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  • 1.
    Bin Ashraf, Faisal
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Water Resources & Environm Engn Res Unit, POB 4300, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Haghighi, Ali Torabi
    Univ Oulu, Water Resources & Environm Engn Res Unit, POB 4300, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Alfredsen, Knut
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol NTNU Vassbygget, 442 Valgrinda, Trondheim, Norway..
    Koskela, Jarkko J.
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a,POB 140, Helsinki 00260, Finland..
    Klove, Bjorn
    Univ Oulu, Water Resources & Environm Engn Res Unit, POB 4300, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Marttila, Hannu
    Univ Oulu, Water Resources & Environm Engn Res Unit, POB 4300, Oulu 90014, Finland..
    Changes in short term river flow regulation and hydropeaking in Nordic rivers2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 17232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying short-term changes in river flow is important in understanding the environmental impacts of hydropower generation. Energy markets can change rapidly and energy demand fluctuates at sub-daily scales, which may cause corresponding changes in regulated river flow (hydropeaking). Due to increasing use of renewable energy, in future hydropower will play a greater role as a load balancing power source. This may increase current hydropeaking levels in Nordic river systems, creating challenges in maintaining a healthy ecological status. This study examined driving forces for hydropeaking in Nordic rivers using extensive datasets from 150 sites with hourly time step river discharge data. It also investigated the influence of increased wind power production on hydropeaking. The data revealed that hydropeaking is at high levels in the Nordic rivers and have seen an increase over the last decade and especially over the past few years. These results indicate that increased building for renewable energy may increase hydropeaking in Nordic rivers.

  • 2.
    Morén, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Design of Remediation Actions for Nutrient Mitigation in the Hyporheic Zone2017In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, no 11, p. 8872-8899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although hyporheic exchange has been shown to be of great importance for the overall water quality of streams, it is rarely considered quantitatively in stream remediation projects. A main driver of hyporheic exchange is the hydraulic head fluctuation along the streambed, which can be enhanced by modifications of the streambed topography. Here we present an analytical 2-D spectral subsurface flow model to estimate the hyporheic exchange associated with streambed topographies over a wide range of spatial scales; a model that was validated using tracer-test-results and measurements of hydraulic conductivity. Specifically, engineered steps in the stream were shown to induce a larger hyporheic exchange velocity and shorter hyporheic residence times compared to the observed topography in Tullstorps Brook, Sweden. Hyporheic properties were used to parameterize a longitudinal transport model that accounted for reactions in terms of first-order decay and instantaneous adsorption. Theoretical analyses of the mitigation effect for nitrate due to denitrification in the hyporheic zone show that there is a Damkohler number of the hyporheic zone, associated with several different stream geomorphologies, that optimizes nitrate mass removal on stream reach scale. This optimum can be limited by the available hydraulic head gradient given by the slope of the stream and the geological constraints of the streambed. The model illustrates the complex interactions between design strategies for nutrient mitigation, hyporheic flow patterns, and stream biogeochemistry and highlights the importance to diagnose a stream prior remediation, specifically to evaluate if remediation targets are transport or reaction controlled.

  • 3.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Solute Transport Across Scales: Time Series Analyses of Water Quality Responses to Quantify Retention and Attenuation Mechanisms in Watersheds2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intra-continental movement of waterborne contaminants is governed by the distribution of solute load in the landscape along with the characteristics and distribution of the hydrological pathways that transport the solutes. An understanding of the processes affecting the transport and fate of the contaminants is crucial for assessments of solute concentrations and their environmental effect on downstream recipients. Elevated concentration of nutrients and the presence of anthropogenic substances, such as pharmaceutical residues, are two examples of the current problems related to hydrological transport. The overall objective of this thesis is to increase the mechanistic understanding of the governing hydrological transport processes and their links to geomorphological and biogeochemical retention and attenuation processes. Specifically, this study aims to quantify the processes governing the transport and fate of waterborne contaminants on the point, stream reach, and watershed scales by evaluating time series obtained from stream tracer tests and water quality monitoring data. The process quantification was achieved by deriving formal expressions for the key transport characteristics, such as the central temporal moments of a unit solute response function and the spectral scaling function for time series of solute responses, which attributes the solute response in the Laplace and Fourier domains to the governing processes and spatial regions within the watershed. The results demonstrate that in addition to the hydrological and biogeochemical processes, the distribution of the load in the landscape and the geomorphological properties in terms of the distribution of transport pathway distances have defined effects on the solute response. Furthermore, the spatial variability between and along the transport pathways significantly affect the solute response. The results indicate that environments with high retention and attenuation intensity, such as stream-reaches with pronounced hyporheic zones, may often dominate the solute flux in the watershed effluent, especially for reactive solutes. The mechanistic-based framework along with the evaluation methodologies presented within this study describes how the results can be generalized in terms of model parameters that reflect the hydrology, geomorphology and biogeochemistry in the studied area. This procedure is demonstrated by the parameterization of a compartment-in-series model for phosphorous transport.

  • 4.
    Riml, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Hydraulic Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Hydraulic Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Response functions for in-stream solute transport in river networks2011In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 47, no W06502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the effects of different hydrological mechanisms on the solute response in watershed stream networks. Important processes are due to the hydraulic and chemical retention of reactive solutes in transient storage zones and the cumulative consequences of these processes from a single transport pathway as well as from the network of transport pathways. Temporal moments are derived for a distributed stream network and for a compartment-in-series model. The temporal moments are evaluated and are utilized to derive formal expressions for translating the network parameters into compartmental model parameters. The analysis reveals that in addition to the hydraulic and chemical retention processes, the morphological and topological properties of a watershed have a distinct impact on the central temporal moments in terms of averaging of the solute load weighted distances as well as the transport parameters over the network. Kinetic (rate-limited) transient storage affects second-order and higher central temporal moments and thus has a secondary effect on the parameterization of compartmental models. Additional considerable contributions to all temporal moments are introduced when parameter variability along transport pathways is considered. The paper demonstrates an improved model outcome for phosphorus transport in a small Swedish watershed by accounting for the overall network effects when parameterizing a compartment-in-series model.

  • 5.
    Riml, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Spatiotemporal decomposition of solute dispersion in watersheds2015In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 2377-2392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about the effect of different dispersion mechanisms on the solute response in watersheds is crucial for understanding the temporal dynamics of many water quality problems. However, to quantify these processes from stream water quality time series may be difficult because the governing mechanisms responsible for the concentration fluctuations span a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. In an attempt to address the quantification problem, we propose a novel methodology that includes a spectral decomposition of the watershed solute response using a distributed solute transport model for the network of transport pathways in surface and subsurface water. Closed form solutions of the transport problem in both the Laplace and Fourier domains are used to derive formal expressions of (i) the central temporal moments of a solute pulse response and (ii) the power spectral response of a solute concentration time series. By evaluating high-frequency hydrochemical data from the Upper Hafren Watershed, Wales, we linked the watershed dispersion mechanisms to the damping of the concentration fluctuations in different frequency intervals reflecting various environments responsible for the damping. The evaluation of the frequency-dependent model parameters indicate that the contribution of the different environments to the concentration fluctuations at the watershed effluent varies with period. For the longest periods (predominantly groundwater transport pathways) we found that the frequency typical transport time of chloride was 100 times longer and that sodium had a 2.5 times greater retardation factor compared with the shortest periods (predominantly shallow groundwater and surface water transport pathways).

  • 6.
    Riml, Joakim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Hydraulic Engineering.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Hydraulic Engineering.
    Kunkel, Uwe
    Univeristy of Bayreuth.
    Radke, Michael
    Stockholm University.
    Evaluating the fate of six common pharmaceuticals using a reactive transport model: Insights from a stream tracer test2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 458, p. 344-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative information regarding the capacity of rivers to self-purify pharmaceutical residues is limited. To bridge this knowledge gap, we present a methodology for quantifying the governing processes affecting the fate of pharmaceuticals in streaming waters and, especially, to evaluate their relative significance for tracer observations. A tracer test in Sava Brook, Sweden was evaluated using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model framework containing surface water transport together with a representation of transient storage in slow/immobile zones of the stream, which are presumably important for the retention and attenuation of pharmaceuticals. To assess the key processes affecting the environmental fate of the compounds, we linked the uncertainty estimates of the reaction rate coefficients to the relative influence of transformation and sorption that occurred in different stream environments. The hydrological and biogeochemical contributions to the fate of the pharmaceuticals were decoupled, and the results indicate a moderate hydrological retention in the hyporheic zone as well as in the densely vegetated parts of the stream. Biogeochemical reactions in these transient storage zones further affected the fate of the pharmaceuticals, and we found that sorption was the key process for bezafibrate, metoprolol, and naproxen, while primary transformation was the most important process for clofibric acid and ibuprofen. Conversely, diclofenac was not affected by sorption or transformation.

  • 7.
    Wörman, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Bottacin-Busolin, A.
    Zmijewski, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Spectral decomposition of regulatory thresholds for climate-driven fluctuations in hydro- and wind power availability2017In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 7296-7315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate-driven fluctuations in the runoff and potential energy of surface water are generally large in comparison to the capacity of hydropower regulation, particularly when hydropower is used to balance the electricity production from covarying renewable energy sources such as wind power. To define the bounds of reservoir storage capacity, we introduce a dedicated reservoir volume that aggregates the storage capacity of several reservoirs to handle runoff from specific watersheds. We show how the storage bounds can be related to a spectrum of the climate-driven modes of variability in water availability and to the covariation between water and wind availability. A regional case study of the entire hydropower system in Sweden indicates that the longest regulation period possible to consider spans from a few days of individual subwatersheds up to several years, with an average limit of a couple of months. Watershed damping of the runoff substantially increases the longest considered regulation period and capacity. The high covariance found between the potential energy of the surface water and wind energy significantly reduces the longest considered regulation period when hydropower is used to balance the fluctuating wind power. Plain Language Summary The availability of renewable energy fluctuates significantly with climate and needs to be regulated to be sufficient at all times. This regulation can be achieved by storing hydropower in water reservoirs, but is complicated by the vast spatial distribution of storage locations, size variations in reservoirs, the covariation of renewable energy, and the range of frequencies that need to be considered in climate variations. This study provides a new method of analysis that can provide estimates of the most effective use of hydropower reservoirs and the limits of their use for regulating renewable energy. Based on data from entire Sweden we show how the storage bounds can be related to a spectrum of the climate-driven modes of variability in water availability and to the covariation between water and wind availability. The high covariance found between the potential energy of the surface water and wind energy significantly reduces the longest considered regulation period when hydropower is used to balance the fluctuating wind power.

  • 8.
    Wörman, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom.
    Zmijewski, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Spectral Decomposition of Regulatory Thresholds for Climate–Driven Fluctuations in Hydro- and Wind Power AvailabilityArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Wörman, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Lindstrom, G.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    The power of runoff2017In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 548, p. 784-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the potential energy of surface water is a small part of Earth's energy budget, this highly variable physical property is a key component in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle empowering geomorphological and hydrological processes throughout the hydrosphere. By downscaling of the daily hydrometeorological data acquired in Sweden over the last half-century this study quantifies the spatial and temporal distribution of the dominating energy components in terrestrial hydrology, including the frictional resistance in surface water and groundwater as well as hydropower. The energy consumed in groundwater circulation was found to be 34.6 TWh/fy or a heat production of approximately 13% of the geothermal heat flux. Significant climate driven, periodic fluctuations in the power of runoff, stream flows and groundwater circulation were revealed that have not previously been documented. We found that the runoff power ranged from 173 to 260 TWh/y even when averaged over the entire surface of Sweden in a five-year moving window. We separated short-term fluctuations in runoff due to precipitation filtered through the watershed from longer-term seasonal and climate driven modes. Strong climate driven correlations between the power of runoff and climate indices, wind and solar intensity were found over periods of 3.6 and 8 years. The high covariance that we found between the potential energy of surface water and wind energy implies significant challenges for the combination of these renewable energy sources.

  • 10.
    Wörman, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lindström, Göran
    Åkesson, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Drifting runoff periodicity during the 20th century due to changing surface water volume2010In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 24, no 26, p. 3772-3784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourier and wavelet analyses were used to reveal the dominant trends and coherence of a more than one-century-long time series of precipitation and discharge in several watersheds in Sweden, two of which were subjected to hydropower and intensive agriculture. During the 20th century, there was a gradual, significant drift of the dominant discharge periodicity in agricultural watersheds. This study shows that the steepness of the Fourier spectrum of runoff from the May to October period each year increased gradually during the century, which suggests a more predictable intra-annual runoff pattern (more apart from white-noise). In the agricultural watershed, the coherence spectrum of precipitation and runoff is generally high with a consistent white-noise relationship for precipitation during the 20th century, indicating that precipitation is not controlling the drift of the discharge spectrum. In the hydropower regulated watershed, there was a sudden decrease of the discharge spectrum slope when regulation commenced in the 1920s. This study develops a new theory in which the runoff spectrum is related to the hydraulic and hydro-morphological characteristics of the watershed. Using this theory, we explain the changes in runoff spectra in the two watersheds by the anthropogenic change in surface water volume and, hence, changes in kinematic wave celerity and water transit times. The reduced water volume in the agricultural watershed would also contribute to decreasing evaporation, which could explain a slightly increasing mean discharge during the 20th century despite the fact that precipitation was statistically constant in the area.

  • 11.
    Wörman, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Mojarrad, Babak Brian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Fragmentation of the Hyporheic Zone Due to Regional Groundwater Circulation2019In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By use of numerical modeling and field observations, this work quantified the effects of catchment-scale upwelling groundwater on the hyporheic (below stream) fluxes over a wide range of spatial scales. A groundwater flow model was developed that specifically accounted for the hydrostatic and dynamic head fluctuations induced by the streambed topography. Although the magnitudes and relative importance of these streambed-induced fluxes were found to be highly sensitive to site-specific hydromorphological properties, we showed that streambed topographic structures exert a predominant control on the magnitude of hyporheic exchange fluxes in a Swedish boreal catchment. The magnitude of the exchange intensity evaluated at the streambed interface was found to be dominated by the streambed-induced hydraulic head across stream order. However, the catchment-scale groundwater flow field substantially affected the distribution of groundwater discharge points and thus decreased the fragmentation of the hyporheic zone, specifically by shifting the cumulative density function toward larger areas of coherent upwelling at the streambed interface. This work highlights the spectrum of spatial scales affecting the surface water-groundwater exchange patterns and resolves the roles of key mechanisms in controlling the fragmentation of the hyporheic zone.

  • 12.
    Wörman, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Schmadel, N.
    Neilson, B. T.
    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Heavilin, J. E.
    Spectral scaling of heat fluxes in streambed sediments2012In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 39, no 23, p. L23402-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancing our predictive capabilities of heat fluxes in streams and rivers is important because of the effects on ecology and the general use of heat fluxes as analogues for solute transport. Along these lines, we derived a closed-form solution that relates the in-stream temperature spectra to the responding temperature spectra at various depths in the sediment through a physical scaling factor including the effective thermal diffusivity and the Darcy flow velocity. This analysis considers the range of frequencies in temperature fluctuations that occur due to diurnal and meteorological variation both in the long and short term. This approach provides insight regarding the key frequencies for analysing temperature responses at different depths within the sediment and also provides a simple and accurate method that offers quantitative insight into heat transport and surface water interactions with groundwater. We demonstrate for Sava Brook, Sweden, how the values of effective thermal diffusivities can be estimated based on the observed in-stream and sediment temperature time series and explain the temporal scaling of the heat transport as a function of a dimensionless frequency number. We find that the lower limit of periods of significance for the analysis increases with depth, and we recommend further research regarding appropriate frequency windows.

  • 13.
    Åkesson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Wörman, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Riml, Joakim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Seibert, Jan
    Change in streamflow response in unregulated catchments in Sweden over the last century2016In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Fourier spectral analysis of 55-110 years of daily discharge time series in 79 unregulated catchments in Sweden reveals that the discharge power spectrum slope in most of the studied catchments has gradually steepened over time. This statistically significant drift in the periodicity of dominant hydrologic response processes can be attributed to a change in either climatic forcing factors or anthropogenic effects on the land surface, e.g., land-use changes. For those locations for which historical meteorological observations are available (the 41 southernmost catchments), the results of our analyses of changes in precipitation power spectra indicate that local land-use changes within the catchments may affect discharge power spectra more significantly than precipitation pattern changes (resulting from climate change).

    By using 1D distributed hydraulic routing, we quantitatively analyze how travel time distributions within stream networks can vary because of anthropogenic impacts, such as changes in stream network spatial coordinates (these stream networks are derived from three maps: two from the present and one from the 1880s), river width modifications, stream channel excavation, and the elimination of thresholds in stream bottom topography that cause exceedingly low local bottom slopes.

    The findings that the discharge power spectrum may change significantly over time, implies that conventional, statistically-based parameterization of hydrological models that rely on assumptions of stationarity may be less suited than more physically based parameterization alternatives. This essential information must be considered when performing tasks that involve (peak) flow predictions, such as those for dimensioning and flood risk management purposes.

     

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