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  • 1.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Flood hazard and its impact on the resilience of cities: An accessibility-based approach to amenities in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden2017In: Proceedings - 11th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2017, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Georrecursos , 2017, p. 36.1-36.15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of climate change and its impact on increasing the number and intensity of floods, adaptability of cities to and resistance against the flood hazard is critical to retain functionality of the cities. Vulnerability of urban infrastructure and its resilience to flooding from different points of view have been important and worth investigating for experts in different fields of science. Flood hazards as physical phenomena are influenced by form of the cities and thus the magnitude of their impacts can be intensified by urban infrastructures such as street networks and buildings (Bacchin et. al, 2011). In this paper, we aim to develop a method to assess the resilience of a river city (the city of Gothenburg in Sweden), which is prone to flood events, against such disturbances and find out how the city reacts to river floods and to what extent the city retains its accessibility to essential amenities after a flood occurs. To do so, collecting required data; we, firstly, simulate flood inundation with two different return periods (50 and 1000 years) and then the impact areas overlay on the street networks. Evaluating the resilience of the city, syntactic properties of the street networks before and after flooding are measured at different scales. Additionally, accessibility and the minimum distance of the street networks to essential amenities such as healthcare centers, schools and commercial centers, at a medium distance (3 Km) is examined. The results show that flooding influences the city configuration at global scale more than the local scale based on comparison of syntactic properties before and after flooding. However, the results of accessibility and the minimum distance show that the impact of flooding on the functionality of the city is more limited to the riparian areas and the city is not affected globally.

  • 2.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Flood Resilient Cities: A Syntactic and Metric Novel on Measuring the Resilience of Cities against Flooding, Gothenburg, Sweden2017In: Journal of Geographic Information System, ISSN 2151-1950, E-ISSN 2151-1969, Vol. 9, p. 505-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is one of the most destructive natural disasters which have rapidly been growing in frequency and intensity all over the world. In this view, assessment of the resilience of the city against such disturbances is of high necessity in order to significantly mitigate the disaster effects of flooding on the city structures and the human lives. The aim of this paper is to develop a method to assess the resilience of a river city (the city of Gothenburg in Sweden), which is prone to flood Hazard, against such disturbances. By simulating flood inundation with different return periods, in the first step, the areas of impact are determined. To assess the resilience, two different methods are followed. One is a syntactic method grounded in the foreground network in space syntax theory and the other is based on measuring accessibility to the essential amenities in the city. In the first method, similarity and sameness parameters are defined to quantitatively measure the syntactic resilience in the city. In the next step, accessibility to amenities and the minimum distance to amenities before and after each disturbance is measured. The results, in general, show that such disturbances affect the city structure and the resilience of the city differently. For instance, the city is more resilient after flooding ac- cording to accessibility measures. This clearly means that the answer to the question of resilience is mainly dependent on “resilience of what and for what.”

  • 3.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Perspectives on Culture: to witness, engage with, show, or do in cities2017In: Proceedings - 11th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2017 / [ed] Teresa Heitor, Miguel Serra, João Pinelo Silva, Maria Bacharel, Luisa Cannas da Silva, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Georrecursos , 2017, p. 130.1-130.15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses how ‘culture’ is or can be present in a city, where culture is understood in a wide sense as cultural activities and output of creative activity as well as partaking in or making use of the same. The main line of argument is that this requires consideration of how to work with configurational analysis, which has implications for a wider set of issues but made apparent in the specific focus.

    While this is anchored in empirical analysis, the main point is a theoretical-methodological discussion. In short, the paper proposes a model where culture needs to be understood from four perspectives—to witness, to engage with, to show, and to do—since these are differently related to the built environment in the conditions for how they appear, what effects they might have, and in what ways they are affected by and affect urban environments.

    Specifically, the empirical analyses point to how inequalities between areas can be understood. The conditions for making sculptures and how this affects and is affected by its surrounding, simply put, is different from the effects and conditions for the placing of public sculptures, as are their effects on public and private life.

    By use of specific and particular examples of activities or outputs, the article will also highlight qualitative aspects that need to be considered in relation to more precisely what kind of ‘culture’ that is intended to be supported, and how this relates to questions of democratic development and social equality.

  • 4.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), School of Architecture.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Maktperspektiv i byggd miljö: Reflektioner från Gottsunda2019In: Stadsutveckling & design för motstridiga önskemål: En bok om nödvändigheten av förändring i tanke och handling för sociala hållbarhetsprocesser / [ed] Lisa Daram; Björn Hellström, Stockholm: Arkus , 2019, p. 241-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med det här kapitlet är att reflektera kring två teman - makt och rumsstruktur - på ett sätt som underlättar för planeringspraktiken att ta sig an relationer mellan dessa teman. Området är brett och komplext och också komplicerat; eftersom makt till övervägande del är en social praktik låter den sig inte på ett enkelt sätt avläsas i rumsstrukturer. Detta, att makt är en social praktik, betyder dock inte att rummet inte 'utövar' makt i sig själv i fysisk mening. Rum utövar ett slags makt genom att sätta begränsningar och erbjuda möjligheter, dela upp och binda samman, stödja, fostra, försvåra och underlätta olika sociala, kulturella och ekonomiska praktiker. Rummet lyfter fram, visar eller gömmer, och så vidare - arkitektur är så att säga en social praktik.

    I ett bredare forskningssammanhang ingår detta kapitel i en studie som ämnar binda samman ett antal diskussioner om makt och rumslighet med en konkret, morfologisk, rumsanalytisk forskning. Denna forskning har en relativt stark tradition vad gäller byggnader men är något otydligare och svagare på stadsnivå. Därför syftar kommande diskussion framförallt att etablera en problemrymd och att precisera frågeställningar, snarare än att försöka bevisa maktutövning empiriskt.

  • 5.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Accessibility and Urban Life: Aspects on Social Segregation2009In: Seventh International Space Syntax Symposium, proceedings / [ed] Daniel Koch, Lars Marcus and Jesper Steen, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the metropolitan areas of Sweden and in similar European cities, social and ethnic segregation, unequal living conditions, and unequal availability to services and labour market are commonplace and considered major social problems. Several national and local initiatives aim to decrease social and ethnic segregation, but so far only with marginal success. It is established that neighbourhoods provide unequal living conditions for their residents and from an urban design perspective a relevant question is how urban form influences these conditions. It has come to light that different urban design ideas are related to certain preconditions for sociability which highlights the need for a better understanding of the relation between spatial and social phenomena. This paper explores if a reasoning where segregation is discussed in terms of accessibility, or rather, a lack of accessibility, could be a way forward for urban design practice and policies. If configuration of public space influences what an area can afford its users in terms of accessibility this could increase the understanding for the role of urban form in this matter. The configurational approach applied in this paper is also investigating what a focus on other perspectives besides housing segregation could imply. For example, the potential for urban life is explored which is related to interplay segregation which is argued to be equally important for social segregation as housing segregation. The space syntax approach, including place syntax tool, has the ability to illustrate the consequences of segregation in public space and provides logical descriptions from a user's perspective. The results illustrate essential differences between neighbourhoods, indicating that areas afford different spatial advantages. Some inequalities regarding living conditions are made visible and it is possible to verify that urban form has a very direct influence on these conditions. It is argued that such knowledge has the ability to support and contribute to a more effective urban design practice regarding issues related to social segregation.

  • 6.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Configuration and co-presence: The underpinnings of job opportunities2013In: Proceedings of the 9th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Y O Kim, H T Park and K W Seo, Seoul: Sejong University , 2013, , p. 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several suburbs in the Stockholm region witnessed serious outbreaks of violence during May 2013. The pattern is recognizable: frustration over a situation of social exclusion has resulted in recurrent disorder in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. There is no doubt that the matter of social segregation is highly complex; there is neither an easy explanation nor a simple solution. The uneven distribution of unemployment and the uneven income distribution in Stockholm that often coincide with ethnic residential segregation stand out as increasingly compromising manifestations of urban segregation and of increasing social polarization—a situation that has proved difficult to change in spite of several initiatives.

    This paper focuses on how the built environment may play a role in matters related to segregation; more specifically, it studies this from the angle of chances in the labour market. The starting point for this investigation is twofold: first, geographical access to jobs has been identified as an extremely important factor affecting people’s chances of success in the labour market (Åslund et al. 2010; Gobillon et al. 2005; Zenou et al. 2006), a mechanism related to the spatial-mismatch hypothesis (Kain 1968). Second, co-presence in public space affects the life chances that a neighbourhood affords. For example, the public culture that may develop, including certain views and norms, is arguably affected by those who share public space (Zukin 1995; Grannis 1998; Strömblad 2001; Franzén 2009), and it is argued that information and knowledge that non-locals may bring to an area is different from ‘provincial news and views’, believed important in obtaining a job (Granovetter 1983).

    Through an application of advanced spatial analysis using space syntax and the Place Syntax Tool in combination with information from questionnaires and observations, this study identifies inequalities, comparing neighbourhoods across the city of Stockholm. The results show that spatial configuration has a direct influence on access to workplaces as well as on other aspects that affect residents’ opportunities in the labour market. It also comes to light that the local outcome is highly dependent on the context of a place or of a neighbourhood, indicating that an area’s surroundings need to be acknowledged to a greater degree and taken into consideration in antisegregation initiatives. I argue that the precise spatial analysis applied in this paper captures important implications regarding urban configuration for matters related to opportunities in the labour market.

  • 7.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    From housing segregation to integration in public space2009In: Proceedings of the 7th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Daniel Koch, Lars Marcus and Jesper Steen, Stockholm: KTH, 2009, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009, , p. 12p. 065:1-065:12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, urban design and spatial planning is rarely addressed in anti-segregation initiatives. Architectural issues have more or less been confined to matters regarding housing policy. Although segregation is an inherently spatial concept, its spatial dimension is analysed using quite simple spatial models and weak theories on the relation between spatial and social phenomena, methods that provide few analytical insights from an urban design perspective. The Swedish cityscape is to a large extent characterized by post war development, strongly influenced by neighbourhood planning ideas. What is conspicuous in many of these areas is the extreme segregation of public space and that many neighbourhoods are relatively spatially isolated from the city as a whole. Since prevailing approaches are giving weak guidance for urban design there will be an attempt in this paper to in part re-conceptualise the issue and possible generate new ideas on how to approach social segregation in a more spatially relevant way. This paper investigates how configurational theories and methods can contribute to more nuanced descriptions of spatial relations within different neighbourhoods and in the city as a whole. The result shows that the space syntax approach has the ability to shed light on essential configurational differences between neighbourhoods, even differences between neighborhoods that generally are ascribed similar characteristics, for example areas included in national antisegregation initiatives. If social segregation is related to segregation in public space it is essential that an approach is used that has the ability to capture such configurational properties. In this study it is found that more nuanced descriptions give valuable insight regarding the spatial conditions which opens for new possibilities for how policies in urban design can address the segregation problem and that this could be articulated with more efficient anti-segregation interventions, both on a neighbourhood level and on a city level.

  • 8.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    From Housing Segregation to Integration in Public Space: A Space Syntax Approach Applied on the City of Södertälje2010In: The Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 92-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, urban design and town planning is rarely addressed in anti-segregation initiatives. Architectural issues have more or less been confined to matters regarding housing policy. Although segregation is an inherently spatial concept, its spatial dimension is analysed using quite simple spatial models and weak theories on the relation between spatial and social phenomena, methods that provide few analytical insights from an urban design perspective. The Swedish cityscape is to a large extent characterized by post war development, strongly influenced by neighbourhood planning ideas.

    What is conspicuous in many of these areas is the extreme segregation of public space and that many neighbourhoods are relatively spatially isolated from the city as a whole. Since prevailing approaches are giving weak guidance for urban design there will be an attempt in this paper to in part reconceptualise the issue and possible generate new ideas on how to approach segregation within urban design.

    This paper investigates how configurational theories and methods can contribute to more nuanced descriptions of spatial relations within different neighbourhoods and in the city as a whole. If social segregation is related to segregation in public space it is essential to capture the configurational properties in a highly tangible way. The result shows that the space syntax approach has the ability to shed light on essential configurational differences between neighbourhoods and that these spatial descriptions give valuble insight regarding how urban form influences the spatial advantages that different areas afford. This opens for new possibilities for how policies in urban design can address the segregation problem that could be articulated with more efficient anti-segregation interventions, both on a neighbourhood level and on a city level.

  • 9.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    GIS och sociala stadsrumsanalyser med socialt fokus2017In: PLAN, ISSN 0032-0560, no 1, p. 32-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Kontinuerlig stad: av betydelse utifrån ett socialt perspektiv2018In: PLAN, no 1, p. 3p. 30-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi står idag inför många utmaningar och det behövs ökade insikter och hög klokskap så att det vi bygger idag ger förutsättningar för ett samhälle med mer jämlika livsvillkor och mindre segregation. En förutsättning för att vi ska kunna dela staden och dess resurser i högre utsträckning är att staden görs tillgänglig. 

  • 11.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Limited permeability in the enclaved city2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social segregation in Sweden’s metropolitan areas is considered a major societal problem. Several national initiatives have been launched to ameliorate residential segregation but so far they have been only marginally effective. This paper argues that the Swedish debate on urban segregation lacks a nuanced discussion about the impact of the built environment. To what extent are people favoured or disfavoured by urban form? To what extent are people in segregated areas prevented access to Swedish society through their everyday life experiences? To capture the role of the built environment this paper suggests a shift in focus from a discussion framed in terms of residential segregation to considering the segregating effect urban layouts can have on peoples’ chances to share urban space and share everyday practices.

    The empirical study has an experience-oriented spatial approach. Configurational analysis (using space syntax and place syntax) in combination with population analysis (censusbased) and analysis of the potential for a mix of people (residents and non-residents) in public space allow social segregation to be studied in relation to spatial segregation. Results indicate that segregation of urban space, including restricted access to a range of resources – such as job opportunities and contact with other people – is a tangible feature of segregated neighbourhoods. These are insights that can inform the development of improved urban design policies and interventions.

  • 12.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Patterns of co-presence: Spatial configuration and social segregation2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis notes that there is a lack of systematic research investigating segregation patterns based on how public space is used and frequented by citizens. In order for understanding of urban segregation to reach beyond residential segregation, the extent to which public space facilitates co-presence between social groups is a key issue. The main concern in this thesis is to arrive at a deeper understanding of the critical role urban form plays in terms of co-presence in public space and in extension for social segregation. The argument builds on knowledge from other fields, arguing that co-presence is of utmost importance for societal processes: by sharing space and being co-present with others, which does not necessarily imply focused interaction, we gain information and knowledge from our fellow citizens and participate in processes that negotiate social structures, acceptable behaviours and identities. The sharing of space thus becomes a central part of ‘being in society’. It is furthermore through public space that material urban resources are accessible, an access that is dependent on both the location of the amenities in space but also the distribution of space, as structured and shaped by urban form, which creates the actual experience of access through space.

    Segregation is primarily defined as a social problem. However, in this thesis, it is made clear that it is also a spatial problem. While also broadening the conceptualisation of segregation, the main focus has been upon the role of the built environment. The socio-spatial link builds on social theories. However, these theories are weak when it comes to explaining where co-presence occurs. Addressing the spatial side of the problem, the thesis primarily builds on the architectural theory of space syntax that exactly aims to study the space-society relationship from the viewpoint of space and provides empirical evidence for the correspondence between urban form – as it is shaped by urban design and architecture – and the creation of co-presence as well as variations in its intensity and its constitution. In addition, key questions such as what people may have access to ‘just around the corner’ in terms of human resources or other urban amenities are elaborated. The distinct variations found between neighbourhoods are argued both to enrich the discussion on social exclusion and unequal living conditions and inform future urban planning and design.

    The thesis demonstrates that specific configurational properties have great impact on the pattern of co-presence. More specifically, it is found that a segregation of public space, a limited spatial reach and an uneven distribution of spatial centrality appears not to favour an exchange between neighbourhoods or access to urban resources across the city – findings that are highly critical for the urban segregation issue. Detailed configurational analysis of Stockholm reveals the performative aspects of different urban layouts related not only to local circumstances and character but, more importantly, to the further context of such layouts. Increased knowledge of how spatial configuration relates to social practices offers new insight into how different neighbourhoods and urban layouts perform socially and increases understanding of the social implications of spatial configuration.

    The findings of this study are argued to open up theoretical developments that address the social and political dimension of urban design with greater precision. Not least, this knowledge can influence public debate. The knowledge produced can furthermore be used in urban design practice and anti-segregation initiatives, identifying whether spatial interventions can make a contribution and if so, what physical interventions respond to the social ends in question, where the ultimate aim is an urban design that not only builds cities but societies too.

  • 13.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ses vi på gatan?2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Människor blir segregerade inte bara på grund av att de bor åtskilda utan också för att de inte möter varandra. Stadsplaneringen måste därför bryta den rumsliga isoleringen som drabbar framför allt de resurssvaga.

  • 14.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Staden växer: om utvecklandet av tyngdpunkter, regionala stadskärnor och urbana stråk2017In: KTHA, no 3, p. 25-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stockholms stad liksom regionen som helhet expanderar. Bostadsbyggandet har undre en lång tid legat på låga nivåer vilket i kombination med hög inflyttning och befolkningstillväxt lett till bostadsbrist. Planeringspraktiken har de senaste åren fått tydlig inriktning på expansion och förtätning. Viktiga strategier i det arbetet handlar om att låta staden växa genom att utveckla nya tyngdpunkter och styra stadsbyggnadsinvesteringar till vissa specifika platser. Tyngd­punkter, regionala stadskärnor och urbana stråk i planerings- och stadsbyggnadssammanhang kan förstås som beskrivningar av fenomen, som abstraktioner eller som symboler för en viss funktion i en större helhet. I Stockholms översiktsplan antagen 2010 pekas nio tyngdpunkter ut med ett antal tillhörande stråk. I samrådsförslaget till ny översiktsplan från november 2016 har tyngd­punkter­nas framträdande position försvunnit men däremot präglas planen fortfarande starkt av en ambition att skapa en sammanhängande stad genom att utveckla stråk; utvecklingsstråk, aktivitetsstråk, promenadstråk m.m.. Intentionen är att dessa stråk ska göra ett jobb att koppla ihop staden i syfte att inte bara skapa en mer samman­hängande stad och tillgängliggöra resurser utan också främja den sociala samman­håll­ningen.Syftet med att koppla samman staden, utveckla nya tyngdpunkter och stråk, är delvis att motverka uppkomsten av så kallade sovstadsdelar som saknar samhällsfunktioner såsom service, arbetsplatser och urbana kvaliteter men syftar också till att motverka segregation och att skapa mer jämlika livsvillkor.

  • 15.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Stadsbyggande och sociala processer: hur stadsbyggandet kan främja social hållbarhet2015In: Sju perspektiv på hållbar utveckling: Om hur hållbarhetsperspektivet kan stärkas i en ny regional utvecklingsplan för Stockholmsregionen, Stockholm: Tillväxt- och regionplaneförvaltningen, Stockholms läns landsting , 2015, , p. 8p. 33-40Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Urban Form and Diversity: How Does Urban Form Influence Accessibility in Different Neighbourhoods?2010In: The Ethnically Diverse City / [ed] Eckardt, F. & Eade, J., Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag GmbH, 2010, p. 445-472Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    URBAN SEGREGATION AND URBAN FORM: From residential segregation to segregation in public space2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban segregation is considered a major social problem in Sweden and several national anti-segregation initiatives have been launched to decrease social and ethnic segregation but so far only with marginal effects (SOU 2005:29). Urban design and town planning are rarely the focus in national anti-segregation initiatives; the architectural issue has mainly been confined to matters concerning housing policies. This thesis argues that the strong focus on residential segregation in prevailing research on urban segregation is unfortunate and skewed, confusing issues related to urban design.This licentiate thesis explores urban segregation in relation to urban form because physical separation between people or between activities has an obvious direct relationship to how cities are shaped and structured by built form. Urban public space is often neglected in discussions on segregation and this thesis suggests that its role has been underrated. If it can be shown that segregation in public space influences such aspects of life as accessibility to other people and amenities, movement flows, co-presence in public space, and movement patterns, then it can be established that urban public space – as it is structured and shaped by built form – very directly influences people’s everyday lives. The thesis explores how urban segregation can be conceptualized, analysed, and described in a way that increases knowledge and under­standing regarding the role of urban form. Using a configurational morphological approach, this study shifts the focus by bringing attention to spatial relations within the city through public space, i.e., from spatial location to spatial relations. Hence, analysis focuses on distributions of space and through space rather than distributions in space. The result shows that configurational theories, methods, and tools contribute to more nuanced descriptions of spatial relations on both a local and a comprehensive level and analysis has the ability to shed light on essential differences in neighbourhoods and in the city as a whole. Using Södertälje as a case study, this thesis found a pronounced ruptured interface between the global and the local structure that clearly speaks of segregation in public space; this finding suggests that whether the neighbourhoods are residentially segregated or not, public space in most areas already is segregated. Results show that the built environment has a significant influence: urban space can both reinforce and mitigate certain social outcomes. This thesis identifies various negative social consequences of the hierarchical and segregated spatial structure found in Södertälje. Although it is not possible to say that integration processes are hindered by urban form, it is possible to conclude that spatial properties may both create and reproduce segregation patterns.Segregation in public space is found to be a far more urgent issue in the context of urban segregation than earlier recognised, and the result shows that urban form has a distinguishable influence on people’s everyday lives. This understanding opens for the possibility to address urban segregation from an urban design perspective, contributing to a significant discussion of space and society as well as issues related to urban sustainability. The findings of this study widen the possibility for urban design practice to be an important tool within anti-segregation initiatives in the future, a tool that in Sweden is used only to a very limited extent.

  • 18.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Urban Structure and Unemployment: Does urban structure in segregated neighbourhoods disconnect people from locations of employment?2011In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Virtual Cities and Territories / [ed] Pinto, N. N., Tenedório, J. A., Santos, M., de Deus, R., Coimbra: The University of Coimbra , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    What knowledge can a spatial approach add to the understanding of segregation?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, social segregation is a priority. In fact, the national urban development policy addresses urban districts characterised by exclusion. In most of the anti-segregation initiatives the spatial dimension is quite absent even though segregation is an inherently spatial concept. The spatial dimension is often analysed and discussed using quite simple spatial models and weak theories about the relation between spatial and social phenomena.

    This paper discusses how spatial theories and methods can contribute to the segregation issue and attempts to study the possibilities how to counteract segregation through urban design and planning. Because urban form and urban structures influence living conditions, it is relevant to explore these spatial conditions with a spatial approach. However, the spatial dimension can never be fully understood or successfully managed without a powerful theory of space as a social entity.

    There is a need to fill a knowledge gap within the architectural research field. What we need is a toolbox of theories and methods that are able to link physical forms and spatial structures to social outcomes that correspond to real space, the space that people inhabit in their everyday activities.

    The role of public space has not been highlighted in the debate and it is argued that it has been underrated. Segregation in public space has a strong influence on issues such as exclusion since it partly determines the conditions for urban life, the accessibility to urban life and accessibility to important functions in society. It is argued that a spatial approach opens new possibilities for improvements in both vulnerable areas as well as in the city as a whole. If social segregation – or rather exclusion – has to do with segregation in public space, it would be wise to consider how policies in spatial planning and urban design can address the problem.

  • 20.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 1 Perspektiv och utgångspunkter2015Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 2 Metoder: sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser2015Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 3 Sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser i Göteborg2015Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 4 Stadsrumsanalys som designstöd2015Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 5 Summerande reflektioner2015Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmser Tekniska Högskola, Arkitektur.
    Street Interaction and Social Inclusion2015In: Suburban Urbanities: Suburbs and the Life of the High Street, London: UCL Press , 2015, 1, , p. 376Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suburban space has traditionally been understood as a formless remnant of physical city expansion, without a dynamic or logic of its own. Suburban Urbanities challenges this view by defining the suburb as a temporally evolving feature of urban growth.

    Anchored in the architectural research discipline of space syntax, this book offers a comprehensive understanding of urban change, touching on the history of the suburb as well as its current development challenges, with a particular focus on suburban centres. Studies of the high street as a centre for social, economic and cultural exchange provide evidence for its critical role in sustaining local centres over time. Contributors from the architecture, urban design, geography, history and anthropology disciplines examine cases spanning Europe and around the Mediterranean.

    By linking large-scale city mapping, urban design scale expositions of high street activity and local-scale ethnographies, the book underscores the need to consider suburban space on its own terms as a specific and complex field of social practice

    Laura Vaughan is Professor of Urban Form and Society at the Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London. In addition to her longstanding research into London’s suburban evolution, she has written on many other critical aspects of urbanism today.

  • 26.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Streets for co-presence?: Mapping potentials2015In: Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Kayvan Karimi, Laura Vaughan, Kerstin Sailer, Garyfalia Palaiologou, Tom Bolton, London: Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London , 2015, p. 108:1-108:17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In  times  of  increasing  residential  segregation  in  cities  the  potential  for  interplay  between  local  inhabitants and non-­‐locals in urban public space becomes increasingly important. By sharing space we gain information and knowledge from our fellow citizens (Granovetter, 1983), and are enabled to participate in processes that negotiate social structures, attitudes, norms and acceptable behaviours (Giddens, 1984; Zukin, 2005). From this point of departure streets as well as local squares and centres appear to have a key role providing an arena for interplay between different social groups and an arena for exchanging information and are seen as crucial for providing access to opportunities and various urban resources (Young, 1996). Many neighbourhoods, however, have proved to fail in this respect and in areas that today face problems related to social exclusion in Sweden the streets are often characterized by co-­‐absence rather than co-­‐presence and there is an evident ruptured interface between  locals  and  non-­‐locals  (Legeby,  2013).  We  argue  that  patterns  of  co-­‐presence  to  a  large  extent are influenced by urban form and by the morphological properties that also is related to what kind of non-­‐residential activities are likely to emerge locally. This paper aims to highlight the critical role of public space and demonstrate how configurational properties may be analysed and described so that it becomes clear if and where urban design interventions can be used in order to create more favourable conditions and improve access to both various urban resources and to an urban life with a mix  of  locals  and  non-­‐locals.  In  a  project  conducted  in  collaboration  with  the  city  of  Gothenburg  seven neighbourhoods are analysed according to the potential for co-­‐presence in public urban space, and according to access to urban resources; two aspects identified as highly relevant from an urban segregation  perspective.  This  paper  uses  a  three  pronged  approach  that  combines  configurational  analysis, accessibility analysis and observations, and various diagrammatical representations of the results  are  presented.  The  findings  establish  that  several  of  the  neighbourhoods  prove  to  hold  unfavourable conditions as a result of their spatial configuration. Nevertheless, the study illustrates a way forward whereby public planning can be supported by socio-­‐spatial analysis and more accurately operate by using urban design to reach more equal living conditions and overcome social exclusion.

  • 27.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Characterizing urban centres Reading configuration as point, line, field2017In: Proceedings of the 11th Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Teresa Heitor, Miguel Serra, João Pinelo Silva, Maria Bacharel, Luisa Cannas da Silva, Instituto Superior Técnico , 2017, p. 78.1-78.16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities are growing the need for complementary sub centres increases, both in order to distribute amenities and to make resources more accessible for citizens, as well as to relieve the pressure on the city core. Such planning strategy, a kind of decentralized concentration, has been seen as a mean for holding back urban sprawl in Stockholm. Lately, urban centres are also argued to contribute to the development of more equal living conditions making opportunities, service, and urban life accessible also in more peripheral urban locations. The values of ‘suburban urbanities’ has also been highlighted in a way that reach far beyond the commercial activities (Vaughan 2015).The Regional planning authority in Stockholm as well as the City of Stockholm identifies a number of regional subcentres and ‘urban boulevards’ that should connect the city since and make it less fragmented. The social incentive for this strategy is prominent in both plans. However, these subcentres are dependent on urban centrality which needs to be taken into consideration.The strength, or the success, of a subcentre is partly influenced by urban design interventions and is argued to be related to 1) the configurative properties (distribution of space) and 2) land use parameters and density (distribution in and through space) (Koch 2016; Hillier 1999; Vaughan 2010). In order to increase the understanding for what urban design interventions that may be efficient, this paper will draw from the concepts developed by Stan Allen (1999) of point, line and field and John McMorrough (2001). The combination of the configurative perspective and the point-line-field perspective is argued to contribute with knowledge of how urban form generates and supports the emergence of urban centrality and the development of subcentres with implications not only for consumption and mobility, but also for social outcomes such as urban life and equal living conditions. The empirical application aims to illustrate how configurative analysis complement the point-line-field theory in describing the character of the centres and the findings are argued to contribute to the identification of more precise and efficient urban design interventions of how to develop the centres.

  • 28.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Kulturnärvaro: inspel till boende och stadsmiljö2016Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmser Tekniska Högskola, Arkitektur.
    Jämlika livsvillkor och stadsbyggande: inspel till pågående översiktsplanearbete2016Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Does the urban structure of Swedish cities inhibit the sharing of public space?2011In: Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 155-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that a strong focus on residential segregation limits the understanding of the role of the built environment. The city is used as more than just a place of residence; urban life is far from restricted to where we live. The potential for interplay that develops as people share public space is argued to be just as important for integration processes as the residential mix. In addition, this article examines shortcomings related to the definition of residential segregation because of limitations within the scientific analysis of urban space: the evident difficulties in delimiting relevant geographical units and deli­miting relevant social groups. The study is based on empirical analysis of Södertälje, Sweden. Södertälje topped international news when its mayor informed the US Congress that the city had managed to receive more refugees from the war in Iraq than the US and Canada combined. However, to what extent are these new immigrants given access to Swedish society through everyday practices? The results highlight how segregation in public space – including impaired accessibility to a range of resources such as places of work and contact with other people – is a very strong feature of excluded areas and is strongly disadvantageous for newcomers. These results challenge some of the beliefs in the current public debate as well as some of the principles used by Swedish authorities to ameliorate segregation.

  • 31.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Tahvilzadeh, Nazem
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Storstäder i Samverkan: Stadsbyggandets sociala dimension2015Report (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Määttä, Mika
    Så kan Göteborg bli förebild i miljöfrågor2006In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345, article id 11 DecArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Miranda Carranza, Pablo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Rumslig gestaltning och sociala processer: Skolor som förmedlare av samhällelig närvaro2019In: Stadsutveckling & design för motstridiga önskemål: En bok om nödvändigheten av förändring i tanke och handling för sociala hållbarhetsprocesser / [ed] Lisa Daram; Björn Hellström, Stockholm: Arkus , 2019, p. 213-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningsprojektet Gränssnitt Gottsunda syftar till att öka förståelsen för hur förutsättningar i byggnader och städer får betydelse för sociala processer som i sin tur formar och reproducerar samhället. Centrala frågor i det här projektet berör segregation, utanförskap och ojämna livsvillkor samt hur dessa är kopplade till stadens resurser, till andra människor och olika samhällsgrupper påverkas till följd av stadens form och organisationen i stadsrummet.

    I denna text redovisas en av projektets delstudier som handlar om hur olika byggnader och institutioner syns i stadsrummet och vad det signalerar om samhället i stort. Vi har valt skolbyggnader som exempel som får representera en typ av samhällelig funktion med stor betydelse för lokalsamhället, i synnerhet i områden med en befolkning som har begränsade socioekonomiska resurser. Närmare bestämt studeras i vilken grad och på vilket sätt skolor är synliga i stadsdelen, vilken rumslig logik deras placering följer och vad detta kan ha för betydelse för det vardagliga livet.

  • 34.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    The need for co-presence in urban complexity: Measuring social capital using space syntax2012In: Proceedings Eigth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Greene, M., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ‘cities as complex systems’ is well established within academia but rarely applied within professional practice. Therefore, a translation of knowledge is required, from the high theoretical discussions found in academic research to applicable knowledge professional practitioners can use. This paper argues that the concept of ‘co-presence’ has the potential to bridge space syntax to complexity theory while contributing to our understanding of complexity in cities. By applying space syntax, a connection between spatial form and co-presence is feasible and advanced theoretical discussions, mostly within the academic sphere, make it possible to link processes in urban space in a very direct way. It is argued that an individual’s everyday routines contribute to some of the most elaborate forms of societal organization, and these routines are partly made possible and visible through co-presence in public space. What makes this view relevant for architectural research is that both patterns of co-presence as well as the potential exchange between residents and non-residents among co-present people are largely influenced by the properties of urban form generated by urban design and architecture. While this paper mainly focuses on a theoretical discussion of the potential within space syntax to examine co-presence in a way that could be of critical importance in ‘complexity theory’, it also presents an empirical approach along with some preliminary results. Although the results do not yet prove that the study of local co-presence improves the understanding of urban ‘complexity’, we believe that the results are promising and that further exploration of possible connections is needed. The empirical data refers to the results from Södertälje and the preliminary results fromStockholm. The study examines the potential a neighbourhood affords, both regarding the size (or density) of co-presence in urban space, and the potential for an exchange with people from other parts of the city. Thus, the concept of co-presence is applied and refined to contribute to an understanding of how societal processes and phenomena are influenced by urban form.

  • 35. Samuelsson, Karl
    et al.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    Barthel, Stephan
    Impact of environment on people's everyday experiences in Stockholm2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 171, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to construct urban environments that limit negative impacts for global sustainability while supporting human wellbeing, there is a need to better understand how features of the environment influence people's everyday experiences. We present a novel method for studying this combining accessibility analysis and public participatory GIS (PPGIS). Seven environment features are defined and accessibility to them analysed across Stockholm municipality. We estimate the probabilities of positive and negative experiences in places based on these environment features, by using spatial regression to extrapolate from the results of an online PPGIS survey (1784 experiences of 1032 respondents). Six of the seven studied environment features have significant impact on experiential outcome, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation among the data. The results show that number of residents and proximity of nature environments and water, all common quality indicators in urban planning and research, have weak statistically significant effects on people's experiences. However, areas dominated by large working populations or proximity to major roads have very low rates of positive experiences, while areas with high natural temperature regulating capacities have very high rates, showing that there are considerable qualitative differences within urban environments as well as nature environments. Current urban planning practices need to acknowledge these differences to limit impacts on the biosphere while promoting human wellbeing. We suggest that a good way to start addressing this is through transformation of negatively experienced urban areas through designs that integrate closeness to urbanity with possibilities to have nature experiences on a daily basis.

  • 36. Sun, K.
    et al.
    Pont, M. B.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Squares for co-presence: The influence of urban form on the intensity and diversity of people co-present in 12 squares in Gothenburg2017In: Proceedings - 11th International Space Syntax Symposium, SSS 2017, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Georrecursos , 2017, p. 115.1-115.20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing residential segregation in cities gives public spaces a more important role in solidarity processes, bringing people together, supporting movement, co-presence and co-awareness. Local squares thus have the greatest significance providing an arena for social interplay as people become co-present. Earlier studies showed that high spatial integration plays an important role for the mix of locals and non-locals besides aspects relating to population density and land use. The purpose of this paper is to reach a better understanding whether also more local properties that characterize a square influence co-presence. Further, more squares are added to represent a broader spectrum of neighbourhoods which will help us understand whether network integration is important in all types of neighbourhoods. Thirdly, this study will help to inform whether earlier findings by Legeby in Stockholm, Södertälje and Gothenburg can be confirmed which allows us to generalize these findings. The amount of people co-present in squares and the share of non-local visitors are studied as two indicators (or aspects) of co-presence. The empirical data was collected through observation including snapshots and interviews. The number of people present in the public squares was noted and the interviews were used to measure the share of non-locals. The spatial analysis includes besides integration and betweenness, an analysis of density (both population and building density) and land uses accessible from the squares within various radii. Also, geometric characteristics such as size, shape and enclosure of the squares are included in the study. The result shows different patterns of co-presence in the 12 studied squares, especially if we distinguish squares in the most central area of Gothenburg with squares located at a longer distance from the city centre. Some findings confirm earlier findings and allow us to generalize the findings as other findings seem not to be relevant in all cities. Further, pure geometric properties of squares do not show strong correlations with co-presence. We can thus conclude that the local design intervention of squares cannot promote co-presence very well without the support of urban structure.

1 - 36 of 36
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