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  • 1.
    Abdellaoui, G.
    et al.
    Univ Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Fac Technol, Telecom Lab, Tilimsen, Algeria..
    Abe, S.
    Nihon Univ Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan..
    Adams, J. H., Jr.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Ahriche, A.
    Univ Jijel, Lab Theoret Phys LPT, Jijel, Algeria..
    Allard, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Allen, L.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Alonso, G.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Anchordoqui, L.
    CUNY, Lehman Coll, Bronx, NY USA..
    Anzalone, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Arai, Y.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Asano, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Attallah, R.
    Univ Badji Mokhtar, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, LPR, Annaba, Algeria..
    Attoui, H.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Ave Pernas, M.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Bacholle, S.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Bakiri, M.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Baragatti, P.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Barrillon, P.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Bartocci, S.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Bayer, J.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Beldjilali, B.
    Univ Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Fac Technol, Telecom Lab, Tilimsen, Algeria..
    Belenguer, T.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Belkhalfa, N.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Bellotti, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.;INFN, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Belov, A.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Belov, K.
    NASA, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA USA..
    Benmessai, K.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Bertainaek, M.
    Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Biermann, P. L.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Biktemerova, S.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Bisconti, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Blanc, N.
    Swiss Ctr Elect & Microtechnol CSEM, Neuchatel, Switzerland..
    Blecki, J.
    Polish Acad Sci CBK, Space Res Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Blin-Bondil, S.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS IN2P3, Omega, Palaiseau, France..
    Bobik, P.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Bogomilov, M.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Bozzo, E.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bruno, A.
    Univ Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.;INFN, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Caballero, K. S.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas UNACH, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Cafagna, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Campana, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Capdevielle, J-N
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Caramete, A.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Caramete, L.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Caruso, R.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Catania, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy..
    Casolino, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.;RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Cassardo, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Castellina, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Catalano, C.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Catalano, O.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Cellino, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Chikawa, M.
    Kinki Univ, Higashi Osaka, Japan..
    Chiritoi, G.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Christl, M. J.
    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Washington, DC 20546 USA..
    Connaughton, V
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Conti, L.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Cordero, G.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Cotto, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Crawford, H. J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Cremonini, R.
    Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Csorna, S.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Cummings, A.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Dagoret-Campagne, S.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    De Donato, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    de la Taille, C.
    Ecole Polytech, CNRS IN2P3, Omega, Palaiseau, France..
    De Santis, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    del Peral, L.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Di Martino, M.
    Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Damian, A. Diaz
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Djemil, T.
    Univ Badji Mokhtar, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, LPR, Annaba, Algeria..
    Dutan, I
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Ebersoldt, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Ebisuzaki, T.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Engel, R.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Eser, J.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Fenuek, F.
    Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Fernandez-Gonzalez, S.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Fernandez-Soriano, J.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Ferrarese, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Flamini, M.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Fornaro, C.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Fouka, M.
    CRAAG, Dept Astron, Algiers, Algeria..
    Franceschi, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Franchini, S.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Fujii, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Fujimoto, J.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Fukushima, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Galeotti, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Garcia-Ortega, E.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Garipov, G.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Gascon, E.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Genci, J.
    Tech Univ Kosice TUKE, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Giraudo, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Gonzalez Alvarado, C.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Gorodetzky, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Greg, R.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Guarino, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento Fis, Naples, Italy..
    Guzman, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Hachisu, Y.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Haiduc, M.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Harlov, B.
    TsNIIMash, Cent Res Inst Machine Bldg, Korolev, Russia..
    Haungs, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Hernandez Carretero, J.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Hidber Cruz, W.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Ikeda, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Inoue, N.
    Saitama Univ, Saitama, Japan..
    Inoue, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Isgro, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Napoli Federico II, DIETI, Naples, Italy..
    Itow, Y.
    Nagoya Univ, Inst Space Earth Environm Res, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Jammer, T.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Expt Phys Inst, Tubingen, Germany..
    Jeong, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Joven, E.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Judd, E. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Space Sci Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Jung, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Jochum, J.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Expt Phys Inst, Tubingen, Germany..
    Kajino, F.
    Konan Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Kajino, T.
    Natl Astron Observ, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kalli, S.
    Univ Msila, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, Msila, Algeria..
    Kaneko, I
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Karadzhov, Y.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Karczmarczyk, J.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Katahira, K.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Kawai, K.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Kawasaki, Y.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Kedadra, A.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Khales, H.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Khrenov, B. A.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Kim, Jeong-Sook
    Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst KASI, Daejeon, South Korea..
    Kim, Soon-Wook
    Korea Astron & Space Sci Inst KASI, Daejeon, South Korea..
    Kleifges, M.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Klimov, P. A.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Kolev, D.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Krantz, H.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Kreykenbohm, I
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Erlangen, Germany..
    Kudela, K.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Kurihara, Y.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Kusenko, A.
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.;NASA, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA USA..
    Kuznetsov, E.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    La Barbera, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Lachaud, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Lahmar, H.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Lakhdari, F.
    UROP CDTA, Res Unit Opt & Photon, Setif, Algeria..
    Larson, R.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Larsson, O.
    KTH.
    Lee, J.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Licandro, J.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Lopez Campano, L.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Maccarone, M. C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Mackovjak, S.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Mahdi, M.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Maravilla, D.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Marcelli, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Marcos, J. L.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Marini, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Marszal, W.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Martens, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan..
    Martin, Y.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Martinez, O.
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Martucci, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Masciantonio, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Chiba, Japan..
    Mastafa, M.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Matev, R.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Matthews, J. N.
    Univ Utah, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Mebarki, N.
    Univ Constantine I, Lab Math & Subatom Phys LPMPS, Constantine, Algeria..
    Medina-Tanco, G.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Mendoza, M. A.
    CDA IPN, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Menshikov, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Merino, A.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Meseguer, J.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Meyer, S. S.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Mimouni, J.
    Univ Constantine I, Lab Math & Subatom Phys LPMPS, Constantine, Algeria..
    Miyamoto, H.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Mizumoto, Y.
    Natl Astron Observ, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan..
    Monaco, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy.;Univ Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.;INFN, Sez Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Morales de los Rios, J. A.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Moretto, C.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Nagataki, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Naitamor, S.
    CRAAG, Dept Astron, Algiers, Algeria..
    Napolitano, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Naslund, W.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Nava, R.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Neronov, A.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Nomoto, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan..
    Nonaka, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Ogawa, T.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Ogio, S.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka, Japan..
    Ohmori, H.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Olinto, A. , V
    Orleanski, P.
    Polish Acad Sci CBK, Space Res Ctr, Warsaw, Poland..
    Osteria, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Pagliaro, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;INAF Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy..
    Painter, W.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Panasyuk, M. , I
    Panico, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Pasqualino, G.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Parizot, E.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Park, I. H.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Pastircak, B.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Patzak, T.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Paul, T.
    CUNY, Lehman Coll, Bronx, NY USA..
    Perez-Grande, I
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Perfetto, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Peter, T.
    ETH, Inst Atmospher & Climate Sci, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Picozza, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Rome, Italy.;RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Pindado, S.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Piotrowski, L. W.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Piraino, S.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Placidi, L.
    UTIU, Dipartimento Ingn, Rome, Italy..
    Plebaniak, Z.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Pliego, S.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Pollini, A.
    Swiss Ctr Elect & Microtechnol CSEM, Neuchatel, Switzerland..
    Polonski, Z.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Popescu, E. M.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Prat, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Prevot, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Prieto, H.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Putis, M.
    Inst Expt Phys, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Rabanal, J.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Radu, A. A.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Reyes, M.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Rezazadeh, M.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Ricci, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Rodriguez Frias, M. D.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Rodencal, M.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Ronga, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Roudil, G.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Rusinov, I
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Rybczynski, M.
    Jan Kochanowski Univ Humanities & Sci, Inst Phys, Kielce, Poland..
    Sabau, M. D.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Saez Cano, G.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Sagawa, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Sahnoune, Z.
    CRAAG, Dept Astron, Algiers, Algeria..
    Saito, A.
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan..
    Sakaki, N.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Salazar, H.
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Sanchez Balanzar, J. C.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Sanchez, J. L.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Santangelo, A.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Sanz-Andres, A.
    UPM, Madrid, Spain..
    Sanz Palomino, M.
    INTA, Madrid, Spain..
    Saprykin, O.
    TsNIIMash, Cent Res Inst Machine Bldg, Korolev, Russia..
    Sarazin, F.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Sato, M.
    Hokkaido Univ, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan..
    Schanz, T.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Schieler, H.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Scotti, V
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Selmane, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Semikoz, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Obs Paris, CEA Irfu,CNRS IN2P3,APC, Paris, France..
    Serra, M.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Sharakin, S.
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Shimizu, H. M.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Shinozaki, K.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Shirahama, T.
    Saitama Univ, Saitama, Japan..
    Spataro, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Frascati, Frascati, Italy..
    Stan, I
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Sugiyama, T.
    Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan..
    Supanitsky, D.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Suzuki, M.
    JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Szabelska, B.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Szabelski, J.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Lodz, Poland..
    Tajima, N.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Tajima, T.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Takahashi, Y.
    Hokkaido Univ, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan..
    Takami, H.
    High Energy Accelerator Res Org KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Takeda, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Takizawa, Y.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Talai, M. C.
    Univ Badji Mokhtar, Fac Sci, Dept Phys, LPR, Annaba, Algeria..
    Tenzer, C.
    Univ Tubingen, Kepler Ctr, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Tubingen, Germany..
    Thomas, S. B.
    Univ Utah, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Tibolla, O.
    Ctr Mesoamer Fis Teor MCTP, Chiapas, Mexico..
    Tkachev, L.
    Joint Inst Nucl Res, Dubna, Russia..
    Tokuno, H.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Interact Res Ctr Sci, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tomida, T.
    Shinshu Univ, Nagano, Japan..
    Tone, N.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Toscano, S.
    ISDC Data Ctr Astrophys, Versoix, Switzerland..
    Traiche, M.
    Ctr Dev Adv Technologies CDTA, Algiers, Algeria..
    Tsenov, R.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Tsunesada, Y.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka, Japan..
    Tsuno, K.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Tubbs, J.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Turriziani, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Uchihori, Y.
    Natl Inst Radiol Sci, Chiba, Japan..
    Vaduvescu, O.
    IAC, Tenerife, Spain..
    Valdes-Galicia, J. F.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Vallania, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Ist Nazl Astrofis, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Vankova, G.
    St Kliment Ohridski Univ Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria..
    Vigorito, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Turin, Italy..
    Villasenor, L.
    UMSNH, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Vlcek, B.
    Univ Alcala UAH, Madrid, Spain..
    Von Ballmoos, P.
    Univ Toulouse, CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Vrabel, M.
    Tech Univ Kosice TUKE, Kosice, Slovakia..
    Wada, S.
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Watanabe, J.
    Natl Astron Observ, Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan..
    Watts, J., Jr.
    Univ Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 USA..
    Weber, M.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Weigand Munoz, R.
    Univ Leon ULE, Leon, Spain..
    Weindl, A.
    KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Wiencke, L.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Wille, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Erlangen, Germany..
    Wilms, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Erlangen, Germany..
    Wlodarczyk, Z.
    Jan Kochanowski Univ Humanities & Sci, Inst Phys, Kielce, Poland..
    Yamamoto, T.
    Konan Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Yang, J.
    Ewha Womans Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yano, H.
    JAXA, Inst Space & Astronaut Sci, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Yashin, I. , V
    Yonetoku, D.
    Kanazawa Univ, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Chiba, Japan..
    Young, R.
    NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Washington, DC 20546 USA..
    Zgura, I. S.
    ISS, Magurele, Romania..
    Zotov, M. Yu
    Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow, Russia..
    Marchi, A. Zuccaro
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    First observations of speed of light tracks by a fluorescence detector looking down on the atmosphere2018In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 13, article id P05023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EUSO-Balloon is a pathfinder mission for the Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO). It was launched on the moonless night of the 25(th) of August 2014 from Timmins, Canada. The flight ended successfully after maintaining the target altitude of 38 km for five hours. One part of the mission was a 2.5 hour underflight using a helicopter equipped with three UV light sources (LED, xenon flasher and laser) to perform an inflight calibration and examine the detectors capability to measure tracks moving at the speed of light. We describe the helicopter laser system and details of the underflight as well as how the laser tracks were recorded and found in the data. These are the first recorded laser tracks measured from a fluorescence detector looking down on the atmosphere. Finally, we present a first reconstruction of the direction of the laser tracks relative to the detector.

  • 2. Abdellaoui, G.
    et al.
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Larsson, O.
    KTH. RIKEN, Wako, Japan.
    Zuccaro Marchi, A.
    et.al.,
    Cosmic ray oriented performance studies for the JEM-EUSO first level trigger2017In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, p. 150-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    JEM-EUSO is a space mission designed to investigate Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos (E > 5.10(19) eV) from the International Space Station (ISS). Looking down from above its wide angle telescope is able to observe their air showers and collect such data from a very wide area. Highly specific trigger algorithms are needed to drastically reduce the data load in the presence of both atmospheric and human activity related background light, yet retain the rare cosmic ray events recorded in the telescope. We report the performance in offline testing of the first level trigger algorithm on data from JEM-EUSO prototypes and laboratory measurements observing different light sources: data taken during a high altitude balloon flight over Canada, laser pulses observed from the ground traversing the real atmosphere, and model landscapes reproducing realistic aspect ratios and light conditions as would be seen from the ISS itself. The first level trigger logic successfully kept the trigger rate within the permissible bounds when challenged with artificially produced as well as naturally encountered night sky background fluctuations and while retaining events with general air-shower characteristics.

  • 3.
    Abdellaoui, G.
    et al.
    Univ Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen, Fac Technol, Telecom Lab, Tilimsen, Algeria..
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Marchi, A. Zuccaro
    RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Ultra-violet imaging of the night-time earth by EUSO-Balloon towards space-based ultra-high energy cosmic ray observations2019In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 111, p. 54-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The JEM-EUSO (Joint Experiment Missions for the Extreme Universe Space Observatory) program aims at developing Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence telescopes for efficient detections of Extensive Air Showers (EASs) induced by Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from satellite orbit. In order to demonstrate key technologies for JEM-EUSO, we constructed the EUSO-Balloon instrument that consists of a similar to 1 m(2) refractive telescope with two Fresnel lenses and an array of multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes at the focus. Distinguishing it from the former balloon-borne experiments, EUSO-Balloon has the capabilities of single photon counting with a gate time of 2.3 mu s and of imaging with a total of 2304 pixels. As a pathfinder mission, the instrument was launched for an 8 h stratospheric flight on a moonless night in August 2014 over Timmins, Canada. In this work, we analyze the count rates over similar to 2.5 h intervals. The measurements are of diffuse light, e.g. of airglow emission, back-scattered from the Earth's atmosphere as well as artificial light sources. Count rates from such diffuse light are a background for EAS detections in future missions and relevant factor for the analysis of EAS events. We also obtain the geographical distribution of the count rates over a similar to 780 km(2) area along the balloon trajectory. In developed areas, light sources such as the airport, mines, and factories are clearly identified. This demonstrates the correct location of signals that will be required for the EAS analysis in future missions. Although a precise determination of count rates is relevant for the existing instruments, the absolute intensity of diffuse light is deduced for the limited conditions by assuming spectra models and considering simulations of the instrument response. Based on the study of diffuse light by EUSO-Balloon, we also discuss the implications for coming pathfinders and future space-based UHECR observation missions.

  • 4. Abdellaoui, G.
    et al.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro
    et al,
    EUSO-TA - First results from a ground-based EUSO telescope2018In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 102, p. 98-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EUSO-TA is a ground-based telescope, installed at the Telescope Array (TA) site in Black Rock Mesa, Utah, USA. This is the first detector to successfully use a Fresnel lens based optical system and multi-anode photomultipliers (64 channels per tube, 2304 channels encompassing a 10.6° × 10.6° field of view) for detection of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). The telescope is located in front of one of the fluorescence detectors of the TA experiment. Since its installation in 2013, the detector has observed several ultra-high energy cosmic ray events and, in addition, meteors. The limiting magnitude of 5.5 on summed frames (∼ 3 ms) has been established. Measurements of the UV night sky emission in different conditions and moon phases and positions have been completed. The performed observations serve as a proof of concept for the future application of this detector technology.

  • 5.
    Capel, Francesca
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Piotrowski, L.
    Collaboration, J E M-E U S O
    Mini-EUSO flight software and operations on ISS2017In: Proceedings of Science, Sissa Medialab Srl , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO instrument is designed by the JEM-EUSO collaboration to pave the way for space-based observations of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECRs). To be placed inside the International Space Station (ISS) in early 2018, it is a small UV (300-400 nm) telescope which will observe the Earth's atmosphere with a spatial resolution of 6.11 km. Mini-EUSO is capable of detecting a wide variety of UV events such as cosmic ray signals, transient luminous events and meteors with a minimum time resolution of 2.5 μs. It will also be possible to detect space debris during twilight periods. The flight software is fully automated and takes advantage of the frequent day/night cycles of the ISS orbit and ancillary instruments with which Mini-EUSO is equipped in order to optimise the mission's scientific output. The flight operations of Mini-EUSO are presented including the data acquisition, storage and transfer, astronaut interaction and predicted instrument duty cycle. 

  • 6. Casolino, M.
    et al.
    Bidoll, V.
    Minori, M.
    Narici, L.
    De Pascale, M. P.
    Picozza, P.
    Reall, E.
    Zaconte, V.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    Vittori, R.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Galper, A.
    Korotkov, M.
    Popov, A.
    Vavilov, N.
    Avdeev, S.
    Berighin, V.
    Petrov, V. P.
    Salnitskii, V. P.
    Shevchenko, O. I.
    Trukhanov, K. A.
    Shurshakov, K. A.
    Boezio, M.
    Bonvicini, W.
    Vacchi, A.
    Zampa, G.
    Zarnpa, N.
    Mazzenga, G.
    Ricci, M.
    Spillantini, P.
    Relative nuclear abundances inside ISS with Sileye-3/Alteino experiment2006In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 1685-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experiment Sileye-3/Alteino was first operational on board the international Space Station between 27/4 and 1/5/2002. It is constituted of a cosmic ray silicon detector and an electroencephalograph and is used to monitor radiation environment and study the light flash phenomenon in space. As a stand-alone device, Sileye-3/Alteino can monitor in real time cosmic ray nuclei. In this work, we report on relative nuclear abundance measurements in different regions of the orbit for nuclei from B to Fe in the energy range above similar or equal to 60 Mev/n. Abundances of nuclei such as 0 and Ne relative to C are found to be increased in respect to particle composition outside of the station, whereas the Fe group is reduced. This effect could be ascribed to nuclear interactions with the hull of the station.

  • 7. Di Fino, L.
    et al.
    Belli, F.
    Bidoli, V.
    Casolino, M.
    Narici, L.
    Picozza, P.
    Rinaldi, A.
    Ruggieri, D.
    Zaconte, V.
    Carozzo, S.
    Sannita, W. G.
    Spillantini, P.
    Cotronei, V.
    Alippi, E.
    Gianelli, G.
    Galper, A.
    Korotkov, M.
    Popov, A.
    Petrov, V. P.
    Salnitskii, V. P.
    Avdeev, S.
    Bonvicini, W.
    Zampa, G.
    Zampa, N.
    Vittori, R.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Schardt, D.
    ALTEA data handling2006In: SPACE LIFE SCIENCES: FLIGHT MEASUREMENTS, CALIBRATION OF DETECTORS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MODELS FOR RADIATION ANALYSIS / [ed] Heilbronn, L; DeAngels, G, ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, , 2006, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 1710-1715Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALTEA program is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts, in particular the anomalous perception of Light Flashes. This paper describes ALTEA space facility scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) after July 2006, what kind of data are produced and how data are transmitted to Earth, processed and analyzed.

  • 8.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Exploiting space experience to engage and inspire young people2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In December 2006 I took part in the STS-116 mission, during the assembly of ISS. Being the first Scandinavian in space, it created a lot of interest in my home country Sweden. In various ways that were, and still are, exploited to inspire young people - from primary school pupils to university students - to become interested in STEM subjects, or even to go for a master education in aerospace engineering. A second shuttle flight in 2009 reinforced the interest and opened new outreach possibilities. To achieve optimal outreach during a space mission - in particular comparatively short ones such as shuttle missions - early and detailed planning is crucial. With favorable conditions the potential for post-flight exploitation of astronauts to inspire the young is huge, but smart selections are necessary. For example, there is no limit in how many schools could be visited, but that is probably not the best use of limited time. I have visited most Swedish universities and some schools, but now with the Swedish National Space Board a couple of dedicated school tours per year, of about a week each, targeting different geographical areas are being organized. On a higher level, I was appointed to a government committee that was tasked to propose actions to increase the number of students in STEM subject. Partly to increase the attractiveness of a master program in aerospace engineering, I've been asked to be in charge of it and I'm developing a dedicated course "Human Spaceflight" within the program. Another way to create interest among the youngest ones is through children’s books about space. I've written four books about two siblings that travel in space with their uncle Albert. The stories are meant to be entertaining and exciting and involve physics, mathematics, and other sciences. These books then act by themselves to stimulate children to think about space and science in various ways. Last year a campaign "talk-to-space" was introduced It encouraged children to formulate questions they would like to ask an extraterrestrial. Earlier we arranged a mathematics challenge.

  • 9.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI). Swedish National Space Board, Sweden.
    Increasing impact of astronaut visits to schools by early preparation, exemplified by "community days" of the ase planetary congress inspired by space2015In: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC, International Astronautical Federation, 2015, p. 10239-10242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Association of Space Explorers (ASE) organizes the annual "ASE Planetary Congress". This year (2015) between 20-27 September, the congress took place in Sweden, with the theme name Inspired by Space. In addition to give astronauts and cosmonauts from all over the world a forum to meet and discuss, there are several open technical sessions with a mixture of speakers by ASE members and distinguished guests. However, the most important part of the Planetary Congresses are the "Community Days", when the participating astronauts and cosmonauts split in small groups and visit schools, universities, and other public places. In Sweden about one hundred astronauts were expected to participate and during two half-days around close to hundred schools would get visits by space fliers who share their experiences and enthusiasm with many thousands of pupils and students. The schools prepare many months in advance for the visits, e.g. by "challenges" that are published on websites. Teachers are invited to special briefings. This talk will present the preparations for the ASE congress Inspired by Space Community Days that were done in order to optimize the impact of visiting astronauts and cosmonauts, and detail the outcome, which took place only a few weeks before IAC2015. The presenter is the head responsible for the Inspired by Space congress.

  • 10.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. European Space Agcy, France.
    Physiology in space2014In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 211, p. 17-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Using the human eye to image space radiation or the history and status of the light flash phenomena2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 580, no 2, p. 861-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About 80% of people who travel in space experience sudden phosphenes, commonly called light flashes (LF). Although the detailed physiological process is still not known, the LFs are caused by particles in the cosmic radiation field. Indeed, by counting LFs one can even make a crude image of the radiation environment around the Earth. Studies on the space station Mir with the SilEye experiment correlated LFs with charged particles traversing the eye. It was found that a nucleus in the radiation environment has roughly a 1% probability of causing a light flash, whereas the proton's probability is almost three orders of magnitude less. As a function of linear energy transfer (LET), the probability increased with ionization above 10 keV/mu m, reaching about 5% at 50 keV/mu m. The investigations are continuing on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Alteino/SileEye-3 detector, which is also a precursor to the large Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts (ALTEA) facility. These detectors are also measuring-imaging-the radiation environment inside the ISS, which will be compared to Geant4 simulations from the DESIRE project. To further the understanding of the LF phenomena, a survey among current NASA and ESA astronauts was recently conducted. The LFs are predominantly noticed before sleep and some respondents even thought it disturbed their sleep. The LFs appear white, have elongated shapes, and most interestingly, often come with a sense of motion. Comparing the shapes quoted from space observations with ground experiments done by researchers in the 1970s, it seems likely that some 5-10% of the LFs in space are due to Cherenkov light in the eye. However, the majority is most likely caused by some direct interaction in the retina.

  • 12.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Capel, Francesca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Casolino, M.
    Klimov, P.
    Larsson, O.
    Ricci, M.
    Mini-euso inside iss to prepare for studying ultra-high energy particles from the outside2015In: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC, International Astronautical Federation, 2015, p. 3998-4002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mini-EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a small UV telescope to be placed inside the Zvezda module of ISS in 2017, as a part of the work of the JEM-EUSO collaboration. The Mini-EUSO instrument will be equipped with one full original JEM-EUSO Photo-Detector-Module (PDM), an optical system made of two Fresnel lenses (25 cm in diameter) and a data acquisition system. The Mini-EUSO instrument serves as a pathfinder towards the goals of the full JEM-EUSO mission: to place a large instrument on the outside of ISS to study Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) with energies of E > 3×1019 eV. This can be achieved by measuring the light in the UV range from the Extensive Air Showers (EAS) that these particles trigger in the atmosphere [1]. By using the ISS altitude to monitor a target volume far greater than is possible from the ground, unprecedented statistical accuracy of the primary energy, arrival direction and composition of UHECRs will be obtained. Such data will shed light on the origin of the UHECRs, on the sources that are producing them, on the propagation environment from the source to the Earth and, possibly, on the particle physics mechanisms at energies well beyond those achievable in man-made accelerators. Moreover, there are exploratory objectives such as constraining the galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, the detection of extreme energy neutrinos and gamma rays, the verification of special relativity at extremely large Lorentz factors, the examination of possible quantum gravity effects at extreme energies and the systematic surveillance of atmospheric phenomena. The Mini-EUSO instrument will have 2, 304 pixels from 36 multi-anode PMTs with each pixel viewing an equivalent area of 5.4 × 5.4 km2 on ground. The full field of view is ±19° and the instrument has a time resolution of 2.5 μs. The Mini-EUSO mission has at least four different objectives: (1) to raise the technical readiness level of JEM-EUSO to the highest grade, (2) to perform an absolute calibration of the multi-anode photomultipliers in flight (crucial for JEM-EUSO), (3) to take advantage of being at ISS altitude, like JEM-EUSO, and study in a precise way the UV background coming from Earth in all the different reflective conditions (water, earth, vegetation, snow, etc.) and (4) to study atmospheric phenomena, such as lightning, and related light, as well as meteors.

  • 13.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Larsson, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Benghin, V. V.
    Casolino, M.
    Chernikch, I. V.
    di Fino, L.
    Larosa, M.
    Lund-Jensen, Bengt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Narici, L.
    Nikolaev, I. V.
    Petrov, V. M.
    Picozza, P.
    de Santis, C.
    Zaconte, V.
    Relative nuclear abundances, LET and dose rates at various locations and configurations in ISS from the ALTCRISS experiment2013In: 64th International Astronautical Congress: Radiation Fields, Effects and Risks in Human Space Missions, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years many devices, using different technologies and various locations, have been used - and are still in use - on the International Space Station, ISS, to measure and map the radiation and cosmic particle flux which astronauts as well as sensitive electronics are exposed to. This presentation presents recent analyses and results from the SilEye-3/Alteino detector during the ESA-sponsored project ALTCRISS. Comparisons are made with data from other experiments, such as ALTEA and PADLES. Alteino is a Si-strip detector, developed from the two SilEye detectors that were operated on Mir, in particular for studies of the Light Flash phenomena. Alteino was used at several locations, and orientations, in the Russian segment of ISS from late 2005 through 2007. Many of the data sets were obtained with a shielding of 5 g/cm2 polyethylene in front of the detector. Data on nuclei from C to Fe in the energy range above ≃  60 MeV/n show an increase in relative abundance for odd Z inside ISS compared to the outside, due to fragmentation in the hull. Fluxes and relative abundances vary with location and shielding, where the material of the station itself plays a major role. The difference in flux can be as much as 50%. LET spectra - which are not restricted to single particle events - show similar tendencies, though when converted to equivalent dose rates the effect of the polyethylene is somewhat pronounced. Comparison with ALTEA data shows slightly higher dose rates for Alteino in the Russian segment, which can be expected due to that ALTEA operated in the US lab Destiny with more station material around it. As expected, the response of CR39 in terms of equivalent dose rate is higher than Alteino, due to the smaller acceptance energy range of the latter.

  • 14.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Wilson, C. F.
    Venus long-life surface package (VL2SP)2017In: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC, International Astronautical Federation, IAF , 2017, p. 3035-3043Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in the atmosphere and at the surface of Venus are required to understand fundamental processes of how terrestrial planets evolve and how they work today. While the European Venus community is unified in its support of the EnVision orbiter proposal as the next step in European Venus exploration, many scientific questions also require in situ Venus exploration. We suggest a long-duration lander at Venus, which would be capable of undertaking a seismometry mission, operating in the 460°C surface conditions of Venus. Radar maps have shown Venus to be covered with volcanic and tectonic features, and mounting evidence, including observations from Venus Express, suggests that some of these volcanoes are active today. Assessing Venus' current seismicity, and measuring its interior structure, is essential if we are to establish the geological history of our twin planet, for example to establish whether it ever had a habitable phase with liquid water oceans. Although some constraints on seismic activity can be obtained from orbit, using radar or ionospheric observation, the most productive way to study planetary interiors is through seismometry. Seismometry requires a mission duration of months or (preferably) years. Previous landers have used passive cooling, relying on thermal insulation and the lander's thermal inertia to provide a brief window of time in which to conduct science operations - but this allows mission durations of hours, not months. Proposals relying on silicon electronics require an electronics enclosure cooled to < 200 °C; the insulation, cooling and power system requirements escalate rapidly to require a > 1 ton, > €1bn class mission, such as those studied in the context of NASA flagship missions. However, there are alternatives to silicon electronics: in particular, there have been promising advances in silicon carbide (SiC) electronics capable of operating at temperatures of 500°C. Within the coming decade it will be possible to assemble at least simple circuits using SiC components, sufficient to run a seismometry lander. We are proposing a Venus Long-Lived Surface Package (VL2SP) consisting of power source (RTG), science payload (seismometer and meteorology sensors), and ambient temperature electronics including a telecommunications system weighing < 100 kg. We do not specify how this VL2SP gets to the surface of Venus, but we estimate that an orbiter providing data relay would be essential. This presentation is based on a response sumitted to ESA's Call for New Scientific Ideas in September 2016. 

  • 15.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zetterling, Carl-Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Working on venus and beyond - SiC electronics for extreme environments2017In: Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC, International Astronautical Federation, IAF , 2017, p. 10393-10398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Venus is our closest planet, but we know much less about it than about Mars. The main reason for this is the extreme conditions, with a dense atmosphere of mainly CO2 at 92 bar atmosphere and 460 °C temperature at the surface. Only six spacecraft have succeeded to land on Venus and transmit data back to Earth; however none survived for long due to the high temperature. Venera-13 has the record, with 127 minutes at the surface of Venus in 1982. There are many compelling reasons to learn more about the sister planet of Earth, which requires measurements over months rather than minutes on the surface of Venus. Perhaps the single-most challenging task for long-term data taking on the surface of Venus is to build electronics that can operate at temperatures up to 500 °C without cooling. It seems that such technology must be based on wide bandgap semiconductors, such as GaN, SiC or diamond. At KTH, research with SiC devices and integrated circuits has been done for more than 20 years, demonstrating high voltage devices and digital integrated circuit operation at 600 °C. In 2014 the project Working On Venus launched, with funding from Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. The goal is to demonstrate all the electronics for a complete working lander, with all electronics from sensors through amplifiers and analog-to-digital converters to microcontroller with memory and radio, including power supply. The particular sensors the project has in mind are seismic, gas and image sensors. So far, a 200 device level integration has been demonstrated at 500 °C and a 5000+ device level 4 bit microcontroller is being fabricated in an in-house bipolar technology. As for all devices for space, radiation is another concern. SiC integrated circuits have survived exposure to 3 MeV protons with fluences of 1013 cm-2 and gamma rays with doses of 332 Mrad. The dedicated project SUPERHARD IC will study manufacture methods for radiation hardened instrument components that could go beyond Venus, for example for Jovian system exploration. Members of Working on Venus are discussing with scientists seeking opportunities for a Venus Long-Life Surface Package (lander). In 2016 a response was submitted to ESA's Call for New Scientific Ideas. 

  • 16.
    Larsson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Benghin, V. V.
    Berger, T.
    Casolino, M.
    Di Fino, L.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    Larosa, M.
    Lund-Jensen, Bengt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Nagamatsu, A.
    Narici, L.
    Nikolaev, I. V.
    Picozza, P.
    Reitz, G.
    De Santis, C.
    Zaconte, V.
    Measurements of heavy-ion anisotropy and dose rates in the Russian section of the International Space Station with the Sileye-3/Alteino detector2015In: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, ISSN 0954-3899, E-ISSN 1361-6471, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 025002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present data on linear energy transfer (LET), dose and dose equivalent rates from different locations of the Russian part of the International Space Station (ISS) measured by the Sileye-3/Alteino detector. Data were taken as part of the ESA ALTCRISS project from late 2005 through 2007. The LET rate data shows a heavy-ion (LET > 50 keV/mu m) anisotropy. From the heavy-ion LET rate in the Zvezda service module we find ISS (y) over cap (Starboard) and (z) over cap (Nadir) to be about 10-15 times higher than in (x) over cap (Forward). The situation is similar for dose and dose equivalent rates, ranging from 25-40 mu Gy d(-1) in (x) over cap to about 75 mu Gy d(-1) in (z) over cap, whereas for the dose equivalent the rate peaks in (y) over cap with around 470 mu Sv d(-1). The heavy-ion anisotropy confirms what has been reported by the ALTEA collaboration. Measurements using two sets of passive detectors, DLR-TLDs and PADLES (TLD+CR-39), have also been performed in conjunction with Alteino measurements, both shielded and unshielded. The passive detectors register a dose rate about 3-5 times as high as Alteino, 260-280 mu Gy d(-1) for PADLES and 200-260 mu Gy d(-1) for DLR-TLDs. For the dose equivalent PADLES measurements ranges from 560-740 mu Sv d(-1).

  • 17.
    Larsson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Benghin, V. V.
    Casolino, M.
    Chernikch, I. V.
    di Fino, L.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Larosa, M.
    Lund-Jensen, Bengt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Narici, L.
    Nikolaev, I. V.
    Petrov, V. M.
    Picozza, P.
    de Santis, C.
    Zaconte, V.
    Relative nuclear abundance from C to Fe and integrated flux inside the Russian part of the ISS with the Sileye-3/Alteino experiment2014In: Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, ISSN 0954-3899, E-ISSN 1361-6471, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 015202-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present data from the Sileye-3/Alteino detector on board the International Space Station (ISS), which was gathered following a recalibration after several years in orbit. We also measure the relative nuclei abundance and integrated flux, which were normalized to the solar modulation values of August 2007. The measurements were made at different locations of the Russian part of the ISS. The relative nuclear abundances of C to Fe in relation to C, in an energy range above similar or equal to 60 MeV/n, shows high levels of odd Z particles inside the ISS and an under-abundance of C and O compared with the galactic spectrum, as presented by Simpson in 1983. In addition, the values of the integrated flux varies primarily according to location and detector orientation. An additional polyethylene shield also reduces the flux, although in a lower amount than changes in the orientation of the telescope. Data were taken as part of the ESA ALTCRISS project from late 2005 through to 2007.

  • 18. Narici, A
    et al.
    Carlson, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Schardt, D
    The ALTEA/ALTEINO projects: studying functional effects of microgravity and cosmic radiation2004In: SPACE LIFE SCIENCES: SEARCH FOR SIGNATURES OF LIFE, AND SPACE FLIGHT ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM / [ed] Horneck, G; LevasseurRegourd, AC; Rabin, BM; Slenzka, KB, OXFORD: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD , 2004, Vol. 33, no 8, p. 1352-1357Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALTEA project investigates the risks of functional brain damage induced by particle radiation in space. A modular facility (the ALTEA facility) is being implemented and will be operated in the International Space Station (ISS) to record electrophysiological and behavioral descriptors of brain function and to monitor their time dynamics and correlation with particles and space environment. The focus of the program will be on abnormal visual perceptions (often reported as "light flashes" by astronauts) and the impact on retinal and brain visual structures of particle in microgravity conditions. The facility will be made available to the international scientific community for human neurophysiological, electrophysiological and psychophysics experiments, studies on particle fluxes, and dosimetry. A precursor of ALTEA (the 'Alteino' project) helps set the experimental baseline for the ALTEA experiments, while providing novel information on the radiation environment onboard the ISS and on the brain electrophysiology of the astronauts during orbital flights. Alteino was flown to the ISS on the Soyuz TM34 as part of mission Marco Polo. Controlled ground experiments using mice and accelerator beams complete the experimental strategy of ALTEA. We present here the status of progress of the ALTEA project and preliminary results of the Alteino study on brain dynamics, particle fluxes and abnormal visual perceptions.

  • 19. Straube, Ulrich
    et al.
    Berger, Thomas
    Reitz, Guenther
    Facius, Rainer
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Reiter, Thomas
    Damann, Volker
    Tognini, Michel
    Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations2010In: Acta Astronautica, ISSN 0094-5765, E-ISSN 1879-2030, Vol. 66, no 7-8, p. 963-973Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

  • 20. Topchiev, N. P.
    et al.
    Galper, A. M.
    Bonvicini, V.
    Adriani, O.
    Aptekar, R. L.
    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.
    Arkhangelskiy, A. I.
    Bergstrom, L.
    Berti, E.
    Bigongiari, G.
    Bobkov, S. G.
    Bogomolov, E. A.
    Boezio, M.
    Bongi, M.
    Bonechi, S.
    Bottai, S.
    Boyarchuk, K. A.
    Vacchi, A.
    Vannuccini, E.
    Vasilyev, G. I.
    Castellini, G.
    Cattaneo, P. W.
    Cumani, P.
    Dedenko, G. L.
    Dogiel, V. A.
    De Donato, C.
    Hnatyk, B. I.
    Gorbunov, M. S.
    Gusakov, Y. V.
    Zampa, N.
    Zverev, V. G.
    Zirakashvili, V. N.
    Kadilin, V. V.
    Kaplin, V. A.
    Kaplun, A. A.
    Korepanov, V. E.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Leonov, A. A.
    Loginov, V. A.
    Longo, F.
    Maestro, P.
    Marrocchesi, P. S.
    Mikhailov, V. V.
    Mocchiutti, E.
    Moiseev, A. A.
    Mori, N.
    Moskalenko, I. V.
    Naumov, P. Y.
    Papini, P.
    Picozza, P.
    Pearce, Mark
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Popov, A. V.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Rappoldi, A.
    Ricciarini, S.
    Runtso, M. F.
    Serdin, O. V.
    Sparvoli, R.
    Spillantini, P.
    Suchkov, S. I.
    Tavani, M.
    Taraskin, A. A.
    Tiberio, A.
    Tyurin, E. M.
    Ulanov, M. V.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Kheymits, M. D.
    Yurkin, Y. T.
    The GAMMA-400 experiment: Status and prospects2015In: Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, ISSN 1062-8738, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 417-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the GAMMA-400 γ-ray telescope continues. The GAMMA-400 is designed to measure fluxes of γ-rays and the electron-positron cosmic-ray component possibly associated with annihilation or decay of dark matter particles; and to search for and study in detail discrete γ-ray sources, to measure the energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-rays, and to study γ-ray bursts and γ-rays from the active Sun. The energy range for measuring γ-rays and electrons (positrons) is from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. For 100-GeV γ-rays, the γ-ray telescope has an angular resolution of ∼0.01°, an energy resolution of ∼1%, and a proton rejection factor of ∼5 × 105. The GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian Space Observatory.

  • 21. Zaconte, V.
    et al.
    Fuglesang, Christer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Schardt, D.
    et al.,
    ALTEA: flight model calibration at GSI2006In: Advances in Space Research, ISSN 0273-1177, E-ISSN 1879-1948, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 1704-1709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ALTEA project, an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) after July 2006, is aimed at studying particle radiation in space environment and its effects on astronauts, in particular the anomalous perception of 'light flashes'. In this paper, we present experimental results obtained by testing the Flight Model of the ALTEA particle detector in two measurement sessions performed at the heavy ion accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, Germany. Instrument response was compared with Monte-carlo simulations to study its linearity and calculate amplification.

1 - 21 of 21
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