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  • 1.
    An, Junxue
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    The Ru complexes containing pyridine-dicarboxylate ligand: electronic effect on their catalytic activity toward water oxidation2011In: Faraday discussions (Online), ISSN 1359-6640, E-ISSN 1364-5498, Vol. 155, p. 267-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(pdc)L-3] (H(2)pdc = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid; L = 4-methoxypyridine, 1; pyridine, 2; pyrazine, 3) and [Ru(pdc)L-2(dmso)] (dmso = dimethyl sulfoxide; L = 4-methoxypyridine, 4; pyridine, 5) were synthesized and spectroscopically characterized. Their catalytic activity toward water oxidation has been examined using Ce-IV (Ce(NH4)(2)(NO3)(6)) as the chemical oxidant under acidic conditions. Complexes 1, 2 and 3 are capable of catalyzing Ce-IV-driven water oxidation while 4 and 5 are not active. Electronic effects on their catalytic activity were illustrated: electron donating groups increase the catalytic activity.

  • 2.
    Daniel, Quentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Timmer, Brian J. J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Luo, Xiaodan
    Peking Univ, Coll Chem & Mol Engn, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Ambre, Ram
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Wang, Ying
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Zhang, Peili
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Sun, Junliang
    Peking Univ, Coll Chem & Mol Engn, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China..
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry.
    Water Oxidation Initiated by In Situ Dimerization of the Molecular Ru(pdc) Catalyst2018In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 4375-4382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mononuclear ruthenium complex [Ru(pdc)L-3] (H(2)pdc = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, L = N-heterocycles such as 4-picoline) has previously shown promising catalytic efficiency toward water oxidation, both in homogeneous solutions and anchored on electrode surfaces. However, the detailed water oxidation mechanism catalyzed by this type of complex has remained unclear. In order to deepen understanding of this type of catalyst, in the present study, [Ru(pdc)(py)(3)] (py = pyridine) has been synthesized, and the detailed catalytic mechanism has been studied by electrochemistry, UV-vis, NMR, MS, and X-ray crystallography. Interestingly, it was found that once having reached the Ru-IV state, this complex promptly formed a stable ruthenium dimer [Ru-III(pdc)(py)(2)-O-Ru-IV(pdc)(py)(2)](+). Further investigations suggested that the present dimer, after one pyridine ligand exchange with water to form [Ru-III(pdc)(py)(2)-O-Ru-IV(pdc)(py)(H2O)](+), was the true active species to catalyze water oxidation in homogeneous solutions.

  • 3.
    Daniel, Quentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Huang, Ping
    Fan, Ting
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Wang, Ying
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Mamedov, Fikret
    Styring, Stenbjörn
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Rearranging from 6-to 7-coordination initiates the catalytic activity: An EPR study on a Ru-bda water oxidation catalyst2017In: Coordination chemistry reviews, ISSN 0010-8545, E-ISSN 1873-3840, Vol. 346, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coordination of a substrate water molecule on a metal centered catalyst for water oxidation is a crucial step involving the reorganization of the ligand sphere. This process can occur by substituting a coordinated ligand with a water molecule or via a direct coordination of water onto an open site. In 2009, we reported an efficient ruthenium-based molecular catalyst, Ru-bda, for water oxidation. Despite the impressive improvement in catalytic activity of this type of catalyst over the past years, a lack of understanding of the water coordination still remains. Herein, we report our EPR and DFT studies on Ru-bda (triethylammonium 3-pyridine sulfonate)(2) (1) at its Ru-III oxidation state, which is the initial state in the catalytic cycle for the O-O bond formation. Our investigation suggests that at this III-state, there is already a rearrangement in the ligand sphere where the coordination of a water molecule at the 7th position (open site) takes place under acidic conditions (pH = 1.0) to form a rare 7-coordinated Ru-III species.

  • 4.
    Daniel, Quentin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Tailored design of ruthenium molecular catalysts with 2,2 '-bypyridine-6,6 '-dicarboxylate and pyrazole based ligands for water oxidation2016In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 45, no 37, p. 14689-14696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the incorporation of pyrazole and DMSO as axial ligands, a series of tailor-designed Ru water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)(DMSO)(L)] (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bypyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide; L = pyrazole, A-1; 4-Br-3-methyl pyrazole, B-1) and [Ru(bda)(L)(2)] (L = pyrazole, A-2; 4-Br-3-methyl pyrazole, B-2) have been generated in situ from their corresponding precursors [Ru(kappa(O,N,N)(3)-bda) (DMSO)(x)(L)(3-x)] which are in a zwitterionic form with an extra pyrazole based ligand in the equatorial position. Formation of the active catalyst has been investigated under pH 1.0 conditions. Electrochemistry and water oxidation activity of these catalysts were investigated. By fine tuning of the catalyst structure, the turnover frequency was increased up to 500 s(-1) and the stability over 6000 turnovers.

  • 5.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Artificial Water Splitting: Ruthenium Complexes for Water Oxidation2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the development and study of Ru-based water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) which are the essential components for solar energy conversion to fuels. The first chapter gives a general introduction about the field of homogenous water oxidation catalysis, including the catalytic mechanisms and the catalytic activities of some selected WOCs as well as the concerns of catalyst design. The second chapter describes a family of mononuclear Ru complexes [Ru(pdc)L3] (H2pdc = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid; L = pyridyl ligands) towards water oxidation. The negatively charged pdc2 dramatically lowers the oxidation potentials of Ru complexes, accelerates the ligand exchange process and enhances the catalytic activity towards water oxidation. A Ru aqua species [Ru(pdc)L2(OH2)] was proposed as the real catalyst. The third chapter describes the analogues of [Ru(terpy)L3]2+ (terpy = 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridine). Through the structural tailor, the ligand effect on the electrochemical and catalytic properties of these Ru complexes was studied. Mechanistic studies suggested that these Ru-N6 complexes were pre-catalysts and the Ru-aqua species were the real WOCs. The forth chapter describes a family of fast WOCs [Ru(bda)L2] (H2bda = 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylic acid). Catalytic mechanisms were thoroughly investigated by electrochemical, kinetic and theoretical studies. The main contributions of this work to the field of water oxidation are (i) the recorded high reaction rate of 469 s−1; (ii) the involvement of seven-coordinate Ru species in the catalytic cycles; (iii) the O-O bond formation pathway via direct coupling of two Ru=O units and (iv) non-covalent effects boosting up the reaction rate. The fifth chapter is about visible light-driven water oxidation using a three component system including a WOC, a photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor. Light-driven water oxidation was successfully demonstrated using our Ru-based catalysts.

  • 6.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Highly efficient and robust molecular ruthenium catalysts for water oxidation2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 39, p. 15584-15588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water oxidation catalysts are essential components of light-driven water splitting systems, which could convert water to H-2 driven by solar radiation (H2O + h nu -> 1/2O(2) + H-2). The oxidation of water (H2O -> 1/2O(2) + 2H(+) + 2e(-)) provides protons and electrons for the production of dihydrogen (2H(+) + 2e(-) -> H-2), a clean-burning and high-capacity energy carrier. One of the obstacles now is the lack of effective and robust water oxidation catalysts. Aiming at developing robust molecular Ru-bda (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts, we carried out density functional theory studies, correlated the robustness of catalysts against hydration with the highest occupied molecular orbital levels of a set of ligands, and successfully directed the synthesis of robust Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts. A series of mononuclear ruthenium complexes [Ru(bda)L-2] (L = pyridazine, pyrimidine, and phthalazine) were subsequently synthesized and shown to effectively catalyze Ce-IV-driven [Ce-IV = Ce(NH4)(2()NO3)(6)] water oxidation with high oxygen production rates up to 286 s(-1) and high turnover numbers up to 55,400.

  • 7.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Bozoglian, Fernando
    Mandal, Sukanta
    Stewart, Beverly
    Privalov, Timofei
    Llobet, Antoni
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    A molecular ruthenium catalyst with water-oxidation activity comparable to that of photosystem II2012In: Nature Chemistry, ISSN 1755-4330, E-ISSN 1755-4349, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 418-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Across chemical disciplines, an interest in developing artificial water splitting to O-2 and H-2, driven by sunlight, has been motivated by the need for practical and environmentally friendly power generation without the consumption of fossil fuels. The central issue in light-driven water splitting is the efficiency of the water oxidation, which in the best-known catalysts falls short of the desired level by approximately two orders of magnitude. Here, we show that it is possible to close that 'two orders of magnitude' gap with a rationally designed molecular catalyst [Ru(bda)(isoq)(2)] (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; isoq = isoquinoline). This speeds up the water oxidation to an unprecedentedly high reaction rate with a turnover frequency of >300 s(-1). This value is, for the first time, moderately comparable with the reaction rate of 100-400 s(-1) of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II in vivo.

  • 8.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Isolated Seven-Coordinate Ru(IV) Dimer Complex with HOHOH (-) Bridging Ligand as an Intermediate for Catalytic Water Oxidation2009In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 131, no 30, p. 10397-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the inspiration from an oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in Photosystern II (PSII), a mononuclear Ru(II) complex with a tetradentate ligand containing two carboxylate groups has been synthesized and structurally characterized. This Ru(II) complex showed efficient catalytic properties toward water oxidation by the chemical oxidant cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. During the process of catalytic water oxidation, Ru(III) and Ru(IV) species have been successfully isolated as intermediates. To our surprise, X-ray crystallography together with HR-MS revealed that the Ru(IV) species is a seven-coordinate Ru(IV) dimer complex containing a [HOHOH](-) bridging ligand. This bridging ligand has a short O center dot center dot center dot O distance and is hydrogen bonded to two water molecules. The discovery of this very uncommon seven-coordinate Ru(IV) dimer together with a hydrogen bonding network may contribute to a deeper understanding of the mechanism for catalytic water oxidation. It will also provide new possibilities for the design of more efficient catalysts for water oxidation, which is the key step for solar energy conversion into hydrogen by tight-driven water splitting, the ultimate challenge in artificial photosynthesis.

  • 9.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Mandal, Sukanta
    Bozoglian, Fernando
    Stewart, Beverly
    Privalov, Timofei
    Llobet, Antoni
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    The First Replication of the Water Oxidation Activity of Photosystem-II by a Molecular Ruthenium CatalystManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Tong, L.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Towards the Visible Light-Driven Water Splitting Device: Ruthenium Water Oxidation Catalysts with Carboxylate-Containing Ligands2014In: Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysis: A Key Topic for New Sustainable Energy Conversion Schemes, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 51-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of oxo and carboxylate ligands is crucial to decreasing the redox potentials of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC). It has been proved that negatively charged ligands can stabilize the high oxidation states of various transition metal-based complexes and lower their oxidation potentials. This chapter focuses on complexation of transition metals primarily ruthenium (Ru) with carboxylate-containing ligands, in order to develop artificial water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) with small overpotentials. The authors aim at applying highly active and robust WOCs in artificial photosynthesis devices that convert photo energy to chemical energy. A typical visible light-driven water oxidation system consists of three components: a WOC, a photosensitizer, and a sacrificial electron acceptor. The chapter demonstrates a density functional theory (DFT)-directed development of robust Ru-WOCs, showing one of the advantages of molecular WOCs.

  • 11.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Visible light-driven water oxidation-from molecular catalysts to photoelectrochemical cells2011In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 4, no 9, p. 3296-3313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This perspective article reports the most significant advances in the field of water oxidation-from molecular water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) to photoelectrochemical cells. Different series of catalysts that can be applied in visible light-driven water oxidation catalysis are discussed in details and several key aspects of their catalytic mechanisms are introduced. In order to construct a water oxidation electrode from molecular catalysts, proper immobilization methods have to be employed. Herein, we present one section about how to attach catalysts onto an electrode/material surface. Finally, the state of the art photoelectrochemical cells that achieve visible light-driven water splitting are described.

  • 12.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Inge, A. Ken
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Insights into Ru-Based Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysts: Electronic and Noncovalent-Interaction Effects on Their Catalytic Activities2013In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 52, no 14, p. 7844-7852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)L-2] (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; L = [HNEt3][3-SO3-pyridine], 1; 4-(EtOOC)-pyridine, 2; 4-bromopyridine, 3; pyridine, 4; 4-methoxypyridine, 5; 4-(Me2N)-pyridine, 6; 4-[Ph(CH2)(3)]-pyridine, 7) were synthesized with election-donating/-withdrawing groups and hydro-philic/hydrophobic groups in the axial ligands. These complexes were characterized by H-1 NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and electrochemistry. In addition, complexes 1 and 6 were further identified by single crystal X-ray crystallography, revealing a highly distorted octahedral configuration of the Ru coordination sphere. All of these complexes are highly active toward Ce-IV-driven (Ce-IV = Ce(NH4)(2)(NO3)(6)) water oxidation with oxygen evolution rates up to 119 mols of O-2 per mole of catalyst per second. Their structure-activity relationship was investigated. Electron-withdrawing and noncovalent interactions (attraction) exhibit positive effect on the catalytic activity of Ru-bda catalysts.

  • 13.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fei
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Institute of Artificial Photosynthesis, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China.
    Highly Efficient Bioinspired Molecular Ru Water Oxidation Catalysts with Negatively Charged Backbone Ligands2015In: Accounts of Chemical Research, ISSN 0001-4842, E-ISSN 1520-4898, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 2084-2096Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of the natural photosynthesis system II (PSII) oxidizes water to produce oxygen and reducing equivalents (protons and electrons). The oxygen released from PSII provides the oxygen source of our atmosphere; the reducing equivalents are used to reduce carbon dioxide to organic products, which support almost all organisms on the Earth planet. The first photosynthetic organisms able to split water were proposed to be cyanobacteria-like ones appearing ca. 2.5 billion years ago. Since then, nature has chosen a sustainable way by using solar energy to develop itself. Inspired by nature, human beings started to mimic the functions of the natural photosynthesis system and proposed the concept of artificial photosynthesis (AP) with the view to creating energy-sustainable societies and reducing the impact on the Earth environments. Water oxidation is a highly energy demanding reaction and essential to produce reducing equivalents for fuel production, and thereby effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) are required to catalyze water oxidation and reduce the energy loss. X-ray crystallographic studies on PSII have revealed that the OEC consists of a Mn4CaO5 cluster surrounded by oxygen rich ligands, such as oxyl, oxo, and carboxylate ligands. These negatively charged, oxygen rich ligands strongly stabilize the high valent states of the Mn cluster and play vital roles in effective water oxidation catalysis with low overpotential. This Account describes our endeavors to design effective Ru WOCs with low overpotential, large turnover number, and high turnover frequency by introducing negatively charged ligands, such as carboxylate. Negatively charged ligands stabilized the high valent states of Ru catalysts, as evidenced by the low oxidation potentials. Meanwhile, the oxygen production rates of our Ru catalysts were improved dramatically as well. Thanks to the strong electron donation ability of carboxylate containing ligands, a seven-coordinate Ru-IV species was isolated as a reaction intermediate, shedding light on the reaction mechanisms of Ru-catalyzed water oxidation chemistry. Auxiliary ligands have dramatic effects on the water oxidation catalysis in terms of the reactivity and the reaction mechanism. For instance, Ru-bda (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts catalyze Ce-IV-driven water oxidation extremely fast via the radical coupling of two Ru-V=O species, while Ru-pda (H(2)pda = 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarboxylic acid) water oxidation catalysts catalyze the same reaction slowly via water nucleophilic attack on a Ru-V-O species. With a number of active Ru catalysts in hands, light driven water oxidation was accomplished using catalysts with low catalytic onset potentials. The structures of molecular catalysts could be readily tailored to introduce additional functional groups, which favors the fabrication of state-of-the-art Ru-based water oxidation devices, such as electrochemical water oxidation anodes and photo-electrochemical anodes. The development of efficient water oxidation catalysts has led to a step forward in the sustainable energy system.

  • 14.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Gorlov, Mikhail
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Andersson, Samir
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chemical and Photochemical Water Oxidation Catalyzed by Mononuclear Ruthenium Complexes with a Negatively Charged Tridentate Ligand2010In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 16, no 15, p. 4659-4668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two mononuclear ruthenium complexes [RuL(pic)(3)] (1) and [RuL(bpy)(pic)] (2) (H2L = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid, pic=4-picoline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and fully characterized. Both complexes could promote water oxidation chemically and photochemically. Compared with other known ruthenium-based water oxidation catalysts using [Ce(NH4)(2)(NO3)(6)] (Ce-IV) as the oxidant in solution at pH 1.0, complex 1 is one of the most active catalysts yet reported with an initial rate of 0.23 turnovers(-1). Under acidic conditions, the equatorial 4-picoline in complex 1 dissociates first. In addition, ligand exchange in 1 occurs when the Rum state is reached. Based on the above observations and MS measurements of the intermediates during water oxidation by 1 using Ce-IV as oxidant, [RuL(pic)(2)(H2O)](+) is proposed as the real water oxidation catalyst.

  • 15.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Ce-IV- and Light-Driven Water Oxidation by [Ru(terpy)(pic)(3)](2+) Analogues: Catalytic and Mechanistic Studies2011In: CHEMSUSCHEM, ISSN 1864-5631, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 238-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of mononuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes [Ru(Mebimpy)(pic)(3)](PF6)(2) (2; Mebimpy=2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; pic=4-picoline), Ru(bimpy)(pic)(3) (3; H(2)bimpy=2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine), trans-[Ru(terpy)-(pic)(2)Cl](PF6) (4; terpy=2,2';6',2 ''-terpyridine), and trans-[Ru(terpy)(pic)(2)(OH2)](ClO4)(2) (5) are synthesized and characterized as analogues of the known Ru complex, [Ru(terpy)(pic)(3)](PF6)(2) (1). The effect of the ligands on electronic and catalytic properties is studied and discussed. The negatively charged ligand, bimpy(2-), has a remarkable influence on the electrochemical events due to its strong electron-donating ability. The performance in light- and Ce-IV-driven (Ce-IV=Ce(NH4)(2)(NO3)(6)) water oxidation is successfully demonstrated. We propose that ligand exchange between pic and H2O occurs to form the real catalyst, a Ru-aqua complex. The synthesis and testing of trans[Ru(terpy)(pic)(2)(OH2)](ClO4)(2) (5) confirmed our proposal. In addition, complex 5 possesses the best catalytic activity among these five complexes.

  • 16.
    Duan, Lele
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Zhang, Pan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Wang, Mei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Visible Light-Driven Water Oxidation by a Molecular Ruthenium Catalyst in Homogeneous System2010In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discovery of an efficient catalyst bearing low overpotential toward water oxidation is a key step for light-driven water splitting into dioxygen and dihydrogen. A mononuclear ruthenium complex, Ru(II)L(pic)(2) (1) (H2L = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acids pic = 4-picoline), was found capable of oxidizing water eletrochemically at a relatively low potential and promoting light-driven water oxidation using a three-component system composed of a photosensitizer, sacrificial electron acceptor, and complex 1. The detailed electrochemical properties of 1 were studied, and the onset potentials of the electrochemically catalytic curves in pH 7.0 and pH 1.0 solutions are 1.0 and 1.5 V, respectively. The low catalytic potential of 1 under neutral conditions allows the use of [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) and even [Ru(dmbpy)(3)](2+) as a photosensitizer for photochemical water oxidation. Two different sacrificial electron acceptors, [Co(NH3)(5)Cl]Cl-2 and Na2S2O8, were used to generate the oxidized state of ruthenium tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) photosensitizers. In addition, a two-hour photolysis of I in a pH TO phosphate buffer did not lead to obvious degradation, indicating the good photostability of our catalyst. However, under conditions of light-driven water oxidation, the catalyst deactivates quickly. In both solution and the solid state under aerobic conditions, complex 1 gradually decomposed via oxidative degradation of its ligands, and two of the decomposed products, sp(3) C-H bond oxidized Ru complexes, were identified. The capability of oxidizing the sp(3) C-H bond implies the presence of a highly oxidizing Ru species, which might also cause the final degradation of the catalyst.

  • 17.
    Fan, Ting
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Huang, Ping
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    The Ru-tpc Water Oxidation Catalyst and Beyond: Water Nucleophilic Attack Pathway versus Radical Coupling Pathway.2017In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 2956-2966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many Ru water oxidation catalysts have been documented in the literature. However, only a few can catalyze the O-O bond formation via the radical coupling pathway, while most go through the water nucleophilic attack pathway. Understanding the electronic effect on the reaction pathway is of importance in design of active water oxidation catalysts. The Ru-bda (bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate) catalyst is one example that catalyzes the 0-0 bond formation via the radical coupling pathway. Herein, we manipulate the equatorial backbone ligand, change the doubly charged bda(2-) ligand to a singly charged tpc- (2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridine-6-carboxylate) ligand, and study the structure activity relationship. Surprisingly, kinetics measurements revealed that the resulting Ru-tpc catalyst catalyzes water oxidation via the water nucleophilic attack pathway, which is different from the Ru-bda catalyst. The O-O bond formation Gibbs free energy of activation (AGO) at T = 298.15 K was 20.2 +/- 1.7 kcal mol(-1). The electronic structures of a series of Ru-v=O species were studied by density function theory calculations, revealing that the spin density of O-Ru=O of Ru-v=O is largely dependent on the surrounding ligands. Seven coordination configuration significantly enhances the radical character of Ru-v=O.

  • 18.
    Li, Fusheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fan, Ke
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian University of Technology, China.
    Control the O-O bond formation pathways by immobilizing molecular catalysts on glassy carbon via electrochemical polymerizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular water oxidation catalysts Ru-bda (1) and Ru-pda (2) are electrochemically polymerized on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Reaction orders and kinetic isotope effects (KIE) of the corresponding electrodes are studied. Results indicate that poly-1@GC goes through a radical coupling pathway. By adding poly-styrene (PSt) as a “blocking unit” in the poly-1, the radical coupling process of Ru-bda is blocked, and poly-1+PSt@GC catalyzes water oxidation through the water nucleophilic attack pathway. In comparison, catalyst 2, which oxidizes water via water nucleophilic attack path in homogeneous systems, goes through a radical coupling pathway as well when 2 is polymerized on glassy carbon (poly-2@GC).

  • 19.
    Li, Fusheng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fan, Ke
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT), Dalian, China .
    Immobilizing Ru(bda) Catalyst on a Photoanode via Electrochemical Polymerization for Light-Driven Water Splitting2015In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 3786-3790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular water oxidation catalyst 1 was electrochemically polymerized on a dye-sensitized TiO2 electrode and an Fe2O3 nanorod electrode. High photocurrent densities of ca. 1.4 mA cm(-2) for poly-1+RuP@TiO2 and ca. 0.4 mA cm(-2) for poly-1@Fe2O3 were achieved under pH-neutral conditions. A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) study on poly-1+RuP@TiO2 shows that poly-1 catalyzes water oxidation on the surface of TiO2 via a radical coupling mechanism.

  • 20.
    Li, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wen, Fuyu
    Li, Can
    Wang, Mei
    Hagfeld, Anders
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Visible light driven hydrogen production from a photo-active cathode based on a molecular catalyst and organic dye-sensitized p-type nanostructured NiO2012In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 988-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A molecular device with a photocathode for hydrogen generation has been successfully demonstrated, based on an earth abundant and inexpensive p-type semiconductor NiO, an organic dye P1 and a cobalt catalyst Co1.

  • 21.
    Li, Lin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Gorlov, Mikhail
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Hagfeldt, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Physical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    A photoelectrochemical device for visible light driven water splitting by a molecular ruthenium catalyst assembled on dye-sensitized nanostructured TiO22010In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 46, no 39, p. 7307-7309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A photoelectrochemical device with a molecular Ru catalyst assembled via pH-modified Nafion on a dye-sensitized nanostructured TiO2 film as anode and a Pt foil as cathode has been successfully demonstrated to split water into O-2 and H-2 driven by visible light.

  • 22. Nyhlén, Jonas
    et al.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Åkermark, Björn
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Privalov, Timofei
    Evolution of O-2 in a Seven-Coordinate Ru-IV Dimer Complex with a [HOHOH] (-) Bridge: A Computational Study2010In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 1773-1777Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Staehle, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Rau, Sven
    Water oxidation catalyzed by mononuclear ruthenium complexes with a 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylate (bda) ligand: How ligand environment influences the catalytic behavior2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 1307-1319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new water oxidation catalyst [RuIII(bda)(mmi)(OH 2)](CF3SO3) (2, H2bda = 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylic acid; mmi = 1,3- dimethylimidazolium-2-ylidene) containing an axial N-heterocyclic carbene ligand and one aqua ligand was synthesized and fully characterized. The kinetics of catalytic water oxidation by 2 were measured using stopped-flow technique, and key intermediates in the catalytic cycle were probed by density functional theory calculations. While analogous Ru-bda water oxidation catalysts [Ru(bda)L2] (L = pyridyl ligands) are supposed to catalyze water oxidation through a bimolecular coupling pathway, our study points out that 2, surprisingly, undergoes a single-site water nucleophilic attack (acid-base) pathway. The diversion of catalytic mechanisms is mainly ascribed to the different ligand environments, from nonaqua ligands to an aqua ligand. Findings in this work provide some critical proof for our previous hypothesis about how alternation of ancillary ligands of water oxidation catalysts influences their catalytic efficiency.

  • 24.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Privalov, Timofei
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Centre of Molecular Devices, CMD.
    Structural Modifications of Mononuclear Ruthenium Complexes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Kinetics of Ruthenium-Catalyzed Water Oxidation2011In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 445-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small change, big difference: A minor structural modification of water-oxidation catalysts changes the kinetics of O2 evolution from second- to first-order (see scheme). According to DFT calculations, the torsional flexibility of the chelating ligands and their reorganization through the catalytic cycle are implicated in pathway selectivity, and the auxiliary carboxylate group becomes involved in proton-coupled nucleophilic attack.

  • 25.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Inge, A. Ken
    Stockholm University.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Zou, Xiaodong
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Catalytic Water Oxidation by Mononuclear Ru Complexes with an Anionic Ancillary Ligand2013In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 2505-2518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mononuclear Ru-based water oxidation catalysts containing anionic ancillary ligands have shown promising catalytic efficiency and intriguing properties. However, their insolubility in water restricts a detailed mechanism investigation. In order to overcome this disadvantage, complexes [Ru-II(bpc)(bpy)OH2](+) (1(+), bpc = 2,2'-bipyridine-6-carboxylate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru-II(bpc)(pic)(3)](+) (2(+), pic = 4-picoline) were prepared and fully characterized, which features an anionic tridentate ligand and has enough solubility for spectroscopic study in water. Using Ce-IV as an electron acceptor, both complexes are able to catalyze O-2-evolving reaction with an impressive rate constant. On the basis of the electrochemical and kinetic studies, a water nucleophilic attack pathway was proposed as the dominant catalytic cycle of the catalytic water oxidation by 1(+), within which several intermediates were detected by MS. Meanwhile, an auxiliary pathway that is related to the concentration of Ce-IV was also revealed. The effect of anionic ligand regarding catalytic water oxidation was discussed explicitly in comparison with previously reported mononuclear Ru catalysts carrying neutral tridentate ligands, for example, 2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridine (tpy). When 2(+) was oxidized to the trivalent state, one of its picoline ligands dissociated from the Ru center. The rate constant of picoline dissociation was evaluated from time-resolved UV-vis spectra.

  • 26.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wang, Ying
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Xu, Yunhua
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Cheng, Xiao
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Water Oxidation Catalysis: Influence of Anionic Ligands upon the Redox Properties and Catalytic Performance of Mononuclear Ruthenium Complexes2012In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 3388-3398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aiming at highly efficient molecular catalyts for water oxidation, a mononuclear ruthenium complex Ru-II(hqc)(pic)(3) (1; H(2)hqc = 8-hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid and plc = 4-picoline) containing negatively charged carboxylate and phenolate donor groups has been designed and synthesized. As a comparison, two reference complexes, Ru-II(pdc)(pic)(3) (2; H(2)pdc = 2,6-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid) and Ru-II(tpy)(pic)(3) (3; tpy = 2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridine), have also been prepared. All three complexes are fully characterized by NMR, mass spectrometry (MS), and X-ray crystallography. Complex 1 showed a high efficiency toward catalytic water oxidation either driven by chemical oxidant (Ce-IV in a pH 1 solution) with a initial turnover number of 0.32 s(-1), which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of related mononuclear ruthenium catalysts reported in the literature, or driven by visible light in a three-component system with [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) types of photosensitizers. Electrospray ionization MS results revealed that at the Rum state complex 1 undergoes ligand exchange of 4-picoline with water, forming the authentic water oxidation catalyst in situ. Density functional theory (DFT) was ernployed to explain how anionic ligands (hqc and pdc) facilitate the 4-picoline dissociation compared with a neutral ligand (tpy). Electrochemical measurements show that complex 1 has a much lower E(Ru-III/Ru-II) than that of reference complex 2 because of the introduction of a phenolate ligand. DFT was further used to study the influence of anionic ligands upon the redox properties of mononuclear aquaruthenium species, which are postulated to be involved in the catalysis cycle of water oxidation.

  • 27.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Philippe, Bertrand
    Yang, Yi
    Rensmo, Hakan
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Promoting the Water Oxidation Catalysis by Synergistic Interactions between Ni(OH)(2) and Carbon Nanotubes2016In: ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 1614-6832, Vol. 6, no 15, article id 1600516Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Ambre, Ram B.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Quentin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    Sun, Junliang
    Das, Biswanath
    Thapper, Anders
    Uhlig, Jens
    Dinér, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian University of Technology (DUT), China.
    A Nickel (II) PY5 Complex as an Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation2016In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, Vol. 335, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Ni-PY5 [PY5 = 2,6-bis(1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethyl)pyridine)] complex has been found to act as an electrocatalyst for oxidizing water to dioxygen in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions. The rate of water oxidation catalyzed by the Ni-PY5 is remarkably enhanced by the proton acceptor base HPO42−, with rate constant of 1820 M−1 s−1. Controlled potential bulk electrolysis with Ni-PY5 at pH 10.8 under an applied potential of 1.5 V vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) resulted in dioxygen formation with a high faradaic efficiency over 90%. A detailed mechanistic study identifies the water nucleophilic attack pathway for water oxidation catalysis.

  • 29.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Stewart, Beverly
    Pu, Maoping
    Liu, Jianhui
    Privalov, Timofei
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Toward Controlling Water Oxidation Catalysis: Tunable Activity of Ruthenium Complexes with Axial Imidazole/DMSO Ligands2012In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 134, no 45, p. 18868-18880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the combinations of imidazole and dimethyl :sulfoxide (DMSO) as axial ligands and 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate (bda) as the equatorial ligand, we have synthesized six novel ruthenium complexes with noticeably different activity as water oxidation catalysts (WOCs). In four C-s symmetric Ru-II(kappa(3)-bda)(DMSO)L-2 complexes L = imidazole (1), N-methylimidazole (2), 5-methylimidazole (3), and 5-bromo-N-methylimidazole (4). Additionally, in two C-2v symmetric Ru-II(kappa(4)-bda)L-2 complexes L = 5-nitroimidazole (5) and 5-bromo-N-methylimidazole (6), that is, fully equivalent axial imidazoles. A detailed characterization of all complexes and the mechanistic investigation of the catalytic water oxidation have been carried out with a number of experimental techniques, that is, kinetics, electrochemistry and high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We have observed the in situ formation: of a Ru-II-complex with the accessible seventh coordination position. The measured catalytic activities and kinetics of complex 1-6 revealed details about an important structure activity relation: the connection between the nature of axial ligands in the combination and either the increase or decrease of the catalytic activity. In particular, an axial DMSO group substantially increases the turnover frequency of WOCs reported in article, with the ruthenium-complex having one axial 5-bromo-N-methylimidazole and one axial DMSO: (4), we have obtained a high initial turnover frequency of similar to 180 s(-1). DFT modeling Of the binuclear reaction pathway of the O-O bond formation in catalytic Water oxidation further corroborated the concept of the mechanistic significance of the axial ligands and rationalized the experimentally observed difference in the activity of complexes with imidazole/DMSO and imidazole/imidazole combinations of axial ligands.

  • 30.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Visible light-driven water oxidation catalyzed by mononuclear ruthenium complexes2013In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, E-ISSN 1090-2694, Vol. 306, p. 129-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of mononuclear ruthenium water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) [Ru(bda)L-2] (H(2)bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylic acid; L = N-cyclic aromatic ligands) were investigated in three-component light-driven water oxidation systems composed of photosensitizers, a sacrificial electron acceptor, and WOCs. A high turnover number of 579 for water oxidation was achieved in the homogeneous system using complex 4 ([Ru(bda)(4-Br-pyridine)(2)]) as the WOC, and a high quantum efficiency of 17% was found which is a new record for visible light-driven water oxidation in homogeneous systems.

  • 31.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Ying
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Ahlquist, Mårten
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Center on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology (DUT)Dalian, China .
    Highly efficient and robust molecular water oxidation catalysts based on ruthenium complexes2014In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 50, no 85, p. 12947-12950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two monomeric ruthenium molecular catalysts for water oxidation have been prepared, and both of them show high activities in pH 1.0 aqueous solutions, with an initial rate of over 1000 turnover s(-1) by complex 1, and a turnover number of more than 100 000 by complex 2.

  • 32.
    Wang, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fan, Ke
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Philippe, B.
    Rensmo, H.
    Chen, H.
    Sun, J.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Electrochemical driven water oxidation by molecular catalysts in situ polymerized on the surface of graphite carbon electrode2015In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 51, no 37, p. 7883-7886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple strategy to immobilize highly efficient ruthenium based molecular water-oxidation catalysts on the basal-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (BPG) by polymerization has been demonstrated. The electrode 1@BPG has obtained a high initial turnover frequency (TOF) of 10.47 s-1 at ∼700 mV overpotential, and a high turnover number (TON) up to 31600 in 1 h electrolysis.

  • 33. Wang, Lei
    et al.
    Mirmohades, Mohammad
    Brown, Allison
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Quentin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Lomoth, Reiner
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Dalian Univ Technol, DUT KTH Joint Educ & Res Ctr Mol Devices, State Key Lab Fine Chem, Dalian 116024, Peoples R China.
    Hammarstrom, Leif
    Sensitizer-Catalyst Assemblies for Water Oxidation2015In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 2742-2751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two molecular assemblies with one Ru(II)-polypyridine photosensitizer covalently linked to one Ru(II)(bda)L2 catalyst (1) (bda = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate) and two photosensitizers covalently linked to one catalyst (2) have been prepared using a simple C-C bond as the linkage. In the presence of sodium persulfate as a sacrificial electron acceptor, both of them show high activity for catalytic water oxidation driven by visible light, with a turnover number up to 200 for 2. The linked photocatalysts show a lower initial yield for light driven oxygen evolution but a much better photostability compared to the three component system with separate sensitizer, catalyst and acceptor, leading to a much greater turnover number. Photocatalytic experiments and time-resolved spectroscopy were carried out to probe the mechanism of this catalysis. The linked catalyst in its Ru(II) state rapidly quenches the sensitizer, predominantly by energy transfer. However, a higher stability under photocatalytic condition is shown for the linked sensitizer compared to the three component system, which is attributed to kinetic stabilization by rapid photosensitizer regeneration. Strategies for employment of the sensitizer-catalyst molecules in more efficient photocatalytic systems are discussed.

  • 34.
    Wang, Ying
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Wang, Lei
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    Sun, Junliang
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Ahlquist, Mårten S. G.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Theoretical Chemistry and Biology.
    Alkene Epoxidation Catalysts [Ru(pdc)(tpy)] and [Ru(pdc)(pybox)] Revisited: Revealing a Unique Ru-IV=O Structure from a Dimethyl Sulfoxide Coordinating Complex2015In: ACS Catalysis, ISSN 2155-5435, E-ISSN 2155-5435, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 3966-3972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The X-ray crystal structure of a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) coordinating complex [Ru-II(kappa(2)-pdc)(tpy)(DMSO)] (H(2)pdc = 2,6-pyridyl dicarboxylic acid and tpy = 2,2':6',2 ''-terpyridine) led to the discovery of a unique Ru-IV=O configuration for the Ru-pybox (pybox = pyridine-bis(oxazoline) ligands) epoxidation catalyst by theoretical calculations. On the basis of this structure, a detailed theoretical study was conducted on the alkene epoxidation reaction using ruthenium-based epoxidation catalysts. It was found that the process of H2O2 coordination proceeded via an associative path in which one carboxylate detached. The following H2O-elimination step was found to be facilitated by the detached carboxylate group. The resulting Ru-IV=O rearranges to the species trans-2a-oxo, in which one carboxylate group is situated over the tpy ring; the trans-2a-oxo was found to have the lowest activation free energies toward alkene epoxidation. These results demonstrated the importance of the hemilabile properties of the pdc(2-) ligand for the Ru-pdc alkene epoxidation catalysts.

  • 35.
    Xu, Yunhua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Akermark, Torbjorn
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Lee, Bao-Lin
    Zhang, Rong
    Akermark, Bjorn
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Synthesis and Catalytic Water Oxidation Activities of Ruthenium Complexes Containing Neutral Ligands2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 34, p. 9520-9528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two dinuclear and one mononuclear ruthenium complexes containing neutral polypyridyl ligands have been synthesised as pre-water oxidation catalysts and characterised by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS. Their catalytic water oxidation properties in the presence of [Ce(NH(4))(2)(NO(3))(6)] (Ce(IV)) as oxidant at pH 1.0 have been investigated. At low concentrations of Ce(IV) (5 mm), high turnover numbers of up to 4500 have been achieved. An (18)O-labelling experiment established that both O atoms in the evolved O(2) originate from water. Combined electrochemical study and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric analysis suggest that ligand exchange between coordinated 4-picoline and free water produces Ru aquo species as the real water oxidation catalysts.

  • 36.
    Xu, Yunhua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Akermark, Bjorn
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Visible light-driven water oxidation catalyzed by a highly efficient dinuclear ruthenium complex2010In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 46, no 35, p. 6506-6508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visible light-driven water oxidation has been achieved by the dinuclear ruthenium complex 1 with a high turnover number of 1270 in a homogeneous system in the presence of a Ru polypyridine complex photosensitizer.

  • 37.
    Xu, Yunhua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Fischer, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Tong, Lianpeng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Åkermark, Björn
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Chemical and Light-Driven Oxidation of Water Catalyzed by an Efficient Dinuclear Ruthenium Complex2010In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 49, no 47, p. 8934-8937Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Xu, Yunhua
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Åkermark, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Gyollai, Viktor
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Zou, Da-Peng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Zhang, Rong
    Åkermark, Björn
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    A New Dinuclear Ruthenium Complex as an Efficient Water Oxidation Catalyst2009In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 2717-2719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dinuclear ruthenium complex, which acts as a molecular catalyst for water oxidation, has been synthesized and characterized. The electronic and electrochemical properties were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The oxidation potentials of the complex are significantly lowered by introducing a negatively charged carboxylate ligand, in comparison with those of the reported complexes that have neutral ligands. The catalytic activity of the complex toward water oxidation using Ce(NH4)(2)(NO3)(6) as a chemical oxidant was investigated by means of an oxygen electrode and mass spectrometry. The turnover number of this catalyst with Ce-IV as the chemical oxidant was found to be ca. 1700. The mass spectroscopic analysis of the isotopomer distribution in oxygen evolved from O-18-labeled water indicates that O atoms in the evolved oxygen originate from water.

  • 39.
    Zhang, Peili
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Chen, Hong
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Wang, Mei
    Yang, Yong
    Jiang, Jian
    Zhang, Biaobiao
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Duan, Lele
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Daniel, Quentin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Li, Fusheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry. State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, DUT-KTH Joint Education and Research Centre on Molecular Devices, Dalian University of Technology, 116023 Dalian, China .
    Gas-templating of hierarchically structured Ni-Co-P for efficient electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 16, p. 7564-7570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the grand challenges for developing scalable and sustainable hydrogen producing systems is the lack of efficient and robust earth-abundant element based catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, a hierarchically structured Ni-Co-P film was fabricated via a gas templating electro-deposition method. This film exhibits remarkably high catalytic performance for the HER in 1 M KOH with respective current densities of -10 and -500 mA cm(-2) at the overpotentials of -30 and -185 mV with a Tafel slope of 41 mV dec(-1). A controlled potential electrolysis experiment demonstrates that the as-prepared Ni-Co-P film is an efficient and robust catalyst with a faradaic efficiency close to 100%. Systematic characterization suggests that the unique hierarchical structure and the mutual participation of nano-sized Ni/Co based components are responsible for the high HER catalytic activity.

1 - 39 of 39
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