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  • 1. Alesii, Roberto
    et al.
    Congiu, Roberto
    Santucci, Fortunato
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Architectures and protocols for fast identification in large-scale RFID systems2014In: ISCCSP 2014 - 2014 6th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing, Proceedings, 2014, p. 243-246Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Passive tags based on backscattered signals yield low energy consumption for large-scale applications of RFIDs. In this paper, system architectures and protocol enhancements for fast identifications in ISO/IEC 18000-6C systems that integrate UWB technology are investigated. The anti-collision protocol is studied by considering various tag populations. A novel algorithm is proposed to adapt the UHF air interface parameters with the use of UWB ranging information. The results show that the proposed algorithm yields up to 25% potential performance improvement compared to the ISO/IEC 18000-6C standard.

  • 2.
    Alfonsetti, Elisabetta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Weeraddana, P. C.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Min-max fair car-parking slot assignment2015In: Proceedings of the WoWMoM 2015: A World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies show that cruising for car parking accounts for a non-negligible amount of the daily traffic, especially in central areas of large cities. Therefore, mechanisms for minimizing traffic from cruising directly affect the dynamics of traffic congestions. One way to minimizing cruising traffic is efficient car-parking-slot assignment. Usually, the related design problems are combinatorial and the worst-case complexity of optimal methods grows exponentially with the problem sizes. As a result, almost all existing methods for parking slot assignment are simple and greedy approaches, where each car or the user is assigned a free parking slot, which is closer to its destination. Moreover, no emphasis is placed to optimize any form of fairness among the users as the a social benefit. In this paper, the fairness as a metric for modeling the aggregate social benefit of the users is considered. An algorithm based on Lagrange duality is developed for car-parking-slot assignment. Numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm compared to the optimal assignment and a greedy method.

  • 3.
    Ares, Benigno Zurita
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Energy consumption of minimum energy coding in CDMA wireless sensor networks2007In: Wireless Sensor Networks / [ed] Langendoen, K; Voigt, T, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, Vol. 4373, p. 212-227Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical framework is proposed for accurate performance analysis of minimum energy coding schemes in Coded Division Multiple Access (CDMA) wireless sensor networks. Bit error rate and average energy consumption is analyzed for two coding schemes proposed in the literature: Minimum Energy coding (ME), and Modified Minimum Energy coding (MME). Since CDMA wireless systems are strongly limited by multi access interference, the system model includes all the relevant characteristics of the wireless propagation. Furthermore, a detailed model of the energy consumption is described as function of the coding schemes, the radio transmit powers, the characteristics of the transceivers, and the dynamics of the wireless channel. A distributed radio power minimization algorithm is also addressed. Numerical results show that ME and MME coding schemes exhibit similar bit error probabilities, whereas MME outperforms ME only in the case of low data rate and large coding codewords.

  • 4.
    Athanasiou, George
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Green Traffic Engineering for future core networks2012In: 2012 20th IEEE/International Conference on Software, Telecommunications and Computer Networks, SoftCOM 2012, 2012, p. 6347611-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The achieving of the best ratio of performance to energy consumption and at the same time assuring manageability is an important goal towards the design of Future Networks. This paper presents a general problem formulation for Energy-Aware Traffic Engineering (ETE) and proposes a distributed, heuristic ETE scheme that provides load balancing and energy-awareness in accordance with the operator's needs. Simulation results of ETE compared to the optimal network performance confirm the capability of ETE to meeting the needs of Future Networks.

  • 5.
    Athanasiou, George
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Weeraddana, Pradeep Chathuranga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Association control in millimeterWave wireless access networks2014In: 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks, CAMAD 2014, 2014, p. 260-264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resource allocation problem of optimal assignment of the stations to the available access points in 60 GHz millimeterWave wireless access networks is investigated. The problem is posed as a multi-assignment optimization problem. The proposed solution method converts the initial problem to a minimum cost flow problem and allows to design an efficient algorithm by a combination of auction algorithms. The solution algorithm exploits the network optimization structure of the problem, and thus is much more powerful than computationally intensive general-purpose solvers. Theoretical and numerical results evince numerous properties, such as optimality, convergence, and scalability in comparison to existing approaches.

  • 6.
    Athanasiou, George
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Weeraddana, Pradeep Chathuranga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Orten, P.
    Communication infrastructures in industrial automation: The case of 60 GHz millimeterWave communications2013In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks for industrial automation applications must offer timely, reliable, and energy efficient communications at both low and high data rate. While traditional communication technologies between 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz are sometimes incapable to efficiently achieve the aforementioned goals, new communication strategies are emerging, such as millimeterWave communications. In this overview paper, the general requirements that factory and process automation impose on the network design are reviewed. Moreover, this paper presents and qualitatively evaluates the 60 GHz millimeterWave communication technology for automation. It is argued that the upcoming 60 GHz millimeterWave technology brings an enormous potential and can influence the design of the future communication infrastructures in factory and process automation.

  • 7.
    Athanasiou, Georgios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Weeraddana, Pradeep Chathuranga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Auction-Based Resource Allocation in MillimeterWave Wireless Access Networks2013In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 17, no 11, p. 2108-2111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resource allocation problem of optimal assignment of the stations to the available access points in 60 GHz millimeterWave wireless access networks is investigated. The problem is posed as a multi-assignment optimization problem. The proposed solution method converts the initial problem to a minimum cost flow problem and allows to design an efficient algorithm by a combination of auction algorithms. The solution algorithm exploits the network optimization structure of the problem, and thus is much more powerful than computationally intensive general-purpose solvers. Theoretical and numerical results evince numerous properties, such as optimality, convergence, and scalability in comparison to existing approaches.

  • 8.
    Athanasiou, Georgios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Weeraddana, Pradeep Chathuranga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Tassiulas, Leandros
    University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece.
    Optimizing Client Association for Load Balancing and Fairness in Millimeter Wave Wireless Networks2015In: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, ISSN 1063-6692, E-ISSN 1558-2566, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 836-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millimeter-wave communications in the 60-GHz band are considered one of the key technologies for enabling multigigabit wireless access. However, the special characteristics of such a band pose major obstacles to the optimal utilization of the wireless resources, where the problem of efficient client association to access points (APs) is of vital importance. In this paper, the client association in 60-GHz wireless access networks is investigated. The AP utilization and the quality of the rapidly vanishing communication links are the control parameters. Because of the tricky non-convex and combinatorial nature of the client association optimization problem, a novel solution method is developed to guarantee balanced and fair resource allocation. A new distributed, lightweight, and easy-to-implement association algorithm, based on Lagrangian duality theory and subgradient methods, is proposed. It is shown that the algorithm is asymptotically optimal, that is, the relative duality gap diminishes to zero as the number of clients increases.

  • 9.
    B. da Silva Jr., Jose Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Fast-Lipschitz Power Control and User-Frequency Assignment in Full-Duplex Cellular Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 6672-6687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cellular networks, the three-node full-duplex transmission mode has the po-tential to increase spectral efficiency without requiring full-duplex capability ofusers. Consequently, three-node full-duplex in cellular networks must deal with self-interference and user-to-user interference, which can be managed by power controland user-frequency assignment techniques. This paper investigates the problem ofmaximizing the sum spectral efficiency by jointly determining the transmit powersin a distributed fashion, and assigning users to frequency channels. The problem is for-mulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear problem, which is shown to be non-deterministicpolynomial-time hard. We investigate a close-to-optimal solution approach by dividingthe joint problem into a power control problem and an assignment problem. The powercontrol problem is solved by Fast-Lipschitz optimization, while a greedy solution withguaranteed performance is developed for the assignment problem. Numerical resultsindicate that compared with the half-duplex mode, both spectral and energy efficienciesof the system are increased by the proposed algorithm. Moreover, results show that thepower control and assignment solutions have important, but opposite roles in scenarioswith low or high self-interference cancellation. When the self-interference cancellationis high, user-frequency assignment is more important than power control, while powercontrol is essential at low self-interference cancellation.

  • 10.
    B. da Silva Jr., Jose Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    On the Spectral Efficiency and Fairness in Full-Duplex Cellular Networks2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Paris: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1-6, article id 7996391Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the spectral efficiency of wireless networks without requiring full-duplex capability of user devices, a potential solution is the recently proposed three-node full-duplex mode. To realize this potential, networks employing three-node full-duplex transmissions must deal with self-interference and user-to-user interference, which can be managed by frequency channel and power allocation techniques. Whereas previous works investigated either spectral efficient or fair mechanisms, a scheme that balances these two metrics among users is investigated in this paper. This balancing scheme is based on a new solution method of the multi-objective optimization problem to maximize the weighted sum of the per-user spectral efficiency and the minimum spectral efficiency among users. The mixed integer non-linear nature of this problem is dealt by Lagrangian duality. Based on the proposed solution approach, a low-complexity centralized algorithm is developed, which relies on large scale fading measurements that can be advantageously implemented at the base station. Numerical results indicate that the proposed algorithm increases the spectral efficiency and fairness among users without the need of weighting the spectral efficiency. An important conclusion is that managing user-to-user interference by resource assignment and power control is crucial for ensuring spectral efficient and fair operation of full-duplex networks.

  • 11.
    B. da Silva Jr., Jose Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Spectral Efficient and Fair User Pairing for Full-Duplex Communication in Cellular Networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 7578-7593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —A promising new transmission mode in cellular networks is the three-node full-duplex mode, which involves a base station with full-duplex capability and two half-duplex user transmissions on the same frequency channel for uplink and downlink. The three-node full-duplex mode can increase spectral efficiency, especially in the low transmit power regime, without requiring full-duplex capability at user devices. However, when a large set of users is scheduled in this mode, self-interference at the base station and user-to-user interference can substantially hinder the potential gains of full-duplex communications. This paper investigates the problem of grouping users to pairs and assigning frequency channels to each pair in a spectral efficient and fair manner. Specifically, the joint problem of user uplink/downlink frequency channel pairing and power allocation is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear problem that is solved by a novel joint fairness assignment maximization algorithm. Realistic system level simulations indicate that the spectral efficiency of the users having the lowest spectral efficiency is increased by the proposed algorithm, while a high ratio of connected users in different loads and self-interference levels is maintained.

  • 12.
    B. da Silva Jr., Jose Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Ghauch, Hadi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    How to Split UL/DL Antennas in Full-DuplexCellular Networks2018In: IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC’18): ThirdWorkshop on Full-Duplex Communications for Future Wireless Networks, Kansas City, MO, USA: IEEE Communications Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To further improve the potential of full-duplex com-munications, networks may employ multiple antennas at thebase station or user equipment. To this end, networks thatemploy current radios usually deal with self-interference andmulti-user interference by beamforming techniques. Althoughprevious works investigated beamforming design to improvespectral efficiency, the fundamental question of how to split theantennas at a base station between uplink and downlink infull-duplex networks has not been investigated rigorously. Thispaper addresses this question by posing antenna splitting as abinary nonlinear optimization problem to minimize the sum meansquared error of the received data symbols. It is shown that thisis an NP-hard problem. This combinatorial problem is dealt withby equivalent formulations, iterative convex approximations, anda binary relaxation. The proposed algorithm is guaranteed toconverge to a stationary solution of the relaxed problem with muchsmaller complexity than exhaustive search. Numerical resultsindicate that the proposed solution is close to the optimal in bothhigh and low self-interference capable scenarios, while the usuallyassumed antenna splitting is far from optimal. For large numberof antennas, a simple antenna splitting is close to the proposedsolution. This reveals that the importance of antenna splittingdiminishes with the number of antennas.

  • 13.
    B. da Silva Jr., Jose Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Ghauch, Hadi
    Fodor, Gabor
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Signals, Sensors and Systems. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Information Science and Engineering.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Smart Antenna Assignment is Essential in Full-Duplex Communications2019In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-duplex communications have the potential to almost double the spectralefficiency. To realize such a potentiality, the signal separation at base station’s antennasplays an essential role. This paper addresses the fundamentals of such separationby proposing a new smart antenna architecture that allows every antenna to beeither shared or separated between uplink and downlink transmissions. The benefitsof such architecture are investigated by an assignment problem to optimally assignantennas, beamforming and power to maximize the weighted sum spectral efficiency.We propose a near-to-optimal solution using block coordinate descent that divides theproblem into assignment problems, which are NP-hard, a beamforming and powerallocation problems. The optimal solutions for the beamforming and power allocationare established while near-to-optimal solutions to the assignment problems are derivedby semidefinite relaxation. Numerical results indicate that the proposed solution isclose to the optimum, and it maintains a similar performance for high and low residualself-interference powers. With respect to the usually assumed antenna separationtechnique and half-duplex transmission, the sum spectral efficiency gains increase withthe number of antennas. We conclude that our proposed smart antenna assignment forsignal separation is essential to realize the benefits of multiple antenna full-duplexcommunications.

  • 14. Bao, L.
    et al.
    Skoglund, M.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rate allocation with power constraints for quantized control over binary symmetric channelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bao, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    On rate allocation for multiple plants in a networked control system2012In: 2012 American Control Conference (ACC), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 2024-2029Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of allocating communication resources to multiple plants in a networked control system is investigated. In the presence of a shared communication medium, a total transmission rate constraint is imposed. For the purpose of optimizing the rate allocation to the plants over a finite horizon, two objective functions are considered. The first one is a single-objective function, and the second one is a multi-objective function. Because of the difficulty to derive the closed-form expression of these functions, which depend on the instantaneous communication rate, an approximation is proposed by using high-rate quantization theory. It is shown that the approximate objective functions are convex in the region of interest both in the scalar case and in the multi-objective case. This allows to establish a linear control policy given by the classical linear quadratic Gaussian theory as function of the channel. Based on this result, a new complex relation between the control performance and the channel error probability is characterized.

  • 16.
    Bao, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimized Rate Allocation for State Estimation over Noisy Channels2009In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INFORMATION THEORY, NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 2684-2688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal rate allocation in a networked control system with limited communication resources is instrumental to achieve satisfactory overall performance. In this paper, a practical rate allocation technique for state estimation in linear dynamic systems over a noisy channel is proposed. The method consists of two steps: (i) the overall distortion is expressed as a function of rates at all time instants by means of high-rate quantization theory, and (ii) a constrained optimization problem to minimize the overall distortion is solved by using Lagrange duality. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the proposed scheme, which is shown to have good performance when compared to arbitrarily selected rate allocations.

  • 17.
    Bao, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Optimized rate allocation for state feedback control over noisy channels2009In: Decision and Control, 2009 held jointly with the 2009 28th Chinese Control Conference. CDC/CCC 2009. Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Conference on, IEEE , 2009, p. 573-578Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal rate allocation in a networked control system with highly limited communication resources is instrumental to achieve satisfactory overall performance. In this paper, we propose a rate allocation technique for state feedback control in linear dynamic systems over a noisy channel. Our method consists of two steps: (i) the overall distortion is expressed as a function of rates at all time instants by means of high-rate quantization theory, and (ii) a constrained optimization problem to minimize the overall distortion is solved. We show that a non-uniform quantization is in general the best strategy for state feedback control over noisy channels. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the proposed scheme, which is shown to have good performance compared to arbitrarily selected rate allocations.

  • 18.
    Bao, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rate Allocation for Quantized Control Over Binary Symmetric Channels2012In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 60, no 6, p. 3188-3202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utility maximization in networked control systems (NCSs) is difficult in the presence of limited sensing and communication resources. In this paper, a new communication rate optimization method for state feedback control over a noisy channel is proposed. Linear dynamic systems with quantization errors, limited transmission rate, and noisy communication channels are considered. The most challenging part of the optimization is that no closed-form expressions are available for assessing the performance and the optimization problem is nonconvex. The proposed method consists of two steps: (i) the overall NCS performance measure is expressed as a function of rates at all time instants by means of high-rate quantization theory, and (ii) a constrained optimization problem to minimize a weighted quadratic objective function is solved. The proposed method is applied to the problem of state feedback control and the problem of state estimation. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the performance of the proposed rate allocation. It is shown numerically that the proposed method has better performance when compared to arbitrarily selected rate allocations. Also, it is shown that in certain cases nonuniform rate allocation can outperform the uniform rate allocation, which is commonly considered in quantized control systems, for feedback control over noisy channels.

  • 19.
    Bao, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Skoglund, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Theory.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Rate allocation for quantized control over noisy channels2009In: Final Proceedings of the 2009 7th International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks, 2009, Vol. WiOpt 2009, p. 595-603Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve satisfactory overall performance, optimal rate allocation in a networked control system with highly limited communication resources is instrumental. In this paper, a rate allocation technique for state feedback control in linear dynamic systems over a noisy channel is proposed. The method consists of two steps: (i) the overall cost is expressed as a function of rates at all time instants by means of high-rate quantization theory, and (ii) a constrained optimization problem to minimize the overall distortion is solved. It is shown that a non-uniform quantization is in general the best strategy for state feedback control over noisy channels. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the proposed scheme, which is shown to have good performance when compared to arbitrarily selected rate allocations.

  • 20.
    Barros da Silva Jr., Jose Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Distributed Spectral Efficiency Maximization in Full-Duplex Cellular Networks2016In: IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC16): Workshop on Novel Medium Access and Resource Allocation for 5G Networks, Kuala Lumpur: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, p. 80-86, article id 7503768Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-node full-duplex is a promising new transmission mode between a full-duplex capable wireless node and two other wireless nodes that use half-duplex transmission and reception respectively. Although three-node full-duplex transmissions can increase the spectral efficiency without requiring full-duplex capability of user devices, inter-node interference - in addition to the inherent self-interference - can severely degrade the performance. Therefore, as methods that provide effective self-interference mitigation evolve, the management of inter-node interference is becoming increasingly important. This paper considers a cellular system in which a full-duplex capable base station serves a set of half-duplex capable users. As the spectral efficiencies achieved by the uplink and downlink transmissions are inherently intertwined, the objective is to device channel assignment and power control algorithms that maximize the weighted sum of the uplink-downlink transmissions. To this end a distributed auction based channel assignment algorithm is proposed, in which the scheduled uplink users and the base station jointly determine the set of downlink users for full-duplex transmission. Realistic system simulations indicate that the spectral efficiency can be up to 89% better than using the traditional half-duplex mode. Furthermore, when the self-interference cancelling level is high, the impact of the user-to-user interference is severe unless properly managed.

  • 21.
    Barros da Silva Jr., José Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering. Royal Inst Technol, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ghauch, Hadi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    How to Split UL/DL Antennas in Full-Duplex Cellular Networks2018In: 2018 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS WORKSHOPS (ICC WORKSHOPS), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To further improve the potential of full-duplex communications, networks may employ multiple antennas at the base station or user equipment. To this end, networks that employ current radios usually deal with self-interference and multi-user interference by beamforming techniques. Although previous works investigated beamforming design to improve spectral efficiency, the fundamental question of how to split the antennas at a base station between uplink and downlink in full-duplex networks has not been investigated rigorously. This paper addresses this question by posing antenna splitting as a binary nonlinear optimization problem to minimize the sum mean squared error of the received data symbols. It is shown that this is an NP-hard problem. This combinatorial problem is dealt with by equivalent formulations, iterative convex approximations, and a binary relaxation. The proposed algorithm is guaranteed to converge to a stationary solution of the relaxed problem with much smaller complexity than exhaustive search. Numerical results indicate that the proposed solution is close to the optimal in both high and low self-interference capable scenarios, while the usually assumed antenna splitting is far from optimal. For large number of antennas, a simple antenna splitting is close to the proposed solution. This reveals that the importance of antenna splitting diminishes with the number of antennas.

  • 22.
    Barros da Silva Jr., José Mairton
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Network and Systems engineering.
    Sabharwal, Ashutosh
    Fodor, Gabor
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering.
    1-bit Phase Shifters Suffice for Large-Antenna Full-Duplex mmWave Communications2019In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millimeter-wave using large-antenna arrays is a key technological component forthe future cellular systems, where it is expected that hybrid beamforming along withquantized phase shifters will be used due to their implementation and cost efficiency.In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of full-duplex mmWave communicationwith hybrid beamforming using low-resolution phase shifters, without any analogself-interference cancellation. We formulate the problem of joint self-interferencesuppression and downlink beamforming as a mixed-integer nonconvex joint opti-mization problem. We propose LowRes, a near-to-optimal solution using penaltydual decomposition. Numerical results indicate that LowRes using low-resolutionphase shifters perform within 3% of the optimal solution that uses infinite phaseshifter resolution. Moreover, even a single quantization bit outperforms half-duplextransmissions, respectively by 29% and 10% for both low and high residual self-interference scenarios, and for a wide range of practical antenna to radio-chain ratios.Thus, we conclude that 1-bit phase shifters suffice for full-duplex millimeter-wavecommunications, without requiring any additional new analog hardware.

  • 23.
    Bertoldi, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Athanasiou, George
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Optimal sensor placement for bacteria detection in water distribution networks2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The real-time detection of bacteria and other bio-pollutants in water distribution networks and the real-time control of the water quality is made possible by new biosensors. However, the limited communication capabilities of these sensors, which are placed underground, and their limited number, due to their high cost, pose significant challenges in the deployment and the reliable monitoring. This paper presents a preliminary study concerning the problem of the static optimal sensor placement of a wireless biosensor network in a water distribution network for real-time detection of bacterial contamination. An optimal sensor placement strategy is proposed, which maximizes the probability of detection considering a limited number of sensors while ensuring a connected communication topology. A lightweight algorithm that solves the optimal placement problem is developed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated through simulations, considering different network topologies using a water pipelines emulator. The results indicate that the proposed optimization outperforms more traditional approaches in terms of detection probability. It is concluded that the availability of a dynamic model of the bacterial propagation along with a spatio-temporal correlation of the process could lead to a more advanced real-time control of the water distribution networks.

  • 24. Boccardi, Federico
    et al.
    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Fodor, Gabor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Ericsson Research, United States.
    Erkip, Elza
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Communication Networks.
    Kountouris, Marios
    Popovski, Petar
    Zorzi, Michele
    Spectrum Pooling in MmWave Networks: Opportunities, Challenges, and Enablers2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess the benefit of coordination among networks of different operators, study the impact of beamforming at both base stations and user terminals, and analyze the pooling performance at different frequency carriers. We also discuss the enabling spectrum mechanisms, architectures, and protocols required to make spectrum pooling work in real networks. Our initial results show that, from a technical perspective, spectrum pooling at mmWave has the potential to use the resources more efficiently than traditional exclusive spectrum allocation to a single operator. However, further studies are needed in order to reach a thorough understanding of this matter, and we hope that this article will help stimulate further research in this area.

  • 25. Boem, F.
    et al.
    Xu, Yuzhe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Parisini, T.
    A distributed pareto-optimal dynamic estimation method2015In: 2015 European Control Conference, ECC 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 3673-3680Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel distributed model-based prediction method is proposed using sensor networks. Each sensor communicates with the neighboring nodes for state estimation based on a consensus protocol without centralized coordination. The proposed distributed estimator consists of a consensus-filtering scheme, which uses a weighted combination of sensors information, and a model-based predictor. Both the consensus-filtering weights and the model-based prediction parameter for all the state components are jointly optimized to minimize the variance and bias of the prediction error in a Pareto framework. It is assumed that the weights of the consensus-filtering phase are unequal for the different state components, unlike consensus-based approaches from literature. The state, the measurements, and the noise components are assumed to be individually correlated, but no probability distribution knowledge is assumed for the noise variables. The optimal weights are derived and it is established that the consensus-filtering weights and the model-based prediction parameters cannot be designed separately in an optimal way. The asymptotic convergence of the mean of the prediction error is demonstrated. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed method, obtaining better results than distributed Kalman filtering. © 2015 EUCA.

  • 26. Boem, F.
    et al.
    Zhou, Y.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Parisini, T.
    Distributed Pareto-optimal state estimation using sensor networks2018In: Automatica, ISSN 0005-1098, E-ISSN 1873-2836, Vol. 93, p. 211-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel model-based dynamic distributed state estimator is proposed using sensor networks. The estimator consists of a filtering step – which uses a weighted combination of information provided by the sensors – and a model-based predictor of the system's state. The filtering weights and the model-based prediction parameters jointly minimize – at each time-step – the bias and the variance of the prediction error in a Pareto optimization framework. The simultaneous distributed design of the filtering weights and of the model-based prediction parameters is considered, differently from what is normally done in the literature. It is assumed that the weights of the filtering step are in general unequal for the different state components, unlike existing consensus-based approaches. The state, the measurements, and the noise components are allowed to be individually correlated, but no probability distribution knowledge is assumed for the noise variables. Each sensor can measure only a subset of the state variables. The convergence properties of the mean and of the variance of the prediction error are demonstrated, and they hold both for the global and the local estimation errors at any network node. Simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed method, obtaining better results than state of the art distributed estimation approaches.

  • 27.
    Boem, Francesca
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Trieste.
    Xu, Yuzhe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Parisini, Thomas
    Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Trieste.
    A distributed estimation method for sensor networks based on Pareto optimization2012In: Decision and Control (CDC), 2012 IEEE 51st Annual Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 775-781Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel distributed estimation method for sensor networks is proposed. The goal is to track a time-varying signal that is jointly measured by a network of sensor nodes despite the presence of noise: each node computes its local estimate as a weighted sum of its own and its neighbors' measurements and estimates and updates its weights to minimize both the variance and the mean of the estimation error by means of a suitable Pareto optimization problem. The estimator does not rely on a central coordination: both parameter optimization and estimation are distributed across the nodes. The performance of the distributed estimator is investigated in terms of estimation bias and estimation error. Moreover, an upper bound of the bias is provided. The effectiveness of the proposed estimator is illustrated via computer simulations and the performances are compared with other distributed schemes previously proposed in the literature. The results show that the estimation quality is comparable to that of one of the best existing distributed estimation algorithms, guaranteeing lower computational cost and time.

  • 28.
    Boem, Francesca
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Trieste.
    Xu, Yuzhe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Parisini, Thomas
    Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, University of Trieste.
    Distributed Fault Detection using Sensor Networks and Pareto Estimation2013In: 2013 European Control Conference, ECC 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 932-937Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a preliminary novel distributed fault detection architecture for dynamic systems using sensor networks and a distributed estimation method based on Pareto optimization is proposed. The goal is to monitor large-scale or distributed systems by using a sensor network where each node acts as a local estimation agent without centralized coordination. Probabilistic detection thresholds related to a given rate of false alarms are derived in several different scenarios as far as the measurement pattern and the nominal dynamics is concerned. Preliminary simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection methodology.

  • 29. Bonivento, A.
    et al.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Randomized protocol stack for ubiquitous networks in indoor environment2006In: 2006 3rd IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, CCNC 2006, 2006, Vol. 1, p. 152-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel protocol architecture for ubiquitous networks. Our solution is based on a randomized routing, MAC and duty cycling protocols that allow for performance and reliability leveraging node density. We show how the three layers can be jointly optimized for energy efficiency and we present a completely distributed algorithm that allows for the network to reach the optimal working point and adapt to traffic variations with negligible overhead. Finally, we present a set of simulation results that support our mathematical model.

  • 30. Bonivento, A.
    et al.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    SERAN: a protocol for clustered WSNs in industrial control and automation2009In: 2009 6th IEEE Annual Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, 2009, Vol. SECON Workshops 2009, p. 236-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system level design methodology for clustered wireless sensor networks based on a semi-random communication protocol called SERAN is presented. The protocol is grounded on a mathematical model that allows to optimize the protocol parameters, and a network initialization and maintenance procedure. SERAN is a two-layer (routing and MAC) protocol. At both layers, SERAN combines a randomized and a deterministic approach. While the randomized component provides robustness over unreliable channels, the deterministic component avoids an explosion of packet collisions and allows our protocol to scale with network size. The combined result is a high reliability and major energy savings when dense clusters are used. Our solution is based on a mathematical model that characterizes performance accurately without resorting to extensive simulations. Thanks to this model, the user needs only to specify the application requirements in terms of end-to-end packet delay and packet loss probability, select the intended hardware platform, and the protocol parameters are set automatically to satisfy latency requirements and optimize for energy consumption.

  • 31. Congiu, R.
    et al.
    Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Santucci, F.
    On the relay-fallback tradeoff in millimeter wave wireless system2016In: Proceedings - IEEE INFOCOM, 2016, p. 622-627Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) communications systems are promising candidate to support extremely high data rate services in future wireless networks. MmWave communications exhibit high penetration loss (blockage) and require directional transmissions to compensate for severe channel attenuations and for high noise powers. When blockage occurs, there are at least two simple prominent options: 1) switching to the conventional microwave frequencies (fallback option) and 2) using an alternative non-blocked path (relay option). However, currently it is not clear under which conditions and network parameters one option is better than the other. To investigate the performance of the two options, this paper proposes a novel blockage model that allows deriving maximum achievable throughput and delay performance of both options. A simple criterion to decide which option should be taken under which network condition is provided. By a comprehensive performance analysis, it is shown that the right option depends on the payload size, beam training overhead, and blockage probability. For a network with light traffic and low probability of blockage in the direct link, the fallback option is throughput- and delay-optimal. For a network with heavy traffic demands and semistatic topology (low beam-training overhead), the relay option is preferable.

  • 32. D'Angelo, M.
    et al.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    How to select the OOK detection threshold in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks2009In: IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference / [ed] 69th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Barcelona, SPAIN, APR 26-29, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-off keying (OOK) is an attractive modulation technique to reduce energy consumption of power-constrained wireless networks. The OOK detection threshold, however, must be carefully selected to minimize the bit error probability (BER). This is a challenging task to accomplish on resource-limited nodes or on networks with high-mobility. In this paper, an efficient algorithm to compute the optimal threshold is proposed. The system scenario considers nodes simultaneously transmitting over same frequencies in Rayleigh-log-normal or Rice-log-normal fading conditions. It is shown that by using the Stirling expansion for the BER, and a log-normal approximation, a quick contraction-mapping can be built to achieve the threshold numerically. The mapping is simple to implement and converges quickly. Numerical simulations verify the validity of the theoretical analysis, and show that the new algorithm performs quite well in scenarios of practical interest.

  • 33.
    De Angelis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    A distributed information fusion method for localization based on Pareto optimization2011In: 7th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems(DCOSS), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To overcome the limitations of specific positioning techniques for mobile wireless nodes and achieve a high accuracy, the fusion of heterogeneous sensor information is an appealing strategy. In this paper, the problem of optimal fusion of ranging information typically provided by Ultra-Wideband radio with speed and absolute orientation information is addressed. A new distributed recursive estimation method is proposed. The method does not assume any motion model of mobile nodes and is based on a Pareto optimization. The challenging part of the new estimator is the characterization of the statistical information needed to model the optimization problem. The proposed estimator is validated by Monte Carlo simulations, and the performance is compared to several Kalman-based filters commonly employed for localization and sensor fusion. Much better performance is achieved, but at the price of an increased computational complexity.

  • 34.
    De Angelis, Alessio
    et al.
    University of Perugia.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Mobile Node Localization via Pareto Optimization: Algorithm and Fundamental Performance Limitations2015In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 33, no 7, p. 1288-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate estimation of the position of network nodes is essential, e.g., in localization, geographic routing, and vehicular networks. Unfortunately, typical positioning techniques based on ranging or on velocity and angular measurements are inherently limited. To overcome the limitations of specific positioning techniques, the fusion of multiple and heterogeneous sensor information is an appealing strategy. In this paper, we investigate the fundamental performance of linear fusion of multiple measurements of the position of mobile nodes, and propose a new distributed recursive position estimator. The Cramer-Rao lower bounds for the parametric and a-posteriori cases are investigated. The proposed estimator combines information coming from ranging, speed, and angular measurements, which is jointly fused by a Pareto optimization problem where the mean and the variance of the localization error are simultaneously minimized. A distinguished feature of the method is that it assumes a very simple dynamical model of the mobility and therefore it is applicable to a large number of scenarios providing good performance. The main challenge is the characterization of the statistical information needed to model the Fisher information matrix and the Pareto optimization problem. The proposed analysis is validated by Monte Carlo simulations, and the performance is compared to several Kalman-based filters, commonly employed for localization and sensor fusion. Simulation results show that the proposed estimator outperforms the traditional approaches that are based on the extended Kalman filter when no assumption on the model of motion is used. In such a scenario, better performance is achieved by the proposed method, but at the price of an increased computational complexity.

  • 35.
    De Angelis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    A Sensor Fusion Algorithm for Mobile Node Localization2011In: 18th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate  distributed  estimation  of the position  of network  nodes  is essential  formany  applications,  including  localization,  geographic  routing,  and  vehicular  networks.  When nodes are mobile and their mobility pattern is unknown,  there are not yet adequate techniques to achieve high accuracy  and  low estimation errors.  In this paper,  a new distributed estimator of the position of mobile nodes is proposed.  No model of the mobility is assumed.  The estimator combines heterogeneous  information coming from pre-existing ranging, speed, and angular measurements,  which  is jointly  fused  by  an  optimization  problem  where  the squared  mean and variance  of the localization error is minimized. Challenges of this optimization are the characterization  of the moments  of the noises  that affect  the measurements.  The  estimator is distributed  in that it  requires  only  local processing  and  communication  among  the nodes of the network.  Numerical  results  show that the proposed  estimator  outperforms traditionalapproaches based on the extended Kalman  filter.

  • 36. Di Benedetto, M. D.
    et al.
    Innocenzo, A. D.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Isaksson, A. J.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Niculescu, S. -I
    Olaru, S.
    Sandou, G.
    Santucci, F.
    Serra, E.
    Tennina, S.
    Tiberi, U.
    Witrant, E.
    Wireless ventilation control for large-scale systems: The mining industrial case2009In: 2009 6th IEEE Annual Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, 2009, Vol. SECON Workshops 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining ventilation is an interesting example of a large scale system with high environmental impact where advanced control strategies can bring major improvements. Indeed, one of the first objectives of modern mining industry is to fulfill environmental specifications [1] during the ore extraction and crushing, by optimizing the energy consumption or the production of polluting agents. The mine electric consumption was 4 % of total industrial electric demand in the US in 1994 (6 % in 2007 in South Africa) and 90 % of it was related to motor system energy [2]. Another interesting figure is given in [3] where it is estimated that the savings associated with global control strategies for fluid systems (pumps, fans and compressors) represent approximately 20 % of the total manufacturing motor system energy savings. This motivates the development of new control strategies for large scale aerodynamic processes based on appropriate automation and a global consideration of the system. More specifically, the challenge in this work is focused on the mining ventilation since as much as 50 % or more of the energy consumed by the mining process may go into the ventilation (including heating the air). It is clear that investigating automatic control solutions and minimizing the amount of pumped air to save energy consumption (proportional to the cube of airflow quantity [4]) is of great environmental and industrial interest.

  • 37.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Alesii, R.
    Santucci, F.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    An UWB-enhanced identification procedure for large-scale passive RFID systems2014In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 2014, p. 421-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the integration of UWB and UHF technologies for RFID systems is investigated. A fast and energy efficient identification algorithm that makes use of UWB ranging is proposed for ISO/IEC 18000-6C tags. Compatibility with the standard, cooperation between the UHF and UWB technologies and solutions for asynchronism management are the main subjects of our analysis. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm guarantees approximately 25% performance improvement in terms of success rate and energy consumption with respect to the ISO/IEC 18000-6C standard.

  • 38.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Athanasiou, Georgios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Institute of Communications and Computer Systems, National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Mekikis, Prodromos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. Signal Theory and Communications Dept., Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    MAC-aware routing metrics for the internet of things2015In: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the internet of things (IoT) has significantly affected the concept of wireless networking. As the number of wireless devices is rising, new medium access control (MAC) and routing protocols have been developed to guarantee end-to-end network performance. When existing layered solutions are stacked together, there might be detrimental effects on the overall network performance. In this paper, an analysis of MAC and routing protocols for IoT is provided with focus on the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the IETF RPL standards. It is shown that existing routing metrics do not account for the complex interactions between MAC and routing, and thus novel metrics are proposed. This enables a protocol selection mechanism for selecting the routing option and adapting the MAC parameters, given specific performance constraints. Extensive analytical and experimental results show that the behavior of the MAC protocol can hurt the performance of the routing protocol and vice versa, unless these two are carefully optimized together by the proposed method.

  • 39.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Athanasiou, George
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Mekikis, Prodromos
    Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Harmonizing MAC and routing in low power and lossy networks2013In: 2013 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE , 2013, p. 231-236Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medium access control (MAC) and routing protocols are fundamental blocks in the design of low power and lossy networks (LLNs). As new networking standards are being proposed and different existing research solutions patched, evaluating the performance of the network becomes challenging. Specific solutions that can be individually efficient, when stacked together may have unexpected effects on the overall network behavior. In this paper, we provide an analysis of the fundamental MAC and routing protocols for LLNs: IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and IETF RPL. Moreover, a characterization of their cross-layer interactions is presented by a mathematical description, which is essential to truly understand the protocols mutual effects and their dynamics. Novel metrics that guide the interaction between MAC and routing are compared to existing metrics. Furthermore, a protocol selection mechanism is implemented to select the appropriate routing metric and MAC parameters given specific performance constraints. Analytical and experimental results show that the behavior of the MAC protocol can hurt the performance of the routing protocol and vice versa, unless these two are carefully optimized together.

  • 40.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Athanasiou, George
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Mekikis, Prodromos-Vasileios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    MAC-aware routing metrics for low power and lossy networks2013In: 2013 Proceedings IEEE Infocom, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 13-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, routing metrics for low power and lossy networks are designed and evaluated. The cross-layer interactions between routing and medium access control (MAC) are explored, by considering the specifications of IETF RPL over the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In particular, the experimental study of a reliability metric that extends the expected transmission count (ETX) to include the effects of the level of contention and the parameters at MAC layer is presented. Moreover, a novel metric that guarantees load balancing and increased network lifetime by fulfilling reliability constraints is introduced. The aforementioned metrics are compared to a routing approach based on back-pressure mechanism.

  • 41.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Athanasiou, Georgios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Mekikis, Prodromos Vasileios
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    MAC-aware routing metrics for low power and lossy networks2013In: 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (Infocom Wkshps), IEEE , 2013, p. 79-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, routing metrics for low power and lossy networks are designed and evaluated. The cross-layer interactions between routing and medium access control (MAC) are explored, by considering the specifications of IETF RPL over the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC. In particular, the experimental study of a reliability metric that extends the expected transmission count (ETX) to include the effects of the level of contention and the parameters at MAC layer is presented. Moreover, a novel metric that guarantees load balancing and increased network lifetime by fulfilling reliability constraints is introduced. The aforementioned metrics are compared to a routing approach based on back-pressure mechanism.

  • 42.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Santucci, F.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Effects of Rayleigh-lognormal fading on IEEE 802.15.4 networks2013In: Communications (ICC), 2013 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1666-1671Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IEEE 802.15.4 communication protocol is a de-facto standard for wireless applications in industrial and home automation. Although the performance of the medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.15.4 has been thoroughly investigated under the assumption of ideal wireless channel, there is still a lack of understanding of the cross-layer interactions between MAC and physical layer in the presence of realistic wireless channel models that include path loss, multi-path fading and shadowing. In this paper, an analytical model of these dynamics is proposed. The analysis considers simultaneously a composite Rayleigh-lognormal channel fading, interference generated by multiple terminals, the effects induced by hidden terminals, and the MAC reduced carrier sensing capabilities. It is shown that the reliability of the contention-based MAC over fading channels is often far from that derived under ideal channel assumptions. Moreover, it is established to what extent fading may be beneficial for the overall network performance.

  • 43.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Santucci, F.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Modeling cross-layer interactions of IEEE 802.15.4 wireless networks in cyber-physical systemsArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Santucci, Fortunato
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Modeling IEEE 802.15.4 Networks Over Fading Channels2014In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 5366-5381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the performance of the medium access control (MAC) of the IEEE 802.15.4 has been investigated under the assumption of ideal wireless channel, the understanding of the cross-layer dynamics between MAC and physical layer is an open problem when the wireless channel exhibits path loss, multi-path fading, and shadowing. The analysis of MAC and wireless channel interaction is essential for consistent performance prediction, correct design and optimization of the protocols. In this paper, a novel approach to analytical modeling of these interactions is proposed. The analysis considers simultaneously a composite channel fading, interference generated by multiple terminals, the effects induced by hidden terminals, and the MAC reduced carrier sensing capabilities. Depending on the MAC parameters and physical layer thresholds, it is shown that the MAC performance indicators over fading channels can be far from those derived under ideal channel assumptions. As novel results, we show to what extent the presence of fading may be beneficial for the overall network performance by reducing the multiple access interference, and how this information can be used for joint selection of MAC and physical layer parameters.

  • 45.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    A dynamic energy-efficient protocol for reliable and timely communications for wireless sensor networks in control and automation2009In: 2009 6th IEEE Annual Communications Society Conference on Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks Workshops, 2009, Vol. SECON Workshops 2009, p. 146-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing quality of service (QoS) guaranteed communication protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is essential to exploit the advantages and flexibilities offered by this technology for real-time control and actuation applications. A novel cross-layer protocol that embraces altogether a semirandom routing, MAC, data aggregation, and radio power control for clustered WSNs is presented. The protocol leverages the combination of a randomized and a deterministic approach to ensure robustness over unreliable channels and packet losses. An optimization problem, whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are reliability and latency of the packets is modelled and solved to adaptively select the protocol parameters by a simple algorithm. As a relevant contribution, the proposed protocol is completely implemented on a test-bed, and it is compared to existing protocols. Experimental results validate the analysis and show excellent performance in terms of reliability, latency, low node duty cycle, load balancing and dynamic adaptation to the application requirements.

  • 46.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Analytical Modeling of Multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 Networks2012In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 3191-3208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of existing analytical studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol are not adequate because they are often based on assumptions such as homogeneous traffic and ideal carrier sensing, which are far from reality for multi-hop networks, particularly in the presence of mobility. In this paper, a new generalized analysis of the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 MAC is presented. The analysis considers the effects induced by heterogeneous traffic due to multi-hop routing and different traffic generation patterns among the nodes of the network and the hidden terminals due to reduced carrier-sensing capabilities. The complex relation between MAC and routing protocols is modeled, and novel results on this interaction are derived. For various network configurations, conditions under which routing decisions based on packet loss probability or delay lead to an unbalanced distribution of the traffic load across multi-hop paths are studied. It is shown that these routing decisions tend to direct traffic toward nodes with high packet generation rates, with potential catastrophic effects for the node's energy consumption. It is concluded that heterogeneous traffic and limited carrier-sensing range play an essential role on the performance and that routing should account for the presence of dominant nodes to balance the traffic distribution across the network.

  • 47.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Park, Pan Gun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    TREnD: A timely, reliable, energy-efficient and dynamic wsn protocol for control applications2010In: IEEE International Conference on Communications, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control applications over wireless sensor networks (WSNs) require timely, reliable, and energy efficient communications. Cross-layer interaction is an essential design paradigm to exploit the complex interaction among the layers of the protocol stack and reach a maximum efficiency. Such a design approach is challenging because reliability and latency of delivered packets and energy are at odds, and resource constrained nodes support only simple algorithms. In this paper, the TREnD protocol is introduced for control applications over WSNs in industrial environments. It is a cross-layer protocol that embraces efficiently routing algorithm, MAC, data aggregation, duty cycling, and radio power control. The protocol parameters are adapted by an optimization problem, whose objective function is the network energy consumption, and the constraints are the reliability and latency of the packets. TREnD uses a simple algorithm that allows the network to meet the reliability and latency required by the control application while minimizing for energy consumption. TREnD is implemented on a test-bed and compared to some existing protocols. Experimental results show good performance in terms of reliability, latency, low duty cycle, and load balancing for both static and time-varying scenarios.

  • 48.
    Di Marco, Piergiuseppe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Park, Pangun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Johansson, Karl Henrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Analytical Modelling of IEEE 802.15.4 for Multi-hop Networks with Heterogeneous Traffic and Hidden Terminals2010In: 2010 IEEE GLOBAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE GLOBECOM 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEEE 802.15.4 multi-hop wireless networks are an important communication infrastructure for many applications, including industrial control, home automation, and smart grids. Existing analysis of the IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC) protocol are often based on assumptions of homogeneous traffic and ideal carrier sensing, which are far from the reality when predicting performance for multi-hop networks. In this paper, a generalized analysis of the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 MAC is presented. The model considers heterogeneous traffic and hidden terminals due to limited carrier sensing capabilities, and allows us to investigate jointly IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and routing algorithms. The analysis is validated via Monte Carlo simulations, which show that routing over multi-hop networks is significantly influenced by the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC performance. Routing decisions based on packet loss probability may lead to an unbalanced distribution of the traffic load across paths, thus motivating the need of a joint optimization of routing and MAC.

  • 49. Di Paolo, L.
    et al.
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Graziosi, F.
    Santucci, F.
    Tennina, S.
    Performance analysis of distributed source coding and packet aggregation in wireless sensor networks2006In: GLOBECOM - IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical setup for evaluation of energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with distributed source coding (DSC) algorithms and packet aggregation (PA). We consider four topologies for DSC and three alternatives for PA, and the system model includes a realistic network architecture with multi-hop communication, automatic repeat request protocol (ARQ), and packet losses. The analysis is carried out in two steps. Firstly we derive the packet loss probability, and then evaluate the average number of packets transmitted throughout the network. This second performance index can then be mapped onto an energy efficiency indicator. The proposed model is specifically adopted for performance comparison of the different coding strategies and aggregation schemes in terms of energy efficiency. Numerical results show that packet overheads have a relevant influence on performance, while the ARQ protocol introduces negligible effects on the energy consumption. Furthermore, DSC topologies with masterslave approach and fragmentation of packets exhibit better performance.

  • 50.
    Du, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischione, Carlo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Network and Systems engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Power Allocation for Channel Estimation and Energy Beamforming in Wirelessly Powered Sensor Networks2018In: 2018 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS WORKSHOPS (ICC WORKSHOPS), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wirelessly powered sensor networks (WPSNs) are becoming increasingly important to monitor many internet-of- things systems. In these WPSNs, dedicated base stations (BSs) with multiple antennas charge the sensor nodes without the need of replacing their batteries thanks to two essential procedures: i) getting of the channel state information of the nodes by sending pilots, and based on this, ii) performing energy beamforming to transmit energy to the nodes. However, the BSs have limited power budget and thus these two procedures are not independent, contrarily to what is assumed in some previous studies. In this paper, we investigate the novel problem of how to optimally allocate the power for channel estimation and energy transmission. Although the problem is non-convex, we provide a new solution approach and a performance analysis in terms of optimality and complexity. We also provide a closed form solution for the case where the channels are estimated based on a least square estimation. The simulations show a gain of approximately 10% in allocating the power optimally, and the importance of improving the channel estimation efficiency.

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