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  • 1. Bykov, I.
    et al.
    Rudakov, D. L.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    De Angeli, M.
    Hollmann, E. M.
    McLean, A. G.
    Lasnier, C. J.
    Riva, G.
    Modification of adhered dust on plasma-facing surfaces due to exposure to ELMy H-mode plasma in DIII-D2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 379-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transient heat load tests have been conducted in the lower divertor of DIII-D using DiMES manipulator in order to study the behavior of dust on tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) during ELMy H-mode discharges. Samples with pre- adhered, pre- characterized dust have been exposed at the outer strike point (OSP) in a series of discharges with varied intra-(inter-) ELM heat fluxes. We used C dust because of its high sublimation temperature and non-metal properties. Al dust as a surrogate for Be and W dust were employed as relevant to that in the ITER divertor. The poor initial thermal contact between the substrate and the particles led to overheating, sublimation and shrinking of the carbon dust, and wetting induced coagulation of Al dust. Little modification of the W dust was observed. An enhanced surface adhesion and improvement of the thermal contact of C and Al dust were the result of exposure. A post mortem "adhesive tape" sampling showed that 70% of Al, <5% of W and C particles could not be removed from the surface owing to the improved adhesion. Al and C but not W particles that could be lifted had W inclusions indicating damage to the substrate. This suggests that non destructive methods may be inefficient for removal of dust in ITER.

  • 2.
    Bykov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Banon, Jean-Philippe
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Frassinetti, Lorenzo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Brunsell, Per R.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Transport asymmetry and release mechanisms of metal dust in the reversed-field pinch configuration2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 035014-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental data on dust resident in the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch are reported. Mobile dust grains are captured in situ by silicon collectors, whereas immobile grains are sampled post mortem from the wall by adhesive tape. The simulation of collection asymmetries by the MIGRAINe dust dynamics code in combination with the experimental results is employed to deduce some characteristics of the mechanism of intrinsic dust release. All evidence suggests that re-mobilization is dominant with respect to dust production.

  • 3. De Angeli, M.
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Ripamonti, D.
    Riva, G.
    Bardin, S.
    Morgan, T.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Remobilization of tungsten dust from castellated plasma-facing components2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 536-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of tungsten dust remobilization from castellated plasma-facing components can shed light to whether gaps constitute a dust accumulation site with important implications for monitoring but also removal. Castellated structures of ITER relevant geometry that contained pre-adhered tungsten dust of controlled deposition profile have been exposed in the Pilot-PSI linear device. The experiments were performed under steady state and transient plasma conditions, as well as varying magnetic field topologies. The results suggest that dust remobilization from the plasma-facing monoblock surface can enhance dust trapping in the gaps and that tungsten dust is efficiently trapped inside the gaps.

  • 4. de Angelis, Umberto
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Effects of dust particles in plasma kinetics; ion dynamics time scales2012In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 073701-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-consistent kinetic theory of dusty plasmas [V. N. Tsytovich and U. de Angelis, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1093 (1999)] is extended to frequency regimes relevant for ion dynamics, accounting for both constant and fluctuating plasma sources. In contrast to earlier models, binary plasma collisions are no longer neglected with respect to collisions with dust; hence, the model developed here is also valid for low dust densities. Expressions are found for the system's permittivity, the ion collision integral, and the spectral densities of ion density fluctuations. The structure of the ion kinetic equation is analyzed, and applications of the model for both astrophysical and laboratory environments are discussed.

  • 5. Khrapak, S. A.
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Chaudhuri, M.
    Zobnin, A.
    Usachev, A.
    Rau, C.
    Thoma, M. H.
    Petrov, O. F.
    Fortov, V. E.
    Morfill, G. E.
    Grain charging in an intermediately collisional plasma2012In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 35001-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The charges of mu m-size particles in the quasineutral bulk plasma of a dc discharge are determined experimentally in a pressure range between 100 and 500 Pa, spanning the transition between the weakly collisional and highly collisional (hydrodynamic) regimes, where the ion mean free path drops below the plasma screening length. The charge is determined using the force balance condition from the measured particle drift velocities in stable particle flows. A simple interpolation formula for the ion flux to the grain in the transitional regime is shown to fit quite well the experimental results.

  • 6. Komm, M.
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Cavalier, J.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Gunn, J. P.
    Podolnik, A.
    On thermionic emission from plasma-facing components in tokamak-relevant conditions2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 9, article id 094002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first results of particle-in-cell simulations of the electrostatic sheath and magnetic pre-sheath of thermionically emitting planar tungsten surfaces in fusion plasmas are presented. Plasma conditions during edge localized modes (ELMs) and during inter-ELM periods have been considered for various inclinations of the magnetic field and for selected surface temperatures. All runs have been performed under two assumptions for the sheath potential drop; fixed or floating. The primary focus lies on the evaluation of the escaping thermionic current and the quantification of the suppression due to the combined effects of space-charge and Larmor gyration. When applicable, the results are compared with the predictions of analytical models. The heat balance in the presence of thermionic emission as well as the contribution of the escaping thermionic current to surface cooling are also investigated. Regimes are identified where emission needs to be considered in the energy budget.

  • 7. Komm, M.
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Dejarnac, R.
    Gunn, J. P.
    Krieger, K.
    Podolnik, A.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Panek, R.
    Simulations of thermionic suppression during tungsten transient melting experiments2017In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, article id 014069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma-facing components receive enormous heat fluxes under steady state and especially during transient conditions that can even lead to tungsten (W) melting. Under these conditions, the unimpeded thermionic current density emitted from the W surfaces can exceed the incident plasma current densities by several orders of magnitude triggering a replacement current which drives melt layer motion via the J x B force. However, in tokamaks, the thermionic current is suppressed by space-charge effects and prompt re-deposition due to gyro-rotation. We present comprehensive results of particle-in-cell modelling using the 2D3V code SPICE2 for the thermionic emissive sheath of tungsten. Simulations have been performed for various surface temperatures and selected inclinations of the magnetic field corresponding to the leading edge and sloped exposures. The surface temperature dependence of the escaping thermionic current and its limiting value are determined for various plasma parameters; for the leading edge geometry, the results agree remarkably well with the Takamura analytical model. For the sloped geometry, the limiting value is observed to be proportional to the thermal electron current and a simple analytical expression is proposed that accurately reproduces the numerical results.

  • 8.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Dilecce, G.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    BABE - a brush cathode discharge for thermal fluctuation measurements2015In: Journal of Plasma Physics, ISSN 0022-3778, E-ISSN 1469-7807, Vol. 81, article id 345810202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For experimental tests of fluctuation theory in ideal plasmas and plasmas seeded with dust, the ideal environment would be that of stable quiescent plasma. In most laboratory plasmas the homogeneous state of the positive column is often unstable, rare exceptions are the so-called brush cathode discharges, proposed in the 60s, where a specially manufactured cathode allows stable operation in the abnormal glow regime and the only fluctuations present are those due the thermal motion of the particles. Such a device, the BAri Brush Electrode (BABE), has recently been built in a novel configuration that combines the advantages of the inverse design with those of the reflex geometry. The region between the two anodes is essentially field-free and extremely stable in wide range of plasma densities and collisionalities. Unprecedented low fluctuation levels of delta n/n <= 10(-5) in He and delta n/n <= 5 x 10(-6) in Ar discharges have been achieved.

  • 9.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Dilecce, G.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Nitrogen optical emission during nanosecond laser ablation of metals: prompt electrons or photo-ionization?2014In: Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, ISSN 0947-8396, E-ISSN 1432-0630, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 409-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments on the interaction of metal targets with a Nd:YAG laser beam ( = 1,064 nm, intensity -) are carried out in a finite Nitrogen pressure environment. The observed spectra are unambiguous evidence of the existence of an ionization and excitation source, arriving at the observation volume prior to the plume. Such a source can be either prompt electrons or VUV radiation. The analysis reveals that the prompt electron interpretation requires energies in excess of 1 keV, incompatible with any acceleration mechanisms relevant for such laser intensities. On the other hand, VUV radiation is sufficiently strong to explain the observed spectra.

  • 10.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    Rudakov, Dmitry
    De Angeli, Marco
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ripamonti, Dario
    Riva, Giulio
    Bardin, Sébastien
    van der Meiden, Hennie
    Vernimmen, Jordy
    Bystrov, Kirill
    De Temmerman, Gregory
    Interaction of adhered metallic dust with transient plasma heat loads2016In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 56, article id 066010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first study of the interaction of metallic dust (tungsten, aluminum) adhered on tungsten substrates with transient plasma heat loads is presented. Experiments were carried out in the Pilot-PSI linear device with transient heat fluxes up to 550 MW m(-2) and in the DIII-D divertor tokamak. The central role of the dust-substrate contact area in heat conduction is highlighted and confirmed by heat transfer simulations. The experiments provide evidence of the occurrence of wetting-induced coagulation, a novel growth mechanism where cluster melting accompanied by droplet wetting leads to the formation of larger grains. The physical processes behind this mechanism are elucidated. The remobilization activity of the newly formed dust and the survivability of tungsten dust on hot surfaces are documented and discussed in the light of implications for ITER.

  • 11.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Shalpegin, A.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas Tancrède Raymond
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angell, M.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bardin, S.
    Brochard, F.
    Ripamonti, D.
    den Harder, N.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Elastic-plastic adhesive impacts of tungsten dust with metal surfaces in plasma environments2015In: Journal of Nuclear Materials, ISSN 0022-3115, E-ISSN 1873-4820, Vol. 463, p. 877-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust-surface collisions impose size selectivity on the ability of dust grains to migrate in scrape-off layer and divertor plasmas and to adhere to plasma-facing components. Here, we report first experimental evidence of dust impact phenomena in plasma environments concerning low-speed collisions of tungsten dust with tungsten surfaces: re-bouncing, adhesion, sliding and rolling. The results comply with the predictions of the model of elastic-perfectly plastic adhesive spheres employed in the dust dynamics code MIGRAINe for sub- to several meters per second impacts of micrometer-range metal dust.

  • 12.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    Weinzettl, V.
    Matejicek, J.
    Bykov, I.
    Rudakov, D. L.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH.
    Thorén, Emil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Riva, G.
    Ripamonti, D.
    Morgan, T.
    Panek, R.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Tungsten dust remobilization under steady-state and transient plasma conditions2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 569-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remobilization is one of the most prominent unresolved fusion dust-relevant issues, strongly related to the lifetime of dust in plasma-wetted regions, the survivability of dust on hot plasma-facing surfaces and the formation of dust accumulation sites. A systematic cross-machine study has been initiated to investigate the remobilization of tungsten micron-size dust from tungsten surfaces implementing a newly developed technique based on controlled pre-adhesion by gas dynamics methods. It has been utilized in a number of devices and has provided new insights on remobilization under steady-state and transient conditions. The experiments are interpreted with contact mechanics theory and heat conduction models.

  • 13.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Bergsåker, Henric
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Litnovsky, A.
    den Harder, N.
    Lazzaro, E.
    Migration of tungsten dust in tokamaks: role of dust-wall collisions2013In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 123002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modelling of a controlled tungsten dust injection experiment in TEXTOR by the dust dynamics code MIGRAINe is reported. The code, in addition to the standard dust-plasma interaction processes, also encompasses major mechanical aspects of dust-surface collisions. The use of analytical expressions for the restitution coefficients as functions of the dust radius and impact velocity allows us to account for the sticking and rebound phenomena that define which parts of the dust size distribution can migrate efficiently. The experiment provided unambiguous evidence of long-distance dust migration; artificially introduced tungsten dust particles were collected 120 degrees toroidally away from the injection point, but also a selectivity in the permissible size of transported grains was observed. The main experimental results are reproduced by modelling.

  • 14. Riva, G.
    et al.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Daminelli, G.
    Donde, R.
    De Angeli, M.
    Vassallo, E.
    Pedroni, M.
    Adhesion measurements for tungsten dust deposited on tungsten surfaces2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 593-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first experimental determination of the pull-off force for tungsten dust adhered to tungsten surfaces is reported. Dust deposition is conducted with gas dynamics methods in a manner that mimics sticking as it occurs in the tokamak environment. Adhesion measurements are carried out with the electrostatic detachment method. The adhesion strength is systematically characterized for spherical micron dust of different sizes and planar surfaces of varying roughness. The experimental pull-off force is nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than the predictions of contact mechanics models, but in strong agreement with the Van der Waals formula. A theoretical interpretation is provided that invokes the effects of nanometer-scale surface roughness for stiff materials such as tungsten.

  • 15. Shalpegin, A.
    et al.
    Brochard, F.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bardin, S.
    Bystrov, K.
    Morgan, T.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Highly resolved measurements of dust motion in the sheath boundary of magnetized plasmas2015In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 55, no 11, article id 112001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust trajectories have been recorded with an unprecedented, under fusion-relevant plasma conditions, spatial resolution of 9 mu m/pixel in Pilot-PSI. The optical setup allowed the use of fast cameras as a basic microscope. It is demonstrated that such a resolution is essential for the correct interpretation of experiments on several aspects of dust-surface interactions. Highly resolved tungsten dust dynamics measurements are presented from dedicated experiments on dust collisions with plasma facing components, motion in the vicinity of castellated samples and remobilization from planar samples.

  • 16.
    Thorén, Emil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Bazylev, B.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Krieger, K.
    Pitts, R. A.
    Pestchanyi, S.
    Komm, M.
    Sieglin, B.
    Simulations with current constraints of ELM-induced tungsten melt motion in ASDEX Upgrade2017In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T170, article id 014006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt motion simulations of recent ASDEX Upgrade experiments on transient-induced melting of a tungsten leading edge during ELMing H-mode are performed with the incompressible fluid dynamics code MEMOS 3D. The total current flowing through the sample was measured in these experiments providing an important constraint for the simulations since thermionic emission is considered to be responsible for the replacement current driving melt motion. To allow for a reliable comparison, the description of the space-charge limited regime of thermionic emission has been updated in the code. The effect of non-periodic aspects of the spatio-temporal heat flux in the temperature distribution and melt characteristics as well as the importance of current limitation are investigated. The results are compared with measurements of the total current and melt profile.

  • 17.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Analytical expressions for thermophysical properties of solid and liquid tungsten relevant for fusion applications2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 13, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The status of the literature is reviewed for several thermophysical properties of pure solid and liquid tungsten which constitute input for the modelling of intense plasma-surface interaction phenomena that are important for fusion applications. Reliable experimental data are analyzed for the latent heat of fusion, the electrical resistivity, the specific isobaric heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the mass density from the room temperature up to the boiling point of tungsten as well as for the surface tension and the dynamic viscosity across the liquid state. Analytical expressions of high accuracy are recommended for these thermophysical properties that involved a minimum degree of extrapolations. In particular, extrapolations were only required for the surface tension and viscosity.

  • 18.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Lifshitz calculations of Hamaker constants for fusion relevant materials2018In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 133, p. 110-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of the Hamaker constant is necessary for the quantification of the van der Waals force and thus of dust-wall adhesion. Here Lifshitz theory is employed for the calculation of the non-retarded Hamaker constants of ten common dust-wall material combinations. Extended-in-frequency reliable dielectric data are employed and two independent computational methods are considered for the calculation of the dielectric function at the imaginary Matsubara frequencies. The Hamaker constant for tungsten-on-tungsten is the largest calculated, which implies the strongest adhesion. The Hamaker constant for graphite-on-graphite is much smaller than tungsten-on-tungsten and even beryllium-on-beryllium. Copper, chromium and especially aluminium are identified to be proper adhesive proxies of beryllium.

  • 19.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Low-frequency electrostatic modes in partially ionized complex plasmas: a kinetic approach2012In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 14, p. 013002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A kinetic model of partially ionized complex plasmas is employed for the numerical analysis of low-frequency longitudinal modes for typical laboratory plasmas. The approach self-consistently includes the effects of plasma particle absorption on dust, collisions with neutrals and electron impact ionization. In addition to the typical dust acoustic mode, the results reveal the existence of a novel long-wavelength mode, attributed to the interplay between the mechanisms of plasma production and loss. The main properties of mode dispersions are investigated through their dependence on plasma and dust parameters.

  • 20.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    On electron backscattering from dust grains in fusion plasmas2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 045003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron backscattering is identified as an important aspect of dust dynamics in fusion plasmas. Previously published experimental data on the backscattering of electrons with fusion relevant energies from solid targets are reviewed. Simple analytical expressions are proposed which, with a minimum number of parameters, can fit the experimental results with high accuracy. The contribution of electron backscattering to dust charging and heating is calculated. It is concluded that, especially for high-Z materials such as tungsten, electron backscattering leads to effective cooling of the grains, thus reducing the dust bulk temperature and enhancing dust lifetime and transport.

  • 21.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    On secondary electron emission and its semi-empirical description2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 12, p. 123002-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The description of secondary electron emission, as presented by plasma-material interaction fusion compendia, is demonstrated to be outdated both in its theoretical and experimental aspects. As a consequence, the recommended treatment leads to a strong overestimation of the secondary electron emission yields for tokamak relevant materials. Reliable experimental data-sets, in fusion energy ranges, are identified after a detailed review of a recently updated electron-solid interaction database and previously published experimental results. A novel semi-empirical approach is proposed for the description of the secondary electron emission yield. Application of the approach for a large number of solids reveals an unprecedented agreement with experimental data. The present results can serve as a reliable input for future quantitative investigations of the effect of secondary electron emission on various aspects of scrape-off-layer physics.

  • 22.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    The Klimontovich description of complex plasma systems: Low frequency electrostatic modes, spectral densities of fluctuations and collision integrals2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmas seeded with solid particulates of nanometer to micron sizes (complex plasma systems) are a ubiquitous feature of intergalactic, interstellar and planetary environments but also of plasma processing applications or even fusion devices.

    Their novel aspects compared with ideal multi-component plasmas stem from (i) the large number of elementary charges residing on the grain surface, (ii) the variability of the charge over mass ratio of the dust component, (iii) the inherent openness and dissipative nature of such systems.

     

    Their statistical description presents a major challenge; On one hand by treating dust grains as point particles new phase space variables must be introduced augmenting the classical Hamiltonian phase space, while the microphysics of interaction between the plasma and the grains will introduce additional coupling between the kinetic equations of each species, apart from the usual fine-grained electromagnetic field coupling. On the other hand complex plasma systems do not always exist in a gaseous state but can also condensate, i.e. form liquid, solid or crystalline states.

     

    In this thesis we study gaseous partially ionized complex plasma systems from the perspective of the Klimontovich technique of second quantization in phase space. Initially, in regimes typical of dust dynamics. Starting from the Klimontovich equations for the exact phase space densities, theory deliverables such as the permittivity, the spectral densities of fluctuations and the collision integrals are implemented either for concrete predictions related to low frequency electrostatic waves or for diagnostic purposes related to the enhancement of the ion density and electrostatic potential fluctuation spectra due to the presence of dust grains. Particular emphasis is put to the comparison of the self-consistent kinetic model with multi-component kinetic models (treating dust as an additional massive charged species) as well as to the importance of the nature of the plasma particle source. Finally, a new kinetic model of complex plasmas (for both constant and fluctuating sources) is formulated. It is valid in regimes typical of ion dynamics, where plasma discreteness can no longer be neglected, and, in contrast to earlier models, does not require relatively large dust densities to be valid.

  • 23.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Scattering of radiation in collisionless dusty plasmas2013In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 043706-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves in collisionless dusty plasmas is studied in the framework of a multi-component kinetic model. The investigation focuses on the spectral distribution of the scattered radiation. Pronounced dust signatures are identified in the coherent spectrum due to scattering from the shielding cloud around the dust grains, dust acoustic waves, and dust-ion acoustic waves. The magnitude and shape of the scattered signal near these spectral regions are determined with the aid of analytical expressions and its dependence on the dust parameters is investigated. The use of radiation scattering as a potential diagnostic tool for dust detection is discussed.

  • 24.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Screening in weakly ionized dusty plasmas; effect of dust density perturbations2013In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 023702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The screening of the charge of a non-emitting dust grain immersed in a weakly ionized dusty plasma is studied on the basis of a self-consistent hydrodynamic description. The dust number density is considered large enough so that the test grain is not isolated from other grains and dust collective effects are important. Not only dust charge perturbations but also dust density perturbations are taken into account, the latter are shown to have a strong effect on both the short and long range part of the potential. The realization of collective attraction via the newly obtained potential is discussed, a mechanism that could be central to the understanding of phase-transitions and self-organization processes in dusty plasmas.

  • 25.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    De Temmerman, G.
    Ripamonti, D.
    Riva, G.
    Bykov, Igor
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Shalpegin, A.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas Tancrède Raymond
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Brochard, F.
    Bystrov, K.
    Bardin, S.
    Litnovsky, A.
    Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions2016In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 58, no 2, article id 025009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions-direct lift-up, sliding, rolling-are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  • 26.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    de Angelis, U.
    Kinetic models of partially ionized complex plasmas in the low frequency regime2011In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 073705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results from three kinetic models of complex plasmas taking into account collisions with neutrals are compared in the low-frequency regime: The "full" model which considers the absorption of plasma fluxes on dust particles and dust charge fluctuations, the "multi-component" model where both these effects are neglected, and the "standard" model which takes into account the dust charge perturbations but not the absorption of fluxes. We derive and numerically evaluate expressions of the low frequency responses of these models, also taking into account the modification of the capture cross-sections due to the effect of neutrals. The role of plasma sources and collisions with neutrals is assessed by computing the plasma permittivities and static permittivities for all the three models.

  • 27.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    de Angelis, U.
    Regimes for experimental tests of kinetic effects in dust acoustic waves2010In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 103707-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low frequency responses of a kinetic model of dusty plasma, taking into account the absorption of the plasma particles on the dust particles and fluctuations of dust charge, are evaluated numerically in order to identify realistic experimental parameter regimes where charging effects are dominant. A range of parameters in terms of dust number density and size as well as plasma densities, where significant differences with the multicomponent approach can be found, is proposed. General expressions for the imaginary parts of the low frequency responses are derived and numerical results for the damping rate in the corresponding ranges are provided to ensure that observations of dust-acoustic waves in those conditions are plausible.

  • 28.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. Sezione di Napoli, Italy.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    de Angelis, U.
    Soft mean spherical approximation for dusty plasma liquids: Level of accuracy and analytic expressions2015In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 22, no 8, article id 083703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the study of the thermodynamics of dusty plasma liquids, the latter treated as Yukawa one-component plasmas. Within this integral theory method, the only input necessary for the calculation of the reduced excess energy stems from the solution of a single non-linear algebraic equation. Consequently, thermodynamic quantities can be routinely computed without the need to determine the pair correlation function or the structure factor. The level of accuracy of the approach is quantified after an extensive comparison with numerical simulation results. The approach is solved over a million times with input spanning the whole parameter space and reliable analytic expressions are obtained for the basic thermodynamic quantities.

  • 29.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    de Angelis, U.
    Soft mean spherical approximation for dusty plasma liquids: One- component Yukawa systems with plasma shielding2014In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 053101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure and thermodynamics of strongly coupled dusty plasmas are investigated with the soft mean spherical approximation. This integral theory approach is analytically solvable for Yukawa pair interactions yielding a closed-form solution for the direct correlation function. The pair correlation function, the structure factor, and basic thermodynamic quantities are calculated for a wide range of parameters. Exact consistency between the "energy"-"virial" thermodynamic routes and approximate consistency between the "energy" "compressibility" paths is demonstrated. Comparison with extensive molecular dynamics results is carried out and a remarkable agreement from the Coulomb limit to the strongly screened limit is revealed. The soft mean spherical approximation is concluded to be particularly well suited for the study of dusty plasma liquids, uniquely combining simplicity and accuracy.

  • 30.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics. Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Italy.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angelis, U.
    Lazzaro, E.
    The finite probe size effect in fluctuation measurements; application to dusty plasmas2016In: Journal of Plasma Physics, ISSN 0022-3778, E-ISSN 1469-7807, Vol. 82, no 2, article id 615820201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the finite probe size in plasma fluctuation measurements is revisited for dusty plasmas, where it has been argued that dust leads to a significant low-frequency enhancement in the spectral densities of ion density fluctuations, which can constitute the physical basis of a dust diagnostic technique. Theoretical predictions for the spectral modifications are presented and the dust acoustic mode contribution is analysed. The finite probe size effect is treated within the volume average approach, which introduces geometry dependent form factors that are calculated for spherical and cylindrical probes. The volume average approach is compared with the typically employed cutoff wavenumber approximation for various dust and plasma parameters. The contribution of temperature fluctuations to the spectral density of current fluctuations is also evaluated.

  • 31.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    de Angelis, Umberto
    Spectra of ion density and potential fluctuations in weakly ionized plasmas in the presence of dust grains2012In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 85, no 2, p. 026408-1-026408-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral densities of ion density and electrostatic potential fluctuations are derived in the framework of a self-consistent kinetic model of partially ionized dusty plasmas in the low-frequency regime. Neutral gas density can be responsible for significant modifications of the fluctuation level, hence the inclusion of the effect of neutrals is essential for a more realistic comparison with experiments, especially if spectral measurements are intended for dust diagnostic purposes. Comparison with the multicomponent model, attractive due to its simplicity as compared to the self-consistent one, is carried out to establish its limits of validity. Numerical calculations are performed for parameters typical of low-temperature plasma discharges. A criterion is derived for the omission of plasma discreteness in the low-frequency regime.

  • 32.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Panarese, A.
    Longo, S.
    de Angelis, U.
    Natural fluctuations in un-magnetized and magnetized plasmas2015In: Journal of Plasma Physics, ISSN 0022-3778, E-ISSN 1469-7807, Vol. 81, article id 905810314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are still open issues within the fluctuation theory of plasmas, in view of the difficulty of formulating adequate theoretical approaches and solving the related equations in particular regimes. A promising alternative approach is direct microphysical modeling based on first principles, as successfully applied to neutral rarefied fluids. Within this approach, the equations of motion of a large ensemble of charged particles are solved numerically while correlations are obtained from statistical analysis of the ensemble at different times. As a first step, in this work we validate the data analysis technique adopted in this numerical scheme for the case of an electron ensemble neglecting Coulomb interactions. The simulation results are compared with the analytical theory of 'natural' fluctuations for both un-magnetized and magnetized plasmas. For the latter, the derivations for arbitrary average distribution functions are presented.

  • 33. Tolias, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    Shalpegin, A.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    KTH.
    Brochard, F.
    De Angeli, M.
    van der Meiden, H.
    Experimental validation of the analytical model for tungsten dust - wall mechanical impacts incorporated in the MIGRAINe dust dynamics code2017In: NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND ENERGY, ISSN 2352-1791, Vol. 12, p. 524-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical dust-wall collisions are unavoidable in fusion devices and their accurate modeling is essential for the understanding of dust transport. The MIGRAINe dust dynamics code features analytical models addressing all facets of dust-surface impacts, some aspects of which have not been experimentally validated thus far. Dedicated dust injection experiments have been carried out in Pilot-PSI resulting to the visualization of in-plasma tungsten dust-surface impacts with an unprecedented resolution. They allowed for a calibration of key quantities of the MIGRAINe impact model.

  • 34.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Delzanno, G. L.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Theoret Div, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA..
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Electron reflection effects on particle and heat fluxes to positively charged dust subject to strong electron emission2018In: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 25, no 6, article id 063702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new model describing dust charging and heating in unmagnetized plasmas in the presence of large electron emission currents is presented. By accounting for the formation of a potential well due to trapped emitted electrons when the dust is positively charged, this model extends the so-called OML+ approach, thus far limited to thermionic emission, by including electron-induced emission processes, and in particular low-energy quasi-elastic electron reflection. Revised semi-analytical formulas for the current and heat fluxes associated with emitted electrons are successfully validated against particle-in-cell simulations and predict an overall reduction of dust heating by up to a factor of 2. When applied to tungsten dust heating in divertor-like plasmas, the new model predicts that the dust lifetime increases by up to 80%, as compared with standard orbital-motion-limited estimates.

  • 35.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Temmerman, Gregory
    Lehnen, Michael
    Lisgo, Steve
    Beryllium droplet cooling and distribution in the ITER vessel after a disruption2016In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    Pitts, R. A.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon Sur Verdon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    De Temmerman, G.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon Sur Verdon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Lehnen, M.
    ITER Org, Route Vinon Sur Verdon,CS 90 046, F-13067 St Paul Les Durance, France..
    Kiramov, D.
    Kurchatov Inst, Moscow 123182, Russia.;Natl Res Nucl Univ MEPhI, Moscow 115409, Russia..
    Survival and in-vessel redistribution of beryllium droplets after ITER disruptions2018In: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 58, no 7, article id 076008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motion and temperature evolution of beryllium droplets produced by first wall surface melting after ITER major disruptions and vertical displacement events mitigated during the current quench are simulated by the MIGRAINe dust dynamics code. These simulations employ an updated physical model which addresses droplet-plasma interaction in ITER-relevant regimes characterized by magnetized electron collection and thin-sheath ion collection, as well as electron emission processes induced by electron and high-Z ion impacts. The disruption scenarios have been implemented from DINA simulations of the time-evolving plasma parameters, while the droplet injection points are set to the first-wall locations expected to receive the highest thermal quench heat flux according to field line tracing studies. The droplet size, speed and ejection angle are varied within the range of currently available experimental and theoretical constraints, and the final quantities of interest are obtained by weighting single-trajectory output with different size and speed distributions. Detailed estimates of droplet solidification into dust grains and their subsequent deposition in the vessel are obtained. For representative distributions of the droplet injection parameters, the results indicate that at most a few percents of the beryllium mass initially injected is converted into solid dust, while the remaining mass either vaporizes or forms liquid splashes on the wall. Simulated in-vessel spatial distributions are also provided for the surviving dust, with the aim of providing guidance for planned dust diagnostic, retrieval and clean-up systems on ITER.

  • 37.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Analytical model of particle and heat flux collection by dust immersed in dense magnetized plasmas2017In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 59, no 10, article id 104002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive analytical description is presented for the particle and heat fluxes collected by dust in dense magnetized plasmas. Compared to the widely used orbital motion limited theory, the suppression of cross-field transport leads to a strong reduction of the electron fluxes, while ion collection is inhibited by thin-sheath effects and the formation of a potential overshoot along the field lines. As a result, the incoming heat flux loses its sensitivity to the floating potential, thereby diminishing the importance of electron emission processes in dust survivability. Numerical simulations implementing the new model for ITER-like detached divertor plasmas predict a drastic enhancement of the dust lifetime.

  • 38.
    Vignitchouk, Ladislas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Dust-wall and dust-plasma interaction in the MIGRAINe code2014In: Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, ISSN 0741-3335, E-ISSN 1361-6587, Vol. 56, no 9, p. 095005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The physical models implemented in the recently developed dust dynamics code MIGRAINe are described. A major update of the treatment of secondary electron emission, stemming from models adapted to typical scrape-off layer temperatures, is reported. Sputtering and plasma species backscattering are introduced from fits of available experimental data and their relative importance to dust charging and heating is assessed in fusion-relevant scenarios. Moreover, the description of collisions between dust particles and plasma-facing components, based on the approximation of elastic-perfectly plastic adhesive spheres, has been upgraded to take into account the effects of particle size and temperature.

  • 39. Weinzettl, V.
    et al.
    Matejicek, J.
    Ratynskaia, Svetlana V.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Tolias, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    De Angeli, M.
    Riva, G.
    Dimitrova, M.
    Havlicek, J.
    Adamek, J.
    Seidl, J.
    Tomes, M.
    Cavalier, J.
    Imrisek, M.
    Havranek, A.
    Panek, R.
    Peterka, M.
    Dust remobilization experiments on the COMPASS tokamak2017In: Fusion engineering and design, ISSN 0920-3796, E-ISSN 1873-7196, Vol. 124, p. 446-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust remobilization is one of the not yet fully understood mechanisms connected to the prompt erosion of material from plasma facing surfaces in fusion devices. As a part of a newly initiated cross-machine study, dust remobilization experiments have been performed on the COMPASS tokamak. Tungsten samples with well-defined deposited tungsten dust grains, prepared using a recently developed controlled pre-adhesion method, have been exposed to ELMy H-mode discharges as well as L-mode discharges with forced disruptions. Here we report on the technical aspects of the experiment realization as well as on the experimental results of dust remobilization. The latter is discussed in the light of data from other machines and a physical interpretation is suggested for the observed spatial localization of the dust remobilization activity. Evidence of rearrangement of isolated dust into clusters and strings is also presented.

1 - 39 of 39
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