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  • 1.
    Abdalmoaty, Mohamed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    The Gaussian MLE versus the Optimally weighted LSE2020In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 195-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note, we derive and compare the asymptotic covariance matrices of two parametric estimators: the Gaussian Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE), and the optimally weighted Least-Squares Estimator (LSE). We assume a general model parameterization where the model's mean and variance are jointly parameterized, and consider Gaussian and non-Gaussian data distributions.

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  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Seyed Alireza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Shames, Iman
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Scotton, Francesco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Huang, Lirong
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sandberg, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Towards more efficient building energy management systems2012In: Proceedings - 2012 7th International Conference on Knowledge, Information and Creativity Support Systems, KICSS 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 118-125Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a first step towards developing efficient building energy management techniques, in this paper, we first study the energy consumption patterns of heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems across the KTH Royal Institute of Technology campus and we identify some possible areas where energy consumption can be made less wasteful. Later, we describe a test-bed where wireless sensor networks are used to collect data and eventually control the HVAC system in a distributed way. We present some of the data, temperature, humidity, and CO2 measurements, that are collected by the aforementioned network and compare them with the measurements collected by the legacy sensors already in place. In the end we present a preliminary result on modelling the dynamics of the temperature, humidity, and CO2 using the data gather by the sensor network. We check the validity of the model via comparing the out put of the system with measured data. As a future work we identify the possibility of using the models obtained here for model based control, and fault detection and isolation techniques.

  • 3.
    Altafini, Claudio
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mathematics.
    Speranzon, Alberto
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    A feedback control scheme for reversing a truck and trailer vehicle2001In: IEEE transactions on robotics and automation, ISSN 1042-296X, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 915-922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A control scheme is proposed for stabilization of backward driving along simple paths for a miniaturized vehicle composed of a truck and a two-axle trailer. The paths chosen are straight lines and arcs of circles. When reversing, the truck and trailer under examination can be modeled as an unstable nonlinear system with state and input saturations. The simplified goal of stabilizing along a trajectory (instead of a point) allows us to consider a system with controllable linearization. Still, the combination of instability and saturations makes the task impossible with a single controller. In fact, the system cannot be driven backward from all initial states because of the jack-knife effects between the parts of the multibody vehicle; it is sometimes necessary to drive forward to enter into a specific region of attraction. This leads to the use of hybrid controllers. The scheme has been implemented and successfully used to reverse the radio-controlled vehicle.

  • 4.
    Anderson, Sören
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköping University.
    Millnert, Mille
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköping University.
    Viberg, Mats
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköping University.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköping University.
    An adaptive array for mobile communication systems1991In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, Vol. 40, no 1 pt 2, p. 230-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of adaptive antenna techniques to increase the channel capacity is discussed. Directional sensitivity is obtained by using an antenna array at the base station, possibly both in receiving and transmitting modes. A scheme for separating several signals at the same frequency is proposed. The method is based on high-resolution direction-finding followed by optimal combination of the antenna outputs. Comparison with a method based on reference signals is made. Computer simulations are carried out to test the applicability of the technique to scattering scenarios that typically arise in urban areas. The proposed scheme is found to have great potential in rejecting cochannel interference, albeit at the expense of high computational requirements.

  • 5. Andersson, O.
    et al.
    Doherty, P.
    Lager, M.
    Lindh, J. -O
    Persson, Linnea
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Topp, E. A.
    Tordenlid, J.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    WARA-PS: a research arena for public safety demonstrations and autonomous collaborative rescue robotics experimentation2021In: Autonomous Intelligent Systems, ISSN 2730-616X, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A research arena (WARA-PS) for sensing, data fusion, user interaction, planning and control of collaborative autonomous aerial and surface vehicles in public safety applications is presented. The objective is to demonstrate scientific discoveries and to generate new directions for future research on autonomous systems for societal challenges. The enabler is a computational infrastructure with a core system architecture for industrial and academic collaboration. This includes a control and command system together with a framework for planning and executing tasks for unmanned surface vehicles and aerial vehicles. The motivating application for the demonstration is marine search and rescue operations. A state-of-art delegation framework for the mission planning together with three specific applications is also presented. The first one concerns model predictive control for cooperative rendezvous of autonomous unmanned aerial and surface vehicles. The second project is about learning to make safe real-time decisions under uncertainty for autonomous vehicles, and the third one is on robust terrain-aided navigation through sensor fusion and virtual reality tele-operation to support a GPS-free positioning system in marine environments. The research results have been experimentally evaluated and demonstrated to industry and public sector audiences at a marine test facility. It would be most difficult to do experiments on this large scale without the WARA-PS research arena. Furthermore, these demonstrator activities have resulted in effective research dissemination with high public visibility, business impact and new research collaborations between academia and industry. 

  • 6.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Millnert, Mille
    Linköping University.
    Viberg, Mats
    Linköping University.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    A study of adaptive arrays for mobile communication systems1991In: Proceedings - ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, Toronto, Ont, Can, 1991, Vol. 5, no Piscataway, NJ, United States, p. 3289-3292Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of adaptive antenna techniques to increase the channel capacity in mobile radio communication is discussed. Directional sensitivity is obtained by using an antenna array at the base station, possibly both in receiving and transmitting mode. A scheme for separating several signals at the same frequency is proposed. The method is based on high-resolution direction finding following by optimal combination of the antenna outputs. Comparisons to a method based on reference signals are made. Computer simulations are carried out to test the applicability of the technique to scattering scenarios that typically arise in urban areas. The proposed scheme is found to have great potential in rejecting cochannel interference, albeit at the expense of high computational requirements.

  • 7.
    Annergren, Mariette
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hansson, A.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    An ADMM Algorithm for Solving l(1) Regularized MPC2012In: 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), IEEE , 2012, p. 4486-4491Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) algorithm for solving optimization problems with an ℓ1 regularized least-squares cost function subject to recursive equality constraints. The considered optimization problem has applications in control, for example in ℓ1 regularized MPC. The ADMM algorithm is easy to implement, converges fast to a solution of moderate accuracy, and enables separation of the optimization problem into sub-problems that may be solved in parallel. We show that the most costly step of the proposed ADMM algorithm is equivalent to solving an LQ regulator problem with an extra linear term in the cost function, a problem that can be solved efficiently using a Riccati recursion. We apply the ADMM algorithm to an example of ℓ1 regularized MPC. The numerical examples confirm fast convergence to sufficient accuracy and a linear complexity in the MPC prediction horizon.

  • 8.
    Annergren, Mariette
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Larsson, Christian A.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Bombois, Xavier
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Autonomous Systems, CAS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Application-Oriented Input Design in System Identification Optimal input design for control2017In: IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, ISSN 1066-033X, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 31-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Avventi, Enrico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Lindquist, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    ARMA Identification of Graphical Models2013In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 1167-1178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider a Gaussian stationary stochastic vector process with the property that designated pairs of components are conditionally independent given the rest of the components. Such processes can be represented on a graph where the components are nodes and the lack of a connecting link between two nodes signifies conditional independence. This leads to a sparsity pattern in the inverse of the matrix-valued spectral density. Such graphical models find applications in speech, bioinformatics, image processing, econometrics and many other fields, where the problem to fit an autoregressive (AR) model to such a process has been considered. In this paper we take this problem one step further, namely to fit an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model to the same data. We develop a theoretical framework and an optimization procedure which also spreads further light on previous approaches and results. This procedure is then applied to the identification problem of estimating the ARMA parameters as well as the topology of the graph from statistical data.

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  • 10.
    Avventi, Enrico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Lindquist, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Graphical Models of Autoregressive Moving-Average Processes2010In: The 19th International Symposium on Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems (MTNS 2010), 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consider a Gaussian stationary stochastic vector process with the property that designated pairs of components are conditionally independent given the rest of the components. Such processes can be represented on a graph where the components are nodes and the lack of a connecting link between two nodes signifies conditional independence. This leads to a sparsity pattern in the inverse of the matrix-valued spectral density. Such graphical models find applications in speech, bioinformatics, image processing, econometrics and many other fields, where the problem to fit an autoregressive (AR) model to such a process has been considered. In this paper we take this problem one step further, namely to fit an autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) model to the same data. We develop a theoretical framework which also spreads further light on previous approaches and results.

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    IR-EE-RT 2010:032
  • 11.
    Barenthin, Märta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Enqvist, Martin
    Linköping University.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Gain estimation for Hammerstein systems2006In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) / [ed] Brett Ninness, Håkan Hjalmarsson, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss and compare three different approaches for L2- gain estimation of Hammerstein systems. The objective is to find the input signal that maximizes the gain. A fundamental difference between two of the approaches is the class, or structure, of the input signals. The first approach involves describing functions and therefore the class of input signals is sinusoids. In this case we assume that we have a model of the system and we search for the amplitude and frequency that give the largest gain. In the second approach, no structure on the input signal is assumed in advance and the system does not have to be modelled first. The maximizing input is found using an iterative procedure called power iterations. In the last approach, a new iterative procedure tailored for memoryless nonlinearities is used to find the maximizing input for the unmodelled nonlinear part of the Hammerstein system. The approaches are illustrated by numerical examples.

  • 12.
    Barenthin, Märta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Jansson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    A control perspective on optimal input design in system identification2006In: Forever Ljung in System Identification / [ed] Torkel Glad and Gustaf Hendeby, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, p. 197-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Barenthin, Märta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Mosskull, Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Validation of stability for an induction machine drive using power iterations2005In: Proceedings of the 16th IFAC World Congress, 2005, Prague, 2005, Vol. 16, p. 892-897Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is an extension of the paper (Mosskull et al., 2003), in which the modelling, identification and stability of an nonlinear induction machine drive is studied. The validation of the stability margins of the system is refined by an improved estimate of the induced L2 loop gain of the system. This is done with a procedure called power iterations where input sequences suitable for estimating the gain are generated iteratively through experiments on the system. The power iterations result in higher gain estimates compared to the experiments previously presented. This implies that more accurate estimates are obtained as, in general, only lower bounds can be obtained as estimates for the gain. The new gain estimates are well below one, which suggests that the feedback system is stable. The experiments are performed on an industrial hardware/software simulation platform. in this paper we also discuss the power iterations from a more general point of view. The usefulness of the method for gain estimation of nonlinear systems is illustrated through simulation examples. The basic principles of the method are provided.

  • 14.
    Barenthin, Märta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Barkhagen, Mathias
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Data-driven methods for L2-gain estimation2009In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2009, Vol. 15, no PART 1, p. 1597-1602Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present and discuss some data-driven methods for estimation of the L2-gain of dynamical systems. Partial results on convergence and statistical properties are provided. The methods are based on multiple experiments on the system. The main idea is to directly estimate the maximizing input signal by using iterative experiments on the true system. We study such a data-driven method based on a stochastic gradient method. We show that this method is very closely related to the so-called power iteration method based on the power method in numerical analysis. Furthermore, it is shown that this method is applicable for linear systems with noisy measurements. We will also study L2-gain estimation of Hammerstein systems. The stochastic gradient method and the power iteration method are evaluated and compared in simulation examples. © 2009 IFAC.

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    IR-EE-RT 2009:012
  • 15.
    Bereza-Jarocinski, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Persson, Linnea
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). Linköping Univ, Div Automat Control, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Distributed Model Predictive Control for Cooperative Landing2020In: Proceedings 21st IFAC World Congress on Automatic Control - Meeting Societal Challenges, Elsevier BV , 2020, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 15180-15185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We design, implement and test two control algorithms for autonomously landing a drone on an autonomous boat. The first algorithm uses distributed model predictive control (DMPC), while the second combines a cascade controller with DMPC. The algorithms are implemented on a real drone, while the boat's motion is simulated, and their performance is compared to a centralized model predictive controller. Field experiments are performed, where all algorithms show an ability to land while avoiding violation of the safety constraints. The two distributed algorithms further show the ability to use longer prediction horizons than the centralized model predictive controller, especially in the cascade case, and also demonstrate improved robustness towards breaks in communication.

  • 16.
    Blomberg, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Approximate regularization path for nuclear norm based H2 model reduction2014In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, no February, p. 3637-3641Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns model reduction of dynamical systems using the nuclear norm of the Hankel matrix to make a trade-off between model fit and model complexity. This results in a convex optimization problem where this tradeoff is determined by one crucial design parameter. The main contribution is a methodology to approximately calculate all solutions up to a certain tolerance to the model reduction problem as a function of the design parameter. This is called the regularization path in sparse estimation and is a very important tool in order to find the appropriate balance between fit and complexity. We extend this to the more complicated nuclear norm case. The key idea is to determine when to exactly calculate the optimal solution using an upper bound based on the so-called duality gap. Hence, by solving a fixed number of optimization problems the whole regularization path up to a given tolerance can be efficiently computed. We illustrate this approach on some numerical examples.

  • 17.
    Blomberg, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Regularization Paths for Re-Weighted Nuclear Norm Minimization2015In: IEEE Signal Processing Letters, ISSN 1070-9908, E-ISSN 1558-2361, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 1980-1984Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a class of weighted nuclear norm optimization problems with important applications in signal processing, system identification, and model order reduction. The nuclear norm is commonly used as a convex heuristic for matrix rank constraints. Our objective is to minimize a quadratic cost subject to a nuclear norm constraint on a linear function of the decision variables, where the trade-off between the fit and the constraint is governed by a regularization parameter. The main contribution is an algorithm to determine the so-called approximate regularization path, which is the optimal solution up to a given error tolerance as a function of the regularization parameter. The advantage is that we only have to solve the optimization problem for a fixed number of values of the regularization parameter, with guaranteed error tolerance. The algorithm is exemplified on a weighted Hankel matrix model order reduction problem.

  • 18.
    Blomberg, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rojas, Cristian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Approximate Regularization Paths for Nuclear Norm Minimization using Singular Value Bounds: with Implementation and Extended Appendix2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widely used nuclear norm heuristic for rank minimizationproblems introduces a regularization parameter which isdifficult to tune. We have recently proposed a method to approximatethe regularization path, i.e., the optimal solution asa function of the parameter, which requires solving the problemonly for a sparse set of points. In this paper, we extendthe algorithm to provide error bounds for the singular valuesof the approximation. We exemplify the algorithms on largescale benchmark examples in model order reduction. Here,the order of a dynamical system is reduced by means of constrainedminimization of the nuclear norm of a Hankel matrix.

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  • 19. Blomkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    A data driven orthonormal parameterization of the generalized entropy maximization problem2004In: Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems (MTNS), Leuven, Belgium, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    On frequency weighting in autoregressive spectral estimation2005In: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing - Proceedings, 2005, p. 245-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper treats the problem of approximating a complex stochastic process in a given frequency region by an estimated autoregressive (AR) model. Two frequency domain approaches are discussed: a weighted frequency domain maximum likelihood method and a prefiltered covariance extension method based on the theory of Lindquist and co-workers. It is shown that these two approaches are very closely related and can both be formulated as convex optimization problems. An examples illustrating the methods and the effect of prefiltering/weighting is provided. The results show that these methods are capable of tuning the AR model fit to a specified frequency region.

  • 21.
    Blomqvist, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    On the relation between weighted frequency-domain maximum-likelihood power spectral estimation and the prefiltered covariance extension approach2007In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 384-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this correspondence is to study the connection between weighted frequency-domain maximum-likelihood power spectral estimation and the time-domain prefiltered covariance extension approach. Weighting and prefiltering are introduced to emphasize the model fit in a certain frequency range. The main result is that these two methods are very closely related for the case of autoregressive (AR) model estimation, which implies that both can be formulated as convex optimization problems. Examples illustrating the methods and the effect of prefiltering/weighting are provided.

  • 22.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Oliveira e Silva, Tomas
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    On the construction of orthonormal basis functions for system identification1996In: Proc. 13:th IFAC World Congress, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Villemoes, Lars F.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Algorithm for selection of best orthonormal rational basis1997In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, San Diego, CA, USA, 1997, Vol. 2, no Piscataway, NJ, United States, p. 1277-1282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution deals with the problem of structure determination for generalized orthonormal basis models used in system identification. The model structure is parameterized by a pre-specified set of poles. Given this structure and experimental data a model can be estimated using linear regression techniques. Since the variance of the estimated model increases with the number of estimated parameters, the objective is to find structures that are as compact/parsimonious as possible. A natural approach would be to estimate the poles, but this leads to nonlinear optimization with possible local minima. In this paper, a best basis algorithm is derived for the generalized orthonormal rational bases. Combined with linear regression and thresholding this leads to compact transfer function representations.

  • 24.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Villemoes, Lars F.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    An algorithm for selection of best orthonormal rational basis1997In: Decision and Control, 1997., Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Conference on, 1997, Vol. 2, p. 1277-1282Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the problem of structure determination for generalized orthonormal basis models used in system identification. The model structure is parametrized by a pre-specified set of poles. Given this structure and experimental data a model can be estimated using linear regression techniques. Since the variance of the estimated model increases with the number of estimated parameters, the objective is to find structures that are as compact/parsimonious as possible. A natural approach would be to estimate the poles, but this leads to nonlinear optimization with possible local minima. In this paper, a best basis algorithm is derived for the generalized orthonormal rational bases. Combined with linear regression and thresholding this leads to compact transfer function representations

  • 25.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    Swedish Space Corporation, Space Vehicle Design, Science Systems Division, P.O. Box 4207, S-171 04 Solna, Sweden.
    Villemoes, Lars F.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.).
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Selection of best orthonormal rational basis2000In: SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization, ISSN 0363-0129, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 995-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution deals with the problem of structure determination for generalized orthonormal basis models used in system identification. The model structure is parameterized by a prespecified set of poles representing a finite-dimensional subspace of H2. Given this structure and experimental data, a model can be estimated using linear regression techniques. Since the variance of the estimated model increases with the number of estimated parameters, one objective is to find coordinates, or a basis, for the finite-dimensional subspace giving as compact or parsimonious a system representation as possible. In this paper, a best basis algorithm and a coefficient decomposition scheme are derived for the generalized orthonormal rational bases. Combined with linear regression and thresholding this leads to compact transfer function representations. The methods are demonstrated with several examples.

  • 26.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    A frequency response estimation method based on smoothing and thresholding1998In: International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, ISSN 0890-6327, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 407-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A standard approach for estimating the frequency function of a linear dynamical system is to use spectral estimation. Traditionally, this is done by smoothing the noisy frequency data using linear filters. The method has proved to be successful in most cases and is widely used. However, if the frequency response has fine details appearing only locally in frequency, the loss of resolution caused by smoothing might result in unacceptable errors. In this paper, a different method for frequency response estimation is suggested. The method utilizes recently proposed wavelet-based denoising schemes combined with traditional smoothing techniques. The wavelet transform is applied in the frequency domain in order to provide a suitable frequency window. Tested through simulations, this approach provides an alternative when traditional methods fail.

  • 27.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    A wavelet shrinkage approach for frequency response estimation1994In: 1Oth IFAC Symposium on System Identification, SYSID94, 1994Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Fast Expansion Coefficient Calculation for Best Orthonormal Rational Basis1998In: Proceedings of MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF NETWORKS AND SYSTEMS MTNS 98 Padova, Italy, July 6-10, 1998, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bodin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Thresholding in high order transfer function estimation1994In: Decision and Control, 1994., Proceedings of the 33rd IEEE Conference on, 1994, Vol. 4, p. 3400-3405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A problem in prediction error system identification methods is estimation of pole locations. Typically, iterative numerical optimization methods are used. Reliable initial values are then necessary for good results. The parameterization is often done in the coefficients of transfer function polynomials or some canonical form. In this contribution we discuss a couple of issues related to the above problem. First, we study how all-pass systems can be used to generate suitable model structures. This analysis is based on the relation between balanced realizations of all-pass filters and orthonormal basis transfer functions. Next, we investigate the effects of a priori fixed pole locations, such as in Laguerre and Kautz models. One idea is to use very flexible high-order models. However, the corresponding estimation problem has to be regularized in order to reduce the variance errors due to noise. We will discuss how this can be done by using thresholding of the estimated coefficients

  • 30. Brighenti, C.
    et al.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Input design using Markov chains for system identification2009In: Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on  Decision and Control, 2009 held jointly with the 2009 28th Chinese Control Conference. CDC/CCC 2009, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 1557-1562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the input design problem for system identification where time domain constraints have to be considered. A finite Markov chain is used to model the input of the system. This allows to directly include input amplitude constraints in the input model by properly choosing the state space of the Markov chain, which is defined so that the Markov chain generates a multi-level sequence. The probability distribution of the Markov chain is shaped in order to minimize the cost function considered in the input design problem. Stochastic approximation is used to minimize that cost function. With this approach, the input signal to apply to the system can be easily generated by extracting samples from the optimal distribution. A numerical example shows how this method can improve estimation with respect to other input realization techniques.

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    IR-EE-RT_2009_006
  • 31.
    Carlemairn, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Halvarsson, Susanne
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Low complexity parameter estimation approach for fast time-delay estimation1997In: Decision and Control, 1997., Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Conference on, 1997, Vol. 2, p. 1603-1608Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presents algorithms for time-delay estimation based on a parametric approach. The suggested methods combine an exhaustive search with a low complexity since they do not require filtering or correlation computations. Consequently, the problems with local minima of gradient search algorithms are avoided. The proposed detection schemes are experimentally verified by way of computer simulations. Furthermore, receiver operator characteristics are presented

  • 32.
    Carlemalm, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    On the problem of detection and discrimination of double talk and change in the echo path1996In: Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1996. ICASSP-96. Conference Proceedings., 1996 IEEE International Conference on, 1996, Vol. 5, p. 2742-2745Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of detection and discrimination of double talk and change in the echo path in a telephone channel is considered. The phenomenon echo path change requires fast adaptation of the channel model to be able to equalize the echo dynamics. On the other hand, the adaption rate should be reduced when double talk occurs. Thus, it is critical to quickly detect a change in the echo path while not confusing it with double talk, which gives a similar effect. The proposed likelihood based approach compares a global channel model with a local one over a sliding window, both estimated with the recursive least squares algorithm

  • 33.
    Carlemalm, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Halvarsson, S.
    Wigren, T.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Algorithms for time delay estimation using a low complexity exhaustive search1999In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1031-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of time-delay estimation. Two new algorithms for time-delay estimation are developed and analyzed. The suggested methods combine an exhaustive search with a low complexity. Consequently, the problems with local minima of gradient search algorithms are avoided. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) are computed, and together with simulation results these verify the performance of the estimation schemes.

  • 34.
    Carlemalm, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    On the problem of blind equalization considering abrupt changes in the channel characteristics2015In: European Signal Processing Conference, European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of blind equalization in a digital communication system is considered. Unfortunately, the circuit might suffer from abrupt changes. Thus, it is critical not to ignore this phenomenon when the problem of blind equalization is analyzed. The proposed method, which is based on an Ito stochastic differential calculus approach, describes the dynamics of the output signal with an infinite impulse response (IIR) model where the involved taps are modeled as time-varying cadlag (con-tinu a droite limites a gauche) processes. Therefore, nonlinear and time-variant changes in the channel characteristics are included.

  • 35.
    Carlemalm, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    On the problem of blind equalization considering changes in the channel characteristics1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Carlemalm, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    On the problem of blind equalization using a stochastic differential calculus approach1996In: MTNS 1996, 1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Collares Pereira, Goncalo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Lima, Pedro F.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Scania CV AB, Res & Dev, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Linear Time-Varying Robust Model Predictive Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems2018In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 2659-2666Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a robust model predictive controller for discrete-time nonlinear systems, subject to state and input constraints and unknown but bounded input disturbances. The prediction model uses a linearized time-varying version of the original discrete-time system. The proposed optimization problem includes the initial state of the current nominal model of the system as an optimization variable, which allows to guarantee robust exponential stability of a disturbance invariant set for the discrete-time nonlinear system. From simulations, it is possible to verify the proposed algorithm is real-time capable, since the problem is convex and posed as a quadratic program.

  • 38.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Annergren, Mariette
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Larsson, Christian A.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Molander, Mats
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Application Set Approximation in Optimal Input Design for Model Predictive Control2014In: 2014 European Control Conference (ECC), 2014, p. 744-749Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution considers one central aspect of experiment design in system identification, namely application set approximation. When a control design is based on an estimated model, the achievable performance is related to the quality of the estimate. The degradation in control performance due to plant-modeling missmatch is quantified by an application cost function. A convex approximation of the set of models that satisfy the control specification is typically required in optimal input design. The standard approach is to use a quadratic approximation of the application cost function, where the main computational effort is to find the corresponding Hessian matrix. Our main contribution is an alternative approach for this problem, which uses the structure of the underlying optimal control problem to considerably reduce the computations needed to find the application set. This technique allows the use of applications oriented input design for MPC on much more complex plants. The approach is numerically evaluated on a distillation control problem.

  • 39.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Molinari, Marco
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Division of Signals and Systems, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Luleå University of Innovation and Technology.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Multi-room occupancy estimation through adaptive gray-box models2015In: Decision and Control (CDC), 2015 IEEE 54th Annual Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 3705-3711Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of estimating the occupancylevel in buildings using indirect information such as CO2 concentrations and ventilation levels. We assume that oneof the rooms is temporarily equipped with a device measuringthe occupancy. Using the collected data, we identify a gray-boxmodel whose parameters carry information about the structuralcharacteristics of the room. Exploiting the knowledge of thesame type of structural characteristics of the other rooms inthe building, we adjust the gray-box model to capture the CO2dynamics of the other rooms. Then the occupancy estimatorsare designed using a regularized deconvolution approach whichaims at estimating the occupancy pattern that best explainsthe observed CO2 dynamics. We evaluate the proposed schemethrough extensive simulation using a commercial software tool,IDA-ICE, for dynamic building simulation.

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    fulltext
  • 40.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Blind identification strategies for room occupancy estimation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose and test on real data a two-tier estimation strategy for inferring occupancy levels from measurements of CO2 concentration and temperature levels. The first tier is a blind identification step, based either on a frequentist Maximum Likelihood method, implemented using non-linear optimization, or on a Bayesian marginal likelihood method, implemented using a dedicated Expectation-Maximization algorithm. The second tier resolves the ambiguity of the unknown multiplicative factor, and returns the final estimate of the occupancy levels. The overall procedure addresses some practical issues of existing occupancy estimation strategies. More specifically, first it does not require the installation of special hardware, since it uses measurements that are typically available in many buildings. Second, it does not require apriori knowledge on the physical parameters of the building, since it performs system identification steps. Third, it does not require pilot data containing measured real occupancy patterns (i.e., physically counting people for some periods, a typically expensive and time consuming step), since the identification steps are blind.

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    fulltext
  • 41.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Estimation of building occupancy levels through environmental signals deconvolution2013In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM Workshop on Embedded Systems For Energy-Efficient Buildings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of estimating the occupancy levelsin rooms using the information available in standardHVAC systems. Instead of employing dedicated devices, weexploit the significant statistical correlations between the occupancylevels and the CO2 concentration, room temperature,and ventilation actuation signals in order to identify adynamic model. The building occupancy estimation problemis formulated as a regularized deconvolution problem, wherethe estimated occupancy is the input that, when injected intothe identified model, best explains the currently measuredCO2 levels. Since occupancy levels are piecewise constant,the zero norm of occupancy is plugged into the cost functionto penalize non-piecewise constant inputs. The problemthen is seen as a particular case of fused-lasso estimator byrelaxing the zero norm into the `1 norm. We propose bothonline and offline estimators; the latter is shown to performfavorably compared to other data-based building occupancyestimators. Results on a real testbed show that the MSE ofthe proposed scheme, trained on a one-week-long dataset, is half the MSE of equivalent Neural Network (NN) or SupportVector Machine (SVM) estimation strategies.

  • 42.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Bottegal, Giulio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Varagnolo, Damiano
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Regularized Deconvolution-Based Approaches for Estimating Room Occupancies2015In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1157-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the problem of estimating the number of people in a room using information available in standard HVAC systems. We propose an estimation scheme based on two phases. In the first phase, we assume the availability of pilot data and identify a model for the dynamic relations occurring between occupancy levels, CO2 concentration and room temperature. In the second phase, we make use of the identified model to formulate the occupancy estimation task as a deconvolution problem. In particular, we aim at obtaining an estimated occupancy pattern by trading off between adherence to the current measurements and regularity of the pattern. To achieve this goal, we employ a special instance of the so-called fused lasso estimator, which promotes piecewise constant estimates by including an l(1) norm-dependent term in the associated cost function. We extend the proposed estimator to include different sources of information, such as actuation of the ventilation system and door opening/closing events. We also provide conditions under which the occupancy estimator provides correct estimates within a guaranteed probability. We test the estimator running experiments on a real testbed, in order to compare it with other occupancy estimation techniques and assess the value of having additional information sources.

  • 43.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Valenzuela, Patricio Esteban
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, Sch Elect Engn, ACCESS, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Applications Oriented Input Design for Closed-Loop System Identification: a Graph-Theory Approach2014In: 2014 IEEE 53RD ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), IEEE , 2014, p. 4125-4130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach to experimental design for identification of closed-loop models is presented. The method considers the design of an experiment by minimizing experimental cost, subject to probabilistic bounds on the input and output signals, and quality constraints on the identified model. The input and output bounds are common in many industrial processes due to physical limitations of actuators. The aforementioned constraints make the problem non-convex. By assuming that the experiment is a realization of a stationary process with finite memory and finite alphabet, we use results from graph-theory to relax the problem. The key feature of this approach is that the problem becomes convex even for non-linear feedback systems. A numerical example shows that the proposed technique is an attractive alternative for closed-loop system identification.

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  • 44.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Valenzuela, Patricio Esteban
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Model Predictive Control oriented experiment design for system identification: A graph theoretical approach2017In: Journal of Process Control, ISSN 0959-1524, E-ISSN 1873-2771, Vol. 52, p. 75-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new approach to Model Predictive Control (MPC) oriented experiment design for the identification of systems operating in closed-loop. The method considers the design of an experiment by minimizing the experimental cost, subject to probabilistic bounds on the input and output signals due to physical limitations of actuators, and quality constraints on the identified model. The excitation is done by intentionally adding a disturbance to the loop. We then design the external excitation to achieve the minimum experimental effort while we are also taking care of the tracking performance of MPC. The stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed by employing robust MPC during the experiment. The problem is then defined as an optimization problem. However, the aforementioned constraints result in a non-convex optimization which is relaxed by using results from graph theory. The proposed technique is evaluated through a numerical example showing that it is an attractive alternative for closed-loop experiment design.

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    fulltext
  • 45.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Varagnolo, D.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Bottegal, G.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Application-oriented input design for room occupancy estimation algorithms2017In: 2017 IEEE 56TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem of occupancy estimation in buildings using available environmental information. In particular, we study the problem of how to collect data that is informative enough for occupancy estimation purposes. We thus propose an application-oriented input design approach for designing the ventilation signal to be used while collecting the system identification datasets. The main goal of the method is to guarantee a certain accuracy in the estimated occupancy levels while minimizing the experimental time and effort. To take into account potential limitations on the actuation signals we moreover formulate the problem as a recursive nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem, solved then using exhaustive search methods. We finally corroborate the theoretical findings with some numerical examples, which results show that computing ventilation signals using experiment design concepts leads to occupancy estimator performing 4 times better in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE).

  • 46.
    Ebadat, Afrooz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rojas, Cristian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Hägg, Per
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Larsson, Christian R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Applications Oriented Input Design in Time-Domain Through Cyclic Methods2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a method for applications oriented input design for linear systems in open-loop under time-domain constraints on the amplitude of input and output signals. The method guarantees a desired control performance for the estimated model in minimum time, by imposing some lower bound on the information matrix. The problem is formulated as a time-domain optimization problem, which is non-convex. This is addressed through an alternating method, where we separate the problem into two steps and at each step we optimize the cost function with respect to one of two variables. We alternate between these two steps until convergence. A time recursive input design algorithm is performed, which enables us to use the algorithm with control. Therefore, a receding horizon framework is used to solve each optimization problem. Finally, we illustrate the method with a numerical example which shows the good ability of the proposed approach in generating an optimal input signal.

  • 47.
    Egidio, Lucas N.
    et al.
    Catholic Univ Louvain, ICTEAM, INMA, B-1348 Louvain La Neuve, Belgium..
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping Univ, Dept Elect Engn, S-58183 Linköping, Sweden..
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    Learning the Step-size Policy for the Limited-Memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno Algorithm2021In: 2021 international joint conference on neural networks (IJCNN), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the problem to learn a step-size policy for the Limited-Memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm. This is a limited computational memory quasi-Newton method widely used for deterministic unconstrained optimization. However, L-BFGS is currently avoided in large-scale problems for requiring step sizes to be provided at each iteration. Current methodologies for the step size selection for L-BFGS use heuristic tuning of design parameters and massive re-evaluations of the objective function and gradient to find appropriate step-lengths. We propose a neural network architecture with local information of the current iterate as the input. The step-length policy is learned from data of similar optimization problems, avoids additional evaluations of the objective function, and guarantees that the output step remains inside a pre-defined interval. The corresponding training procedure is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem using the backpropagation through time algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the training of image classifiers for the MNIST database for handwritten digits and for CIFAR-10. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms heuristically tuned optimizers such as ADAM, RMSprop, L-BFGS with a backtracking line search, and L-BFGS with a constant step size. The numerical results also show that a learned policy can be used as a warm-start to train new policies for different problems after a few additional training steps, highlighting its potential use in multiple large-scale optimization problems.

  • 48.
    El-Awady, K.
    et al.
    Stanford University.
    Hansson, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Application of Iterative Feedback Tuning to a Thermal Cycling Module1999In: Proceedings of 14:th IFAC World Congress, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49. Finn, C.
    et al.
    Ydstie, B.E.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköping University.
    Adaptive Control using A Priori Knowledge1991In: AIChE Annual Meeting, 1991Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Finn, Cory K.
    et al.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems.
    Ydstie, B. Erik
    Constrained predictive control using orthogonal expansions1993In: AIChE Journal, ISSN 0001-1541, E-ISSN 1547-5905, Vol. 39, p. 1810-1826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we approximate bounded operators by orthogonal expansion. The rate of convergence depends on the choice of basis functions. Markov-Laguerre functions give rapid convergence for open-loop stable systems with long delay. The Markov-Kautz model can be used for lightly damped systems, and a more general orthogonal expansion is developed for modeling multivariable systems with widely scattered poles. The finite impulse response model is a special case of these models. A-priori knowledge about dominant time constants, time delay and oscillatory modes is used to reduce the model complexity and to improve conditioning of the parameter estimation algorithm. Algorithms for predictive control are developed, as well as conditions for constraint compatibility, closed-loop stability and constraint satisfaction for the ideal case. An H8-like design technique proposed guarantees robust stability in the presence of input constraints; output constraints may give ᅵchatter.ᅵ A chatter-free algorithm is proposed.

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