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  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, GA Delft, 2600, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö. KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Centra, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Determinants of traveler satisfaction: Evidence for non-linear and asymmetric effects2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 66, s. 339-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 2.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    How does travel satisfaction sum up?: Decomposing the door-to-door experience for multimodal trips2018Inngår i: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 1615-1642Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how satisfaction with individual trip legs aggregates to the overall travel experience for different types of trips will enable the identification of the trip legs that are most impactful. For this purpose we analyze data on retrospective evaluations of entire multi-modal trip experiences and satisfaction with individual trip legs. We formulate and describe alternative aggregation rules and underpin them in theory and previous empirical findings. The results of a series of regression models show that for a large number of multi-modal trip configurations normative rules can better reproduce overall travel satisfaction than heuristic rules. This indicates that all trip legs need to be considered when evaluating the overall travel experience, especially for trips legs involving waiting and/or transferring time. In particular, weighting satisfaction with individual trip legs with perceived trip leg durations yielded the best predictor of overall travel satisfaction. No evidence for a disproportional effect of the last or most exceptional part of the trip was found. This research contributes to the literature on combining multi-episodic experiences and provides novel empirical evidence in the transport domain. 

  • 3.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. TU Delft.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Investigating the nature of Public Transport service attributes2018Inngår i: Transportation Science, ISSN 0041-1655, E-ISSN 1526-5447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 4.
    Abenoza, Roberto F.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Liu, C.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2019Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 122, s. 34-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The ordered logit model results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 5.
    Burghout, Wilco
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301). KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301).
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301).
    DYMOBUS: dynamic mesoscopic modelling of bus public transport2009Inngår i: Conference proceedings to ITS 2009 conference, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s public bus transport punctuality is one of the main problems to deal with for traffic planners and operators, especially in large cities such as Stockholm. The current static models do not handle congestion delays and the interaction between bus and car traffic, leading to overly optimistic timetables and hard to manage delays. In the DYMOBUS project (Funded by VINNOVA and City of Stockholm) a dynamic modelling tool was developed in order to study these interactions. This paper discusses a mesoscopic, mixed-traffic, a transit simulation model designed to support evaluation of operations planning and control, especially in the context of Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). Examples of applications include frequency determination, evaluation of real time control strategies for schedule maintenance and restoration from major disruptions. The transit simulation component is designed to represent realistically the uncertainty in operations, in order to assess service reliability. The simulation models all sources of uncertainty: chaining of trips, travel time variability, behavior at stops and a detailed representation of passenger demand at the various stops. Unlike most previous efforts in this area, the simulation model is built on the platform of a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, which allows modeling of the operations of large-scale transit systems. A Tel-Aviv case study demonstrates the transit simulation capabilities of the model.

  • 6.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    An Agent-Based Approach for Modeling Real-Time Travel Information in Transit Systems2014Inngår i: 5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON AMBIENT SYSTEMS, NETWORKS AND TECHNOLOGIES (ANT-2014), THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (SEIT-2014), 2014, Vol. 32, s. 744-749Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time travel information (RTI) systems are rapidly developed and deployed worldwide using the abundance of instantaneous data and dissemination means. This paper presents a framework for a multi-agent simulation model that emulates the generation and dissemination of RTI. The evolution of transit reliability influences both the performance of RTI generation schemes and the potential benefits that such information could yield. An iterative within-day network loading and a day-to-day learning process represent both service provider and service user ability to apply and adapt their strategies based on past performance and predictions. A case study illustrates model capabilities by applying BusMezzo, an agent-based simulation model of vehicles and travellers. The proposed model facilitates the analysis of alternative prediction schemes as well as the impact of their provision on system performance. 

  • 7.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301).
    BusMezzo: dynamic modeling of bus and car traffic2010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Determinants of Bus Riding Time Deviations: On the Mutual Relation between Driver Behavior and Transit PerformanceInngår i: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Determinants of Bus Riding Time Deviations: Relationship between Driving Patterns and Transit Performance2019Inngår i: JOURNAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING PART A-SYSTEMS, ISSN 2473-2907, Vol. 145, nr 1, artikkel-id 04018078Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban bus services e subject to high levels of uncertainty and disturbances. Methods to determine the timetable are designed to absorb variations in riding times between stops by allocating additional travel time. The propagation of service unreliability along the route could be restrained by drivers' adjustment at stops and between stops. This paper analyzes the main determinants of bus riding times deviations based on automatic vehicle location (AVL) data from four trunk lines in Stockholm, Sweden. The analysis indicates that drivers can and do adjust their speeds in response to instantaneous real-time schedule adherence information, although these adjustments depend on the underlying control scheme: locations where the performance is measured. A model for bus riding time deviations was estimated with autoregressive effects, performance indicators, link characteristics, and trip attributes as the explanatory factors. The results can support the development of travel time prediction and real-time control strategies that take drivers' response to operations into account. This highlights the importance of the human factor in designing control schemes and the corresponding transit performance evaluation.

  • 10.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301).
    DYMOBUS: Mesoscopic modeling of bus public transport2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301).
    DYMOBUS: Transit simulation2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Dynamic Modeling of Transit Operations and Passenger Decisions2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis and evaluation of transit operations and control, in particular  in the context of Advanced Public Transport System (APTS) requires the dynamic  modeling of the transit system. A dynamic transit simulation model has to  capture the interactions between three main components: passengers, transit  operations and traffic dynamics at the network level. BusMezzo is a dynamic  transit analysis and evaluation tool that represents timetables, vehicle  scheduling, control and management strategies, real-time information and  adaptive passenger choices. Individual passengers carry out a sequence of  boarding, walking and alighting decisions along their journey. The model had  been applied for the evaluation of holding control strategies and information  provision scenarios.

  • 13.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Dynamic Modelling of Transit Operations and Passenger Decisions2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient and reliable public transport systems are fundamental in promoting green growth developments in metropolitan areas. A large range of Advanced Public Transport Systems (APTS) facilitates the design of real-time operations and demand management. The analysis of transit performance requires a dynamic tool that will enable to emulate the dynamic loading of travelers and their interaction with the transit system.

    BusMezzo, a dynamic transit operations and assignment model was developed to enable the analysis and evaluation of transit performance and level of service under various system conditions and APTS. The model represents the interactions between traffic dynamics, transit operations and traveler decisions. The model was implemented within a mesoscopic traffic simulation model. The different sources of transit operations uncertainty including traffic conditions, vehicle capacities, dwell times, vehicle schedules and service disruptions are modeled explicitly.

    The dynamic path choice model in BusMezzo considers each traveler as an adaptive decision maker. Travelers’ progress in the transit system consists of successive decisions that are defined by the need to choose the next path element. The evaluations are based on the respective path alternatives and their anticipated downstream attributes. Travel decisions are modeled within the framework of discrete random utility models. A non-compensatory choice-set generation model and the path utility function were estimated based on a web-based survey.

    BusMezzo enables the analysis and evaluation of proactive control strategies and the impacts of real-time information provision. Several experiments were conducted to analyze transit performance from travelers, operator and drivers perspectives under various holding strategies. This analysis has facilitated the design of a field trial of the most promising strategy. Furthermore, a case study on real-time traveler information systems regarding the next vehicle arrival time investigated the impacts of various levels of coverage and comprehensiveness. As passengers are more informed, passenger loads are subject to more fluctuation due to the traveler adaptations.

  • 14.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Dynamic transit operations tool with passenger route choice2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Dynamic Transit Supply and Demand Modeling2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Effektivisering av busstrafik genom BuzMezzo2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Multi-agent transit operations and assignment model2013Inngår i: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier, 2013, s. 809-814Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit systems exercise complex dynamics and evolve through the interaction of various agents. The analysis of transit performance requires emulating the dynamic loading of travellers and their interaction with the underlying transit system. Multi-agent simulations aim to mimic the emergence of global spontaneous order from numerous inter-dependent local decisions. This paper presents a framework for a multi-agent transit operations and assignment model which captures supply uncertainties and adaptive user decisions. An iterative day-to-day learning process consisting of a within-day dynamic network loading loop simulates the interaction between transit supply and demand. The model requires the development and integration of several modules including traffic simulation, transit operations and control, dynamic path choice model and real-time information generator. BusMezzo, a transit simulation model, is used as the platform for implementation.

  • 18.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Real-Time Predictions for Light Rail Train Systems2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport operations are subject to inherent uncertainty. Instantaneous vehicle positioning data facilitates the development of prediction schemes that could improve the accuracy and reliability of real-time information (RTI). There is lack of research on RTI for Light rail train (LRT) systems. LRT are characterized by driving regimes that depend on rolling stock and infrastructure specifications. This paper develops and tests two prediction schemes for rail-bound systems which are based on constructing link-specific speed profiles. The prediction schemes are applied for a LRT line in Bergen, Norway. The performance of the currently deployed scheme and alternative schemes is compared using 6 months empirical vehicle positioning data. The results indicate that the proposed methods improve the reliability of the prediction scheme and increase the share of errors smaller than 1 minute to 89%, up to par with metro systems. 

  • 19.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Regularity-driven bus operation: Principles, implementation and business models2014Inngår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 36, s. 223-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service reliability is a key determinant of public transport performance. In the context of high-frequency urban lines, irregular service results with long waiting times, bunched vehicles, long delays, uneven passenger loads, poor capacity utilization and higher operational costs. Field experiments were conducted in Stockholm, Sweden, in order to test the feasibility and implications of a regularity-driven operation scheme designed to mitigate bus bunching and facilitated by a real-time control strategy. This paper investigates alternative service indicators and business models that could best support the long-term implementation of operation geared towards better regularity performance. A paradigm shift towards regularity-based service evidently requires the consideration of a series of measures along the service chain as it involves a paradigm shift in production planning, operations, control center and performance monitoring.

  • 20.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    RETT2 Final Report: A Field Test for Service Regularity Improvement2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 21.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    RETT3 Final Report: A Field Test for Service Regularity Improvement2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    The robustness value of public transport development plans2016Inngår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 51, s. 236-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in transport are increasingly motivated by the need to improve its robustness the capacity to absorb disturbances with a minimal impact on system performance. Nonetheless, there is lack of knowledge on how to assess and quantify the robustness value of new investments. This study investigates the robustness of alternative public transport networks by assessing the consequences of link failures on network performance. A full-scan disruption impact analysis is performed and its implications on passenger's group composition and travel time losses are analysed for a public transport development plan in Stockholm, Sweden. The results suggest that as a result of the development plan, the robustness of the case study network will improve in terms of average performance deterioration as well as worst case scenario for all performance indicators. Neglecting abnormal operations in project appraisal can potentially lead to the underestimation of its benefits. Moreover, the critical links in each network are identified and impact disparity is investigated. The analysis method presented in this study can support the consideration of development plan impacts on network robustness in the strategic planning process. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Topological evolution of a metropolitan rail transport network: The case of Stockholm2017Inngår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 62, s. 172-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of transport networks is the outcome of a large number of infrastructure investment decisions taken over a long time span. Network indicators are widely used for characterizing transport network topology and its performance as well as provide insights on, possible developments. Little is known however on how rail bound public transport networks and their network indicators have evolved into their current form. This study conducts a longitudinal analysis of the topological evolution of a multimodal rail network by investigating the dynamics of its topology for the case of Stockholm in 1950-2025. The starting year marks the opening of the metro system while the end year is set to mark the completion of the current development plan. Based on a compilation of network topology and service properties, a year-on-year analysis of changes in global network efficiency and directness as well as local nodal centrality were conducted. Changes in network topology exhibit smooth long-term technological and spatial trends as well as the signature of top-down planning interventions. Stockholm rail network evolution is characterized by contraction and stagnation periods followed by network extensions and is currently undergoing a considerable densification, marking a shift from peripheral attachment to preferential attachment.

  • 24.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Delft University, Netherlands.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Evolution of Satisfaction with Public Transport and Its Determinants in Sweden Identifying Priority Areas2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 2538, s. 86-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring and analysing satisfaction with public transport services facilitates service performance monitoring, market analysis, benchmarking and the identification of priority areas. The systematic and regular collection of information concerning satisfaction enables to investigate how passengers’ satisfaction as well as its determinants changes over time. These changes may be driven by changes in service quality or shifts in passengers’ expectations and preferences. This study analyses how satisfaction with public transport and its determinants evolved over time in Sweden in the years 2001-2013. The determinants of satisfaction are identified based on a factor analysis and the estimation of multivariate satisfaction models. The superposition of our findings culminates in a dynamic passenger satisfaction priority map which allows identifying priority areas based on observed trends in satisfaction with service attributes and their respective importance. The deterioration of overall satisfaction with public transport in Sweden in recent years is driven by a decrease in satisfaction with customer interface and length of trip time. These two service aspects as well as operation were found key determinants of overall satisfaction which users consistently rate among the least satisfactory. The results of this study are instrumental in supporting service providers in designing measures that will foster satisfaction in the future.

  • 25. Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Al-Mudhaffar, Azhar
    An implementation of regularity-driven bus service: development of alternative business models2014Inngår i: Transport Research Arena (TRA) 2014 Proceedings, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service reliability is a key determinant of public transport performance. In the context of high-frequency urban lines, irregular service results with long waiting times, bunched vehicles, long delays, uneven passenger loads, poor capacity utilization and higher operational costs. Field experiments were conducted in Stockholm in order to test the feasibility and implications of a regularity-driven operations scheme designed to mitigate bus bunching and facilitated by a real-time control strategy. The results led to an investigation of alternative service indicators and business models that could best support the long-term implementation of operations geared towards better regularity performance. A shift towards regularity-based service requires the consideration of a series of measures along the service chain as it involves a paradigm shift in production planning, operations, control center and performance monitoring.

  • 26.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301). KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301).
    Mesoscopic Modeling of Bus Public Transportation2010Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 2188, s. 9-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of public transport system performance and level of service in urban areas is essential. Dynamic modeling of traffic conditions, passenger demand, and transit operations is important to represent adequately the complexity of and the interactions between these components in modern public transportation systems. This paper presents a transit simulation model designed to support evaluation of operations planning and control, especially in the context of advanced public transportation systems. Unlike most previous efforts in this area, the simulation model is built on a platform of a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, which allows modeling or the operation dynamics of large-scale transit systems, taking into account the main sources of service uncertainty and stochasticity. The capabilities of Mezzo as an evaluation tool of transit operations are demonstrated with an application to a real-world, high-demand bus line in metropolitan Tel Aviv, Israel, under various scenarios. The application shows that important phenomena such as bus bunching are reproduced realistically. A comparison of simulated running times and headway distributions with field data shows the model is capable of replicating observed data.

  • 27.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Effect of real-time transit information on dynamic passenger path choice.2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, Vol. 2217, s. 46-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time information is increasingly being implemented in transit networks worldwide. The evaluation of the effect of real-time information requires dynamic modeling of transit operations and of passenger path choices. This paper presents a dynamic transit analysis and evaluation tool that represents time-tables, operation strategies, real-time information, adaptive passenger choices, and traffic dynamics at the network level. Transit path choices are modeled as a sequence of boarding, walking and alighting decisions that passengers undertake when carrying out their journey. The model is applied to the Metro network of Stockholm, Sweden area under various operating conditions and information provision scenarios, as a proof of concept. An analysis of the results indicates substantial path choice shifts and potential time savings associated with more comprehensive real-time information provision and transfer coordination improvements.

  • 28.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Evaluation of real-time holding strategies for improved bus service reliability2010Inngår i: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, Madeira, Portugal, 2010, s. 718-723Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Service reliability is one of the main measures of performance determining transit system level of service. Holding control strategies are a common transit operations practice aimed to reduce transit service unreliability by setting criteria for departure fromtime point stops. In order to adequately analyze the sources of uncertainty involved with transit performance, it is essential to model dynamically the interactions between traffic conditions, passenger demand and transit operations. BusMezzo, a transit simulation model has been developed on a platform of a mesoscopic traffic simulation model, which enables the representation of large-scale transit systems. The model implements severalreal-time holding strategies. It is used to evaluate the application of these strategies in areal-world high-demand bus line in the Tel Aviv metropolitan area, under various scenarios. An analysis of the results suggests that a holding strategy based on the mean headway from the preceding bus and the next bus, restricted by a maximum allowableholding time, is especially efficient. 

  • 29.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301). KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transporter och samhällsekonomi (stängd 20110301), Trafik och Logistik (stängd 20110301).
    Mesoscopic modeling of bus public transportation2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Modeling real-time transit information and its impacts on travelers’ decisions2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board 91st Annual Meeting., 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Gkioulou, Zafeira
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Modelling the Impacts of Public Transport Reliability and Travel Information on Passengers’ Waiting Time Uncertainty2017Inngår i: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 6, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport systems are subject to uncertainties related to traffic dynamic, operations, and passenger demand. Passenger waiting time is thus a random variable subject to day-to-day variations and the interaction between vehicle and passenger stochastic arrival processes. While the provision of real-time information could potentially reduce travel uncertainty, its impacts depend on the underlying service reliability, the performance of the prognosis scheme, and its perceived credibility. This paper presents a modeling framework for analyzing passengers’ learning process and adaptation with respect to waiting-time uncertainty and travel information. The model consists of a within-day network loading procedure and a day-to-day learning process, which are implemented in an agent-based simulation model. Each loop of within-day dynamics assigns travelers to paths by simulating the progress of individual travelers and vehicles as well as the generation and dissemination of travel information. The day-to-day learning model updates the accumulated memory of each traveler and updates consequently the credibility attributed to each information source based on the experienced waiting time. A case study in Stockholm demonstrates model capabilities and emphasizes the importance of behavioral adaptation when evaluating alternative measures which aim to improve service reliability.

  • 32.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Hartl, M.
    Modelling public transport on-board congestion: comparing schedule-based and agent-based assignment approaches and their implications2016Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 1209-1224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit systems are subject to congestion that influences system performance and level of service. The evaluation of measures to relieve congestion requires models that can capture their network effects and passengers' adaptation. In particular, on-board congestion leads to an increase of crowding discomfort and denied boarding and a decrease in service reliability. This study performs a systematic comparison of alternative approaches to modelling on-board congestion in transit networks. In particular, the congestion-related functionalities of a schedule-based model and an agent-based transit assignment model are investigated, by comparing VISUM and BusMezzo, respectively. The theoretical background, modelling principles and implementation details of the alternative models are examined and demonstrated by testing various operational scenarios for an example network. The results suggest that differences in modelling passenger arrival process, choice-set generation and route choice model yield systematically different passenger loads. The schedule-based model is insensitive to a uniform increase in demand or decrease in capacity when caused by either vehicle capacity or service frequency reduction. In contrast, nominal travel times increase in the agent-based model as demand increases or capacity decreases. The marginal increase in travel time increases as the network becomes more saturated. Whilst none of the existing models capture the full range of congestion effects and related behavioural responses, existing models can support different planning decisions.

  • 33.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Beyond a complete failure: The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between the extent of capacity reduction at the line level and its consequences on societal costs by performing a full network scan. This analysis framework is applied to planned temporary disruptions in the rapid public transport network in Stockholm, Sweden. Our results indicate that the network is highly vulnerable since it is characterized by greater negative impacts in a disproportional relation to the increase in the original capacity reduction. The non-linear properties of network effects and route choice result in non-trivial relation which carry implications on disruption management the deployment of mitigation measures.

  • 34.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Beyond a complete failure: The impact of partial capacity degradation on public transport network vulnerability2018Inngår i: Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics, ISSN 2168-0566, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 77-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disruptions in public transport networks (PTNs) often lead to partial capacity reductions rather than complete closures. This study aims to move beyond the vulnerability analysis of complete failures by investigating the impacts of a range of capacity reductions on PTN performance. The relation between network performance and the degradation of line or link capacities is investigated by establishing a vulnerability curve and related metrics. The analysis framework is applied to a full-scan analysis of planned temporary line-level capacity reductions and an analysis of unplanned link-level capacity reductions on the most central segments in the multi-modal rapid PTN of Stockholm, Sweden. The impacts of capacity reductions are assessed using a non-equilibrium dynamic public transport operations and assignment model. The nonlinear properties of on-board crowding, denied boarding, network effects and route choice result in non-trivial, generally convex, relations which carry implications on disruption planning and real-time management.

  • 35.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Dynamic Vulnerability Analysis of Public Transport Networks: Mitigation Effects of Real-Time Information2014Inngår i: Networks and Spatial Economics, ISSN 1566-113X, E-ISSN 1572-9427, Vol. 14, nr 3-4, s. 435-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a dynamic and stochastic notion of public transport network vulnerability is developed. While previous studies have considered only the network topology, the granular nature of services requires a more refined model for supply and demand interactions in order to evaluate the impacts of disruptions. We extend the measures of betweenness centrality (often used to identify potentially important links) and link importance to a dynamic-stochastic setting from the perspectives of both operators and passengers. We also formalize the value of real-time information (RTI) provision for reducing disruption impacts. The developed measures are applied in a case study for the high-frequency public transport network of Stockholm, Sweden. The importance ranking of the links varies depending on the RTI provision scheme. The results suggest that betweenness centrality (passenger/vehicle flows) may not be a good indicator of link importance. The results of the case study reveal that while service disruptions have negative effects and RTI may have significant positive influence, counter examples also exist due to secondary spillover effects.

  • 36.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Planning for the Unexpected: The Value of Reserve Capacity for Public Transport Network Robustness2015Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 81, s. 47-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport networks (PTN) are subject to recurring service disruptions. Most studies of the robustness of PTN have focused on network topology and considered vulnerability in terms of connectivity reliability. While these studies provide insights on general design principles, there is lack of knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different strategies to reduce the impacts of disruptions. This paper proposes and demonstrates a methodology for evaluating the effectiveness of a strategic increase in capacity on alternative PTN links to mitigate the impact of unexpected network disruptions. The evaluation approach consists of two stages: identifying a set of important links and then for each identified important link, a set of capacity enhancement schemes is evaluated. The proposed method integrates stochastic supply and demand models, dynamic route choice and limited operational capacity. This dynamic agent-based modelling of network performance enables to capture cascading network effects as well as the adaptive redistribution of passenger flows. An application for the rapid PTN of Stockholm, Sweden, demonstrates how the proposed method could be applied to sequentially designed scenarios based on their performance indicators. The method presented in this paper could support policy makers and operators in prioritizing measures to increase network robustness by improving system capacity to absorb unexpected disruptions.

  • 37.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    The impact of reserve capacity on public transport network resilience2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The resilience of the transport system is acknowledged as an important policy objective. Resilience refers to the extent to which a system is affected by various disturbances, and its capability to recover from such disturbances and restore its level of performance. Public transport networks (PTN) are subject to recurring service disruptions. However, most studies on transport network resilience have focused on the physical degradation of the road network. Hence, their findings have limited transferability to the PTN context. Previous studies on PTN resilience have considered vulnerability in terms of connectivity reliability. Graph theory principles were used to analyze the impact of network structure on robustness with respect to random and intentional attacks. Such analysis allows the comparison of alternative network design properties. However, it does not capture many of the PTN features that we believe are essential for analyzing its resilience.The underlying principles of PTN design and operations make it fundamentally different from road networks and potentially more vulnerable. PTN are usually less dense than the underlying road network, resulting in fewer alternative paths. Moreover, PTN operate close to capacity due to the increasing marginal operation cost during the peak period. In addition, PTN exercise discontinuity in time and space, inducing varying and stochastic waiting, walking and transfer times. Stochastictravel times arise from the inherent and interdependent underlying sources of uncertainty. Another matter thatneeds to be taken into account is that PTN are often multimodal, consisting of several independent infrastructures. As a result of these characteristics, service disruptions in the PTN have wider direct implications compared to the road network due to theescalating impacts on service availability and capacity further downstream. We develop an analysis framework for PTN resilience. The framework integrates stochastic supply and demand models, dynamic route choice and limited operational capacity. Moreover,the plausible correlation between degraded capacities among network elements is captured through the dynamic modellingof network performance. The criticality of a link is evaluated as the increase in system travel time due to a capacity reduction of the link. In general, criticality depends on the flow on the link and the availability of alternative paths in the PTN. We analyze the influence of the capacity of alternative paths on the criticality of a link. High volume to capacity ratios on neighboring links suggest that the effects of the initial disruption can cascade to the surrounding network and lead to severe impacts for many travellers. Further, we analyze the potential of increasing network resilience by increasing capacity on alternative links in response to disruptions. This implies operational strategies such as increasing the frequency on existing lines, or running replacement lines for the disrupted line. This analysis thus enables the evaluation of alternative mitigation measures designed to improve network resilience.

  • 38.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    The value of new cross-radial links for public transport network resilience2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new links to network topology could potentially contrib-ute to greater capability to withstand system breakdowns. This paper analyses the value of adding new cross-radial links for public transport network resilience. The value is evaluated in terms of passenger welfare under disruptions. Using a model that considers passengers’ dynamic travel choices, stochastic traffic conditions, timetables and capacity constraints, a new light rail transit line in Stockholm, Sweden is evaluated. The results show that the cross-radial link reduces the impacts of disrup-tions of critical links; the total value of resilience is positive and significantly offsets the loss in welfare caused by disruption of the cross-radial link itself.

  • 39. Cats, Oded
    et al.
    Jenelius, Erik
    Vulnerability analysis of public transport networks: A dynamic approach and case study for Stockholm2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a dynamic and stochastic notion of public transport network vulnerability is develoepd. While previous studies have considered only the network topology, the non-continuous availability of services requires a more refined model for supply and demand interactions in order to evaluate the impacts of disruptions. We extend the measures of betweenness centrality (often used to identify po-tentially important links) and link importance to a dynamic-stochastic setting from the perspectives of both operators and passengers. We also formalize the value of real-time information (RTI) provision for reducing disruption impacts. The developed measures are applied in a case study for the high-frequency public transport network of Stockholm, Sweden. The importance ranking of the links varies depending on the RTI provision scheme. This suggests that RTI may have significant positive but also negative influence on disruption impacts, and that betweenness centrality (passenger/vehicle flows) may not be a good indicator of link importance.

  • 40.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
    Adaptive path choice decisions in public transport systems: an agent-based assignment model2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Toledo, Tomer
    Evaluating the role of real-time transit information provision on dynamic passenger path choice2012Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Larijani, Anahid
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Impacts of holding control strategies on transit performance: A bus simulation model analysis2011Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 2216, s. 51-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit operators are interested in strategies to improve service reliability as it is an important measure of performance and level of service. One of the common practices aimed at reducing service unreliability is holding control strategies. The design of these strategies involves the selection of a set of time point stops and the holding criteria for regulating the departure time. The interactions between passenger activity, transit operations, and traffic dynamics must be dynamically modeled to analyze the impacts of holding strategies on transit performance. An evaluation of different holding criteria and the number and location of time point stops was conducted with Bus Mezzo, a dynamic transit simulation model. The holding strategies were implemented in the model and applied to a high-frequency trunk bus line in Stockholm, Sweden. The analysis of the results considers the implications of holding strategies from both passenger and operator perspectives. The analysis suggests substantial gains are possible by implementing a holding strategy on the basis of the mean headway from the preceding and the succeeding buses. This strategy is the most efficient for passenger time savings as well as fleet costs and crew management.

  • 43.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Larijani, Anahid Nabavi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Andréasson, Ingmar J.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos N.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Bus-Holding Control Strategies Simulation-Based Evaluation and Guidelines for Implementation2012Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 2274, s. 100-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit operations involve several inherent sources of uncertainty, including dispatch time from the origin terminal, travel time between stops, and dwell time at stops. Bus-holding control strategies are a prominent method applied by transit operators to improve transit performance and level of service. The common practice is to regulate departures from a limited number of stops by holding buses until their scheduled departure time. An analysis of the performance of a high-frequency bus line in Stockholm, Sweden, based on automatic vehicle location data showed that this control strategy was not effective in improving service regularity along the line. The analysis also indicated that drivers adjusted their speed according to performance objectives. Implications of a control strategy that regulates departures from all stops on the basis of the headways of the preceding bus and the following bus were evaluated with Bus Mezzo, a transit operations simulation model. The results suggest that this strategy can improve service performance considerably from both passengers' and operator's perspectives. In addition, the strategy implies cooperative operations, as the decisions of each driver are interdependent with other drivers' decisions, and mutual corrections can be made. Difficulties in realizing the benefits of the proposed strategy in practice, such as dispatching from the origin terminal, driver scheduling, and compliance, are discussed. The implications of several practical considerations are assessed by conducting a sensitivity analysis as part of the preparations for a field experiment designed to test the proposed control strategy.

  • 44.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Loutos, Gerasimos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Evaluating the added-value of online bus arrival prediction schemes2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 86, s. 35-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Online predictions of bus arrival times have the potential to reduce the uncertainty associated with bus operations. By better anticipating future conditions, online predictions can reduce perceived and actual passenger travel times as well as facilitate more proactive decision making by service providers. Even though considerable research efforts were devoted to the development of computationally expensive bus arrival prediction schemes, real-world real-time information (RTI) systems are typically based on very simple prediction rules. This paper narrows down the gap between the state-of-the-art and the state-of-the-practice in generating RTI for public transport systems by evaluating the added-value of schemes that integrate instantaneous data and dwell time predictions. The evaluation considers static information and a commonly deployed scheme as a benchmark. The RTI generation algorithms were applied and analyzed for a trunk bus network in Stockholm, Sweden. The schemes are assessed and compared based on their accuracy, reliability, robustness and potential waiting time savings. The impact of RTI on passengers waiting times are compared with those attained by service frequency and regularity improvements. A method which incorporates information on downstream travel conditions outperforms the commonly deployed scheme, leading to a 25% reduction in the mean absolute error. Furthermore, the incorporation of instantaneous travel times improves the prediction accuracy and reliability, and contributes to more robust predictions. The potential waiting time gains associated with the prediction scheme are equivalent to the gains expected when introducing a 60% increase in service frequency, and are not attainable by service regularity improvements.

  • 45.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Loutos, Gerasimos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Real-Time Bus Arrival Information System: An Empirical Evaluation2016Inngår i: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, ISSN 1547-2450, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 138-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of real-time information concerning bus arrival times could potentially reduce the uncertainty associated with public transport trips and improve the overall level-of-service. In addition, real-time predictions might enable operators to apply proactive control strategies. Even though considerable research efforts were devoted to the development of bus arrival prediction schemes, there is lack of knowledge on the performance of real-world operational systems. This paper aims to investigate the performance of a commonly deployed real-time information generation scheme. A conventionally used scheme is implemented and evaluated based on an empirical analysis. Performance metrics concerning the prediction error accuracy and reliability and their impact on expected waiting time were formulated from both passengers’ and operators’ perspective. The real-time information generator was applied on the trunk line network in Stockholm, Sweden. The accuracy and reliability of the prediction scheme was analysed by comparing the generated predictions against vehicle positioning data. This scheme was found to systematically underestimate the remaining waiting time by 6.2% on average. The provision of real-time information yields a waiting time estimate that is more than twice closer to the actual waiting times than the timetable is. This difference in waiting time expectations is equivalent to 30% of the average waiting time.

  • 46.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Loutos, Gerasimos
    KTH.
    Real-Time Bus Arrival Information System: An Empirical Evaluation2013Inngår i: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems: Proceedings ITSC, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 1310-1315Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waiting time uncertainty is one of the main determinants of public transport reliability and overall level-of-service. The dissemination of real-time information concerning vehicle arrivals is often considered an important measure to reduce unreliability. Moreover, the prediction of downstream vehicle trajectories could also benefit real-time control strategies. In order to adequately analyze the performance of real-time bus arrival information system, the generated predictions have to be compared against empirical bus arrival data. A conventional real-world bus arrival prediction scheme is formulated and applied on the trunk lines network in Stockholm. This scheme was found to systematically underestimate the remaining waiting time by 6.2% on average. Prediction error accuracy and reliability varies considerably over time periods, along the route and as a function of the prognosis horizon. The difference between passengers' waiting time expectations derived from the timetable and real-time information is equivalent to 30% of the average waiting time.

  • 47.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Reimal, Triin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Public Transport Pricing Policy Empirical Evidence from a Fare-Free Scheme in Tallinn, Estonia2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 2415, s. 89-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities worldwide are looking for new policies to attract travelers to shift from cars to public transport. Policies focused on reducing public transport fares are aimed at improving social inclusion and leading to a modal shift. The City of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has recently introduced a fare-free public transport (FFPT) service in an effort to improve accessibility and mobility for its residents. The case of Tallinn is a full-scale, real-world experiment that provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impacts of FFPT policy. A macrolevel empirical evaluation of FFPT impacts on service performance, passenger demand, and accessibility for various groups of travelers is presented. In contrast to previous studies, the influence of FFPT on passenger demand was estimated while changes in supply were controlled. The results indicate that the FFPT measure accounts for an increase of 1.2% in passenger demand, with the remaining increase attributed to an extended network of public transport priority lanes and increased service frequency. The relatively small effect could be attributed to the previous price level and public transport share as well as analysis of the short-term impact. The evidence-based policy evaluation in this paper is instrumental in supporting policy making and facilitating the design of public transport pricing strategies.

  • 48.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Rufi, F. M.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Optimizing the number and location of time point stops2014Inngår i: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 215-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport service is subject to multiple sources of uncertainty that impact its reliability. Holding control strategies are a common method to prevent the deterioration of service reliability along the route. This paper expands on previous studies by considering the general case of determining both the optimal number and optimal location of the time point stops (TPS) where holding takes place, and assessing their impacts on transit performance using simulation. Holding times are determined based on a real-time headway-based holding strategy designed to improve service regularity by seeking uniform headways along the route. The evaluation of the performance of alternative TPS layouts is simulation-based, using BusMezzo, a transit operations simulation model which models the dynamic performance of bus transit systems. The proposed framework also considers the multiple objectives incorporating passenger and operator points of view. The simulation-based optimization framework was applied in a case study with one of the premium bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden, using two solution methods—greedy and genetic algorithms. A multi-objective evaluation was conducted considering both passenger and operator perspectives. The results demonstrate that transit performance varies considerably with alternative TPS layouts. The best solution obtained by the proposed methodology reduces total weighted passenger journey times and cycle times compared to both the current layout and the case of no holding control. The proposed method could assist transit agencies and operators in evaluating and recommending alternative time point layouts.

  • 49.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Impacts of free public transport: evaluation framework2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Reimal, T.
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn2016Inngår i: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, s. 1-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsidy level of public transport systems varies considerably among systems worldwide. While limited-scale free-fare public transport (FFPT) services such as limited campaigns and fare evasion for special groups or specific services are prevalent, there is only limited evidence on the consequences of introducing a full-fledged FFPT. The case of Tallinn, Estonia offers a full-scale experiment that provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impacts of FFPT. This study examines travel pattern changes based on individual travel habit survey shortly before and almost 1 year after the introduction of FFPT policy in Tallinn based on interviews and travel diaries of a random sample of 1500 household. We analyse modal shift effects and whether they are driven by trip generation or trip substitution, travel attitudes and satisfactions as well as impacts on equity, employment prospects, and trip destination choices. Almost a year after the introduction of FFPT, public transport usage increased by 14 % and there is evidence that the mobility of low-income residents has improved. The effect of FFPT on ridership is substantially lower than those reported in previous studies due to the good level of service provision, high public transport usage and low public transport fees that existed already prior to the FFPT.

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