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  • 1.
    Apelkrans, Mats
    et al.
    Dept of Informatics, Jönköping International Business School.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Applying Multi-Agent System Technique to Production Planning in Order to Automate Decisions2009In: AGENT AND MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Anne Håkansson, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Ronald L. Hartung, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 193-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinate and deliver information is vital for the financial and operational success of a company. The information is used for understanding and evaluating performance of a manufacturing company and making decisions based on incoming information. Information about orders but also parts to be purchased, assembled for the final product to be delivered, can streamline the production line to provide good quality products in the right time and to right costs at highest profit. For profit, costs are Cut by reducing storage and searching for lowest price from established suppliers and providers on web as well as handling production planning automatically. To increase profit, we apply a multi-agent technique to production planning, which can automate business decision-making for the production line. The agents handle incoming orders, the production line, and search for information about the products at the intranet and the extranet. The outcome is decisions about the production line. The multi-agent solution becomes a complement to the production planning brought about by the company's enterprise resource planning system.

  • 2.
    Apelkrans, Mats
    et al.
    Dept of Informatics, Jönköping International Business School.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Enterprise systems Configuration as an Information Logistics Process - A Case Study2007In: Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems: ICEIS-2007 / [ed] Jorge Cardoso, José Cordeiro, Joaquim Filipe, SciTePress, 2007, Vol. 3, p. 212-220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we suggest using rule-based descriptions of customer’s requirements for Enterprise Systems implementing Information Logistics. The rules are developed from the users’ requirements and inserted as schedules to the Enterprise System. The output, from testing these rules, is a list of modules and parameter settings to configure the system. By using rules, we can, at least partly, automate the configuration process by traversing the several modules and thousands parameters that are in an Enterprise System. From the list, we can select the modules and the parameters that meet the customer’s requirements. Then these selected modules and parameters are visually presented through a kind of Unified Modeling Language diagrams, to support the user investigation and then to configure the system either manually or automatically. Every attempt to match a customer’s requirement to the contents of the knowledge base within the Enterprise system can be thought of as an Information Logis tics Process. The output from such a process must be examined by the user, which can give rise to a new call to the Information Logistics process. In other words the configuration work is done through a dialogue between the customer and the knowledge base of the Enterprise system.

  • 3.
    Apelkrans, Mats
    et al.
    Dept of Informatics, Jönköping International Business School.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Information Coordination Using Meta-agents in Information Logistics Processes2008In: Proceedings of Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information & Engineering Systems: KES2008 / [ed] Ignac Lovrek, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 788-798Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to coordinate and deliver information in the right time and to the right place, theories from multi-agent systems and information logistics are combined. We use agents to support supply chain by searching for company specific information. Hence, there are a vast number of agents working at the Internet, simultaneously, which requires supervising agents. In this paper, we suggest using meta-agents to control the behaviour of a number of intelligent agents, where the meta-agents are working with coordination of the communication that takes place in a supply chain system. As an example, we look at a manufacturing company receiving orders on items from customers, which need to be produced. The handling of this distributed information flow can be thought of as an Information Logistics Processes and the similarities of the functioning of processes and intelligent agents’ behaviour are illuminated.

  • 4.
    Apelkrans, Mats
    et al.
    Dept of Informatics, Jönköping International Business School.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Visual knowledge modeling of an Information Logistics Process: A case study2005In: Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning: ICICKM 2005 / [ed] Dan Remenyi, Reading, UK: ACPI , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Hartung, R. L.
    et al.
    Franklin Univ, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS. Franklin Univ, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Experience based reasoning system coupled with real world knowledge2014In: Procedia Computer Science, 2014, no C, p. 186-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human intelligence draws its conclusions from a base of experience-generated knowledge. Beside being able to use this knowledge, it is limited to how much can be accessed at a time and this reasoning is often shown to be illogical, with respect to mathematical logics. The human's knowledge is always growing and being modified by current experience. In addition, the humans' processing capability appears to be severally limited. This limitation is far from being a burden; it is part of the brilliance of the solution. The human mind does a every effective job of dealing with the world. For proof, we invoke the fact that human kind as survived and thrived. The current work is a first step in exploring a reasoner than can act in a human inspired performance, which is in the direction of general artificial intelligence.

  • 6.
    Hartung, Ronald
    et al.
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    A Knowledge Based Interactive Agent Assistant for Leadership2006In: Proceedings of the European Conference on IS Management, Leadership and Governance: ECMLG 2006: ECMLG 2006 / [ed] Academic Conferences Limited, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Hartung, Ronald
    et al.
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Automated Testing for Knowledge Based Systems2007In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 270-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building and modifying knowledge-based systems requires testing of the knowledge for quality assurance, such as verification and validation. This is especially important when reverse engineering is applied to a system that needs to be remodeled or renewed. However, the modification of a knowledge-based system is a difficult process. Commonly, the documentation is poor, and the original domain expertise is lacking. Therefore, testing must be applied on existing knowledge to be able to verify the changed knowledge. To this objective we apply an automated test generation system to verify the operation of the modified system.

  • 8.
    Hartung, Ronald
    et al.
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Knowledge Representation for Knowledge Based Leadership System2006In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: KES-2006 / [ed] Bogdan Gabrys, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006, p. 352-359Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaders make decisions in different and sometimes difficult situations. These decisions are often converted into valuableknowledge needed by other people in decision positions. For example, students becoming leaders need knowledge about leadershipto make good judgments. When the situation is sensitive, perhaps concerning personal changes or an unfamiliar business strategy,leaders need opinions and not just those from people involved in the company. An artificial system allows us to replicatea system of opinions and observations from outside advisors, which is why we base our research on this kind of system. Inthis paper we present a knowledge representation for a knowledge-based leadership system used in the experimental system weare developing.

  • 9. Hartung, Ronald
    et al.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Knowledge representation for leadership stories2007In: Cybernetics and systems, ISSN 0196-9722, E-ISSN 1087-6553, Vol. 38, no 5-6, p. 587-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership requires making decisions and implementing the results by influencing those being lead. The Personal Access to Leadership project, PAL, is constructing tools to assist leaders in creative ways and assisting the development of leaders. The tools are knowledge-based systems employing shallow understanding of the domain. The approaches used provide guidance, but do not generate solutions. One aspect that continues under exploration in PAL is the use of stories for training and guiding leaders. In order to make such support systems work, a representation is needed to enable locating useful stories related to the task of a leader. This article defines a model for story representation for the PAL tools, called the PAL tool IdeaLab. The IdeaLab is the tool to which stories are being added, as a help system to support and extend the user's thinking.

  • 10.
    Hartung, Ronald
    et al.
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    Meta Agents, Ontologies and Search, a Proposed Synthesis2010In: 14th International Conference Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Cardiff, UK, September 8-10, 2010. / [ed] Rossitza Setchi, Ivan Jordanov, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 273-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semantic web dates back to 2001 and a number of tools, and representational forms are proposed and defined. However, the challenges of the semantic web are still largely unfulfilled, in the opinion of the authors. What is proposed here is a synthesis of ideas and techniques aimed a presenting the user with a much more structured search result that can expose the relationships contained within them. This does not increase semantic search, but can provide a much richer view for the user to apply human understanding though exposing the semantics represented by the structure within search results.

  • 11.
    Hartung, Ronald
    et al.
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    Using Meta-agents to Reason with Multiple Ontologies2008In: AGENT AND MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, GeunSik Jo, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 261-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The semantic web uses ontologies to improve searching since ontologies provide a richer semantic model of content by expressing terms and relationships. However, a problem with the web is the large number of ontologies, which complicates searching. To maximize the capability of the search, the ontologies need to be combined to obtain complex answers. Usually, the ontologies are created without following any guidelines and, therefore, combining them is not a simple task, especially when ensuring a consistent result. We propose using meta-agents on top of software agents in a multi-agent system to resolve the use and the combination of multiple ontologies and to enable searching and reasoning. The software agents search for parts in the ontologies corresponding to the user-request and meta-agents combine the results from the agents. The meta-agents also partition the ontologies into consistent sets and then combine multiple ontologies into meaningful and logically consistent structures. For this purpose, we extend an existing mapping and alignment algorithm used for communication between agents. The use of multi-agents gives advantages since they provide a parallel approach and, thereby, efficiently handle large numbers of ontologies in order to accomplishtasks separately.

  • 12. Hartung, Ronald L.
    et al.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    A prescription for Cyber Physical Systems2015In: KNOWLEDGE-BASED AND INTELLIGENT INFORMATION & ENGINEERING SYSTEMS 19TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, KES-2015, Elsevier, 2015, p. 1552-1558Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a philosophic look at(view of) the promise and perils of cyber physical systems. It is not a doom and gloom view of the systems (It is overview of the current systems and their technologies), we believe in the bright and useful future of the cyber physical environments (systems?). However, looking at the history of technology in the recent past, the need of careful prescription to design systems that prevent the unforeseen less than positive side of technology. No matter how useful a technology is, the providers soon push burdensome "features" on to the unsuspecting user.

  • 13.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    A Multi-Agent System with Negotiation Agents for e-Trading Products and Services2011In: 15th International Conference of Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Kaiserslautern, Germany, September 12-14, 2011. / [ed] Andreas König, Andreas Dengel, Knut Hinkelmann, Koichi Kise, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 415-424Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach using multi-agent system to support small and medium enterprises in breaking up the traditional distributor chains and trading products and services over the web. Commonly, these small and medium enterprises are not able to put a lot of effort in finding international actors that sell products and services in international markets. The language is one barrier and the enterprises’ accustomed distributors is another complex issue. Nonetheless, competition does not allow expensive products and services, hence, requires effective and efficient organizations. To find international actors, no matter the language, and support buying products and services to the best possible conditions, we provide a multi-agents system with search agents, meta-agents, matching agents and negotiation agents for e-trading products and services. The agents search for the desired products, select and categorise web pages and ontologies and negotiate to find the best solution, which is the right product, the right amount of products, with the absolute best quality and price, at the right time.

  • 14.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala universitet.
    A User Interface for the User-Centred Knowledge Model, t-UCK2008In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, PT 1, Proceedings / [ed] Ignac Lovrek, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 312-321Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a user interface to the User-Centred Knowledge Model (t-UCK). T-UCK is a knowledge modelling tool for designing knowledge-intensive systems. The model centres round the various users, i.e., both the design users and the end users, and facilitates the use of a conceptual model for handling different types of knowledge, the reasoning strategy and other functionality. For the design users, the conceptual model is presented through a modelling view of the contents used for developing the system. For the end users, the conceptual model has a parallel consulting view used for sessions with the system. Both these views are directly modelled into the system through a graphical modelling language, the Unified Modelling Language (UML). UML is a general-purpose modelling language, which in a modified form it can be used for development of knowledge-based systems.

  • 15.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    AIC - An AI-system for Combination of senses2013In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 22, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AI-complete systems developed today, are commonly used for solving different artificial intelligence problems.A problem is a typical image recognition or speech recognition, but it can also be language processing, as wellas, other complex systems dealing with general problem solving. However, no AI-complete system, whichmodels the human brain or behavior, can exist without looking at the totality of the whole situation and, andhence, incorporating an AI-computerized sensory systems into a totality that constitute a combination of senses.This paper proposes a combination of sensory systems to form a comprehensive AI-system by combining thedifferent senses, called AIC –AI-system for a combination of senses. The AIC-system is not a complete systemin the sense that it contains a total set of information or uses all kinds of digital sensory systems. Nonetheless, itis a system under self-development. It develops its own knowledge base, as experiences, which will be basedon the different characteristics: images, sounds, smells, tastes, touches with emotions/feelings and expressions.The result is a kind of perception of the surrounding environment.

  • 16.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    An event-driven algorithm for agents on the web2009In: Knowledge Processing and Decision Making in Agent-Based Systems, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, Vol. 170, p. 147-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TThis chapter describes how meta-agents in a multi-agent system can be used to effectively search for services in networks with an event-driven algorithm. These services can be attained in a range of different ways, including a simultaneous combination of several services in order to optimize costs and time. A challenge with a network is finding and extracting an optimal combination of the different services to implement a complex requested service. To solve this problem, it is possible to develop multi-agent systems in which the task steers the agents. While finding information on the web, the search path becomes an event-driven algorithm. The algorithm acts as a search method to extract information from several different services. Once built up, the algorithm can guide future search and optimize the searching.

  • 17. Håkansson, Anne
    An Expert System for the Environmental Impact Assessment Method2004Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Automatically creating Hierarchies of Agents and Meta-agents using Clustering2010In: Agent and Multi-agent Technology for Internet and Enterprise Systems / [ed] Hakansson, Anne; Hartung, Ronald; Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 207-228Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes an approach to automatically create hierarchies of intelligent agents and meta-agents in networks. The hierarchy contains intelligent agents at the bottom level, constituting leafs, and abstract meta-agents at the top levels. The commonality between the agents in the hierarchy is that higher-level agents comprise lower level agents with more distinct semantics, which together constitute information chains for solutions. The test environment is the web since it produces of vast amount of information that needs structuring in order to be manageable and accessible. The results of the search infrastructure are automatically cast into a more manageable and understandable hierarchy by using a clustering method.

  • 19.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture, Software and Computer Systems, SCS.
    Automatically Creating Multi-Hierarchies2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, ICAI 2010 / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, David de la Fuente, Elena B. Kozerenko, José Angel Olivas, Rui Chang, Peter M. LaMonica, Raymond A. Liuzzi, Ashu M. G. Solo, Las Vegas Nevada, USA: CSREA Press, 2010, p. 413-419Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Environmental Impact Assessment: Assess for Sustainability2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 42, p. 16-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Improving the Thesis Writing Process2010In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science & Computer Engineering / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Victor A. Clincy, Azita Bahrami, Ashu M. G. Solo, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA: CSREA Press, 2010, p. 389-395Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Ipsum - An Approach to Smart Volatile ICT-Infrastructures for Smart Cities and Communities2018In: Procedia Computer Science, Elsevier B.V. , 2018, p. 2107-2116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-infrastructures are increasingly important for enabling technology within Smart society with Smart cities and communitieS. An ICT-infrastructure handles data and information and encompasses devices and networks, protocols and procedures including Internet, Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems. The current challenges of ICT-infrastructures are delivering Services and applications that are requested by users, such as residents, public organisations and institutionS. These Services and applications must be combined to enhance and enrich the environment and provide personalised ServiceS. This requires radical changes in technology, such as dynamic ICT-infrastructures, which should dynamically provide requested Services to be able to build Smart societieS. This paper is about pursuing Smart and connected cities and communities by creating Smart volatile ICT-infrastructures for Smart cities and communities, called Ipsum. The infrastructure is of multidisciplinary art and includes different kinds of hardware, software, artificial intelligence techniques depending on the available parts and the Services to be delivered. The goal is to provide a powerful and smart, and cost-saving volatile ICT-infrastructure with person-centred, ubiquitous and malleable parts, i.e., devices, sensors and ServiceS. Volatile means in real-time constitute a volatile network of devices and deploying it into cities and communitieS. Ipsum will be Smart everywhere by collaborating with several different hardware and software Systems and cooperating to perform complex taskS. By including ubiquitous and malleable parts in the infrastructure, Ipsum can facilitate an informed and engaged populace.

  • 23.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Modelling from Knowledge versus Modelling from Rules using UML2005In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: KES2005 / [ed] Rajiv Khosla, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2005, p. 393-402Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling support for knowledge acquisition is a tool for modelling domain knowledge. However, during the implementation of the knowledge new knowledge is created. Event though this knowledge is found in the knowledge base, the model usually is not updated with the new knowledge and do, therefore, not contain all the knowledge in the system. This paper describes how different graphical models support the complex knowledge acquisition process of handling domain knowledge and how these models can be extended by modelling knowledge from rules in a knowledge base including probability. Thus, the models are designed from domain knowledge to create production rules but the models are also extended with new generated knowledge, i.e., generated rules. The paper also describes how different models can support the domain expert to grasp this new generated knowledge and to understand the uncertainty calculated from rules during consultation. To this objective, graphic representation and visualisation is used as modelling support through the use of diagrams of Unified Modelling Language (UML), which is used for modelling production rules. Presenting rules in a static model can make the contents more comprehensible and in a dynamic model can make the uncertainty more evident.

  • 24.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Portal of Research Methods and Methodologies for Research Projects and Degree Projects2013In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science and Computer Engineering FECS'13 / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia Azita Bahrami Victor A. Clincy Leonidas Deligiannidis George Jandieri, Las Vegas USA: CSREA Press U.S.A , 2013, p. 67-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research methods and methodologies are extremelyimportant when conducting research and degree projects. Theuse and application of the methods and methodologies areconsidered to be “necessarily vicious” and, unfortunately,often applied after the research has been conducted. The needfor applying methods before the actually research and thereasons for doing so are often stressed in the literature andcourses for research and scientific writing. This includes theaspects of selecting, understanding and applying researchmethods for a selected project. Unfortunately, it is difficult tochoose well-suited methods and too often the selected methodsand methodologies do not match each other. Instead, methodsare applied without knowing about the consequences theapplied method have both on the other chosen methods and onthe results of the work or research. This paper provides aportal of research methods and methodologies to help thestudents to choose and apply the most suitable methods byillustrating which methods belong together and thedistinctions between the different methods.

  • 25.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    The User Centred Knowledge Model - t-UCK2008In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, PT 3, Proceedings / [ed] Ignac Lovrek, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 779-787Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In knowledge engineering, modelling knowledge is the process of structuring knowledge before implementation. A crucial part of system development depends on the acquiring and structuring, since the quality of system’s contents is of decisive importance for making good decisions. Models are needed to assure that all the required knowledge is present. However, the current models tend to be large and this makes it hard to get a grip on the knowledge presented by the model. Also, many models are difficult to use and the users have to be experts on the models before using them. To avoid these problems, we introduce the User-Centred Knowledge Model (t-UCK) for modelling knowledge. The model supports different users, i.e., domain experts, knowledge engineers and end-users, to model, implement, test, consult, and educate through the use of graphic representation and visualisation.

  • 26.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Transferring Problem Solving Strategies from the Expert to the End Users: Supporting understanding2005In: The Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems: ICEIS-2005, SciTePress, 2005, p. 3-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If knowledge sharing between people in an organisation is to be encouraged, new types of systems areneeded to transfer domain knowledge and problem-solving strategies from an expert to the end users and,thereby, make the knowledge available and applicable in a specific domain. If it is to be possible to applythe knowledge in the organisation, the systems will need a means of illustrating the reasoning strategiesinvolved in interpreting the knowledge to arrive at the conclusions drawn. One solution is to incorporatedifferent diagrams in knowledge management systems to assist the user to comprehend the reasoningstrategies and to better understand the knowledge required and gained. This paper describes the manners bywhich knowledge management systems can facilitate transfer of problem-solving strategies from a domainexpert to different kinds of end users. With this objective in mind, we suggest using visualization, graphicaldiagrams and simulation in conjunction to support the transfer of problem-solving strategies from a domainexpert to the end users. Visualization can support end users, enabling them to follow the reasoning strategyof the system more easily. The visualization discussed here includes static and dynamic presentation of therules and facts in the knowledge base that are used during execution of the system. The static presentationillustrates how different rules are related statically in a sequence diagram in the Unified Modeling Language(UML). The dynamic presentation, in contrast, visualizes rules used and facts relevant to a specificconsultation, i.e., this presentation depends on the input inserted by the users and is illustrated in acollaboration diagram in the UML. Utilising these diagrams can support the sharing and reuse of theknowledge and strategies used for handling routine tasks and problems more efficiently and profitablywhilst minimizing potential for loss of knowledge. This is important when experts are not available on thespot. These diagrams can also be used for the organisation and the disseminating of knowledge by locatingexperts in an organisation, which is important when these are to be relocated in large organisations orgeographically distributed.

  • 27. Håkansson, Anne
    Visual Conceptualisation for Knowledge Acquisition in Knowledge Based Systems2004In: Expert Update, ISSN 1465-4091, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Apelkrans, Mats
    Dept of Informatics, Jönköping International Business School.
    Information coordination using meta-agents in information logistics processes2010In: Agent and Multi-agent Technology for Internet and Enterprise Systems / [ed] Hakansson, Anne; Hartung, Ronald; Nguyen, Ngoc-Thanh, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 119-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be competitive, the goal for manufacturing companies is to deliver the right products at the right time with good quality. This requires good planning, optimized purchases and well functioning distribution channels. It also requires an efficient information flow in the company. One of the problems in Business Informatics is to coordinate the information flow between the manufacturing company, its customers, and its suppliers. For example, coordinating the information flow needed in a manufacturing company to fulfil their order stock. In the production process, a major issue is the double directed information flows, one from customers to company and another from company to its suppliers. This information can be about orders, requirements and production plans. Information coordination between the actors can speed up the information exchange and, hence, optimize the production cost. However, this requires a technology that can search, combine and deliver the information needed by the manufacturing company. Our approach is to combine theories from Multi Agent Systems (MAS), meta-agents and Information Logistics (IL) in order to coordinate and deliver information at the right time and to the right place at an acceptable cost.

  • 29.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Hamfelt, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Compositional Relational Programming and its Visualisation2004In: Advances in the Internet Technology: Concepts and Systems / [ed] I., Vujovic, V. Milutinovic (editors), I., Vujovic, V. Milutinovic (editors) , 2004, , p. 179p. 49-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    An Approach to Event-Driven Algorithm for Intelligent Agents in Multi-agent Systems2008In: AGENT AND MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS. / [ed] Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, GeunSik Jo, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 411-420Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meta-level agents and intelligent agents in multi-agent systems canbe used to search for solutions in networks and graphs where the meta-agentsprovide paths between nodes based on properties of the graph elements given atthe time. A challenge with network problems is finding these search paths whileextracting information in the network within an acceptable time bound.Moreover, this is especially difficult when information is extracted andcombined from several different sources. Reducing time and making the agentswork together requires a plan or an effective algorithm. In this paper wepropose an approach to an event-driven algorithm that can search forinformation in networks using meta-agents in multi-agent systems. The metaagentsmonitor the agents using event-driven communication, acting as a searchmethod and extract the searching for information in networks.

  • 31.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Hartung, Ronald
    An infrastructure for individualised and intelligent decision-making and negotiation in cyber-physical systems2014In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 35, p. 822-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems are often developed with an emphasis on the network of computational elements and the linkage between the computational and physical elements. The physical elements are different kinds of Internet of Things devices that carry out desirable and valid tasks from instructions. However, due to the limitations of current individual-based secure products and delivery of services, the requisites of these products and services have started to increase and, hence, the requirements for intelligent automated, networked and mobile devices arise. The current state of communication between the elements in Internet of Things is data exchange and needs step up to next level to improve the interaction with the surrounding devices to augmenting human capabilities. This paper presents an infrastructure for individualised intelligent decision-making and negotiation in cyber-physical systems with smart Internet of Things devices. The decision-making and negotiation is based on individual preferences to provide the best individual-based solutions. The solution is applied to health care, which will permeate throughout the paper.

  • 32.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Autonomously creating a hierarchy of intelligent agents using clustering in a multi-agent system2008In: Proceedings of The 2008 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: ICAI 2008 / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Youngsong Mun, USA, 2008, p. 89-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an approach to automatically create a hierarchy of agents. The hierarchy clusters similar agents and, thereby, optimizes locality. The clustering improves task efficiency in the multi-agent system. Moreover, clustering reduces communication costs between closely connected agents and speeds up searching for data in networks and graphs. In addition, the approach supports task handling by the agents and reasoning at different levels in hierarchy by dividing the overall task among the agents in the hierarchy. The benefit of dividing tasks into small separate pieces is that the agents can work with the task independently using parallel computation. The results from the computation can be efficiently reassembled by the hierarchy of agents.

  • 33. Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Calculating optimal decision using Meta-level agents for Multi-Agents in Networks2007In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: KES 2007 - WIRN 2007, Pt I, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 180-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spatial graphs with a vast number of nodes, it is difficult tocompute a solution to graph optimisation problems. We propose an approachusing meta-level agents for multi-agents in a network to calculate an optimaldecision. The network contains nodes and arcs wherein the agents areinformation carriers between the nodes and, since there is one agent per arc, theagents are statically located. These agents, operating at a ground level,communicate with a comprehensive agent, operating at a meta-level. The agentsat the meta-level hold information computed by the ground-level agents, butalso include ground-level agents’ special conditions. As an example, we applythe work to the travelling salesman problem and use a map, with cities androads, constituting the network where the information about the roads is carriedin the meta-level agents. For multi-agents in maps, we use parallel computing.The parallel computing is at the ground-level agents’ level and simulatesgeographical information systems to provide the agents with environmentalinformation.

  • 34.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Reengineering for Knowledge in Knowledge Based Systems2006In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: KES-2006 / [ed] Bogdan Gabrys, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006, p. 342-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to reengineering knowledge-based systems. Commonly, reengineering is used to modify systems that have functioned for many years, but are no longer able to accomplish the tasks required, and therefore need to be updated. Reengineering can also be used to modify and extend the knowledge contained in these systems. This is an intricate task if the systems are large, complex and poorly documented. The rules in the knowledge base must be gathered, analyzed and understood. In this paper, we apply reengineering to the knowledge and the functionality of knowledge-based systems. The outcome of the reengineering process is presented in graphic representations using Unified Modeling Language diagrams.

  • 35.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Hartung, Ronald
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Using Meta-Agents for Multi-Agents in Networks2007In: The 2007 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence: The 2007 World Congress in Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence / [ed] H. Arabnia et al, 2007, p. 561-567Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose an approach usingmeta-agents for monitoring multi-agents and controllingtheir behaviour while moving between states in a network.The meta-agents are built on the agents in the system andthen used to inspect the agents’ behaviour when reachinga result as well as perceiving the reason for that result.Each meta-agent can comprise everything from one agentto dozen or more agents depending on the task assigned tothe system. The benefit of using meta-agents for a multiagentsystem is the ability to provide the fastest waybetween nodes under given circumstances and to handle avast number of nodes in graphs and networks such astravelling salesman problem (TSP).

  • 36.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Using reengineering for knowledge-based systems2007In: Cybernetics and systems, ISSN 0196-9722, E-ISSN 1087-6553, Vol. 38, p. 799-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reverse engineering, also called reengineering, is used to modify systems that have functioned for many years, but which can no longer accomplish their intended tasks and, therefore, need to be updated. Reverse engineering can support the modification and extension of the knowledge in an already existing system. However, this can be an intricate task for a large, complex and poorly documented knowledge-based system. The rules in the knowledge base must be gathered, analyzed and understood, but also checked for verification and validation. We introduce an approach that uses reverse engineering for the knowledge in knowledge-based systems. The knowledge is encapsulated in rules, facts and conclusions, and in the relationships between them. Reverse engineering also collects functionality and source code. The outcome of reverse engineering is a model of the knowledge base, the functionality and the source code connected to the rules. These models are presented in diagrams using a graphic representation similar to Unified Modeling Language and employing ontology. Ontology is applied on top of rules, facts and relationships. From the diagrams, test cases are generated during the reverse engineering process and adopted to verify and validate the system.

  • 37.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Jung, Jason
    Yeoungnam University, Daegu, South Korea.
    Using Multi-Agent System for Business Applications in Multilingual Ontologies2010In: INNOVATION THROUGH KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER / [ed] Howlett, RJ, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 157-167Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In e-business, ontology technology is used for e-commerce and e-services. The ontologies are specifications of syntax and semantics of information, which provide a shared vocabulary to facilitate online services. For some requests, multiple ontologies are required to solve a problem, like for e-tourism. However, there are problems with using several ontologies. For example, finding and using the ontologies depends on the language used in the ontologies, and matching techniques. The matching includes word correspondence to the users' request and the equivalence between the ontologies. The matching is difficult due to differences between ontologies resulting from the lack of standards and development guidelines. This paper presents a multi-agent system wherein the agents use the users' request to search for multilingual ontologies. From the search results, the system facilitates communication between the users input and the ontologies to accomplish the request, which can be booking a train ticket or an event. Meta-agents keep track of the agents and manage the user-system communication.

  • 38.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    Reasoning Strategies in Smart Cyber-Physical Systems2015In: KNOWLEDGE-BASED AND INTELLIGENT INFORMATION & ENGINEERING SYSTEMS 19TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE, KES-2015, Elsevier, 2015, p. 1575-1584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems are integrations of computerized physical things in the environment that are merged by communications, and computations using embedded systems and networks. To make the components of the systems act intelligently, according to users' needs, and understand and predict behavior of the cyber-physical systems, the cyber-physical systems need reasoning to link the outcome of the different components to be able to make use of the devices in the surrounding environment. The reasoning includes collecting sensor data, finding key concepts in the data and drawing conclusions that cyber-physical systems can use to control the components surrounding the users. However, there is a range of different components in a system where each has particular communication input-output and its own set tasks, which provides particular challenges associated with controlling or predicting the behavior of such systems, which require a kind of analytic tools. This paper presents reasoning strategies for smart cyber-physical systems that can extract and combine data, information, and knowledge to provide an intelligent behavior from users point of view. The reasoning strategies use users' needs as a starting point and provide an environment that gives personalized support.

  • 39.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Hartung, Ronald
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Wu, Dan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Comparing Ontologies Using Multi-agent System and Knowledge Base2010In: KNOWLEDGE-BASED AND INTELLIGENT INFORMATION AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS / [ed] Setchi R; Jordanov I; Howlett RJ; Jain LC, 2010, Vol. 6279, p. 124-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for handling several ontologies in a domain by integrating a knowledge base in a multi-agent system. For some online facilities, like e-business, several ontologies in different languages are needed to match the users' request. Finding the ontologies is one of the tasks, comparing and combining these ontologies is the other. The accomplishment of these tasks depends on the content in the ontologies like tags and structure but, in some cases, also language and matching techniques. Matching the contents is difficult due to differences between ontologies, often resulting from the lack of explicit and exact standards and development guidelines. This complication increases with the ontologies diverged languages. These problems are tackled by applying a multi-agent system wherein the agents, i.e., software agents and meta-agents, use the users' request to search for ontologies and the knowledge base to compare and combine the contents of the ontologies to create an overall solution. The software agents search for ontologies; the meta-agents keep track of the software agents, ontologies and the knowledge base that reasons with the contents of the ontologies.

  • 40.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Sweden.
    Hartung, RonaldFranklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.Nguyen, Ngoc-ThanhInstitute of Informatics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Agent and Multi-agent Technology for Internet and Enterprise Systems: Studies in Computational Intelligence2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Howlett, R. J.
    Sustainability in energy and buildings 2013In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB'12) / [ed] Hakansson, A., Höjer, M., Howlett, R.J., Jain, L.C. (Eds.), Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. I-1110Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Höjer, MattiasKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.Howlett, Robert JBournemouth University.Jain, Lakhmi CUniversity of South Australia.
    Sustainability in Energy and Buildings: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference in Sustainability in Energy and Buildings (SEB´12)2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nguyen, Ngoc-ThanhInstitute of Informatics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland .Hartung, RonaldFranklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.Howlett, RobertEnterprise, Bournemouth University, UK.
    Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications, Third KES International Symposium, KES-AMSTA 2009, Uppsala, Sweden2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Håkansson, Anne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Wu, Dan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Software and Computer systems, SCS.
    Conceptual ontology intersection for mapping and alignment of ontologies2013In: Agent and Multi-Agent Systems in Distributed Systems - Digital Economy and E-Commerce, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 105-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining ontologies can enrich knowledge within a domain and support the development and use of advanced services. This requires matching and combining the relevant ontologies for specific services, which can be supported by mapping and alignment of several ontologies. However, these techniques are not enough since the ontologies are often heterogeneous and difficult to combine. To overcome these problems, a conceptual ontology intersection is provided to map and align contents of the ontologies. This intersection is a conceptual ontology bridge between ontologies and contains parts from the involved ontologies. The contents are extracted by syntactic mapping and synonym alignment using an ontology repository, a rule base and a synonym lexicon using agents. The result is a set of concepts that together constitute the intersection, which is used for combining new incoming ontologies and, thereby, providing complex services.

  • 45. Jung, Jason
    et al.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication: Services and Infrastucture (Closed 20120101), Software and Computer Systems, SCS (Closed 20120101).
    Hartung, Ronald
    Franklin University, Department of Computer Sciences & Mathematics, Columbus, Ohio.
    Indirect Alignment between Multilingual Ontologies: A Case Study of Korean and Swedish Ontologies2009In: AGENT AND MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Anne Håkansson, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Ronald L. Hartung, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 233-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing ontology alignment methods have been trying to automatically obtain semantic correspondences between ontologies. However, they assume that all elements of source ontologies are written by identical languages. In this paper, we have introduced a theoretical idea for building indirect alignment between multilingual ontologies.,Thereby, a novel architecture to reuse and compose alignments between ontologies has been designed. For a simple case study, we have collected two multilingual ontologies written by Korean and Swedish languages.

  • 46. Lundberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    An Approach towards using Agent in Multi-Agent Systems to streamline emergency services2008In: Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Information Technology and Applications: ICITA 2008 / [ed] Guojun Liao ; Xianxing Cai ; Joseph Hsieh, 2008, p. 414-419Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In emergency services, the evaluation of a situation isperformed, manually, which includes synchronizing the servicesfor each situation. However, the work requires divergent anddecisive decisions resolved from several points of views, whichwould benefit from automating parts of the work. Using computersystems in life-critical domains can involve careful considerationof the work practice and of the situation components. In thispaper, we propose using agents, intelligent agents andmeta-agents, to streamline emergency services. The intelligentagents respond to both static and dynamic input in a flexible andstructured way and perform required actions. From these actions,the meta-agents are created in which the divisions of dynamic andstatic information have an impact on the structure of thecalculations but also on the outcome produced by the meta-agents.As an example application, we provide a scenario of agents andmeta-agents in multi-agent systems, where the meta-agents holdsystemic properties. The scenario has a strong grounding in theemergency service domain, in which we highlight coordinationissues related to the multi-agents and the meta-agents.

  • 47.
    Lundberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola, Universitet/Högskola, Ronneby.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Computer and Systems Sciences, Forum 100, Kista.
    Framework for Dynamic Life Critical Situations Using Agents2009In: Multi-Agent System Technologies, Proceedings / [ed] Lars Braubach, Wiebe van der Hoek, Paolo Petta, Alexander Pokahr, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 214-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a framework incorporating a multi-agent system (MAS) that enables aid for international effect-based operation in emergency situations. The outcome is to empower emergency personnel, which can support collaboration between different international services by informing them about the emergency, matching competences and resources of the teams and volunteers. The challenge in emergency contexts is the abbreviations forming an information-carrying structure, which is especially important when abbreviations are exchanged between different services like rescue, military and emergency. We propose a framework, which provides the right information, rescue team, and services at the right place. The MAS can support information dissemination in dynamic situations in context, based on the information extraction and matching of the contents of the underlying ontologies. In the framework the system poses a sensible solution to the international rescue teams' need of a high quality handling of life critical situations.

  • 48.
    Mayiwar, Narin
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Considering Different Learning Styles when Transferring Problem Solving Strategies from Expert to End Users2004In: Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: KES 2004, Wellington, New Zealand, September 20-25, 2004. Proceedings. Part I. / [ed] Mircea Gh. Negoita, ‎Robert J. Howlett, ‎L. C. Jain, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, p. 253-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the manner in which a knowledge-based system can support different learning styles. There has been along tradition of constructing knowledge-based systems as learning environments to facilitate understanding and tutor subjects.These systems transfer domain knowledge and reasoning strategies to the end users by making the knowledge available. However,the systems are not usually adapted to the individual end user and his or hers way of learning. The systems only use a smallnumber of ways of teaching while end users have many different ways of learning. With this in mind, the knowledge-based systemsneed to be extended to support these different learning styles and facilitate the individual end user’s learning. Our focusin this article will be on the knowledge transfer, which is a process that enables learning to occur. We suggest using visualizationand simulation to support the transfer of problem solving strategies from a domain expert to end users.

  • 49.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    et al.
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    Håkansson, Anne
    Department of Information Science, Computer Science, Uppsala University.
    Approach to Solving Security Problems Using Meta-Agents in Multi Agent System2008In: AGENT AND MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, GeunSik Jo, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 122-131Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present an approach of integrating meta-agents in Web Services. Web Services requires an appropriate level of security to support business systems to be used by anyone, anywhere, at anytime and any platform. However, the increased use of distributed systems with message passing produces a growing set of security problems. This especially concerns threats and attacks on Web Services consisting of transactions with valuable resources. To prevent possible attacks on Web Services, we propose using meta-agents over software agents in a multi-agent system. The multi-agent system consists of a network of software agents that secure the message passing at the transport and application levels. To avoid attacks on these agents, we use meta-agents to monitor the software agents’ actions and then to direct the software agents’ work. These meta-agents are also used to handle unexpected events in the actions of the software agents.

  • 50.
    Moradian, Esmiralda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Håkansson, Anne
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Controlling Security of Software Development with Multi-agent System2010In: KNOWLEDGE-BASED AND INTELLIGENT INFORMATION AND ENGINEERING SYSTEMS / [ed] Setchi R; Jordanov I; Howlett RJ; Jain LC, 2010, Vol. 6279, p. 98-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software systems become distributed and complex. Distributed systems are crucial for organizations since they provide possibility to share data and information, resources and services. Nowadays, many software systems are not developed from scratch: system development involves reuse of already developed components. However, with the intrusion in the computer systems, it has become important that systems must fulfill security goals and requirements. Moreover, interdependencies of components create problems during integration phase. Therefore, security properties of components should be considered and evaluated earlier in the lifecycle. In this paper, we propose an agent-oriented process that supports verification of fulfillment of security goals and validation of security requirements during different phases of development lifecycle. Moreover, the system needs to support mapping of security requirements to threat list to determine if any of the attacks in the list is applicable to the system to be developed. This is performed by the meta-agents. These meta-agents automatically create a security checklist, as well as, provide control of actions taken by human agent.

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