear System (MJLS) tools and compare it with other architecture types. Performance is evaluated using a quadratic cost function of the state.

  • 16.
    Araujo, Jose
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Experimental Validation of a Localization System Based on a Heterogeneous Sensor Network2009In: ASCC: 2009 7TH ASIAN CONTROL CONFERENCE, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 465-470Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experimental implementation and validation of a localization system based on a heterogeneous sensor network is described. The sensor network consists of ultrasound ranging sensors and web cameras. They are used to localize a mobile robot under sensor communication constraints. Applying a recently proposed sensor fusion algorithm that explicitly takes communication delay and cost into account, it is shown that one can accurately trade off the estimation performance by using low-quality ultrasound sensors with low processing time and low communication cost versus the use of the high-quality cameras with longer processing time and higher communication cost. It is shown that a periodic schedule of the sensors is suitable in many cases. The experimental setup is discussed in detail and experimental results are presented.

  • 17.
    Besselink, Bart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Clustering-based model reduction of networked passive systems2016In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 2958-2973, article id 7350110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The model reduction problem for networks of interconnected dynamical systems is studied in this paper. In particular, networks of identical passive subsystems, which are coupled according to a tree topology, are considered. For such networked systems, reduction is performed by clustering subsystems that show similar behavior and subsequently aggregating their states, leading to a reduced-order networked system that allows for an insightful physical interpretation. The clusters are chosen on the basis of the analysis of controllability and observability properties of associated edge systems, representing the importance of the couplings and providing ameasure of the similarity of the behavior of neighboring subsystems. This reduction procedure is shown to preserve synchronization properties (i.e., the convergence of the subsystem trajectories to each other) and allows for the a priori computation of a bound on the reduction error with respect to external inputs and outputs. The method is illustrated by means of an example of a thermal model of a building.

  • 18.
    Besselink, Bart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Model reduction of networked passive systems through clustering2014In: 2014 European Control Conference, ECC 2014, IEEE , 2014, p. 1069-1074Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a model reduction procedure for a network of interconnected identical passive subsystems is presented. Here, rather than performing model reduction on the subsystems, adjacent subsystems are clustered, leading to a reduced-order networked system that allows for a convenient physical interpretation. The identification of the subsystems to be clustered is performed through controllability and observability analysis of an associated edge system and it is shown that the property of synchronization (i.e., the convergence of trajectories of the subsystems to each other) is preserved during reduction. The results are illustrated by means of an example.

  • 19.
    Besselink, Bart
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Imura, Jun-ichi
    Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Controllability of a class of networked passive linear systems2013In: Proceedings of the 52nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Florence, Italy, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 4901-4906Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, controllability properties of networks of diffusively coupled linear systems are considered through the controllability Gramian. For a class of passive linear systems, it is shown that the controllability Gramian can be decomposed into two parts. The first part is related to the dynamics of the individual systems whereas the second part is dependent only on the interconnection topology, allowing for a clear interpretation and efficient computation of controllability properties for a class of networked systems. Moreover, a relation between symmetries in the interconnection topology and controllability is given. The results are illustrated by an example.

  • 20.
    Biel, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    Sandberg, Henrik
    SiMpLIfy: A toolbox for structured model reduction2015In: 2015 European Control Conference, ECC 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 1159-1164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a toolbox for structured model reduction developed for MATLAB. In addition to structured model reduction methods using balanced realizations of the subsystems, we introduce a numerical algorithm for structured model reduction using a subgradient optimization algorithm. We briefly present the syntax for the toolbox and its features. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of various model reduction methods in the toolbox on a structured mass-spring mechanical system.

  • 21. Briat, C.
    et al.
    Yavuz, E.A
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Jönsson, Ulf T.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    The Conservation of Information, Towards an Axiomatized Modular Modeling Approach to Congestion Control2015In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 851-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive a modular fluid-flow network congestion control model based on a law of fundamental nature in networks: the conservation of information. Network elements such as queues, users, and transmission channels and network performance indicators like sending/acknowledgment rates and delays are mathematically modeled by applying this law locally. Our contributions are twofold. First, we introduce a modular metamodel that is sufficiently generic to represent any network topology. The proposed model is composed of building blocks that implement mechanisms ignored by the existing ones, which can be recovered from exact reduction or approximation of this new model. Second, we provide a novel classification of previously proposed models in the literature and show that they are often not capable of capturing the transient behavior of the network precisely. Numerical results obtained from packet-level simulations demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed model.

  • 22.
    Briat, Corentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Jönsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nonlinear state-dependent delay modeling and stability analysis of internet congestion control2010In: 49TH IEEE CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), 2010, p. 1484-1491Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the queuing delay involved in the congestion control algorithm is state-dependent and does not depend on the current time. Then, using an accurate formulation for buffers, networks with arbitrary topologies can be built. At equilibrium, our model reduces to the widely used setup by Paganini et al. Using this model, the delay-derivative is analyzed and it is proved that the delay time-derivative does not exceed one for the considered topologies. It is then shown that the considered congestion control algorithm globally stabilizes a delay-free single buffer network. Finally, using a specific linearization result for systems with state-dependent delays from Cooke and Huang, we show the local stability of the single bottleneck network.

  • 23.
    Briat, Corentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Jönsson, Ulf T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Yavuz, Emre Altug
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    An axiomatic fluid-flow model for congestion control analysis2011In: 2011 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control andEuropean Control Conference (CDC-ECC), 2011, p. 3122-3129Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An axiomatic model for congestion control isderived. The proposed four axioms serve as a basis for theconstruction of models for the network elements. It is shownthat, under some assumptions, some models of the literature canbe recovered. A single-buffer/multiple-users topology is finallyderived and studied for illustration.

  • 24. Cantoni, M.
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Computing the L-2 gain for linear periodic continuous-time systems2009In: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 783-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to compute the L-2 gain is developed for the class of linear periodic continuous-time systems that admit a finite-dimensional state-space realisation. A bisection search for the smallest upper bound on the gain is employed, where at each step an equivalent discrete-time problem is considered via the well known technique of time-domain lifting. The equivalent problem involves testing a bound on the gain of a linear shift-invariant discrete-time system, with the same state dimension as the periodic continuous-time system. It is shown that a state-space realisation of the discrete-time system can be constructed from point solutions to a linear differential equation and two differential Riccati equations, all subject to only single-point boundary conditions. These are well behaved over the corresponding one period intervals of integration, and as such, the required point solutions can be computed via standard methods for ordinary differential equations. A numerical example is presented and comparisons made with alternative techniques.

  • 25. Delvenne, J. -C
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Deriving thermodynamics from linear dissipativity theory2016In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 537-542Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete and rigorous foundations for basic thermodynamic laws from the statistical description of microscopic systems has been a long-standing goal for mathematicians and physicists alike since Boltzmann. In this paper, we show how Willems's dissipativity theory provides a convenient framework to study a physical system at both microscopic and macroscopic level, and suggests a natural storage function different from the usual free energy to derive the theorem of energy equipartition of energy for linear systems. In this setup, we introduce a simple and general definition for temperature defined also out of equilibrium which allows to test the limits of validity of Fourier's law describing the transfer of heat from hot systems to cold systems. In particular under time-scale separation conditions, we derive the Maxwell-Cattaneo law, allowing for instantaneous flow of energy from cold to hot systems, which should be considered instead of Fourier's law for a proper description of energy exchanges between interconnected linear systems.

  • 26. Delvenne, J. -C
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Towards a thermodynamics of control: Entropy, energy and Kalman filtering2013In: 2013 IEEE 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 3109-3114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method to analyse the flows of information and energy between two systems (plant and controller) connected in feedback. Extending a work by Touchette and Lloyd (2000, 2004), we estimate the advantage, both in terms of entropy reduction and energy extraction, of a feedback controller over an open-loop control in terms of the information on the plant state that is available to the controller. By energy here we mean any objective function that we seek to minimize, for example the square of the state. We apply this methodology on the Kalman filter, and develop a physical interpretation comparable to Mitter and Newton's (2005).

  • 27. Delvenne, Jean-Charles
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Dissipative open systems theory as a foundation for the thermodynamics of linear systems2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2088, article id 20160218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we advocate the use of open dynamical systems, i.e. systems sharing input and output variables with their environment, and the dissipativity theory initiated by Jan Willems as models of thermodynamical systems, at the microscopic and macroscopic level alike. We take linear systems as a study case, where we show how to derive a global Lyapunov function to analyse networks of interconnected systems. We define a suitable notion of dynamic non-equilibrium temperature that allows us to derive a discrete Fourier law ruling the exchange of heat between lumped, discrete-space systems, enriched with the Maxwell-Cattaneo correction. We complete these results by a brief recall of the steps that allow complete derivation of the dissipation and fluctuation in macroscopic systems (i.e. at the level of probability distributions) from lossless and deterministic systems. This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'.

  • 28. Delvenne, Jean-Charles
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Finite-time thermodynamics of port-Hamiltonian systems2014In: Physica D: Non-linear phenomena, ISSN 0167-2789, E-ISSN 1872-8022, Vol. 267, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we identify a class of time-varying port-Hamiltonian systems that is suitable for studying problems at the intersection of statistical mechanics and control of physical systems. Those port-Hamiltonian systems are able to modify their internal structure as well as their interconnection with the environment over time. The framework allows us to prove the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics, but also lets us apply results from optimal and stochastic control theory to physical systems. In particular, we show how to use linear control theory to optimally extract work from a single heat source over a finite time interval in the manner of Maxwell's demon. Furthermore, the optimal controller is a time-varying port-Hamiltonian system, which can be physically implemented as a variable linear capacitor and transformer. We also use the theory to design a heat engine operating between two heat sources in finite-time Carnot-like cycles of maximum power, and we compare those two heat engines.

  • 29.
    Delvenne, Jean-Charles
    et al.
    Caltech, Control and Dynamical Systems.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    Caltech, Control and Dynamical Systems.
    Doyle, John C.
    Caltech, Control and Dynamical Systems.
    Thermodynamics of linear systems2007In: Proceedings of the European Control Conference, The European Union Control Association (EUCA) , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We rigorously derive the main results of thermodynamics,including Carnot’s theorem, in the framework oftime-varying linear systems.

  • 30.
    Dán, György
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Stealth attacks and protection schemes for state estimators in power systems2010In: 2010 1st IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, SmartGridComm 2010, IEEE , 2010, p. 214-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State estimators in power systems are currently used to, for example, detect faulty equipment and to route power flows. It is believed that state estimators will also play an increasingly important role in future smart power grids, as a tool to optimally and more dynamically route power flows. Therefore security of the estimator becomes an important issue. The estimators are currently located in control centers, and large numbers of measurements are sent over unencrypted communication channels to the centers. We here study stealthy false-data attacks against these estimators. We define a security measure tailored to quantify how hard attacks are to perform, and describe an efficient algorithm to compute it. Since there are so many measurement devices in these systems, it is not reasonable to assume that all devices can be made encrypted overnight in the future. Therefore we propose two algorithms to place encrypted devices in the system such as to maximize their utility in terms of increased system security. We illustrate the effectiveness of our algorithms on two IEEE benchmark power networks under two attack and protection cost models.

  • 31.
    Dán, György
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Björkman, Gunnar
    Challenges in Power System Information Security2012In: IEEE Security and Privacy, ISSN 1540-7993, E-ISSN 1558-4046, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 62-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving all-encompassing component-level security in power system IT infrastructures is difficult, owing to its cost and potential performance implications.

  • 32.
    Dán, György
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Sou, Kincheong C.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Power-system state-estimation security: Attacks and protection schemes2010In: Smart Grid Communications and Networking, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 388-412Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are widely used to monitor and control large-scale transmission power grids. Monitoring traditionally involves the measurement of voltage magnitudes and power flows; these data are collected by meters located in substations. In order to deliver the measured data from the substations to the control centre, the measurement data measured by meters in the same substation are multiplexed by a remote terminal unit (RTU) [1, 2]. Because electric power transmission systems extend over large geographical areas, typically entire countries, wide-area networks (WANs) are used to deliver the multiplexed measurement data from the substations to the control centre. For large-scale transmission grids it is often not feasible to measure all power flows and voltages of interest. Furthermore, the measurements are often noisy. Therefore the measurement data are usually fed into a model-based state estimator (SE) at the control centre, which is used to estimate the complete physical state (complex bus voltages) of the power grid. The SE is used to identify faulty equipment and corrupted measurement data through the so-called bad-data detection (BDD) system. Apart from BDD, the state estimate is used by the human operators and by the energy-management systems (EMS) found in modern SCADA systems, such as optimal power flow analysis, and contingency analysis (CA), see for example [1]. Future power grids will be even more dependent on accurate state estimators to fulfil their task of optimally and dynamically routing power flows, because clean renewable power generation tends to be less predictable than nonrenewable power generation.

  • 33. Farokhi, F.
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Shames, I.
    Cantoni, M.
    Quadratic Gaussian privacy games2016In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 4505-4510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A game-theoretic model for analysing the effects of privacy on strategic communication between agents is devised. In the model, a sender wishes to provide an accurate measurement of the state to a receiver while also protecting its private information (which is correlated with the state) private from a malicious agent that may eavesdrop on its communications with the receiver. A family of nontrivial equilibria, in which the communicated messages carry information, is constructed and its properties are studied.

  • 34.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A Robust Control-Design Method Using Bode’s Ideal Transfer Function2011In: Proceedings of the 19th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 712-717Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a method for designing loop-shaping controllers using Bode's ideal transfer function. Bode's ideal transfer function is introduced using fractional calculus. The ideal loop transfer function is approximated using the first generation CRONE approximation, and then implemented by means of Hinfinity-optimization followed by closed-loop controller order reduction of the resulting controller. The design method is confirmed to be powerful and robust by simulating on a flexible transmission system.

  • 35.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne Informat Decis & Autonomous Syst Lab, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia..
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Fisher Information as a Measure of Privacy: Preserving Privacy of Households With Smart Meters Using Batteries2018In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 4726-4734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, batteries are used to preserve the privacy of households with smart meters. It is commonly understood that data from smart meters can be used by adversaries to infringe on the privacy of the households, e.g., figuring out the individual appliances that are being used or the level of the occupancy of the house. The Cramer-Rao bound is used to relate the variance of the estimation error of any unbiased estimator of the household consumption from the aggregate consumption (i.e., the household plus the battery) to the Fisher information. Subsequently, optimal policies for charging and utilizing batteries are devised to minimize the Fisher information (in the scalar case and the trace of the Fisher information matrix in the multi-variable case) as a proxy for maximizing the variance of the estimation error of the electricity consumption by adversaries (irrespective of their estimation policies). The policies are chosen to respect the physical constraints of the battery regarding capacity, initial charge, and rate constraints. The results are demonstrated on real power measurement data with non-intrusive load monitoring algorithms.

  • 36. Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Optimal Privacy-Preserving Policy Using Constrained Additive Noise to Minimize the Fisher Information2017In: 2017 IEEE 56TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of preserving the privacy of individual entries of a database with constrained additive noise is considered. An adversary can submit linear queries to an agent possessing the entire database. The agent returns a response to the query that is corrupted by an additive random noise whose support is a subset or equal to a constraint set. The Cramer-Rao bound is used to bound the variance of the estimation error of the database, which may be used by the adversary, to the trace of the inverse of the Fisher information matrix. A measure of privacy using the Fisher information matrix is developed. The probability density that minimizes the Fisher information (as a proxy for maximizing the measure of privacy) is computed.

  • 37.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Complexity Reduction for Parameter-Dependent Linear Systems2013In: 2013 American Control Conference (ACC), American Automatic Control Council , 2013, p. 2624-2630Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a complexity reduction algorithm for a family of parameter-dependent linear systems when the system parameters belong to a compact semi-algebraic set. This algorithm potentially describes the underlying dynamical system with fewer parameters or state variables. To do so, it minimizes the distance (i.e., $H_\infty$-norm of the difference) between the original system and its reduced version. We present a sub-optimal solution to this problem using sum-of-squares optimization methods. We present the results for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems. Lastly, we illustrate the applicability of our proposed algorithm on numerical examples.

  • 38.
    Farokhi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimal H-Infinity Control Design under Model Information Limitations and State Measurement Constraints2013In: 2013 IEEE 52nd Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 6218-6225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a suboptimal control design algorithm for a family of continuous-time parameter-dependent linear systems that are composed of interconnected subsystems. We are interested in designing the controller for each subsystem such that it only utilizes partial state measurements (characterized by a directed graph called the control graph) and limited model parameter information (characterized by the design graph). The algorithm is based on successive local minimizations and maximizations (using the subgradients) of the H∞-norm of the closed-loop transfer function with respect to the controller gains and the system parameters. We use a vehicle platooning example to illustrate the applicability of the results.

  • 39.
    Flamme, Hendrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Tegling, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Performance Limitations of Distributed Integral Control in Power Networks under Noisy Measurements2018In: Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 5380-5386Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed approaches to secondary frequency control have become a way to address the need for more flexible control schemes in power networks with increasingly distributed generation. The distributed averaging proportional-integral (DAPI) controller presents one such approach. In this paper, we analyze the transient performance of this controller, and specifically address the question of its performance under noisy frequency measurements. Performance is analyzed in terms of an H2 norm metric that quantifies power losses incurred in the synchronization transient. While previous studies have shown that the DAPI controller performs well, in particular in sparse networks and compared to a centralized averaging PI (CAPI) controller, our results prove that additive measurement noise may have a significant negative impact on its performance and scalability. This impact is shown to decrease with an increased inter-nodal alignment of the controllers' integral states, either through increased gains or increased connectivity. For very large and sparse networks, however, the requirement for inter-nodal alignment is so large that a CAPI approach may be preferable. Overall, our results show that distributed secondary frequency control through DAPI is possible and may perform well also under noisy measurements, but requires careful tuning.

  • 40. Giani, A.
    et al.
    Sastry, S.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    The VIKING project: An initiative on resilient control of power networks2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the work on resilient and secure power transmission and distribution developed within the VIKING (vital infrastructure, networks, information and control system management) project. VIKING receives funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Program. We will present the consortium, the motivation behind this research, the main objective of the project together with the current status.

  • 41. Hendrickx, Julien M.
    et al.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Jungers, Raphael M.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sou, Kin Cheong
    Efficient Computations of a Security Index for False Data Attacks in Power Networks2014In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 3194-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resilience of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems for electric power networks for certain cyber-attacks is considered. We analyze the vulnerability of the measurement system to false data attack on communicated measurements. The vulnerability analysis problem is shown to be NP-hard, meaning that unless P = NP there is no polynomial time algorithm to analyze the vulnerability of the system. Nevertheless, we identify situations, such as the full measurement case, where the analysis problem can be solved efficiently. In such cases, we show indeed that the problem can be cast as a generalization of the minimum cut problem involving nodes with possibly nonzero costs. We further show that it can be reformulated as a standard minimum cut problem (without node costs) on a modified graph of proportional size. An important consequence of this result is that our approach provides the first exact efficient algorithm for the vulnerability analysis problem under the full measurement assumption. Furthermore, our approach also provides an efficient heuristic algorithm for the general NP-hard problem. Our results are illustrated by numerical studies on benchmark systems including the IEEE 118-bus system.

  • 42.
    Henriksson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Quevedo, Daniel
    University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Self-Triggered Model Predictive Control for Network Scheduling and Control2012In: Advanced Control of Chemical Processes, Vol. 8. Part 1 2012, 2012, p. 432-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein we present an algorithm for controlling LTI processes using an adaptive sampling interval where the controller at every sampling instant not only computes the new control command but also decides the time interval to the next sample. The approach relies on MPC where the cost function depends on the control performance as well as the cost for sampling. The paper presents a method for synthesizing such a predictive controller and gives explicit conditions for when it is stabilizing. Further it is shown that the optimization problem may be solved off-line and that the controller may be implemented as a lookup table of state feedback gains. The paper is concluded with a numerical example.

  • 43. Henriksson, Erik
    et al.
    Quevedo, D.E
    Peters, E.G.W.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Multiple loop self-triggered model predictive control for network scheduling and control2015In: IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, ISSN 1063-6536, E-ISSN 1558-0865, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 2167-2181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an algorithm for controlling and scheduling multiple linear time-invariant processes on a shared bandwidth-limited communication network using adaptive sampling intervals. The controller is centralized and not only computes at every sampling instant the new control command for a process but also decides the time interval to wait until taking the next sample.The approach relies on model predictive control ideas, where the cost function penalizes the state and control effort as well as the time interval until the next sample is taken. The latter is introduced to generate an adaptive sampling scheme for the overall system such that the sampling time increases as the norm of the system state goes to zero. This paper presents a method for synthesizing such a predictive controller and gives explicit sufficient conditions for when it is stabilizing. Further explicit conditions are given that guarantee conflict free transmissions on the network. It is shown that the optimization problem may be solved offline and that the controller can be implemented as a lookup table of state feedback gains. The simulation studies which compare the proposed algorithm to periodic sampling illustrate potential performance gains.

  • 44.
    Henriksson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Predictive Compensation for Communication Outages in Networked Control Systems2008In: Proceedings of the 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Cancun, Mexico, 2008, p. 2063-2068Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A predictive outage compensator co-located with the actuator node in a networked control system can be used to counteract unpredictable losses of data in the feedback control loop. When a new control command is not received at the actuator node at an appropriate time instance, the predictive outage compensator suggests a replacement command based on the history of past control commands. It is shown that a simple tuning phase together with the monitoring of the control history can lead to a compensator that can improve the closed-loop control performance under communication outages considerably compared to traditional schemes. Worst case performance bounds are given that relate the quality of the tuning phase and the complexity of the compensator with the length of the communication outage period. Zero-order-hold (holding the past control command if the current is lost) and applying an a priori decided constant signal (using a redefined value on the control command if the current is lost) are special cases of the more general compensation scheme presented. The predictive outage compensator is illustrated through computer simulation with communication outages.

  • 45.
    Henriksson, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Reduced-Order Predictive Outage Compensators for Networked Systems2009In: Proceedings of the combined 48th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and 28th Chinese Control Conference, Shanghai, P.R. China, 2009, p. 3775-3780Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control systems utilizing wireless sensor and actuator networks can be severely affected by the properties of the wireless links. Radio fading and interference may cause communication outage of several samples in situations when the radio environment is noisy and low transmission power is desirable. We propose a method to compensate for outages by introducing a predictive outage compensator (POC), which is a filter to be implemented at the receiver sides of networked control systems and that generates artificial samples during the outage. The main contribution of the paper is to show that a POC can be derived based on a Kalman filter formulation and that it is possible to achieve good performance with a low-order implementation based on Hankel norm approximation. Tradeoffs between achievable closed-loop performance, outage length, and POC order are discussed. The results are illustrated on a simulated example of a multiple-tank process.

  • 46.
    Herdeiro Teixeira, André
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Strategic stealthy attacks: The output-to-output ℓ2-gain2016In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, p. 2582-2587Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we characterize and analyze the set of strategic stealthy false-data injection attacks on discrete-time linear systems. In particular, the threat scenarios tackled in the paper consider adversaries that aim at deteriorating the system's performance by maximizing the corresponding quadratic cost function, while remaining stealthy with respect to anomaly detectors. As opposed to other work in the literature, the effect of the adversary's actions on the anomaly detector's output is not constrained to be zero at all times. Moreover, scenarios where the adversary has uncertain model knowledge are also addressed. The set of strategic attack policies is formulated as a non-convex constrained optimization problem, leading to a sensitivity metric denoted as the output-to-output ℓ2-gain. Using the framework of dissipative systems, the output-to-output gain is computed through an equivalent convex optimization problem. Additionally, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the output-to-output gain to be unbounded, with and without model uncertainties, which are tightly related to the invariant zeros of the system.

  • 47.
    Hernandez, Aitor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Faria, Joao
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Araujo, Jose
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Inverted Pendulum Control over an IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research efforts are considering the problem of performing control of dynamical systems over wireless sensor and actuator networks. However, existing results lack an experimental evaluation in real platforms. In this demonstration an inverted pendulum system is controlled over an IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor and actuator network. This platform can evaluate several sensor networks and control algorithms and is currently used as an educational tool at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.

  • 48. Horowitz, Jordan M.
    et al.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Second-law-like inequalities with information and their interpretations2014In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 16, p. 125007-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a thermodynamic process with measurement and feedback, the second law of thermodynamics is no longer valid. In its place, various second-law-like inequalities have been advanced that each incorporate a distinct additional term accounting for the information gathered through measurement. We quantitatively compare a number of these information measures using an analytically tractable model for the feedback cooling of a Brownian particle. We find that the information measures form a hierarchy that reveals a web of interconnections. To untangle their relationships, we address the origins of the information, arguing that each information measure represents the minimum thermodynamic cost to acquire that information through a separate, distinct measurement procedure.

  • 49.
    Hägg, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    On Identification of Parallel Cascade Serial Systems2011In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), IFAC , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider identification of systems with a parallel serial (cascade) structure with multiple-input and multiple-output signals. The statistical properties of estimated models are studied with respect to input signals and possible sensor locations. The quality of the estimates are analyzed by means of the asymptotic covariance matrix of the estimated parameters. This is an extension of previous work on identification of cascaded linear systems. The key result concerns systems where the sub-systems have common dynamics. An interesting observation is that for this case the variance for the parameters belonging to the unmeasured subsystem always is larger than for the other sub-systems. This is not true for general parameters. The variance results can be used for optimal input and sensor location design. The results are illustrated by some simple FIR examples and numerical evaluations.

  • 50.
    Hägg, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    On subspace identification of cascade structured systems2010In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE , 2010, p. 2843-2848Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In identification it is important to take a priori structural information into account in many applications, something that is difficult when using subspace methods. Here will study how to incorporate a special structure, a cascade structure with two subsystems. Two new methods are derived for estimating system with this structure. The problem when using subspace identification on cascade structured system is that the states from the first subsystem are mixed with states from the second subsystem via a unknown similarity transform. The first indirect method finds a similarity transform that takes the system back to a form such that the subsystems can be recovered. The second method uses the fact that the structure of the extended observability matrix is known for cascade systems. However, it only works when both subsystems have order one. In practice this is still a common case. The results of the two methods seem promising, as illustrated by applying the methods to a real process, the double tank process. The performance is comparable with state of the art methods. Finally the problem of optimal input design for cascade systems are introduced, and illustrated by a simple example. ©2010 IEEE.

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