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  • 1.
    Alfredsson, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). STandUP Wind.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. STandUP Wind.
    Wind farms in complex terrains: an introduction2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind energy is one of the fastest growing sources of sustainable energy production. As more wind turbines are coming into operation, the best locations are already becoming occupied by turbines, and wind-farm developers have to look for new and still available areas-locations that may not be ideal such as complex terrain landscapes. In these locations, turbulence and wind shear are higher, and in general wind conditions are harder to predict. Also, the modelling of the wakes behind the turbines is more complicated, which makes energy-yield estimates more uncertain than under ideal conditions. This theme issue includes 10 research papers devoted to various fluid-mechanics aspects of using wind energy in complex terrains and illustrates recent progress and future developments in this important field. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  • 2.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Imayama, Shintaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent boundary layers over flat plates and rotating disks-The legacy of von Karman: A Stockholm perspective2013In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 40, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the findings and ideas of von Karman are still of interest to the fluid dynamics community. For instance, his result that the mean velocity distribution in turbulent flows has a logarithmic behavior with respect to the distance from the centreline is still a cornerstone for everybody working in wall-bounded turbulence and was first presented to an international audience in Stockholm at the Third International Congress for Applied Mechanics in 1930. In this paper we discuss this result and also how the so-called von Karman constant can be determined in a new simple way. We also discuss the possibility of a second (outer) maximum of the streamwise velocity fluctuations, a result that was implicit in some of the assumptions proposed by von Karman.

  • 3.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    A new scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity in wall-bounded turbulent flows and what it tells us about the "outer" peak2011In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 041702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One recent focus of experimental studies of turbulence in high Reynolds number wall-bounded flows has been the scaling of the root mean square of the fluctuating streamwise velocity, but progress has largely been impaired by spatial resolution effects of hot-wire sensors. For the near-wall peak, recent results seem to have clarified the controversy; however, one of the remaining issues in this respect is the emergence of a second (so-called outer) peak at high Reynolds numbers. The present letter introduces a new scaling of the local turbulence intensity profile, based on the diagnostic plot by Alfredsson and Orlu [Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 42, 403 (2010)], which predicts the location and amplitude of the "outer" peak and suggests its presence as a question of sufficiently large scale separation.

  • 4.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new formulation for the streamwise turbulence intensity distribution2011In: 13th European Turbulence Conference (ETC13): Wall-Bounded Flows And Control Of Turbulence, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2011, p. 022002-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical and experimental data from zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers over smooth walls have been analyzed by means of the so called diagnostic plot introduced by Alfredsson & Orlu [Eur. J. Fluid Mech. B/Fluids, 4 2, 403 (2010)]. In the diagnostic plot the local turbulence intensity is shown as a function of the local mean velocity normalized with a reference velocity scale. In the outer region of the boundary layer a universal linear decay of the turbulence intensity is observed independent of Reynolds number. The deviation from this linear region appears in the buffer region and seems to be universal when normalized with the friction velocity. Therefore, a new empirical fit for the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity distribution is proposed and the results are compared with up to date reliable high-Reynolds number experiments and extrapolated towards Reynolds numbers relevant to atmospherical boundary layers.

  • 5.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new formulation for the streamwise turbulence intensity distribution in wall-bounded turbulent flows2012In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 36, p. 167-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity has recently been discussed in several papers both from the viewpoint of new experimental results as well as attempts to model its behavior. In the present paper numerical and experimental data from zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers, channel and pipe flows over smooth walls have been analyzed by means of the so called diagnostic plot introduced by Alfredsson & ÖrlÌ [P.H. Alfredsson, R. ÖrlÌ, The diagnostic plot-a litmus test for wall bounded turbulence data, Eur. J. Mech. B Fluids 29 (2010) 403-406]. In the diagnostic plot the local turbulence intensity is plotted as function of the local mean velocity normalized with a reference velocity scale. Alfredsson et al. [P.H. Alfredsson, A. Segalini, R. ÖrlÌ, A new scaling for the streamwise turbulence intensity in wall-bounded turbulent flows and what it tells us about the outer peak, Phys. Fluids 23 (2011) 041702] observed that in the outer region of the boundary layer a universal linear decay of the turbulence intensity independent of the Reynolds number exists. This approach has been generalized for channel and pipe flows as well, and it has been found that the deviation from the previously established linear region appears at a given wall distance in viscous units (around 120) for all three canonical flows. Based on these results, new empirical fits for the streamwise velocity turbulence intensity distribution of each canonical flow are proposed. Coupled with a mean streamwise velocity profile description the model provides a composite profile for the streamwise variance profile that agrees nicely with existing numerical and experimental data. Extrapolation of the proposed scaling to high Reynolds numbers predicts the emergence of a second peak of the streamwise variance profile that at even higher Reynolds numbers overtakes the inner one.

  • 6. Alveroglu, B.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Garrett, S. J.
    An energy analysis of convective instabilities of the Bödewadt and Ekman boundary layers over rough surfaces2016In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ⋯ An energy balance equation for the three-dimensional Bödewadt and Ekman layers of the so called "BEK family" of rotating boundary-layer flows is derived. A Chebyshev discretization method is used to solve the equations and investigate the effect of surface roughness on the physical mechanisms of transition. All roughness types lead to a stabilization of the Type I (cross-flow) instability mode for both flows, with the exception of azimuthally-anisotropic roughness (radial grooves) within the Bödewadt layer which is destabilizing. In the case of the viscous Type II instability mode, the results predict a destabilization effect of radially-anisotropic roughness (concentric grooves) on both flows, whereas both azimuthally-anisotropic roughness and isotropic roughness have a stabilization effect. The results presented here confirm the results of our prior linear stability analyses. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  • 7. Alveroglu, B.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Garrett, S. J.
    The effect of surface roughness on the convective instability of the BEK family of boundary-layer flows2016In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 56, p. 178-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Chebyshev polynomial discretisation method is used to investigate the effect of both anisotropic (radially and azimuthally) and isotropic surface roughnesses on the convective instability of the BEK family of rotating boundary-layer flows. The mean-flow profiles for the velocity components are obtained by modelling surface roughness with a partial-slip approach. A linear stability analysis is then performed to investigate the effect of roughness on the convective instability characteristics of the inviscid Type I (cross-flow) instability and the viscous Type II instability. It is revealed that all roughness types lead to a stabilisation of the Type I mode in all flows within the BEK family, with the exception of azimuthally-anisotropic roughness (radial grooves) within the Bödewadt layer which causes a mildly destabilising effect. In the case of the Type II mode, the results reveal the destabilising effect of radially-anisotropic roughness (concentric grooves) on all the boundary layers, whereas both azimuthally-anisotropic and isotropic roughnesses have a stabilising effect on the mode for Ekman and von Kármán layers. Complementary results are also presented by considering the effects of roughness on the growth rates of each instability mode within the Ekman layer.

  • 8. Arnqvist, J.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Dellwik, E.
    Bergström, H.
    Wind Statistics from a Forested Landscape2015In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 53-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis and interpretation of measurements from a 138-m tall tower located in a forested landscape is presented. Measurement errors and statistical uncertainties are carefully evaluated to ensure high data quality. A 40 wide wind-direction sector is selected as the most representative for large-scale forest conditions, and from that sector first-, second- and third-order statistics, as well as analyses regarding the characteristic length scale, the flux-profile relationship and surface roughness are presented for a wide range of stability conditions. The results are discussed with focus on the validity of different scaling regimes. Significant wind veer, decay of momentum fluxes and reduction in shear length scales with height are observed for all stability classes, indicating the influence of the limited depth of the boundary layer on the measured profiles. Roughness sublayer characteristics are however not detected in the presented analysis. Dimensionless gradients are shown to follow theoretical curves up to 100 m in stable conditions despite surface-layer approximations being invalid. This is attributed to a balance of momentum decay and reduced shear length scale growth with height. The wind profile shows a strong stability dependence of the aerodynamic roughness length, with a 50 % decrease from neutral to stable conditions.

  • 9. Bailey, S. C. C.
    et al.
    Hultmark, M.
    Monty, J. P.
    Alfredsson, Per Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chong, M. S.
    Duncan, R. D.
    Fransson, Jens
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hutchins, N.
    Marusic, I.
    McKeon, B. J.
    Nagib, H. M.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Smits, A. J.
    Vinuesa, R.
    Obtaining accurate mean velocity measurements in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers using Pitot tubes2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 715, p. 642-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on one component of a larger study on measurement of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent flat plate boundary layer, in which a detailed investigation was conducted of the suite of corrections required for mean velocity measurements performed using Pitot tubes. In particular, the corrections for velocity shear across the tube and for blockage effects which occur when the tube is in close proximity to the wall were investigated using measurements from Pitot tubes of five different diameters, in two different facilities, and at five different Reynolds numbers ranging from Reθ = 11 100 to 67 000. Only small differences were found amongst commonly used corrections for velocity shear, but improvements were found for existing near-wall proximity corrections. Corrections for the nonlinear averaging of the velocity fluctuations were also investigated, and the results compared to hot-wire data taken as part of the same measurement campaign. The streamwise turbulence-intensity correction was found to be of comparable magnitude to that of the shear correction, and found to bring the hot-wire and Pitot results into closer agreement when applied to the data, along with the other corrections discussed and refined here.

  • 10.
    Campagne, Antoine
    et al.
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Chassagne, Rémi
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Micard, Diane
    LMFA, École Centrale de Lyon.
    Mordant, Nicolas
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Sommeria, Joel
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Viboud, Samuel
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Augier, Pierre
    LEGI, Université Grenoble Alpes.
    First report of the MILESTONE experiment: strongly stratified turbulence and mixing efficiency in the Coriolis platform2016In: VIIIth International Symposium on Stratified Flows (ISSF), 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strongly stratified turbulence is a possible interpretation of oceanic and atmospheric mea-surements. However, this regime has never been produced in a laboratory experiment be-cause of the two conditions of very small horizontal Froude number Fh and large buoyancy Reynolds number R which require a verily large experimental facility. We present a new attempt to study strongly stratified turbulence experimentally in the Coriolis platform.The flow is forced by a slow periodic movement of an array of six vertical cylinders of 25 cm diameter with a mesh of 75 cm. Five cameras are used for 3D-2C scanned horizontalparticles image velocimetry (PIV) and stereo 2D vertical PIV. Five density-temperatureprobes are used to measure vertical and horizontal profiles and signals at fixed positions.The first preliminary results indicate that we manage to produce strongly stratified tur-bulence at very small Fh and large R in a laboratory experiment.

  • 11. Castellani, F.
    et al.
    Astolfi, D.
    Mana, M.
    Becchetti, M.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wake losses from averaged and time-resolved power measurements at full scale wind turbines2017In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 854, no 1, article id 012006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with the experimental analysis of wake losses fluctuations at full-scale wind turbines. The test case is a wind farm sited on a moderately complex terrain: 4 turbines are installed, having 2 MW of rated power each. The sources of information are the time-resolved data, as collected from the OPC server, and the 10-minutes averaged SCADA data. The objective is to compare the statistical distributions of wake losses for far and middle wakes, as can be observed through the "fast" lens of time-resolved data, for certain selected test-case time series, and through the "slow" lens of SCADA data, on a much longer time basis that allow to set the standards of the mean wake losses along the wind farm. Further, time-resolved data are used for an insight into the spectral properties of wake fluctuations, highlighting the role of the wind turbine as low-pass filter. Summarizing, the wind rose, the layout of the site and the structure of the data sets at disposal allow to study middle and far wake behavior, with a "slow" and "fast" perspective.

  • 12. Castro, Ian P.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Outer-layer turbulence intensities in smooth- and rough-wall boundary layers2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 727, p. 119-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clear differences in turbulence intensity profiles in smooth, transitional and fully rough zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers are demonstrated, using the diagnostic plot introduced by Alfredsson, Segalini & Orlu (Phys. Fluids, vol. 23, 2011, p. 041702) u'/U versus U/U-e, where u' and U are the local (root mean square) fluctuating and mean velocities and U-e is the free stream velocity. A wide range of published data are considered and all zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers yield outer flow u'/U values that are roughly linearly related to U/U-e, just as for smooth walls, but with a significantly higher slope which is completely independent of the roughness morphology. The difference in slope is due largely to the influence of the roughness parameter (Delta U+ in the usual notation) and all the data can be fitted empirically by using a modified form of the scaling, dependent only on Delta U/U-e. The turbulence intensity, at a location in the outer layer where U/U-e is fixed, rises monotonically with increasing Delta U/U-e which, however, remains of O(1) for all possible zero-pressure-gradient rough-wall boundary layers even at the highest Reynolds numbers. A measurement of intensity at a point in the outer region of the boundary layer can provide an indication of whether the surface is aerodynamically fully rough, without having to determine the surface stress or effective roughness height. Discussion of the implication for smooth/rough flow universality of differences in outer-layer mean velocity wake strength is included.

  • 13. Chougule, A.
    et al.
    Mann, J.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Dellwik, E.
    Spectral tensor parameters for wind turbine load modeling from forested and agricultural landscapes2015In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 469-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A velocity spectral tensor model was evaluated from the single-point measurements of wind speed. The model contains three parameters representing the dissipation rate of specific turbulent kinetic energy, a turbulence length scale and the turbulence anisotropy. Sonic anemometer measurements taken over a forested and an agricultural landscape were used to calculate the model parameters for neutral, slightly stable and slightly unstable atmospheric conditions for a selected wind speed interval. The dissipation rate above the forest was nine times that at the agricultural site. No significant differences were observed in the turbulence length scales between the forested and agricultural areas. Only a small difference was observed in the turbulence anisotropy at the two sites, except near the surface, where the forest turbulence was more isotropic. The turbulence anisotropy remained more or less constant with height at the forest site, whereas the turbulence became more isotropic with height for the agricultural site. Using the three parameters as inputs, we quantified the performance of the model in coherence predictions for vertical separations. The model coherence of all the three velocity components was overestimated for the analyzed stability classes at both sites. As expected from the model approximations, the model performed better at both sites for neutral stability than slightly stable and unstable conditions. The model prediction of coherence of the along-wind and vertical components was better than that of the cross-wind component. No significant difference was found between the performance of the model at the forested and the agricultural areas.

  • 14. Ebenhoch, Raphael
    et al.
    Muro, Blas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Dahlberg, Jan-Åke
    Berkesten Hägglund, Patrik
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A linearized numerical model of wind-farm flows2017In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 859-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast and reasonably accurate numerical three-dimensional wake model able to predict the flow behaviour of a wind farm over a flat terrain has been developed. The model is based on the boundary-layer approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations, linearized around the incoming atmospheric boundary layer, with the assumption that the wind turbines provide a small perturbation to the velocity field. The linearization of the actuator-disc theory brought additional insights that could be used to understand the behaviour, as well as the limitations, of a flow model based on linear methods: for instance, it is shown that an adjustment of the turbine's thrust coefficient is necessary in order to obtain the same wake velocity field provided by the actuator disc theory within the used linear framework. The model is here validated against two independent wind-tunnel campaigns with a small and a large wind farm aimed at the characterization of the flow above and upstream of the farms, respectively. The developed model is, in contrary to current engineering wake models, able to account for effects occurring in the upstream flow region, thereby including more physical mechanisms than other simplified approaches. The conducted simulations (in agreement with the measurement results) show that the presence of a wind farm affects the approaching flow far more upstream than generally expected and definitely beyond the current industrial standards. Despite the model assumptions, several velocity statistics above wind farms have been properly estimated providing an insight into the transfer of momentum inside the turbine rows.

  • 15. Fiorini, T.
    et al.
    Bellani, G.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Talamelli, A.
    Turbulent pipe flow near-wall statistics2017In: Progress in Turbulence VII: Proceedings of the iTi Conference in Turbulence 2016, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2017, Vol. 196, p. 89-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from the first experimental campaign in the Long Pipe facility of the CICLoPE laboratory are reported. Single hot-wire profile measurements are presented, taken from the wall up to one third of the pipe radius, with the friction Reynolds number Reτ ranging from 6.5 × 103 up to 3.8 × 104 . Measurements of the pressure drop along the pipe are presented together with an estimation of its uncertainty. Mean and variance of the streamwise velocity fluctuations are examined and compared with the findings from other facilities. The amplitude of the inner-scaled near-wall peak of the variance, after being corrected for spatial resolution effects, shows an increasing trend with Reynolds number, in accordance with low Reynolds number experiments and simulations.

  • 16. Garrett, S. J.
    et al.
    Cooper, A. J.
    Harris, J. H.
    Özkan, M.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Thomas, P. J.
    On the stability of von Kármán rotating-disk boundary layers with radial anisotropic surface roughness2016In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 28, no 1, article id 014104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We summarise results of a theoretical study investigating the distinct convective instability properties of steady boundary-layer flow over rough rotating disks. A generic roughness pattern of concentric circles with sinusoidal surface undulations in the radial direction is considered. The goal is to compare predictions obtained by means of two alternative, and fundamentally different, modelling approaches for surface roughness for the first time. The motivating rationale is to identify commonalities and isolate results that might potentially represent artefacts associated with the particular methodologies underlying one of the two modelling approaches. The most significant result of practical relevance obtained is that both approaches predict overall stabilising effects on type I instability mode of rotating disk flow. This mode leads to transition of the rotating-disk boundary layer and, more generally, the transition of boundary-layers with a cross-flow profile. Stabilisation of the type 1 mode means that it may be possible to exploit surface roughness for laminar-flow control in boundary layers with a cross-flow component. However, we also find differences between the two sets of model predictions, some subtle and some substantial. These will represent criteria for establishing which of the two alternative approaches is more suitable to correctly describe experimental data when these become available. © 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 17.
    Hyvärinen, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lacagnina, Giovanni
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A wind-tunnel study of the wake development behind wind turbines over sinusoidal hills2018In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 605-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the wake development behind small-scale wind turbines is studied when introducing local topography variations consisting of a series of sinusoidal hills. Additionally, wind-tunnel tests with homogeneous and sheared turbulent inflows were performed to understand how shear and ambient turbulence influence the results. The scale of the wind-turbine models was about 1000times smaller than full-size turbines, suggesting that the present results should only be qualitatively extrapolated to real-field scenarios. Wind-tunnel measurements were made by means of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry to characterize the flow velocity in planes perpendicular to the flow direction. Over flat terrain, the wind-turbine wake was seen to slowly approach the ground while it propagated downstream. When introducing hilly terrain, the downward wake deflection was enhanced in response to flow variations induced by the hills, and the turbulent kinetic energy content in the wake increased because of the speed-up seen over the hills. The combined wake observed behind 2 streamwise aligned turbines was more diffused and when introducing hills, it was more prone to deflect towards the ground compared to the wake behind an isolated turbine. Since wake interactions are common at sites with multiple turbines, this suggested that it is important to consider the local hill-induced velocity variations when onshore wind farms are analysed. Differences in the flow fields were seen when introducing either homogeneous or sheared turbulent inflow conditions, emphasizing the importance of accounting for the prevailing turbulence conditions at a given wind-farm site to accurately capture the downstream wake development.

  • 18.
    Laurantzon, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segaline, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Reifarth, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vortex shedding flow meters: accuracy assessment and extension towards industrial configurationsArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Laurantzon, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Centre for Internal Cumbustion Engine Research Opus, CICERO.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Centre for Internal Cumbustion Engine Research Opus, CICERO.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Centre for Internal Cumbustion Engine Research Opus, CICERO.
    Time-resolved measurements with a vortex flowmeter in a pulsating turbulent flow using wavelet analysis2010In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 123001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vortex flowmeters are commonly employed in technical applications and are obtainable in a variety of commercially available types. However their robustness and accuracy can easily be impaired by environmental conditions, such as inflow disturbances and/or pulsating conditions. Various post-processing techniques of the vortex signal have been used, but all of these methods are so far targeted on obtaining an improved estimate of the time-averaged bulk velocity. Here, on the other hand, we propose, based on wavelet analysis, a straightforward way to utilize the signal from a vortex shedder to extract the time-resolved and thereby the phase-averaged velocity under pulsatile flow conditions. The method was verified with hot-wire and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements.

  • 20.
    Laurantzon, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Tillmark, Nils
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Experimental analysis of turbocharger interaction with a pulsatile flow through time-resolved flow measurements upstream and downstream of the turbine2012In: Institution of Mechanical Engineers - 10th International Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, 2012, p. 405-415Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inflow to and outflow from turbochargers are highly complex and, in particular, pulsating. Nevertheless, most studies of turbocharger performance are conducted under steady conditions. Hence, there is a great interest in determining and understanding turbocharger performance maps under pulsatile conditions. The highly complex flow field constitutes a challenge for time-resolved flow measurements by means of conventional measurement techniques. In a recent paper by Laurantzon et al [Meas. Sci. Technol. 20 123001 (2010)], time-resolved bulk flow measurements under pulsatile conditions have been obtained via wavelet analysis of the signal from a vortex flow meter. Here, this method has been used in order to obtain time-resolved performance maps based on the mass flow both upstream and down-stream of the turbine. The results show that the turbine has a large damping effect on the mass flow pulsations, but that the pulse shape is to a high degree preserved while passing through the turbine, and that the time-dependent filling and emptying of the turbine case make the quasi-steady assumption invalid, if the whole turbine stage is considered.

  • 21. Medici, D.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Dellwik, E.
    On the determination of stability conditions over forested areas from velocity measurements2014In: European Wind Energy Association Conference and Exhibition 2014, European Wind Energy Association, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two proxies able to determine the sign of the atmospheric stability in the absence of temperature measurements were investigated using data from four forested sites in Sweden. The results indicate that the simple proxy based on the time of the day when the measurement was taken was sufficient to identify approximately 75% of the stable occurrences. However, also during daytime, stable stratification was not infrequent. A criterion based on a combination of the local turbulence intensity and shear exponent was therefore also investigated, and the combination of the two criteria was able to estimate approximately 90% of the overall stable data. When selecting data with mean wind speeds over 5 m/s at 80 m height, the presented data sets include mostly data where temperature effects are small (near-neutral), followed by stable data. Only few occurrences of unstable conditions were anyway observed. The investigated data sets show large variation of shear and turbulence intensity with increasing stability, indicating the need for proxies that also can be used to characterize the degree of atmospheric stability.

  • 22. Nakamura, T.
    et al.
    Fukagata, K.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Effects of a forest clearing: An experimental and numerical assessment2013In: International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2013, TSFP-8 , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow above a forest model with and without the presence of a clearing is investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel facility by means of Particle Image Velocimetry. The results have been analyzed in terms of basic velocity statistics and vertical integral length scale and a comparison of the two geometries is presented. In order to improve the current flow understanding and to complement the experimental results, Large Eddy Simulations of the same flows under similar operating conditions are planned. The experimental results indicate that the clearing is associated to a velocity defect in the mean velocity profile associated with a significant vertical momentum flux. The turbulence is redistributed amongst the various velocity components so that the streamwise velocity variance is reduced while the vertical velocity variance is enhanced. From the clearing windward edge the turbulence mixing contributes to the decrease of the vertical correlation length that increases again after the clearing trailing edge.

  • 23.
    Odemark, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Effect of forest turbulence on wind turbine outputsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Odemark, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The effects of a model forest canopy on the outputs of a wind turbine model2014In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 555, no 1, article id 012079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a rough surface boundary layer on the outputs of a wind turbine model were investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The very rough surface consisted of cylindrical pins, in order to model a forest canopy. The hub height of the turbine model was varied in order to see the effect of the presence of the model forest in the power and thrust coefficients. A small effect of the hub height was observed in the averaged power coefficient, where the turbine produced less for the lowest hub height. The difference was however reduced when scaling the power output with the available power in the wind instead of using the velocity at hub height. Consistent trends were present in the standard deviation of the thrust coefficient and the rotational speed, which both increased by decreasing the hub height. This underlines the fact that not only the rotor but also the tower and the bearings of a wind turbine must withstand to increased loads when operating close to a canopy.

  • 25.
    Rajput, Moeen S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Hallström, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures. Odqvist Laboratory, KTH.
    Design and evaluation of a novel instrumented drop-weight rig for controlled impact testing of polymer composites2018In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 68, p. 446-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A drop-weight rig (DWR) intended to test the true impact response of laminated compositematerials is presented. The test setup is designed to prevent the transfer of unwanted mechanical noise, e.g. vibrations, into the load cell that is used to measure the load during the impact event. A novel catch mechanism preventing secondary impact is also implemented in the DWR design. A detailed evaluation is performed both in terms of the experimental modal and uncertainty analysis of the measured results from the DWR. The results demonstrate that the rig is capable of capturing the true impact response, providing highly resolved and noise-free force-time measurements where even subtle details of the impact event are visible. The rig also enables impact testing with good repeatability.

  • 26.
    Sarmast, Sasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Mikkelsen, Robert F.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Comparison of the near-wake between actuator-line simulations and a simplified vortex model of a horizontal-axis wind turbine2016In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 471-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow around an isolated horizontal-axis wind turbine is estimated by means of a new vortex code based on the Biot-Savart law with constant circulation along the blades. The results have been compared with numerical simulations where the wind turbine blades are replaced with actuator lines. Two different wind turbines have been simulated: one with constant circulation along the blades, to replicate the vortex method approximations, and the other with a realistic circulation distribution, to compare the outcomes of the vortex model with real operative wind-turbine conditions (Tjaereborg wind turbine). The vortex model matched the numerical simulation of the turbine with constant blade circulation in terms of the near-wake structure and local forces along the blade. The results from the Tjaereborg turbine case showed some discrepancies between the two approaches, but overall, the agreement is qualitatively good, validating the analytical method for more general conditions. The present results show that a simple vortex code is able to provide an estimation of the flow around the wind turbine similar to the actuator-line approach but with a negligible computational effort.

  • 27.
    Sarmast, Sasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mikkelsen, Robert F.
    DTU wind energy.
    Ivanell, Stehan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A comparison between a simplified vortex model and actuator line simulations of a horizontal axis wind turbineManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Experimental and analytical investigation of forest clearings2016In: Springer Proceedings in Physics, Springer, 2016, Vol. 185, p. 339-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical model of forest clearings is proposed based on the linearised Euler equations. The forest is replaced by distributed body forces that decrease the flow momentum entrained inside the canopy. The model is compared with available wind-tunnel measurements of clearings areas. It is observed that the model deviates from themeasurements over the forest surface, but the performance improve over the clearing surface, probably associated to an incorrect evaluation of the forest intensity. The proposed model suggests that the clearing is associated to an internal boundary layer with intensity function of the clearing length.

  • 29.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Linearized simulation of flow over wind farms and complex terrains2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2091, article id 20160099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow over complex terrains and wind farms is estimated here by numerically solving the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The equations are linearized around the unperturbed incoming wind profile, here assumed logarithmic. The Boussinesq approximation is used to model the Reynolds stress with a prescribed turbulent eddy viscosity profile. Without requiring the boundary-layer approximation, two new linear equations are obtained for the vertical velocity and the wall-normal vorticity, with a reduction in the computational cost by a factor of 8 when compared with a primitive-variables formulation. The presence of terrain elevation is introduced as a vertical coordinate shift, while forestry or wind turbines are included as body forces, without any assumption about the wake structure for the turbines. The model is first validated against some available experiments and simulations, and then a simulation of a wind farm over a Gaussian hill is performed. The speed-up effect of the hill is clearly beneficial in terms of the available momentum upstream of the crest, while downstream of it the opposite can be said as the turbines face a decreased wind speed. Also, the presence of the hill introduces an additional spanwise velocity component that may also affect the turbines' operations. The linear superposition of the flow over the hill and the flow over the farm alone provided a first estimation of the wind speed along the farm, with discrepancies of the same order of magnitude for the spanwise velocity. Finally, the possibility of using a parabolic set of equations to obtain the turbulent kinetic energy after the linearized model is investigated with promising results. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  • 30.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A simplified vortex model of propeller and wind-turbine wakes2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 725, p. 91-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new vortex model of inviscid propeller and wind-turbine wakes is proposed based on an asymptotic expansion of the Biot-Savart induction law to account for the finite vortex core size. The circulation along the blade is assumed to be constant from the blade root to the tip approximating a turbine with maximum power production for given operating conditions. The model iteratively calculates the tip-vortex path, allowing the wake to expand/contract freely, and is afterward able to evaluate the velocity field in the whole domain. The 'roller-bearing analogy', proposed by Okulov and Sorensen (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 649, 2010, pp. 497-508), is used to determine the vortex core size. A comparison of the main outcomes of the present model with the general momentum theory is performed in terms of the operating parameters (namely the number of blades, the tip-speed ratio, the blade circulation and the vortex core size), demonstrating good agreement between the two. Furthermore, experimental data have been compared with the model outputs to validate the model under real operating conditions.

  • 31.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Techniques for the Eduction of Coherent Structures from Flow Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer2012In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 143, no 3, p. 433-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two empirical methods to detect coherent motions embedded in the flow field have been compared, namely the variable interval time average (VITA) method and a wavelet-based technique, both with artificial signals as well as velocity measurements from the atmospheric boundary layer over a forest canopy. It has been found that the wavelet method is slightly better than the VITA approach in coherent structure eduction, even if the results of both techniques are comparable. Also the application of the present approach to simultaneous conditionally sampled wind data has highlighted some important features of coherent structures and gust generation in canopy flows.

  • 32.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Arnqvist, J.
    Carlén, I.
    Bergström, H.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A spectral model of stably stratified surface-layer turbulence2015In: Wake Conference  2015, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2015, Vol. 625, article id 012003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model to determine the spectral velocity tensor in a stably stratified flow is proposed. This model is complementary to the Mann model as it solves the stratified inviscid Rapid Distortion Theory equations analytically, allowing for the determination of the single and two-point velocity spectra as well as the temperature-velocity cross-spectra. The model has been here calibrated and validated against field measurements conducted over a forested area with measurements up to 140 m, therefore covering a region of interest for wind-energy applications.

  • 33.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Arnqvist, Johan
    A spectral model for stably stratified turbulence2015In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 781, p. 330-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solution of the inviscid rapid distortion equations for a stratified flow with homogeneous shear is proposed, extending the work of Hanazaki & Hunt (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 507, 2004, pp. 1-42) to the two horizontal velocity components. The analytical solution allows for the determination of the spectral tensor evolution at any given time starting from a known initial condition. By following the same approach as that adopted by Mann (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 273, 1994, pp. 141-168), a model for the spectral velocity tensor in the atmospheric boundary layer is obtained, where the spectral tensor, assumed to be isotropic at the initial time, evolves until the breakup time where the spectral tensor is supposed to achieve its final state observed in the boundary layer. The model predictions are compared with atmospheric measurements obtained over a forested area, giving the opportunity to calibrate the model parameters, and further validation is provided by additional low-roughness data. Characteristic values of the model coefficients and their dependence on the Richardson number are proposed and discussed.

  • 34.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bellani, Gabriele
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Variano, Evan A.
    Corrections for one- and two-point statistics measured with coarse-resolution particle image velocimetry2014In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 1739-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical model to determine the effect of the size of the interrogation window in particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent flows is presented. The error introduced by the window size in two-point velocity statistics, including velocity autocovariance and structure functions, is derived for flows that are homogeneous within a 2D plane or 3D volume. This error model is more general than those previously discussed in the literature and provides a more direct method of correcting biases in experimental data. Within this model framework, simple polynomial approximations are proposed to provide a quick estimation of the effect of the averaging on these statistics. The error model and its polynomial approximation are validated using statistics of homogeneous isotropic turbulence obtained in a physical experiment and in a direct numerical simulation. The results demonstrate that the present formulation is able to correctly estimate the turbulence statistics, even in the case of strong smoothing due to a large interrogation window. We discuss how to use these results to correct experimental data and to aid the comparison of numerical results with laboratory data.

  • 35.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Castellani, F.
    Wind-farm simulation over moderately complex terrain2017In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 854, no 1, article id 012042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between three independent software to estimate the power production and the flow field in a wind farm is conducted, validating them against SCADA (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition) data. The three software were ORFEUS, WindSim and WAsP: ORFEUS and WAsP are linearised solvers, while WindSim is fully nonlinear. A wake model (namely a prescribed velocity deficit associated to the turbines) is used by WAsP, while ORFEUS and WindSim use the actuator-disc method to account for the turbines presence. The comparison indicates that ORFEUS and WAsP perform slightly better than WindSim in the assessment of the polar efficiency. The wakes simulated with ORFEUS appear more persistent than the ones of WindSim, which uses a two-equation closure model for the turbulence effects.

  • 36.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    An experimental analysis of canopy flows2011In: 13th European Turbulence Conference, ETC13: Geophysical and Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2011, Vol. 318, article id 072018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of forest canopy flows with a wind tunnel model at high Reynoldsnumber is presented and discussed. Measured mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles agreewith observations made in real canopies with no sensible Reynolds number dependence, addingconfidence to the results obtained with the present setup. The analysis of power densityspectra of the three velocity components and of the shear stress co-spectra is reported withnew coordinate scalings able to improve the collapse of the spectra compared to standardnormalizations. This scaling is mostly based on the respective integral time scale and a simple fitis proposed to estimate such a quantity in real canopies. From the analysis of joint probabilitydensity functions, three different regions have been localized where a change in the coherentstructure behavior is supposed to take place, similarly to what happens in rough wall turbulentboundary layers.

  • 37.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Scaling Laws in Canopy Flows: A Wind-Tunnel Analysis2013In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 269-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis of velocity statistics and spectra measured above a wind-tunnel forest model is reported. Several measurement stations downstream of the forest edge have been investigated and it is observed that, while the mean velocity profile adjusts quickly to the new canopy boundary condition, the turbulence lags behind and shows a continuous penetration towards the free stream along the canopy model. The statistical profiles illustrate this growth and do not collapse when plotted as a function of the vertical coordinate. However, when the statistics are plotted as function of the local mean velocity (normalized with a characteristic velocity scale), they do collapse, independently of the streamwise position and freestream velocity. A new scaling for the spectra of all three velocity components is proposed based on the velocity variance and integral time scale. This normalization improves the collapse of the spectra compared to existing scalings adopted in atmospheric measurements, and allows the determination of a universal function that provides the velocity spectrum. Furthermore, a comparison of the proposed scaling laws for two different canopy densities is shown, demonstrating that the vertical velocity variance is the most sensible statistical quantity to the characteristics of the canopy roughness.

  • 38.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent Structures in Canopy Flows2014In: WIND ENERGY: IMPACT OF TURBULENCE, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 85-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wind-tunnel experiment has been performed by means of a new forest canopy model. Hot-wire anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry have been used to describe the flow from the statistical point of view together with a conditional sampling approach based on the Variable Interval Time Average method. The analysis demonstrated qualitative agreement between both measurement techniques, regardless of the canopy density that affects the structure intensity but not its topology.

  • 39.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Dahlberg, J.-Å.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Gust structure and generation in canopy flows2011In: Proceedings of Wake Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Garrett, Stephen J.
    On the non-parallel instability of the rotating-sphere boundary layer2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 818, p. 288-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a new solution for the steady boundary-layer flow over the rotating sphere that also accounts for the eruption of the boundary layer at the equator and other higher-order viscous effects. Non-parallel corrections to the local type I and type II convective instability modes of this flow are also computed as a function of spin rate. Our instability results are associated with the previously observed spiral vortices and remarkable agreement between our predictions of the number of vortices and experimental observations is found. Vortices travelling at 70 %-80 % of the local surface speed are found to be the most amplified for sufficient spin rates, also consistent with prior experimental observations.

  • 41.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Inghels, Pieter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Confinement effects in wind-turbine and propeller measurements2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 756, p. 110-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model to account for the presence of the test-section wall in wind-turbine or propeller measurements is proposed. The test section, here assumed to be cylindrical, is modelled by means of axisymmetric source panels, while the wind turbine (or the propeller) is modelled with a simplified vortex model (Segalini & Alfredsson, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 725, 2013, pp. 91-116). Combining both models in an iterative scheme allows the simulation of the effect of the test-section wall on the flow field around the rotor. Based on this novel approach, an analysis of the flow modification due to blockage is conducted together with a comparison of actuator-disk theory results. Glauert's concept of equivalent unconfined turbine is reviewed and extended to account for the angular velocity of the rotor. It is shown that Glauert's equivalent free-stream velocity concept is beneficial and can correct most of the systematic error introduced by the presence of the test-section wall, although some discrepancies remain, especially in the power coefficient. The effect of the confinement on the wake structure is also discussed in terms of wake expansion/contraction, pitch of the tip vortices and forces at the rotor.

  • 42.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Nakamura, T.
    Fukagata, K.
    A Linearized k-ϵ Model of Forest Canopies and Clearings2016In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 161, no 3, p. 439-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A linearized analysis of the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations is proposed where the (Formula presented.) turbulence model is used. The flow near the forest is obtained as the superposition of the undisturbed incoming boundary layer plus a velocity perturbation due to the forest presence, similar to the approach proposed by Belcher et al. (J Fluid Mech 488:369–398, 2003). The linearized model has been compared against several non-linear RANS simulations with many leaf-area index values and large-eddy simulations using two different values of leaf-area index. All the simulations have been performed for a homogeneous forest and for four different clearing configurations. Despite the model approximations, the mean velocity and the Reynolds stress (Formula presented.) have been reasonably reproduced by the first-order model, providing insight about how the clearing perturbs the boundary layer over forested areas. However, significant departures from the linear predictions are observed in the turbulent kinetic energy and velocity variances. A second-order correction, which partly accounts for some non-linearities, is therefore proposed to improve the estimate of the turbulent kinetic energy and velocity variances. The results suggest that only a region close to the canopy top is significantly affected by the forest drag and dominated by the non-linearities, while above three canopy heights from the ground only small effects are visible and both the linearized model and the simulations have the same trends there.

  • 43.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of Bologna, Italy.
    Rüedi, J. -D
    Monkewitz, P. A.
    Systematic errors of skin-friction measurements by oil-film interferometry2015In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 773, p. 298-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the independent measurement of wall shear stress with oil-film or oil-drop interferometry has become a cornerstone of turbulent-boundary-layer research as many arguments depend critically on a precise knowledge of the skin friction τ<inf>w</inf>∗. To our knowledge, all practitioners of oil-drop interferometry have so far used the leading-order similarity solution for asymptotically thin, wedge-shaped, two-dimensional oil films established by Tanner & Blows (J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum., vol. 9, 1976, pp. 194-202) to relate the evolution of drop thickness to τ<inf>w</inf>∗. It is generally believed that this procedure, if carefully implemented, yields the true time-averaged τ<inf>w</inf>∗ within ±1% or possibly better, but the systematic errors due to the finite thickness of the oil film have never been determined. They are analysed here for oil films with a thickness of the order of a viscous unit in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer. Neglecting spanwise surface curvature and surface tension effects, corrections due to the secondary air boundary layer above the oil film are derived with a linearised triple-layer approach that accounts for the turbulent shear-stress perturbation by means of modified van-Driest-type closure models. In addition, the correction due to processing oil drops with a slight streamwise surface curvature as if they were exact wedges is quantified. Both corrections are evaluated for oil-drop interferograms acquired in a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer at a Reynolds number of around 3500, based on displacement thickness, and are shown to produce a reduction of the friction velocity relative to the basic Tanner and Blows theory of between -0.1% and -1.5%, depending on the mixing-length model. Despite the uncertainty about the true correction, the analysis allows the formulation of some guidelines on where and when to analyse interference fringes in order to minimise the error on the measured wall shear stress.

  • 44.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Talamelli, A.
    Experimental analysis of dominant instabilities in coaxial jets2011In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 024103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental analysis of the dominant instabilities in the near field of two coaxial jets is presented and discussed. Different inner/outer jet velocity pairs (U-i, U-o) have been tested in order to investigate the effect of both velocity ratio r(u) = U-o/U-i and Reynolds number. Three main instabilities have emerged depending on the velocity ratio. For r(u) < 0.75, the coaxial jets dynamic is driven by the inner shear layer. For r(u) > 1.6, the outer shear layer dominates the near field vortex dynamics while for r(u) nearly unitary, the vortex shedding behind the separating wall imposes its own dynamics. A new scaling relationship is proposed to improve the estimation of the shedding frequency with respect to the one found in literature.

  • 45.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Experimental study on the use of the wake instability as a passive control in coaxial jet flows2010In: Seventh IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, 2010, p. 361-366Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper verifies experimentally the theoretical result by Talamelli and Gavarini (Flow, Turbul. & Combust., 2006), who proposed that the wake behind the separation wall between the two streams of a coaxial jet creates the condition for an absolute instability. This absolute instability, by means of the induced vortex shedding, provides a continuous forcing mechanism for the control of the flow field. The potential of the found control mechanism as well as its robustness has been verified and its ability to enhance the turbulence intensity within the inner and outer shear layer has been demonstrated.

  • 46.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Uncertainty analysis of the von Kármán constant2013In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 1460-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1930, von Karman presented an expression for the mean velocity distribution in channel and pipe flows that can be transformed into the today well-known logarithmic velocity distribution. At the same time, he also formulated the logarithmic skin friction law and obtained a value of 0.38 for the constant named after him through pipe flow pressure drop measurements. Different approaches to determine the von Karman constant from mean velocity measurements have been proposed over the last decades, sometimes giving different results even when employed on the same data, partly because the range over which the logarithmic law should be fitted is also under debate. Up to today, the research community has not been able to converge toward a single value and the favored values range between 0.36 and 0.44 for different research groups and canonical flow cases. The present paper discusses some pitfalls and error sources of commonly employed estimation methods and shows, through the use of boundary layer data from Osterlund (1999) that von Karman's original suggestion of 0.38 seems still to be valid for zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer flows. More importantly, it is shown that the uncertainty in the determination of the von Karman constant can never be less than the uncertainty in the friction velocity, thereby yielding a realistic uncertainty for the most debated constant in wall turbulence.

  • 47.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Castro, Ian P.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The Streamwise Turbulence Intensity – A Comparison between Smooth and Rough Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers2014In: Progress in Turbulence V: Proceedings of the iTi Conference in Turbulence 2012, Springer, 2014, p. 97-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Rüedi, Jean-Daniel
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    A method to estimate turbulence intensity and transverse Taylor microscale in turbulent flows from spatially averaged hot-wire data2011In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 693-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach to evaluate turbulence intensity and transverse Taylor microscale in turbulent flows is presented. The method is based on a correction scheme that compensates for probe resolution effects and is applied by combining the response of two single hot-wire sensors with different wire lengths. Even though the technique, when compared to other correction schemes, requires two independent measurements, it provides, for the same data, an estimate of the spanwise Taylor microscale. The method is here applied to streamwise turbulence intensity distributions of turbulent boundary layer flows but it is applicable generally in any turbulent flow. The technique has been firstly validated against spatially averaged DNS data of a zero pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer showing a good capacity to reconstruct the actual profiles and to predict a qualitatively correct and quantitatively agreeing transverse Taylor microscale over the entire height of the boundary layer. Finally, the proposed method has been applied to available higher Reynolds number data from recent boundary layer experiments where an estimation of the turbulence intensity and of the Taylor microscale has been performed.

  • 49.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Preliminary studies on acoustic excitation in axisymmetric transitional jet flowsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Segalini, Antonio
    et al.
    Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (DIEM), University of Bologna.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (DIEM), University of Bologna.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The effect of oblique waves on jet turbulence2009In: Progress in Turbulence III, 2009, p. 231-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A turbulent jet with azimuthal forcing has been investigated for different velocities, excitation amplitudes and frequencies by means of hot-wire anemometry. A turbulence reduction was observed when the frequency was close to the shear layer mode frequency. Conditionally sampling analysis has been applied in order to evince some details of the structures embedded in the flow. It seems that the excitation increases the production of turbulence by means of non-linear interaction and then saturates after the first diameter with a faster decay of all the modes but the subharmonic.

12 1 - 50 of 61
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