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  • 1. Anderson, P. M. L.
    et al.
    Avlonitis, G.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Ecological outcomes of civic and expert-led urban greening projects using indigenous plant species in Cape Town, South Africa2014In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 127, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parks and private and public gardens do not exist in isolation, but form part of the urban fabric, contributing to ecological functioning. There is growing interest in how civil society shapes urban ecologies and vegetation patterns. This paper explores the ecological outcomes of a series of indigenous plant greening interventions in Cape Town. The six different sites were sampled: two civic-led intervention sites, one expert-led rehabilitation site, two conservation sites and one abandoned site. These sites are compared in terms of their plant and insect diversity and then discussed in relation to their contingent management arrangements and in relation to conservation and abandoned land. Plant and insect diversity measured at the civic-led greening intervention sites suggest these sites are similar to adjacent conservation sites, while floristic composition differs. The inclusion of a vacant lot with poor species and growth form diversity shows the significant role of intervention in the ecological reformation of urban green space. By emphasizing the ecological outcomes, this study highlights the importance of civil society in linking conservation goals to more broad-based notions of quality of life and the 'good and just city'. Our results indicate that civic-led efforts warrant attention in keeping with those of experts, both in relation to meeting indigenous conservation targets, as well as supporting functional groups and wider ecological processes, with the acknowledged exception of fire. How to integrate such civic-led interventions into urban biodiversity management planning is still an open question.

  • 2.
    Anderson, Pippin
    et al.
    University of Cape Town.
    Charles-Dominique, Tristan
    University of Cape Town.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Geography, The University of Manchester; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Goodness, Julie
    Stockholm University.
    Post-apartheid ecologies in the City of Cape Town: An examination of plant functional traits in relation to urban gradients2020In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 193, p. 1-10, article id 103662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we explore species richness and traits across two urban gradients in the City of Cape Town. The first is the natural-urban boundary and the second is a socio-economic gradient informed by historical race-based apartheid planning. Plant species and cover were recorded in 156 plots sampled from conservation areas, private gardens, and public open green space. The socio-economic gradient transitioned from wealthier, predominantly white neighbourhoods to poorer, pre- dominantly black neighbourhoods. The socio-economic gradient was selected to fall within one original vegetation type to ensure a consistent biophysical template. There is a marked shift between the natural and urban plant communities in the City of Cape Town, with little structural affinity. Urban landscapes are dominated by grass, with low diversity compared to natural counterparts. A significant ecological gradient of reduced biodiversity, traits, and in turn functionality, was found across the socio-economic gradient. Wealthier communities benefit from more private green space, more public green space, and a greater plant diversity. Poorer communities have limited green space on all fronts, and lower plant and trait diversity. Plant communities with limited diversity are less resilient and if exposed to environmental perturbation would lose species, and associated ecosystem services faster than a species rich community. These species-poor plant communities mirror historical apartheid planning that is resistant to change. Based on how biodiversity, functionality, and associated ecosystem services and ecosystem stability are linked, the results of this study suggests how significant environmental injustice persists in the City of Cape Town.

  • 3. Barthel, S.
    et al.
    Parker, J.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    ckholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town.
    Food and Green Space in Cities: A Resilience Lens on Gardens and Urban Environmental Movements2015In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1321-1338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the role played by urban gardens during historical collapses in urban food supply lines and identifies the social processes required to protect two crit- ical elements of urban food production during times of crisis—open green spaces and the collective memory of how to grow food. Advanced communication and transport technologies allow food sequestration from the farthest reaches of the planet, but have markedly increasing urban dependence on global food systems over the past 50 years. Simultaneously, such advances have eroded collective memory of food production, while suitable spaces for urban gardening have been lost. These factors combine to heighten the potential for food shortages when—as occurred in the 20th century— major economic, political or environmental crises sever supply lines to urban areas. This paper considers how to govern urban areas sustainably in order to ensure food security in times of crisis by: evincing the effectiveness of urban gardening during crises; showing how allotment gardens serve as conduits for transmitting collective social-ecological memories of food production; and, discussing roles and strategies of urban environmental movements for protecting urban green space. Urban gardening and urban social movements can build local ecological and social response capacity against major collapses in urban food supplies. Hence, they should be incorporated as central elements of sustainable urban development. Urban governance for resilience should be historically informed about major food crises and allow for redundant food production solutions as a response to uncertain futures.

  • 4. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Erixon, Hanna
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Grahn, Sara
    Kärsten, Carl
    Marcus, Lars
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Principles of Social Ecological Design: Case study Albano Campus, Stockholm2013Book (Other academic)
  • 5. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Kärsten, Carl
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Chans sätta Stockholm på kartan2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Sätta Stockholm på kartan
  • 6.
    Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Las Redes Sociales En La Gestión de Los Recursos Naturales: ¿Qué Hay Que Aprender de Una Perspectiva Estructural?2017In: REDES: Revista Hispana para el Análisis de Redes Sociales, ISSN 2385-4626, E-ISSN 1579-0185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [es]

    Las redes sociales entre actores y grupos de interés están recibiendo cada vez más atención en los estudios sobre la gestión de los recursos naturales, especialmente en los que se refieren a la gestión adaptativa basada en diferentes formas de participación y cogestión. Las redes sociales se han concebido principalmente como recursos que habilitan la colaboración y la coordinación entre diferentes actores. Aquí, continuamos la discusión iniciada por Newman y Dale (2005), que destacaron el hecho de que no todas las redes sociales son creadas iguales. Discutimos la relación entre algunas características estructurales y las funciones de las redes sociales con respecto al manejo de los recursos naturales, centrándonos en las implicaciones estructurales que a menudo se pasan por alto al estudiar las redes en el contexto del manejo de los recursos naturales. Presentamos varias medidas que se utilizan para cuantificar las características estructurales de las redes sociales y vincularlas con una serie de procesos como el aprendizaje, el liderazgo y la confianza, que se consideran importantes en el manejo de recursos naturales. Se muestra esquemáticamente que puede haber yuxtaposiciones entre las diferentes características estructurales que necesitan ser equilibradas en lo que nos imaginamos como estructuras de redes sociales conducentes a la cogestión adaptativa de los recursos naturales. Sostenemos que es esencial desarrollar una comprensión de los efectos que las diferentes características estructurales de las redes sociales tienen sobre la gestión de los recursos naturales. Trhis is translation of Bodin, Crona and Ernstson 2006 in Ecology and Society.

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  • 7. Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social networks in natural resource management: What is there to learn from a structural perspective?2006In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 11, no 2, p. r2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social networks among actors and stakeholders are gaining attention in studies of natural resource management, particularly those of adaptive management based on different forms of participation and co-management. In this sense, social networks have primarily been envisioned as enabling different actors to collaborate and coordinate management efforts. Here, we continue the discussion initiated by Newman and Dale (2005), which highlighted the fact that not all social networks are created equal. We discuss the relation between some structural characteristics and functions of social networks with respect to natural resource management, thus focusing on structural implications that are often overlooked when studying social networks within the context of natural resource management. We present several network measures used to quantify structural characteristics of social networks and link them to a number of features such as learning, leadership, and trust, which are identified as important in natural resource management. We show schematically that there may be inherent juxtapositions among different structural characteristics that need to be balanced in what we envision as social network structures conducive to adaptive co-management of natural resources. We argue that it is essential to develop an understanding of the effects that different structural characteristics of social networks have on natural resource management.

  • 8. Bodin, Örjan
    et al.
    Ramirez-Sanchez, S
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Prell, Christina
    A social relational approach to natural resource governance2011In: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: Uncovering the Social Fabric of Environmental Governance / [ed] Bodin, Örjan; Prell, Christina, Cambridge University Press , 2011, p. 1-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Cardoso, Ricardo
    et al.
    Yale-NUS College, National University of Singapore, 16 College Avenue West, 138527, Singapore, 16 College Avenue West.
    Chen, Jia Ching
    University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Global Studies, Social Sciences & Media Studies Building, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106-7065, USA.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    BLOCOS URBANISM: Capitalism and Modularity in the Making of Contemporary Luanda2023In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ISSN 0309-1317, E-ISSN 1468-2427, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 809-832Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we portray and unpack the fabric of urban expansion in contemporary Luanda. In doing so, we examine interdependencies and complementarities between the organization of oil extraction off the coast of Angola, the emergence of particular modalities of modernist city planning for the expansion of its capital city, and the proliferation of cement blocks in the making of new urban forms throughout its burgeoning peripheries. By showing how urban development has unfolded through the interconnected realization of multiple kinds of systematizing blocks—namely oil blocks, city blocks and cement blocks—we analyse key material components in the production of new markets and urban spaces in the Angolan capital. By tracing forms of capitalism and modularity in the making of contemporary Luanda, we develop the concept of blocos urbanism to draw attention to modes of standardization and the production of legibility in contemporary processes of urbanization. Through this study, we aim to contribute to the conceptual apparatus for deciphering our global urban condition.

  • 10. Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Bendt, Pim
    Snep, Robbert
    van der Knaap, Wim
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town.
    Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three case-study regions in Sweden, Germany, and South Africa, and elaborate on their role for biodiversity conservation in urban settings, with a focus on business sites. Cases cover both formally established types of urban green commons and bottom-up emerged community-managed habitats. As our review demonstrates, the right to actively manage urban green space is a key characteristic of urban green commons whether ownership to land is in the private, public, the club realm domain, or constitutes a hybrid of these. We discuss the important linkages among urban common property systems, social–ecological learning, and management of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Several benefits can be associated with urban green commons, such as a reduction of costs for ecosystem management and as designs for reconnecting city-inhabitants to the biosphere. The emergence of urban green commons appears closely linked to dealing with societal crises and for reorganizing cities; hence, they play a key role in transforming cities toward more socially and ecologically benign environments. While a range of political questions circumscribe the feasibility of urban green commons, we discuss their usefulness in management of different types of urban habitats, their political justification and limitation, their potential for improved biodiversity conservation, and conditions for their emergence. We conclude by postulating some general policy advice.

  • 11. Crona, Beatrice
    et al.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    University of Cape Town.
    Prell, Christina
    Reed, Mark
    Hubacek, Klaus
    Combining social network approaches with social theories to improve understanding of natural resource governance2011In: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: Uncovering the Social Fabric in Environmental Governance / [ed] Bodin, Örjan; Prell, Christina, Cambridge University Press (CUP) , 2011, p. 44-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Cumming, Graeme S.
    et al.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Ernstson, Henrik
    University of Cape Town; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Network analysis in conservation biogeography: Challenges and opportunities2010In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, ISSN 1366-9516, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 414-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTAims To highlight the potential value of network analysis for conservation biogeography and to focus attention on some of the challenges that lie ahead in applying it to conservation problems.Location Global.Methods We briefly review existing literature and then focus on five important challenges for the further development of network-based approaches in the field.Results Our five challenges include (i) understanding cross-scale and cross-level linkages in ecological systems (top–down and bottom–up effects, such as trophic cascades, have been demonstrated in food webs but are poorly understood in nested hierarchies such as reserve networks and stream catchments), (ii) capturing dynamic aspects of ecological systems and networks (with a few exceptions we have little grasp of how important whole-network attributes change as the composition of nodes and links changes), (iii) integrating ecological aspects of network theory with metacommunity frameworks and multiple node functions and roles (can we link the spatial patterns of habitat patches in fragmented landscapes, the parallel networks of interacting species using those patches and community-level interactions as defined by metacommunity theory in a single framework?), (iv) integrating the analysis of social and ecological networks (particularly, can they be analysed as a single interacting system?) and (v) laying an empirical foundation for network analysis in conservation biogeography (this will require a larger data bank of well-studied networks from diverse habitats and systems).Main conclusions Recent research has identified a variety of approaches that we expect to contribute to progress in each of our five challenge areas. We anticipate that some of the most exciting outcomes of attempts to meet these challenges will be frameworks that unite areas of research, such as food web analysis and metacommunity theory, that have developed independently.

  • 13.
    Diani, Mario
    et al.
    University of Trento.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lorien, Jasny
    University of Essex.
    ‘‘Right to the City’’ and the Structure of Civic Organizational Fields: Evidence from Cape Town2018In: VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, ISSN 0957-8765, E-ISSN 1573-7888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This article proposes a network analytic approach to the role of frames in shaping the structure of civic organizational fields. Adopting a perspective from the global South, it looks at the impact of the expression ‘‘Right to the city’’ (RTC) over alliance building among civil society actors, exploring patterns of collaborative ties among 129 civil society organizations active in Cape Town from 2012 to 2014. The article addresses two broad ques- tions: What is the relation between RTC and other frames that are also frequently invoked to describe urban struggles and issues? Does the RTC frame affect the structure of urban civic organizational fields in significant ways? Data suggest that while RTC plays a significant role in local civil society, it is neither the only interpretative frame that Capetonian civic organizations draw upon to characterize their activity, nor the more salient. ‘‘Urban conservation,’’ especially tied to nature conservation and environmental issues, actually shapes the structure of local organizational fields in a sharper manner. This is, however, a potentially more divisive frame, rooted as it is in the apartheid legacy that still shapes urban dynamics in the city.

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    Diani Ernstson Jasny 2018 Right to the city & SNA in Cape Town
  • 14. Elmqvist, Thomas
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Barthel, Stephan
    Borgström, Sara
    Duit, Andreas
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Andersson, Erik
    Ahrné, Karin
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Folke, Carl
    Bengtsson, Janne
    The Dynamics of Social-Ecological Systems in Urban Landscapes2004In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1023, p. 308-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses social-ecological dynamics in the greater metropolitan area of Stockholm County, Sweden, with special focus on the National Urban Park (NUP). It is part of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and has the following specific objectives: (1) to provide scientific information on biodiversity patterns, ecosystem dynamics, and ecosystem services generated; (2) to map interplay between actors and institutions involved in management of ecosystem services; and (3) to identify strategies for strengthening social-ecological resilience. The green areas in Stockholm County deliver numerous ecosystem services, for example, air filtration, regulation of microclimate, noise reduction, surface water drainage, recreational and cultural values, nutrient retention, and pollination and seed dispersal. Recreation is among the most important services and NUP, for example, has more than 15 million visitors per year. More than 65 organizations representing 175,000 members are involved in management of ecosystem services. However, because of population increase and urban growth during the last three decades, the region displays a quite dramatic loss of green areas and biodiversity. An important future focus is how management may reduce increasing isolation of urban green areas and enhance connectivity. Comanagement should be considered where locally managed green space may function as buffer zones and for management of weak links that connect larger green areas; for example, there are three such areas around NUP identified. Preliminary results indicate that areas of informal management represent centers on which to base adaptive comanagement, with the potential to strengthen biodiversity management and resilience in the landscape.

  • 15.
    Erixon Aalto, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Of Plants, High Lines and Horses: Civics and Designers in the Relational Articulation of Values of Urban Natures2017In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 157, p. 309-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses three interventions into urban green spaces—a wetland in Cape Town, a post- industrial site in New York, and a park outside London. Through their different contexts, they help to grasp a wider phenomenon: the protection of urban nature through the development of protective narratives. We analyze these interventions as examples of “value articulation”, which we view as a relational and sociomaterial practice that requires the enrolment of people, plants, and things that together perform, spread, and deploy stories about why given places need protection. For each case study, we also highlight the moments when narrative practices move beyond mere protection and start to change the very context in which they were developed. We refer to these as projective narratives, emphasizing how novel values and uses are projected onto these spaces, opening them up for reworking. Our analyses of these successful attempts to protect land demonstrate how values emerge as part of inclusive, yet specific, narratives that mobilize and broaden support and constituencies. By constructing spatial linkages, such narratives embed places in wider geographical ‘wholes’ and we observe how the physical landscape itself becomes an active narrative element. In contrast to rationalist and external frameworks for analyzing values in relation to urban natures (e.g., ecosystem services), our ‘bottom-up’ mode situates urban nature in specific contexts, helping us to profoundly rethink planning and practice in order to (i) challenge expert categories and city/nature dichotomies; (ii) provide vernacular ways of knowing/understanding; and (iii) rethink the role of urban designers.

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  • 16.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Book Review. Greening Berlin: The Co-Production of Science, Politics, and Urban Nature2014In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 113-116Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Ecosystems and urbanization: A colossal meeting of giant complexities2021In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 18.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    In Rhizomia: Actors, Networks and Resilience in Urban Landscapes2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Re-translating nature in post-apartheid Cape Town: The material semiotics of people and plants at Bottom Road2013In: Actor-Network Theory for Development: Working Paper Series / [ed] Richard Heeks, 2013, no June, p. 1-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses actor-network theory (ANT) to study a grassroots’ ecological rehabilitation project in a marginalized area of Cape Town. By tracing the stabilization of relations between residents, authorities, plants and green areas, the paper demonstrates how ANT can be enfolded into the study of African cities as an attentive way to rethink agency, empowerment and collective action. It also shows how ANT allows for the study of epistemological and ontological politics inherent to all collective action—here demonstrating how plants participated in giving voice to memories of oppression while undermining expert-based practices that separate Nature and Culture.

  • 20.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Social Network Analysis (SNA)2012In: The Encyclopedia of Sustainability: Vol. 6. Measurements, Indicators, and Research Methods for Sustainability / [ed] Fogel, D.; Fredericks, S.; Harrington, L.; Spellerberg, I., Berkshire Publishing , 2012, Vol. 6, p. 322-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University.
    The Drama of Urban Greens and Regimes: Social Movements and Ecosystem Services in Stockholm National Urban Park2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    The political nature of urban wetlands: Speaking from Princess Vlei Wetland, Cape Town2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 23.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town.
    The social production of ecosystem services: A framework for studying environmental justice and ecological complexity in urbanized landscapes2013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework is constructed for how to relate ecosystem services to environmental justice. The benefits humans and society can derive from biophysical processes cannot be viewed as objectively existing “out there”, but as entangled in social and political processes. This is unpacked through the analytical moments of generation, distribution and articulation of ecosystem services. Social practice moderates the generation of benefits from biophysical processes (through urban development patterns and day-to-day management of urban ecosystems), but also who in society that benefits from them, i.e. the distribution of ecosystem services (viewed here as the temporal and spatial scales at which it is possible for humans to benefit from biophysical processes). Moreover, for biophysical processes to attain value in decision- making, a social practice of value articulation is needed. The framework then moves between two levels of analysis. At the city-wide level, an ecological network translates how urban ‘green’ areas, viewed as nodes, are interconnected by ecological flows (water, species movement, etc.) where nodes have different protective and management capacities. The network captures spatial complexity—what happens in one location, can have effects elsewhere. At the local level, urban struggles over land-use are studied to trace how actors utilize artifacts and social arenas to articulate how certain biophysical processes are of value. Competing networks of value articulation strive to influence land-use, and multiple local studies bring understanding of how power operates locally, informing city-wide analyses. Empirical studies from Stockholm, Cape Town and other cities inform the framework.

  • 24.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Transformative collective action: A network approach to transformative change in ecosystem-based management2011In: Social Networks and Natural Resource Management: Uncovering the Social Fabric in Environmental Governance / [ed] Bodin, Örjan; Prell, Christina, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 255-287Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [From Introduction] This chapter will strive to add to contributions made by other authors in describing and explaining transformative change. Special attention will be paid to elucidate the collective nature of these transformations, hence the title of transformative collective action. The analysis will show that in order to bring about radical institutional change of natural resource management, a whole network of individuals and organizations are needed that through time can sustain pressure for change. These actors furthermore need to relate to each other through information exchange and repeated collaborations in order to coordinate their collective action, to learn as they go along of what works and what does not work, and to negotiate their vision of change to reach some common ground that can unite their collective effort. This type of sustained collective action furthermore needs to operate through, and challenge, already established institutions, modes of thought and ways of doing things. As such we can talk about collective action as a ‘collective actor’ – the network of actors – that over time builds enough agency to generate institutional change.

  • 25.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Urban Plants and Colonial Durabilities2020In: The Botanical City / [ed] Matthew Gandy and Sandra Jasper, Berlin: jovis Verlag GmbH, 2020, p. 71-81Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The long legacy of colonization that is rooted in how plants are known is mostly out of sight. But at times the colonial legacy of botany becomes all too apparent. This article draws upon ethnograhic field work in Cape Town, South Africa, over several years to contribute knoweldge how colonial and imperial forms of science and colonial management influenced urban botany and later urban ecology. But it points towards a more general argument that is often forgotten when the history of urban ecology and “urban nature knowledge” is written up. This works to decenter or on-stage what has often been silenced in the now taken-for-granted "success" story of the growth of modern urban ecology. What are the colonial remains within urban ecology and urban environmental knowledge today?

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  • 26.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Andersson, Erik
    Borgström, Sara T.
    Scale-Crossing Brokers and Network Governance of Urban Ecosystem Services: The Case of Stockholm2010In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 28-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban ecosystem services are crucial for human well-being and the livability of cities. A central challenge for sustaining ecosystem services lies in addressing scale mismatches between ecological processes on one hand, and social processes of governance on the other. This article synthesizes a set of case studies from urban green areas in Stockholm, Sweden-allotment gardens, urban parks, cemeteries and protected areas-and discusses how governmental agencies and civil society groups engaged in urban green area management can be linked through social networks so as to better match spatial scales of ecosystem processes. The article develops a framework that combines ecological scales with social network structure, with the latter being taken as the patterns of interaction between actor groups. Based on this framework, the article (1) assesses current ecosystem governance, and (2) develops a theoretical understanding of how social network structure influences ecosystem governance and how certain actors can work as agents to promote beneficial network structures. The main results show that the mesoscale of what is conceptualized as city scale green networks (i.e., functionally interconnected local green areas) is not addressed by any actor in Stockholm, and that the management practices of civil society groups engaged in local ecosystem management play a crucial but neglected role in upholding ecosystem services. The article proposes an alternative network structure and discusses the role of midscale managers (for improving ecological functioning) and scale-crossing brokers (engaged in practices to connect actors across ecological scales). Dilemmas, strategies, and practices for establishing this governance system are discussed.

  • 27.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Lawhon, Mary
    University of Edinburgh.
    Anesu, Makin
    Millington, Nate
    The University of Manchester .
    Stokes, Kathleen
    Trinity College.
    Swyngedouw, Erik
    The University of Manchester.
    Turning Livelihood to Rubbish?: The Politics of Value and Valuation in South Africa’s Urban Waste Sector2021In: African Cities and Collaborative Futures: Urban Platforms and Metropolitan Logistics / [ed] Keith, Michael de Souza Santos and Andreza Aruska, Manchester: Manchester University Press , 2021, p. 97-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We will discuss our experience of researching solid waste management politics in South African cities, in particular Cape Town, Johannesburg, and Ekurhuleni. The title of our project – Turning Livelihoods to Waste? – was designed to raise a serious of questions about ongoing trends in the waste sector and the implications. South African household waste management operates under a paradigm of cooperative governance where authority is distributed across various scales of government, business, and society. Recent efforts to expand, improve, and formalize solid household waste management and recycling initiatives have implications for those who currently work with waste - particularly for informal waste pickers or reclaimers, who do much of the primary work with waste in the global south. Despite promises of green economic development and job creation, many people working with waste in South Africa work are subjected to precarious and difficult work conditions or experience new uncertainties and vulnerabilities which threaten existing livelihood strategies. In turn, there are serious questions about whether waste workers should be expected to work in dangerous conditions, and what sorts of alternate arrangements may be more just and more ecologically sustainable.

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  • 28.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Lawhon, Mary
    Duminy, James
    Conceptual Vectors of African Urbanism: 'Engaged Theory-Making' and 'Platforms of Engagement'2014In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1563-1577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban political ecology (UPE) has provided critical insights into the sociomaterial construction of urban environments, their unequal distribution of resources, and contestation over power and resources. Most of this work is rooted in Marxist urban geographical theory, which provides a useful but limited analysis. Such works typically begin with a historical-materialist theory of power, then examine particular artifacts and infrastructure to provide a critique of society.We argue that there aremultipleways of expanding this framing, including through political ecology or wider currents of Marxism. Here, we demonstrate one possibility: starting from theory and empirics in the South, specifically, African urbanism. We show how African urbanism can inform UPE and the associated research methods, theory and practice to create a more situated UPE. We begin suggesting what a situated UPE might entail: starting with everyday practices, examining diffuse forms of power, and opening the scope for radical incrementalism.

  • 29.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Histories of Heterogenous Infrastructures: Negotiating Colonial, Postcolonial and Oral Archives in Kampala, Uganda2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructure studies are growing in importance to understand how sociocultural, ecological, and ecological relations are inscribed, negotiated, and contested in urban spaces. A major effort has been to ground such work in experiences of the global South, moving beyond the “modern infrastructure ideal” a fully networked city, towards conceptualizations of incremental, peopled, and heterogenous infrastructure. However, there are still few historical studies that depart from these new conceptualizations. In this paper we draw upon our empirical work in Kampala, Uganda, in an attempt to historicize “heterogenous infrastructure configurations” (Lawhon et al. 2017) through combining (and constructing) three distinct historical archives: (i) the colonial archives (based on traditional archival work in Kew National Archives in London); (ii) the official postcolonial archives (which meant to crisscross through Kampala to assemble documents, reports, photos and legal notes); and (iii) oral histories (where we interviewed elderly women and men with a long family history in the city). This work has led to several pertinent questions about “what to make of the colonial archives when they systematically exclude or distort the wider heterogenous infrastructure reality that surely existed in parallel to the ‘European’ city?” “why are postcolonial archives so difficult to find and assemble?” and “how to draw upon the richness and texture of oral histories from particular places, families and persons.” This paper then, reflects on how we have grappled with working across these archives with the aim to contribute more general ideas of how to situate and historicize the study of contemporary infrastructures in a postcolonial world (in communication with postcolonial historians as in Mamdani, Chakrabarty, Lalu, and Benson). By pushing different narratives to confront and clash, and by critically looking at our own practice, new histories arise. But also new questions; some which should have been asked long ago. We argue here for an approach of heterodoxa; one that opens for different meanings, archives and locations from where to construct histories and futures about infrastructure and urban spaces.

  • 30.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. ;Univ Manchester, Dept Geog, Manchester, England.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Sustainable Dev Environm Sci & Engn SEED, Div Strateg Sustainabil Studies, Teknikringen 10B, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nilsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Towards situated histories of heterogenous infrastructures: Oral history as method and meaning2022In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 134, p. 48-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on interviews with elderly people living in a low-income and auto-constructed settlement in Kampala, Uganda, this paper explores the notion of heterogenous infrastructure in its local spatial and temporal setting. Our aim is twofold. First, by intently listening to and weaving together situated narratives of how people over time have acquired infrastructural services, such as water, energy, waste, and sanitation, we reveal deeper insights of the socio-political, but also material structures and interactions at play between the State, the disenfranchised, and their intermediaries. Second, we start uncovering the so far largely unexplored potential of oral history as a method to meaningfully interpret the "infrastructural past" of postcolonial and Southern cities where most of ordinary people's experience was never put on record. Our findings point to the usefulness of oral history methods to widen the lens of who and what contributed to the production of fundamental resources for urban life-and its politics.

  • 31.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Swyngedouw, Erik
    The University of Manchester.
    Bringing Back the Political: Egalitarian Acting, Performative Theory2019In: Urban Political Ecology in the Anthropo-obscene: Interruptions and Possibilities / [ed] Henrik Ernstson, Erik Swyngedouw, Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 255-267Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The political is categorically and fundamentally performative. Those that gain a voice as equals do not do so by demanding a right to speak within an already policed order, they stage equality and produce new spaces from where equality and freedom can be thought and acted out. This notion of the political, we argue, has to (again) become central in radical and critical theory, urban political ecology (UPE) and associated fields in the coming decade. This concluding essay draws on the chapters of the book to discuss what “politically performative theory” could mean and what challenges and possibilities it brings to a reconfigured UPE and in politicizing the environment.

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  • 32.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Swyngedouw, Erik
    The University of Manchester.
    O Tempora! O Mores! Interrupting the Anthropo-obScene2019In: Urban Political Ecology in the Anthropo-obscene: Interruptions and Possibilities / [ed] Henrik Ernstson, Erik Swyngedouw, Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 25-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop the term “the Anthropo-obScene” to show how various discourses on “the Anthropocene” have created a set of stages that disavow certain voices and render some forms of acting (human, non-human, and more-than-human) off-stage. Examples include consensual narratives of adaptive, resilient, and geo-engineered governance, but also more-than-human ontologies that, in spite their purported radicality, could lead to a problematic strengthening of technomanagerial discourse. With the Anthropo-obScene, we seek to interrupt the deepening of “immunological bio-politics” and a politicization of the socio-ecological conundrum we are in, while fully and radically embracing our interdependence with non-humans.

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  • 33.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Swyngedouw, Erik
    The University of Manchester.
    Politicizing the Environment in the Urban Century2019In: Urban Political Ecology in the Anthropo-obscene: Interruptions and Possibilities / [ed] Ernstson, Henrik; Swyngedouw, Erik, Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 3-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the book’s central theme on how to organize anew the articulation between emancipatory theory and political activism. Framed against the background of five major transformations that deal with planetary urbanisation to de-politicization, we argue that while UPE and associated fields have offered ways to analyse the politics of nature, they have less to offer in terms of what to do, in terms of thinking with radical political activists about new imaginaries and practices of emancipatory socio-ecological change. In light of this, we present the chapters as enriching the approaches to re-centre the political in thought and action in environmental and urban studies.

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  • 34.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Human Geography at The University of Manchester, UK..
    Swyngedouw, ErikThe University of Manchester.
    Urban Political Ecology in the Anthropo-obscene: Interruptions and Possibilities2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban Political Ecology in the Anthropo-obscene: Interruptions and Possibilities centres on how to organize anew the articulation between emancipatory theory and political activism. 

    Across its theoretical and empirical chapters, written by leading scholars from anthropology, geography, urban studies, and political science, the book explores new political possibilities that are opening up in an age marked by proliferating contestations, sharpening socio-ecological inequalities, and planetary processes of urbanization and environmental change. A deepened conversation between urban environmental studies and political theory is mobilized to chart a radically new direction for the field of urban political ecology and cognate disciplines: What could emancipatory politics be about in our time? What does a return of the political under the aegis of equality and freedom signal today in theory and in practice? How do political movements emerge that could re-invent equality and freedom as actually existing socio-ecological practices? The hope is to contribute discussions that can expand and rearrange critical environmental studies to remain relevant in a time of deepening depoliticization and the rise of post-truth politics.

    Urban Political Ecology in the Anthropo-obscene will be of interest to postgraduates, established scholars, and upper level undergraduates from any discipline or field with an interest in the interface between the urban, the environment, and the political, including: geography, urban studies, environmental studies, and political science.

  • 35.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. The University of Manchester, UK.
    Swyngedouw, Erik
    The University of Manchester, UK.
    Wasting CO2 and the Clean Development Mechanism: The remarkable success of a climate failure2023In: Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space, ISSN 2514-8486, E-ISSN 2514-8494 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how global climate mitigation policies articulate with urban political–ecological transformations. It focuses on South African waste-to-value projects as case studies, exploring how local processes of urban ecological modernization combine with global climate finance through the now largely defunct Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Whilst it is generally recognized that waste-related CDM projects in South Africa (and elsewhere) have been an unmitigated failure in terms of climate and socio-economic benefits, we demonstrate that landfillto-gas/energy projects have functioned effectively as geographical–discursive dispositifs through which particular knowledge systems are enrolled, specific ‘solutions’ are projected, and singular imaginaries of what is possible and desirable foregrounded, thereby crowding out alternative possibilities. This not only nurtures the commodification and marketization of non-human matter with an eye towards sustaining capital accumulation but, rather more importantly, successfully installs state-orchestrated private property relations around common resources, thereby deepening the dispossessing socio-ecological relations upon which expanded capitalist reproduction rests. We argue that whilst the formal outcome of the CDM is a failure, its success resides precisely in how it permitted local and global elites to create administrative and regulatory practices that solidify and naturalize a neoliberal market-based framework to approach the climate crisis.

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  • 36.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Ecosystem services as technology of globalization: On articulating values in urban nature2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 274-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper demonstrates how ecosystem services can be viewed and studied as a social practice of value articulation. With this follows that when ecosystem services appear as objects of calculated value in decision-making they are already tainted by the social and cannot be viewed as merely reflecting an objective biophysical reality. Using urban case studies of place-based struggles in Stockholm and Cape Town, we demonstrate how values are relationally constructed through social practice. The same analysis is applied on ecosystem services. Of special interest is the TEEB Manual that uses a consultancy report on the economic evaluation of Cape Town's 'natural assets' to describe a step-by-step method to catalog, quantify and price certain aspects of urban nature. The Manual strives to turn the ecosystem services approach into a transportable method, capable of objectively measuring the values of urban nature everywhere, in all cities in the world. With its gesture of being universal and objective, the article suggests that the ecosystem services approach is a technology of globalization that de-historicizes and de-ecologizes debates on urbanized ecologies, effectively silencing other and often marginalized ways of knowing and valuing. The paper inscribes ecosystem services as social practice, as part of historical process, and as inherently political. A call is made for critical ethnographies of how ecosystem services and urban sustainability indicators are put into use to change local decision-making while manufacturing global expertise.

  • 37.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Grounding and Worlding Urban Natures: Configuring an Urban Ecology Knowledge Project2019In: Grounding Urban Natures: Histories and Futures of Urban Ecologies / [ed] Henrik Ernstson & Sverker Sörlin, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2019, p. 363-390Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, SverkerKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Grounding Urban Natures: Histories and Futures of Urban Ecologies2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Preface -- A Diverse Urban World2019In: Grounding Urban Natures: Histories and Futures of Urban Ecologies / [ed] Henrik Ernstson & Sverker Sörlin, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press , 2019, p. vii-xiiiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Toward Comparative Urban Environmentalism: Situating Urban Natures in an Emerging ‘World of Cities’2019In: Grounding Urban Natures: Histories and Futures of Urban Ecologies / [ed] Henrik Ernstson & Sverker Sörlin, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press , 2019, p. 1-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41. Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Weaving protective stories: connective practices to articulate holistic values in the Stockholm National Urban Park2009In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1460-1479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With rapid worldwide urbanization it is urgent that we understand processes leading to the protection of urban green areas and ecosystems. Although natural reserves are often seen as preserving 'higher valued' rather than 'lower valued' nature, it is more adequate to describe them as outcomes of selective social articulation processes. This is illustrated in the Stockholm National Urban Park. Despite strong exploitation pressure, a diverse urban movement of civil society organizations has managed to provide narratives able to explain and legitimize the need for protection-a 'protective story'. On the basis of qualitative data and building on theories of value articulation, social movements, and actor-networks, we show how activists, by interlacing artefacts and discourses from cultural history and conservation biology, managed to simultaneously link spatially separated green areas previously seen as disconnected, while also articulating the interrelatedness between the cultural and the natural history of the area. This connective practice constructed holistic values articulating a unified park, which heavily influenced the official framing of the park's values and which now help to explain the success of the movement. In contrast to historically top-down-led designation of natural reserves, we argue that the involvement of civil society in protecting nature (and culture) is on the rise. This nonetheless begs the question of who can participate in these value-creating processes, and we also strive to uncover constraining and facilitating factors for popular participation. Four such factors are suggested: (i) the number and type of artefacts linked to an area; (ii) the capabilities and numbers of activists involved; (iii) the access to social arenas; and (iv) the social network position of actors.

  • 42.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Social Movements and Ecosystem Services-the Role of Social Network Structure in Protecting and Managing Urban Green Areas in Stockholm2008In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 13, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploitation and degradation of urban green areas reduce their capacity to sustain ecosystem services. In protecting and managing these areas, research has increasingly focused on actors in civil society. Here, we analyzed an urban movement of 62 civil-society organizations-from user groups, such as boating clubs and allotment gardens, to culture and nature conservation groups-that have protected the Stockholm National Urban Park. We particularly focused on the social network structure of the movement, i.e., the patterns of interaction between movement organizations. The results reveal a core-periphery structure where core and semi-core organizations have deliberately built political connections to authorities, whereas the periphery gathers all user groups involved in day-to-day activities in the park. We show how the core-periphery structure has facilitated collective action to protect the park, but we also suggest that the same social network structure might simultaneously have constrained collaborative ecosystem management. In particular, user groups with valuable local ecological knowledge have not been included in collaborative arenas. Our case points out the inherent double-nature of all social networks as they facilitate some collective actions, yet constrain others. The paper argues for incorporating social network structure in theories and applications of adaptive governance and co-management.

  • 43.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    van der Leeuw, S E
    Redman, C L
    Meffert, D J
    Davis, G
    Alfsen, C
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Urban Transitions: On Urban Resilience and Human-Dominated Ecosystems2010In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 531-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities-New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix-the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  • 44. Graham, M
    et al.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Comanagement at the Fringes: Examining Stakeholder Perspectives at Macassar Dunes, Cape Town, South Africa-at the Intersection of High Biodiversity, Urban Poverty, and Inequality2012In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretically, co-management provides a fruitful way to engage local residents in efforts to conserve and manage particular spaces of ecological value. However, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation in particular, are faced with novel sets of complexities in the rapidly urbanizing areas of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the nexus between an apartheid past, informal settlements, remnant biodiversity patches, and urban poverty. Departing from such a dynamic social and ecological context, this article first provides an historical account of the decade-long comanagement process at Macassar Dunes, and then considers, through stakeholder perceptions, what are the successes and failures of the contested process. We find that comanagement at Macassar Dunes faces serious legitimacy, trust, and commitment issues, but also that stakeholders find common ground on education and awareness-raising activities. In conclusion we argue that the knowledge generated from case studies like this is useful in challenging and rethinking natural resource management theory generally, but specifically it is useful for the growing cities of the Global South. More case studies and a deeper engagement are needed with geographical theories on the “urban fringe” as “possibility space”, to help build a firm empirical base for theorizing comanagement “at the fringes”, i.e., at the intersection of poverty, socioeconomic inequality, and high biodiversity and ecological values.

  • 45.
    Henao Castro, Andrés Fabián
    et al.
    University of Massachussetts Boston.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    "Hic Rhodus, Hic Salta!" Postcolonial Remains and The Politics of the Anthropo-ob(S)cene2019In: Urban Political Ecology in the Anthropo-obscene: Interruptions and Possibilities / [ed] Ernstson, Henrik; Swyngedouw, Erik, Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 69-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use postcolonial theory to interrogate the discourse of €œthe Anthropocene€ and its depoliticizing effects. It is maintained that the way that the Anthropocene€ discourse has been articulated within parts of postcolonial theory is deeply problematic and risks making the political itself categorically unthinkable and ontologically evacuated. In an attempt to disrupt this deadlock, we combine post-foundational and postcolonial theory to propose three performative interruptions against conditions of exclusion—the politics of time, the politics of translation, and the politics of the stage. These build a platform to re-launch the political performativity of subaltern experiences in the here and now.

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  • 46. Israelsson, Elin
    et al.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    University of Cape Town.
    Analyzing shifts towards people-centered conservation practice: a comparative study of urban biodiversity protection at four nature reserves in Cape Town2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47. Janssen, M A
    et al.
    Bodin, Ö.
    Anderies, J M
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McAllister, R R J
    Olsson, P
    Ryan, P
    Toward a network perspective of the study of resilience in social-ecological systems2006In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: ( 1) ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, ( 2) ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and ( 3) artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  • 48.
    Kimari, Wangui
    et al.
    University of Cape Town.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    University of Cape Town.
    Imperial Remains and Imperial Invitations: Centering Race within the Contemporary Large-Scale Infrastructures of East Africa2020In: Antipode, ISSN 0066-4812, E-ISSN 1467-8330, Vol. 3, no 52, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we combine infrastructure studies and black radical traditions to foreground how imperial remains deeply inform the logics that bring forth contemporary large-scale infrastructures in Africa. The objective, prompted by the ongoing avid promotion of such architectures on the continent, is to contribute to an analysis that centres race in these projects. Our argument is that these initiatives have to be understood in relation to inherited material and discursive scaffoldings that remain from the colonial period, through what we refer to as imperial remains and imperial invitations. These remains and invitations demonstrate how recent mega infrastructures inhere, in their planning, financing and implementation, a colonial racialism, despite rhetorical claims to the opposite. Empirically, we draw, principally, on China built and financed infrastructure projects from Kenya, and theoretically upon black radical traditions in order to foreground a longer genealogy of black pathologizing and resistance to it on the continent.

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  • 49.
    Kimari, Wangui
    et al.
    University of Cape Town.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    The invisible labor of the “New Angola”: Kilamba’s domestic workers2022In: Urban geography, ISSN 0272-3638, E-ISSN 1938-2847, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kilamba, the first of the new centralities in Angola, is increasingly visible in recent urban scholarship about Luanda, further establishing it as the symbol of both this “new” post-war city and the “New Angola.” Within local discourses of progress, its emergence from within “petro-urbanism,” and its size and modern aesthetics are emphasized, while little attention has been directed towards understanding the actual contributions of its workers, particularly the women who spend a significant part of their day cleaning Kilamba’s apartments. In this paper, we combine a social reproduction framework with infrastructure studies to trace the labor of Kilamba’s female domestic workers, in order to demonstrate how their everyday practices uphold the status and materiality of this centrality, even as their work is invisibilized. In doing so, we understand their commentaries about this space, often refracted through descriptions of their homes, as critiques of the infrastructural priorities of the “New Angola.”

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  • 50.
    Lawhon, M.
    et al.
    Florida State Univ, Dept Geog, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA..
    Silver, J.
    Florida State Univ, Dept Geog, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA..
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History, History of Science, Technology and Environment. University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Unlearning (Un)Located Ideas in the Provincialization of Urban Theory2016In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, no 9, p. 720-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of infrastructure have demonstrated broad differences between Northern and Southern cities, and deconstructed urban theory derived from experiences of the networked urban regions of the Global North. This includes critiques of the universalisation of the historically–culturally produced normative ideal of universal, uniform infrastructure. In this commentary, we first introduce the notion of ‘heterogeneous infrastructure configurations’ (HICs) which resonates with existing scholarship on Southern urbanism. Second, we argue that thinking through HICs helps us to move beyond technological and performative accounts of actually existing infrastructures to provide an analytical lens through which to compare different configurations. Our approach enables a clearer analysis of infrastructural artefacts not as individual objects but as parts of geographically spread socio-technological configurations: configurations which might involve many different kinds of technologies, relations, capacities and operations, entailing different risks and power relationships. We use examples from ongoing research on sanitation and waste in Kampala, Uganda – a city in which service delivery is characterised by multiplicity, overlap, disruption and inequality – to demonstrate the kinds of research questions that emerge when thinking through the notion of HICs.

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