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  • 1. Al-Shammari, R. M.
    et al.
    Alattar, N.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Rodriguez, B. J.
    Rice, J. H.
    Label-free cell membrane detection by Raman spectroscopy using biocompatible gold nanostructure microscale arrays on a ferroelectric template2017In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Al-Shammari, Rusul M.
    et al.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Conway Inst Biomol & Biomed Res, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland..
    Al-Attar, Nebras
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland.;Univ Technol Baghdad, Laser & Optoelect Engn Dept, Baghdad 10066, Iraq..
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Conway Inst Biomol & Biomed Res, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland..
    Rice, James H.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland..
    Single-Molecule Nonresonant Wide-Field Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Ferroelectrically Defined Au Nanoparticle Microarrays2018In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 3165-3172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful spectroscopic technique that is of interest for the sensor development field. An important aspect of optimizing the materials used in SERS-based sensors is the ability to have a high density of "hot spots" that enhance the SERS sensitivity to the single-molecule level. Photodeposition of gold (Au) nanoparticles through electric-field-directed self-assembly on a periodically proton-exchanged lithium niobate (PPELN) substrate provides conditions to form well-ordered microscale features consisting of closely packed Au nanoparticles. The resulting Au nanoparticle microstructure arrays (microarrays) are plasmon-active and support nonresonant single-molecule SERS at ultralow concentrations (<10(-9)-10(-13) M) with excitation power densities <1 x 10(-3) W cm(-2) using wide-field imaging. The microarrays offer excellent SERS reproducibility, with an intensity variation of <7.5% across the substrate. As most biomarkers and molecules do not support resonance enhancement, this work demonstrates that PPELN is a suitable template for high-sensitivity, nonresonant sensing applications.

  • 3. Al-Shammari, Rusul M.
    et al.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rice, James H.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Tunable Wettability of Ferroelectric Lithium Niobate Surfaces: The Role of Engineered Microstructure and Tailored Metallic Nanostructures2017In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 12, p. 6643-6649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important aspect of optimizing micro- and optofluidic devices for lab on -a-chip systems is the ability to engineer materials properties including surface structure and charge to control wettability. Biocompatible ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN), which is well-known for acoustic and nonlinear optical applications, has recently found potential micro- and optofluidic applications. However, the tunable wettability of such substrates has yet to be explored in detail. Here, we show that the contact angle of LN substrates can be reproducibly tailored between similar to 7 degrees and similar to 421 degrees by controlling the surface topography and chemistry at the nano- and micrometer scale via ferroelectric domain and polarization engineering and polarization-directed photoassisted deposition of metallic nanostructures.

  • 4. Assanto, Gaetano
    et al.
    Gallo, Katia
    Optoelectronics Reserach Centre, University of Southampton.
    Spatial simultons in two-dimensional purely nonlinear lattices2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5. Assanto, Gaetano
    et al.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Pasquazi, Alessia
    Stivala, Salvatore
    Spatial Solitons in 2D Lattices of a Nonlinear Nature2008In: Optics and photonics news (Print), ISSN 1047-6938, E-ISSN 1541-3721, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 29-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have observed two-color optical solitons in a 2D parametric photonic lattices (PPLs) with hexagonal symmetry in lithium niobate. PPLs behave as uniform and homogenous dielectrics under weak excitation whereas, at high powers, they allow for the simultaneous quasi-phase-matching of several susceptibility processes. It has been observed that 2D PPLs support novel simulation space dynamics through twin-beam second-harmonic generation. In the symmetric configuration, solitons can form in an enhanced spectral range for confinement, while in the asymmetric cases, they can be steered by varying the input power and wave-length. Quadratic spatial solitons in planar nonlinear lattices unveils new opportunities for physics and also enable applications of self-trapped light beams, including the engineering of solitons states for analog signal processing and all-optical switching/routing in aperiodic lattices and quasi-crystals.

  • 6.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Impact of longitudinal fields on second harmonic generation in lithium niobate nanopillars2016In: APL Photonics, ISSN 2378-0967, Vol. 01, no 06, article id 061302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimized focused ion beam process is used to fabricate micrometer-long LiNbO3 nanopillars with diameters varying between 150 and 325 nm. Polarimetric mappings of second harmonic generation from a wavelength of 850 nm demonstrate the ability to modify the polarization features of the nonlinearresponse through a fine adjustment of the pillar size. The effect is ascribed to the non-negligible contribution of the longitudinal fields associated with sub-wavelength light confinement in the LiNbO3nanopillars. The results also highlight the importance of a fine control over the nanopillar size in order to effectively engineer their nonlinear response.

  • 7.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Mahato, Sunil Kumar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Low-loss ridge waveguides in thin film lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) fabricated by reactive ion etching2016In: Proceedings Advanced Photonics 2016, OSA Publishing , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the fabrication of waveguides in 300 nm-thick Y-cut lithium niobate onsilicon through optimized reactive ion etching, yielding sidewall roughness of 22.9 nm andpropagation losses of 8.62 dB/cm at 1550 nm.

  • 8.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Schollhammer, Jean
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Bragg gratings in thin-film LiNbO3 waveguides2017In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, no 26, p. 32323-32332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We design, fabricate and characterize sidewall corrugated Bragg gratings in a high confinement integrated optics lithium niobate platform, comprising submicrometric photonic wires, tapers and grating couplers to interface off-chip standard telecom optical fibers. We analyze the grating performance as band-rejection filter for TE-polarized signals in the telecom C-band, considering both rectangular and sinusoidal sidewall profiles, and demonstrate record extinction ratios as high as 27 dB and rejection bandwidths as narrow as 3 nm. The results show the potential for an efficient integration of novel photonic functionalities into low-footprint LiNbO3 nonlinear and electro-optical waveguide devices.

  • 9.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Schollhammer, Jean
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Errando-Herranz, Carlos
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gylfason, Kristinn B.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Waveguide Gratings in Thin-Film Lithium Niobate on Insulator2017In: 2017 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS EUROPE & EUROPEAN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE (CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Balobaid, Laila
    et al.
    Carville, N. Craig
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Collins, Liam
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Photoreduction of metal nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 18, p. 182904-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local reactivity on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate (PPE: LN) surfaces is a promising route for the fabrication of regularly spaced nanostructures. Here, using MgO-doped PPE: LN templates, we investigate the influence of the doping on the nanostructure formation as a function of the proton exchange (PE) depth. The deposition is found to occur preferentially along the boundary between MgO-doped LN and the PE region when the PE depth is at least 1.73 mu m, however, for shallower depths, deposition occurs across the entire PE region. The results are found to be consistent with an increased photoconductivity of the MgO-doped LN.

  • 11. Balobaid, Laila
    et al.
    Carville, N. Craig
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Direct shape control of photoreduced nanostructures on proton exchanged ferroelectric templates2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 042908-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoreduction on a periodically proton exchanged ferroelectric crystal leads to the formation of periodic metallic nanostructures on the surface. By varying the depth of the proton exchange (PE) from 0.59 to 3.10 mu m in congruent lithium niobate crystals, the width of the lateral diffusion region formed by protons diffusing under the mask layer can be controlled. The resulting deposition occurs in the PE region with the shallowest PE depth and preferentially in the lateral diffusion region for greater PE depths. PE depth-control provides a route for the fabrication of complex metallic nanostructures with controlled dimensions on chemically patterned ferroelectric templates.

  • 12. Bratfalean, Radu
    et al.
    Gallo, Katia
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton (UK).
    Broderick, Neil
    Peacock, Anna
    Frequency conversion in a nonlinear photonic quasi-crystal2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Bratfalean, Radu
    et al.
    Peacock, Anna
    Broderick, Neil
    Gallo, Katia
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton (UK).
    Lewen, Ruth
    Harmonic generation in a two-dimensional nonlinear quasi-crystal2005In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 424-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second-harmonic generation in a two-dimensional nonlinear quasi-crystal is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. Temperature and wavelength tuning of the crystal reveal the uniformity of the pattern while angle tuning reveals the dense nature of the crystal's Fourier spectrum. These results compare well with theoretical predictions showing the excellent uniformity of the crystal and suggest that more-complicated nonlinear holograms should be possible.

  • 14. Canagasabey, Albert
    et al.
    Ibsen, Morten
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Gladyshev, Alexey V.
    Dianov, Evgeny M.
    Corbari, Costantino
    Kazansky, Peter G.
    Aperiodically poled silica fibers for bandwidth control of quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation2010In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 724-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise control of the bandwidth of quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in silica fibers is realized through chirped-period poling. The bandwidth is expanded by a factor of 33 over a uniform-period poled fiber of the same interaction length.

  • 15. Carville, N. C.
    et al.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Denning, D.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rodriguez, B. J.
    Growth mechanism of photoreduced silver nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate: Time and concentration dependence2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 18, p. 187212-1-187212-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces, which have been chemically patterned using a proton exchange process, has recently been demonstrated. By varying the molar concentration of the AgNO 3 solution and the illumination time, one can determine the initial nucleation sites, control the rate of nucleation and the height of silver nanostructures formed, and study the mechanisms by which these processes occurs. The nanoparticles are found to deposit preferentially in the boundary between ferroelectric and proton exchanged regions, in an area proton exchanged via lateral diffusion under the masking layer used for chemical patterning, consistent with our previous results. Using a short illumination time (3 min), we are able to determine that the initial nucleation of the silver nanostructure, having a width of 0.17 ± 0.02 μm and a height of 1.61 ± 0.98 nm, occurs near the edge of the reactive ion etched area within this lateral diffusion region. Over longer illumination times (15 min), we find that the silver deposition has spread to a width of 1.29 ± 0.06 μm, extending across the entire lateral diffusion region. We report that at a high molar concentration of AgNO3 (10-2 M), the amount of silver deposition for 5 min UV illumination is greater (2.88 ± 0.58 nm) compared to that at low (10-4 M) concentrations (0.78 ± 0.35 nm), however, this is not the case for longer time periods. With increasing illumination time (15 min), experiments at 10-4 M had greater overall deposition, 6.90 ± 1.52 nm, compared to 4.50 ± 0.76 nm at 10 -2 M. For longer exposure times (30 min) at 10-2 M, the nanostructure height is 4.72 ± 0.59 nm, suggesting a saturation in the nanostructure height. The results are discussed in terms of the electric double layer that forms at the crystal surface. There is an order of magnitude difference between the Debye lengths for 10-2 and 10-4 M solutions, i.e., 3.04 vs. 30.40 nm, which suggests the Debye length plays a role in the availability of Ag ions at the surface.

  • 16. Carville, N. Craig
    et al.
    Collins, Liam
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Lukasz, Bart I.
    McKayed, Katey K.
    Simpson, Jeremy C.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Biocompatibility of ferroelectric lithium niobate and the influence of polarization charge on osteoblast proliferation and function2015In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, ISSN 1549-3296, E-ISSN 1552-4965, Vol. 103, no 8, p. 2540-2548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the influence of substrate surface charge on in vitro osteoblast cell proliferation on ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN) crystal surfaces is investigated. LN has a spontaneous polarization along the z-axis and is thus characterized by positive and negative bound polarization charge at the +z and -z surfaces. Biocompatibility of LN was demonstrated via culturing and fluorescence imaging of MC3T3 osteoblast cells for up to 11 days. The cells showed enhanced proliferation rates and improved osteoblast function through mineral formation on the positively and negatively charged LN surfaces compared to electrostatically neutral x-cut LN and a glass cover slip control. These results highlight the potential of LN as a template for investigating the role of charge on cellular processes.

  • 17. Carville, N. Craig
    et al.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Damm, Signe
    Castiella, Marion
    Collins, Liam
    Denning, Denise
    Weber, Stefan
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rice, James
    Rodriguez, Brian
    Photoreduction of SERS-Active Metallic Nanostructures on Chemically Patterned Ferroelectric Crystals2012In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 7373-7380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces is typically based on patterning local surface reactivity via electric field poling. Here, we demonstrate metal deposition onto substrates which have been chemically patterned via proton exchange (i.e., without polarization reversal). The chemical patterning provides the ability to tailor the electrostatic fields near the surface of lithium niobate crystals, and these engineered fields are used to fabricate metallic nanostructures. The effect of the proton exchange process on the piezoelectric and electrostatic properties of the surface is characterized using voltage-modulated atomic force microscopy techniques, which, combined with modeling of the electric fields at the surface of the crystal, reveal that the deposition occurs preferentially along the boundary between ferroelectric and proton-exchanged regions. The metallic nanostructures have been further functionalized with a target probe molecule, 4-aminothiophenol, from which surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal is detected, demonstrating the suitability of chemically patterned ferroelectrics as SERS-active templates.

  • 18. Carville, N. Craig
    et al.
    Neumayer, Sabine M.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Baghban, Mohammad-Amin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Ivanov, Ilia N.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Influence of annealing on the photodeposition of silver on periodically poled lithium niobate2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, no 5, article id 054102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preferential deposition of metal nanoparticles onto periodically poled lithium niobate surfaces, whereby photogenerated electrons accumulate in accordance with local electric fields and reduce metal ions from solution, is known to depend on the intensity and wavelength of the illumination and the concentration of the solution used. Here, it is shown that for identical deposition conditions (wavelength, intensity, concentration), post-poling annealing for 10 h at 200 degrees C modifies the surface reactivity through the reorientation of internal defect fields. Whereas silver nanoparticles deposit preferentially on the +z domains on unannealed crystals, the deposition occurs preferentially along 180 degrees domain walls for annealed crystals. In neither case is the deposition selective; limited deposition occurs also on the unannealed -z domain surface and on both annealed domain surfaces. The observed behavior is attributed to a relaxation of the poling-induced defect frustration mediated by Li+ ion mobility during annealing, which affects the accumulation of electrons, thereby changing the surface reactivity. The evolution of the defect field with temperature is corroborated using Raman spectroscopy.

  • 19. Carville, N. Craig
    et al.
    Neumayer, Sabine M.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticle Arrays Photodeposited on Periodically Proton Exchanged Lithium Niobate2016In: ACS BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, ISSN 2373-9878, Vol. 2, no 8, p. 1351-1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photodeposition of silver nanoparticles onto chemically patterned lithium niobate having alternating lithium niobate and proton exchanged regions has been previously investigated. Here, the spatially defined photodeposition of gold nanoparticles onto periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate is demonstrated. It is shown that the location where the gold nanoparticles form can be tailored by altering the concentration of HAuCl4. This enables the possibility to sequentially deposit gold and silver in different locations to create bimetallic arrays. The cytocompatibility of photodeposited gold, silver, and bimetallic ferroelectric templates to osteoblast-like cells is also investigated. Gold samples provide significantly greater cell biocompatibility than silver samples. These results highlight a potential route for using photodeposited gold on lithium niobate as a template for applications in cellular biosensing.

  • 20. Conforti, M.
    et al.
    Baronio, F.
    Levenius, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Broadband parametric processes in quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals2014In: Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides 2014, Optical Society of America, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a general model, based on a (2+1)D unidirectional pulse propagation equation, for describing broadband noncollinear parametric interactions in two-dimensional quadratic lattices. We apply it to the analysis of twin-beam optical parametric generation in hexagonally poled LiTaO&#60;inf>3&#60;/inf>, gaining further insights into experimental observations.

  • 21. Conforti, Matteo
    et al.
    Baronio, Fabio
    Levenius, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Broadband parametric processes in chi((2)) nonlinear photonic crystals2014In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 3457-3460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a general model, based on a (2 + 1)D unidirectional pulse propagation equation, for describing broadband noncollinear parametric interactions in 2D quadratic lattices. We apply it to the analysis of twin-beam optical parametric generation in hexagonally poled LiTaO3, gaining further insights into experimental observations.

  • 22. Damm, S.
    et al.
    Carville, N. C.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Lopez, S.
    Keyes, T. E.
    Forster, R. J.
    Rodriguez, B. J.
    Rice, J. H.
    Formation of ferroelectrically defined Ag nanoarray patterns2014In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to produce the most effective Ag nanoarrays for plasmon enhanced fluorescence and Raman scattering made using ferroelectric substrates, the optimum conditions for the creation of arrays must be identified. We study here Ag nanopattern arrays formed using ferroelectric lithography based on periodically proton exchanged (PPE) template methods. We examine different conditions in regard to deposition of Ag nanoparticles and analyze the plasmon enhanced signal from the resulting nanoarray. We apply FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging) to assess different Ag nanoarray preparation conditions on fluorescence emission from selected fluorphores. In addition, we apply Raman and luminescence spectroscopy with AFM (atomic force microscopy) to study the plasmon enhancement of luminescence and Raman from the Ag nanoarrays.

  • 23. Damm, S.
    et al.
    Carville, N. C.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rodriguez, B. J.
    Rice, J.
    SERS from Ag and Au nanoarrays made using photochemical patterning2013In: 2013 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe and International Quantum Electronics Conference, CLEO/Europe-IQEC 2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 6801468-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallic nanostructures made from 'coinage' metals such as silver or gold, yield plasmons when light creates a collective oscillation of the conduction electrons on the surface of the metal, creating a greatly enhanced electromagnetic field [1-3]. The specific properties of the plasmonic structures have been found to be greatly dependent on factors such as size, shape, and dielectric environment [1-3]. These properties have been exploited in a variety of plasmonic applications ranging from sensing to enhanced fluorescence [4].

  • 24. Damm, Signe
    et al.
    Carville, N. Craig
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Lopez, Sergio G.
    Keyes, Tia E.
    Forster, Robert J.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Rice, James H.
    Surface enhanced luminescence and Raman scattering from ferroelectrically defined Ag nanopatterned arrays2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 8, p. 083105-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ag nanopatterned arrays prepared using periodically proton exchanged templates have been demonstrated to support surface enhanced luminescence. Fluorescence lifetime imaging reveals that luminescence intensity is greatest on Ag and that the lifetime of the molecular probe is reduced, in line with a surface enhanced luminescence mechanism. Studies establish that the substrate simultaneously supports surface enhanced luminescence and Raman scattering. Spatial dependence along the nanopatterned arrays shows <7% variation in Raman scattering signal intensity, offering high reproducibility for practical applications. Fluorophores emitting near the plasmon absorption maxima are enhanced 4-fold.

  • 25. Damm, Signe
    et al.
    Carville, N. Craig
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Rice, James H.
    Protein assemblies on ferroelectrically patterned microarrays of Ag nanoparticles2017In: Ferroelectrics (Print), ISSN 0015-0193, E-ISSN 1563-5112, Vol. 515, no 1, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano-bio interfaces play a significant role in assay device design and performance, here we study the use of a combined plasmonic and ferroelectric active substrate design for protein assemblies on a plasmon active array. We demonstrate that biotinylation and protein assemblies can bemade onmetal nanoparticles patterned on ferroelectric substrates. These results inturndemonstratethat ferroelectric substrates combined with active plasmonics is potentially applicable as substrates for biological assays.

  • 26. Damm, Signe
    et al.
    Carville, Nigel
    Rodriguez, Brian
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    James, Rice
    Plasmon enhanced Raman from Ag nanopatterns made using periodically poled lithium niobate and periodically proton exchanged template methods2012In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 116, no 50, p. 26543-26550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study Ag nanopattern arrays formed using ferroelectric lithography based on two separate approaches, i.e., periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and periodically proton exchanged (PPE) template methods. We demonstrate that such nanoarrays are plasmon active. Raman spectroscopy was applied to study molecular probe 4-aminothiophenol (4-ABT) absorbed onto a silver nanostructured array. The observed Raman spectra show peaks arising from b2 modes, which occur for plasmon enhanced Raman from 4-ABT in place of a1 modes, which occur in normal Raman scattering. We demonstrate that the PPLN and PPE substrates possess different plasmonic properties with PPE creating a stronger SERS signal relative to PPLN substrates.

  • 27. Folli, V.
    et al.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Conti, C.
    Purely nonlinear disorder-induced localizations and their parametric amplification2013In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 38, no 24, p. 5276-5279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate spatial localization in a quadratic nonlinear medium in the presence of randomness. By means of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses we show that, in the down conversion regime, the transverse random modulation of the nonlinear susceptibility generates localizations of the fundamental wave that grow exponentially in propagation. The localization length is optically controlled by the pump intensity that determines the amplification rate. The results also apply to cubic nonlinearities.

  • 28.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Nonlinear wave dynamics in 2D periodically poled waveguides2009In: 2009 IEEE/LEOS WINTER TOPICALS MEETING SERIES (WTM 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 162-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview of recent results on spatial solitons in purely nonlinear 2D lattices is presented. Theory and experiments highlight new possibilities for multicolour soliton excitation and control via planar nonlinear structures in periodically poled materials.

  • 29.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Spatial Wave Dynamics in 2-D Periodically Poled LiNbO3 Waveguides2009In: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, ISSN 0018-9197, E-ISSN 1558-1713, Vol. 45, no 11, p. 1415-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent results on parametric spatial solitary waves arising from multiple resonances in purely nonlinear 2-D lattices are presented. Theory and experiments highlight new possibilities for light self-confinement and steering via engineered planar nonlinear structures in periodically poled materials.

  • 30.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Assanto, Gaetano
    Spatial solitons in chi(2) planar photonic crystals2007In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 32, no 21, p. 3149-3151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze light self-confinement induced by multiple nonlinear resonances in a two-dimensional 2 photoniccrystal. With reference to second-harmonic generation in a hexagonal lattice, we show that the systemcan not only support two-color (1+1)D solitary waves with enhanced confinement and steering capabilitiesbut also enable novel features such as wavelength-dependent soliton routing.

  • 31.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Recent Developments on the Lithium Niobate Material Platform: The Silicon of Nonlinear Optics?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The talk addresses current challenges and future prospects in combining nanotechnology, ferroelectric domain structuring and integrated optics in LiNbO3 materials to develop small-footprint devices for telecom and quantum optics, and potentially also life-science, applications.

  • 32.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Codemard, Christophe
    Gawith, Corin
    Broderick, Neil
    Smith, Peter
    Nilsson, Johan
    Richardson, David
    Guided-Wave Second Harmonic Generation in Hexagonally Poled RPE:LiNbO32005In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest, 2005, p. 1568014-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Codemard, Christophe
    Gawith, Corin
    Nilsson, Johan
    Smith, Peter
    Broderick, Neil
    Richardson, David
    Guided-wave second-harmonic generation in a LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystal2006In: Optics Letters, ISSN 0146-9592, E-ISSN 1539-4794, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1232-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate twin-beam second-harmonic generation from telecommunications wavelengths in an optimized buried reverse proton exchanged planar waveguide made in 2D hexagonally poled LiNbO3. Experiments carried out with a nanosecond narrow-bandwidth, high-power fiber source thoroughly explored the response of the nonlinear photonic crystal device in terms of its power, wavelength, and angle tunability.

  • 34.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Codemard, Christophe
    Gawith, Corin
    Smith, Peter
    Nilsson, Johan
    Broderick, Neil
    Richardson, David
    Buried slab waveguides in LiNbO3 nonlinear photonic crystals2005In: Proceedings of WFOPC 2005: 4th IEEE/LEOS Workshop on Fibres and Optical Passive Components / [ed] RivaSanseverino, S; Artiglia, M, 2005, p. 36-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an efficient integrated device for SHG at telecom wavelengths in Hexagonally Poled LiNbO3, based on the reverse proton exchange waveguide technology. We discuss its nonlinear response in terms of power, wavelength and angle tunability and use the experimental SHG data to infer also information on the linear properties of the waveguide.

  • 35.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Gawith, C.B.E.
    Wellington, I.T.
    Mailis, Sakellaris
    Eason, Robert
    Smith, Peter
    Richardson, David
    Kostritskii, Sergey
    Ultraviolet writing of channel waveguides in proton-exchanged LiNbO32007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 014110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a direct ultraviolet (UV) writing method for the fabrication of channel waveguides at 1.55 mu m in LiNbO3 through UV irradiation of surface and buried planar waveguides made by annealed proton exchange and reverse proton exchange. A systematic study of the guidance properties as a function of the UV writing conditions is presented.

  • 36.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Gawith, Corin
    Prawiharjo, Jerry
    Broderick, Neil
    Smith, Peter
    Mailis, Sakellaris
    Eason, Robert
    Richardson, David
    UV-written channel waveguides in proton-exchanged Lithium Niobate2004In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO, 2004, p. 557-559Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the direct UV-writing of channel waveguides in annealed proton-exchanged (APE) and reverse proton-exchanged (RPE) layers in LiNbO 3 and demonstrate efficient guiding within single mode channels at telecom wavelengths.

  • 37.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Gawith, Corin
    Smith, Peter
    Bidimensional Hexagonal Poling of LiNbO3 for Nonlinear Photonic Crystals and Quasi-Crystals2006In: Ferroelectrics (Print), ISSN 0015-0193, E-ISSN 1563-5112, Vol. 340, p. 69-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the fabrication of bidimensional arrays of hexagonal domains with strictly periodic and quasi-periodic patterns for the implementation of nonlinear photonic crystals and quasi-crystals in z-cut congruent LiNbO3.

  • 38.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Jeong, Yoonchan
    Taira, Takunori
    Jiang, Shibin
    Ilday, F. Omer
    Focus issue introduction: Advanced Solid-State Lasers (ASSL) 20152016In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 5674-5682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The editors introduce the focus issue on "Advanced Solid-State Lasers (ASSL) 2015", which is based on the topics presented at a congress of the same name held in Berlin, Germany, from October 4 to October 9, 2015. This focus issue, jointly prepared by Optics Express and Optical Materials Express, includes 23 contributed papers (17 for Optics Express and 6 for Optical Materials Express) selected from the voluntary submissions from attendees who presented at the congress and have extended their work into complete research articles. We hope this focus issue offers a good snapshot of a variety of topical discussions held at the congress and will contribute to the further expansion of the associated research areas.

  • 39.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Levenius, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Parametric generation in 2D nonlinear photonic crystals2010In: 4th EPS-QEOD EUROPHOTON CONFERENCE on "Solid-State, Fibre, and Waveguide Coherent Light Sources", 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Levenius, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Twin-beam optical parametric generation in chi((2)) nonlinear photonic crystals2011In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 98, no 16, p. 161113-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate optical parametric generation in two-dimensional purely nonlinear lattices. Experiments performed in hexagonally poled LiTaO3 crystals pumped around 800 nm indicate a coherent contribution to the parametric gain arising from multiple resonances of the lattice, resulting in dual-beam signal outputs in the 1-1.7 mu m range. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3583444]

  • 41.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Levenius, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Twin-beam Optical Parametric Generation in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals2011In: Advanced Solid-State Photonics, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate dual-beam optical parametric generation in hexagonally poled LiTaO3.The experimental results indicate a coherent contribution to the parametric gain arising frommultiple resonances in the nonlinear lattice.

  • 42.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Levenius, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Vermersch, Benoit
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Parametric frequency Downconversion devices in periodically poled Mg-doped stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate2011In: 2010 12th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON 2010, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of our work on nonlinear optical devices in MgO-doped nearly stoichiometric LiTaO3. We present experimental results for optical parametric oscillation and broadband generation obtained with one- and two- dimensional periodically poled structures.

  • 43.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Optical parametric generation in purely nonlinear photonic crystals2011In: International Conference on Transparent Optical Network - ICTON 2011, 2011, p. 5971116-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate twin-beam parametric generation arising from the coherent locking of two resonances of a purely nonlinear lattice, implemented with hexagonally poled LiTaO3. The experiments provide a first example for the novel engineering capabilities affordable in frequency-downconversion with quadratic photonic crystals, to be exploited for novel parametric sources in classical and quantum optics.

  • 44.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Pasquazi, Alessia
    University of Roma Tre.
    Stivala, Salvatore
    Assanto, Gaetano
    Light self-confinement via second harmonic generation in a 2D nonlinear photonic crystal waveguide2007In: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe - Technical Digest, 2007, p. 4386855-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO. Optoelectronics Reserach Centre, University of Southampton.
    Pasquazi, Alessia
    Stivala, Salvatore
    Assanto, Gaetano
    Parametric Solitons in Two-Dimensional Lattices of Purely Nonlinear Origin2008In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 100, p. 053901-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate spatial solitons via twin-beam second-harmonic generation in hexagonal lattices realized by poling lithium niobate planar waveguides. These simultons can be steered by acting on power, direction, and wavelength of the fundamental frequency input.

  • 46.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Pasquazi, Alessia
    University of Roma Tre.
    Stivala, Salvatore
    Assanto, Gaetano
    Quadratic solitons in 2D nonlinear photonic crystals2007In: Quadratic solitons in 2D nonlinear photonic crystals, 2007, p. 4431579-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first observation of spatial solitons in a 2D nonlinear photonic crystal. The experiments were performed in an hexagonally poled LiNbO3 waveguide designed for second harmonic generation from ∼1.55 μm.

  • 47.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Pasquazi, Alessia
    Stivala, Salvatore
    Assanto, Gaetano
    Spatial solitons in quadratic 2D nonlinear photonic crystals2007In: ICTON 2007: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, 2007, p. 170-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the first investigations into parametric solitary-wave formation in 2D nonlinear photonic crystals and present experimental results obtained in an hexagonally poled LiNbO3 waveguide designed for twin-beam second harmonic generation at telecom wavelengths.

  • 48.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Prawiharjo, Jerry
    Broderick, Neil
    Richardson, David
    Proton-exchanged LiNbO3 waveguides for photonic applications2004In: ICTON 2004: 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS, PROCEEDINGS, 2004, p. 277-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk shall provide an overview of the current activity on integrated LiNbO3 devices based on proton-exchange techniques at the ORC. We shall present the technology and the experimental results obtained so far on slab waveguides in 2D Nonlinear Photonic Crystals and on channel waveguides in Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate and discuss perspective applications for all-optical signal processing in ultra-fast fibre telecom systems.

  • 49.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton.
    Prawiharjo, Jerry
    Parmigiani, Francesca
    Almeida, Paulo
    Petropoulos, Periklis
    Richardson, David
    Processing ultrafast optical signals in broadband telecom systems by means of cascaded quadratic nonlinearities2006In: ICTON 2006: 8th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Vol 2, Proceedings: ESPC, NAON / [ed] Marciniak, M, 2006, p. 222-226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quadratic optical nonlinearities offer several attractive features for the implementation of ultra-fast, low-noise and transparent telecom devices. Technological progress has dramatically increased their efficiency, driving a steady move towards practical applications. In this talk we shall discuss the use of cascaded quadratic interactions in LiNbO3 integrated devices for pulse diagnostics, format conversion and signal regeneration in ultra-fast multi-wavelength telecom systems.

  • 50.
    Gallo, Katia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Stensson, Katarina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Levenius, Martin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Swillo, Marcin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Björk, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Conforti, Matteo
    Twin-Beam Parametric Processes in Nonlinear Photonic Crystals2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The talk will briefly introduce the technology and design principles for quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals and provide a few examples of optical functionalities affordable on this platform, with a particular focus on recent developments concerning frequency down-conversion and their implications for the engineering of novel parametric light sources for classical and quantum optics applications.

123 1 - 50 of 116
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