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  • 1.
    Adib Murad, Ahsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Gómez, Francisco José
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Equation-Based Modeling of FACTS using Modelica2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results of extending the iTesla Modelica Power System Library with the implementation of new Modelica models for power electronic-based FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission System) to be used in phasor time-domain simulations. To show the applicability of Modelica for modeling FACTS devices and power system simulation, a software-to-software validation is performed against the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT), which is used as the reference software for validation. A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the validation results between PSAT and Modelica is given.

  • 2.
    Adib Murad, Ahsan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Gómez, Francisco José
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems. Statnett SF, Oslo.
    Equation-Based Modeling of Three-Winding and Regulating Transformers using Modelica2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The simulation of power transformer models is important when analyzing the dynamic behavior of power systems, in particular, when considering voltage magnitude or phase regulation controls. This paper reports results of extending the library of transformers in the iTesla Modelica Power Systems Library. Three transformer models have been implemented: a three-winding transformer, an under-load tap changing transformer (ULTC) and a phase shifting transformer (PST). An IEEE 14-Bus, power system test model was also implemented, both in Modelica and PSAT, to assess the performance of the models. Software-to-software validation is carried out against PSAT, a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the validation results between PSAT and Modelica is given.

  • 3. Al-Hammouri, A.T.
    et al.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Leelaruji, Rujiroj
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Virtualization of synchronized phasor measurement units within real-time simulators for smart grid applications2012In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, IEEE , 2012, p. 6344949-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized phasor measurement units (PMUs) provide GPS-time tagged high-sampling rate positive-sequence voltage and current phasors. When placed in high-voltage substations in power networks, PMUs can provide real-time information that is necessary for the development of Smart Transmission Grid software applications for improving power system monitoring, control and protection. The development of these applications, particularly for use within control centers for on-line purposes, is limited by the availability of and access to real-time PMU data and other information. One attractive approach for application development is the use of real-time simulators to which PMUs can be interfaced as hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) devices to harvest PMU data. However, this approach has technical and economical limitations, which can be tackled by the virtualization of PMU devices. This article describes the development of an entirely software-based synchronized phasor measurement unit for use within real-time simulators that will allow the emulation of a large number of real-life PMUs, which in turn can be used for creating new phasor-based applications.

  • 4.
    Almas, M. Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. Statnett SF, Res & Dev, Oslo, Norway.
    RT-HIL Implementation of Hybrid Synchrophasor and GOOSE-based Passive Islanding Schemes2016In: 2016 IEEE POWER AND ENERGY SOCIETY GENERAL MEETING (PESGM), IEEE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Baudette, Maxime
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Løvlund, S
    Gjerde, J.O
    Synchrophasor Network, Laboratory and Software Applications Developed in the STRONg2rid Project2014In: PES General Meeting Conference & Exposition, 2014 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the activities carried out in one of the work packages of the Nordic Energy Research funded project Smart Transmission Grid Operation and Control (STRONg2rid). The main objective of the work package is to deploy a state-of-the-art software and hardware for developing power system operation, protection, control and automation applications. Several PMUs have been deployed at partner universities and a network of synchrophasors has been set up. In addition the Smart Transmission System Laboratory (SmarTS-Lab) has been established. This laboratory serves as a test-bench to develop and verify smart transmission grid technologies. A software development kit (S3DK) was developed within the project. The S3DK has been used to implement PMU-based applications and deploy them in different targets, including smart phones and tablets. Several tools and software applications which utilize synchrophasor measurements (from the laboratory or the deployed university PMU network) to perform power system monitoring, sub-synchronous power oscillation detection, etc., have been developed and are presented herein.  

  • 6.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Kilter, Jako
    Tallinn University of Technology-Estonia.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Experiences with Steady-State PMU Compliance Testing using Standard Relay Testing Equipment2014In: Electric Power Quality and Supply Reliability Conference (PQ), 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. -110Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of steady state compliance testing of phasor measurement units (PMUs) from three different vendors in a laboratory environment. Testing is performed by providing three phase voltage and current injections to the VT and CT inputs of the PMUs through Freja-300 stand-alone protection relay test set. Testing is performed according to the standard “IEEE C37.242-2013 - IEEE Guide for Synchronization, Calibration, Testing, and Installation of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) for Power System Protection and Control”. The paper discusses the test setup, testing process and overall test results of this project. The limitations of stand-alone testing equipment and recommendations for utilizing real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation for thorough testing of PMUs are also presented. 

  • 7.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Leelaruji, Rujiroj
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Over-current relay model implementation for real time simulation & Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) validation2012In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Montreal, QC: IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 4789-4896Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital microprocessor based relays are currently being utilized for safe, reliable and efficient operation of power systems. The overcurrent protection relay is the most extensively used component to safeguard power systems from the detrimental effects of faults. Wrong settings in overcurrent relay parameters can lead to false tripping or even bypassing fault conditions which can lead to a catastrophe. Therefore it is important to validate the settings of power protection equipment and to confirm its performance when subject to different fault conditions. This paper presents the modeling of an overcurrent relay in SimPowerSystems (\textsc {matlab}/Simulink). The overcurrent relay has the features of instantaneous, time definite and inverse  definite minimum time (IDMT) characteristics. A power system is modeled in SimPowerSystems and this overcurrent relay model is incorporated in the test case. The overall model is then simulated in real-time using Opal-RT's eMEGAsim real-time simulator to analyze the relay's performance when subjected to faults and with different characteristic settings in the relay model. Finally Hardware-in-the-Loop validation of the model is done by using the overcurrent protection feature in Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Relay SEL-487E. The event reports generated by the SEL relays during Hardware-in-the-Loop testing are compared with the results obtained from the standalone testing and software model to validate the model.

  • 8.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. Statnett.
    A Hybrid Synchrophasor and GOOSE-Based Power System Synchronization Scheme2016In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 4, p. 4659-4668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design and real-time hardware-in-the-loop implementation of a hybrid synchrophasors and GOOSE-based automatic synchronization algorithm are presented in this paper. Automatic synchronization is performed by utilizing the synchrophasor measurements from two commercial phasor measurement units (PMUs), while the coordinated control commands to automatic voltage regulator and/or turbine governor control and trip command to the circuit breaker are issued using IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE messages. The algorithm is deployed inside the PMU using the protection logic equations, and direct communication between the PMUs is established to minimize the communication latencies. In addition, the algorithm is tested using a standard protection relay test-set, and automatic test sequences are executed to validate its performance. It is concluded that the hybrid synchrophasor and GOOSE-based automatic synchronization scheme ensures minimum communication latencies, reduces equipment cost, facilitates interoperability, and performs automatic reconnection adequately.

  • 9.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. Statnett.
    A method exploiting direct communication between phasor measurement units for power system wide-area protection and control algorithms2017In: MethodsX, ISSN 1258-780X, E-ISSN 2215-0161, Vol. 4, p. 346-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrophasor measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are the primary sensors used to deploy Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems. PMUs stream out synchrophasor measurements through the IEEE C37.118.2 protocol using TCP/IP or UDP/IP. The proposed method establishes a direct communication between two PMUs, thus eliminating the requirement of an intermediate phasor data concentrator, data mediator and/or protocol parser and thereby ensuring minimum communication latency without considering communication link delays. This method allows utilizing synchrophasor measurements internally in a PMU to deploy custom protection and control algorithms. These algorithms are deployed using protection logic equations which are supported by all the PMU vendors. Moreover, this method reduces overall equipment cost as the algorithms execute internally in a PMU and therefore does not require any additional controller for their deployment. The proposed method can be utilized for fast prototyping of wide-area measurements based protection and control applications. The proposed method is tested by coupling commercial PMUs as Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) with Opal-RT’s eMEGAsim Real-Time Simulator (RTS). As illustrative example, anti-islanding protection application is deployed using proposed method and its performance is assessed. The essential points in the method are:

    •  Bypassing intermediate phasor data concentrator or protocol parsers as the synchrophasors are communicated directly between the PMUs (minimizes communication delays).

    •  Wide Area Protection and Control Algorithm is deployed using logic equations in the client PMU, therefore eliminating the requirement for an external hardware controller (cost curtailment)

    •  Effortless means to exploit PMU measurements in an environment familiar to protection engineers

  • 10.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    Statnett SF, Oslo, Norway.
    Experimental Performance Assessment of a Generator's Excitation Control System using Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation2014In: Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 3756-3762Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents methods and results for experimental performance assessment using Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop (RT-HIL) simulation of an Excitation Control System (ECS) for both terminal voltage regulation and power oscillation damping. The ECS configured for this study is Unitrol 1020 from ABB and its performance is assessed for both Automatic Voltage Regulator (Auto) and Field Current Regulator (Manual) modes. RT-HIL simulation is performed by using Opal-RT’s eMEGAsim RT Simulator using a power system model including a synchronous generator. Finally, the Power System Stabilizing feature of Unitrol 1020 is calibrated and assessed.  

  • 11.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. Statnett.
    Impact of Time-Synchronization Signal Loss on PMU-based WAMPAC Applications2016In: IEEE PES General Meeting 2016, IEEE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper experimentally assesses the impact of loss of time-synchronization signal on synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control applications. Phase Angle Monitoring (PAM), anti-islanding protection and power oscillation damping applications are investigated. Power system models are executed using a real-time simulator with commercial PMUs coupled to them as hardware-in-the-loop. The experiments conclude that a phase angle monitoring application shows erroneous power system state whereas the operating time of an anti-islanding protection application increases due to the loss of time-synchronization signal input to PMUs. In addition, the performance of an oscillation damping controller degrades in the absence of time-synchronization input to the PMUs.

  • 12.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Implementation of Conventional and Phasor Based Power System Stabilizing Controls for Real-Time Simulation2014In: Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 3770-3776Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the implementation of three different types of Power System Stabilizers (PSS) and a Static Var Compensator with a supplementary Phasor Power Oscillation Damper (POD) control for real-time simulation. The Klein-Rogers-Kundur model is used as test case and the PSS and Phasor-POD’s performance is evaluated for both large and small disturbances.  Modeling is performed in the MATLAB/Simulink environment and is executed in real-time using Opal-RT’s eMEGAsim Real-Time Simulator. The simulation results and the developed model will be used to deploy hardware prototype based on embedded controllers to provide power oscillation damping. Real-time software in the loop (SIL) approach is used for validating developed models as a first logical step towards development of a prototype hardware controller.

  • 13.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Methodologies for Power Protection Relay Testing: From Conventional to Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation Approaches2013In: 10th International Conference on Power System Transients, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance testing of the protection relays ensures that a particular protection scheme will operate reliably and fast enough to disconnect a faulty zone from the rest of the network, thus mitigating the effect of fault on the power system. It is therefore important to validate the settings of power protection equipment and to confirm its performance when subject to different fault conditions. Traditionally, commissioning engineers make use of standalone protection relay test sets for analyzing the performance of relays when subjected to different voltage and current injections. With the advent of digital simulators the model of the power system can be executed in real-time and protection relays can be interfaced as hardware-in-the-loop to evaluate their performance when subjected to different faults in the simulated power system. This gives an added value of analyzing the overall behavior of the power system coupled with the relay performance under faulty conditions. In addition, the utilization of GOOSE messages for status, control and protection purposes puts an extra requirement to completely test the IEC 61850 capabilities of the protection relays.

    This article illustrates two different techniques namely standalone testing and real-time hardware-in-the-loop testing used for protection relays performance verification. Both techniques are evaluated for hardwired and IEC 61850-8-1 (GOOSE) signals. The instantaneous overcurrent protection feature of Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Relay SEL-421 is used for complete standalone and RT-HIL testing. For RT-HIL testing, the test case is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink and executed in real-time using Opal-RT's eMEGAsim real-time simulator. The event reports generated by standalone and RT-HIL testing for both hardwired and GOOSE signals is used to verify the tripping times achieved. Finally the performance of hardwired and GOOSE tripping times are compared and the overall standalone and RT-HIL techniques are evaluated.

  • 14.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF PROTECTION FUNCTIONS FOr IEC 61850-9-2 PROCESS BUS USING REAL-TIME HARDWARE-IN-THE-loop simulation approach2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the evolution of Process Bus (IEC 61850-9-2), there is a need to assess the performance of protection schemes using process bus against those where traditional copper wires are implemented. Differential protection is the fundamental and most commonly used protection for transformers, motors and generators. In this paper a power system is modelled in SimPowerSystems and is executed in real-time using Opal-RT’s eMEGAsim real-time simulator. Hardware-in-the loop validation of a process bus implementation for differential protection for a two winding transformer is done by using the differential protection feature in ABB’s RED-670 relay. The event reports generated by the ABB relay during Hardware-in-the-Loop testing are compared for three different scenarios i.e. complete process bus, hybrid process bus and complete traditional topology.   

  • 15.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. Statnett.
    RT-HIL Implementation of Hybrid Synchrophasor and GOOSE-based Passive Islanding Schemes2015In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 1299-1309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time hardware-in-the-loop performance assessmentof three different passive islanding detection methodsfor local and wide-area synchrophasor measurements is carriedout in this paper. Islanding detection algorithms are deployedwithin the phasor measurement unit (PMU) using logic equations.Tripping decisions are based on local and wide-area synchrophasorsas computed by the PMU, and trips are generated usingIEC 61850-8-1 generic object-oriented substation event messages.The performance assessment compares these islanding detectionschemes for the nondetection zone and operation speed underdifferent operating conditions. The testbench that is demonstratedis useful for a myriad of applications where simulation exercises inpower system computer-aided design software provide no realisticinsight into the practical design and implementation challenges.Finally, different communication latencies introduced due tothe utilization of synchrophasors and IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSEmessages are determined.

  • 16.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems. Statnett, Oslo.
    RT-HIL Testing of an Excitation Control System for Oscillation Damping using External Stabilizing Signals2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A feature of an Excitation Control System (ECS) for synchronous generators is to enable power system stabilization by providing an additional input to the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) for external stabilization signals. This paper explores this feature by externally generating stabilization signals which are fed as an analog input to a commercial ECS. This allows bypassing the built-in PSS function in the ECS and gives more freedom to the end-user to utilize custom stabilizer models. ABB’s Unitrol 1020 Excitation Control System is coupled with Opal-RT’s eMEGAsim Real-Time simulator to perform Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation of the ECS. The output of several stabilizer models is fed to the ABB’s Unitrol 1020 ECS as external power system stabilization signals to analyze their performance for small signal stability enhancement.  

  • 17.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. Statnett.
    Baudette, Maxime
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    BabelFish—Tools for IEEE C37.118.2-compliant real-time synchrophasor data mediation2017In: SoftwareX, ISSN 2352-7110, Vol. 6, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BabelFish (BF) is a real-time data mediator for development and fast prototyping of synchrophasor applications. BF is compliant with the synchrophasor data transmission IEEE Std C37.118.2-2011. BF establishes a TCP/IP connection with any Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) or Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC) stream and parses the IEEE Std C37.118.2-2011 frames in real-time to provide access to raw numerical data in the LabVIEW environment. Furthermore, BF allows the user to select ‘‘data-of-interest’’and transmit it to either a local or remote application using the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) in order to support both unicast and multicast communication. In the power systems Wide Area Monitoring Protection and Control (WAMPAC) domain, BF provides the first Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) for the purpose of giving the users tools for fast prototyping of new applications processing PMU measurements in their chosen environment, thus liberating them of time consuming synchrophasor data handling and allowing them to develop applications in a modular fashion, without a need of a large and monolithic synchrophasor software environment.

  • 18.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Løvlund, Stig
    Gjerde, J.O
    Open Source SCADA Implementation and PMU Integration for Power System Monitoring and Control Applications2014In: PES General Meeting | Conference & Exposition, 2014 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. -5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the implementation of an Open Source SCADA system in a laboratory and discusses methods for PMU data integration into SCADA. SCADA BR is a web-browser based SCADA that enables the user to access monitoring, control and automation equipment over multiple protocols. For implementation, protection relays from SEL are configured as DNP3 outstations to act as slaves and SCADA BR which is installed in one of the workstations in the laboratory acts as master. The evaluation of SCADA BR has been performed by executing a power system model in a real-time simulator and coupling its analog outputs with the protection relays. The integration of PMU measurements in the SCADA system and their use for monitoring is discussed. The limitations of the SCADA systems to fully utilize PMU data are also presented.

  • 19.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. Statnett.
    Singh, Ravi Shankar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Jonsdottir, Gudrun Margret
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vulnerability of Synchrophasor-based WAMPAC Applications’ to Time Synchronization Spoofing2018In: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 4601-4612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper experimentally assesses the impact of time synchronization spoofing attacks (TSSA) on synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control applications. Phase Angle Monitoring (PAM), anti-islanding protection and power oscillation damping applications are investigated. TSSA are created using a real-time IRIG-B signal generator and power system models are executed using a real-time simulator with commercial phasor measurement units (PMUs) coupled to them as hardware-in-the-loop. Because PMUs utilize time synchronization signals to compute synchrophasors, an error in the PMUs’ time input introduces a proportional phase error in the voltage or current phase measurements provided by the PMU. The experiments conclude that a phase angle monitoring application will show erroneous power transfers, whereas the anti-islanding protection mal-operates and the damping controller introduces negative damping in the system as a result of the time synchronization error incurred in the PMUs due to TSSA.The proposed test-bench and TSSA approach can be used to investigate the impact of TSSA on any WAMPAC application and to determine the time synchronization error threshold that can be tolerated by these WAMPAC applications.

  • 20. Angioni, A.
    et al.
    Lu, Shengye
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Cairo, Ignasi
    Repo, Sami
    Ponci, Ferdinanda
    Della Giustina, Davide
    Kulmala, Anna
    Dede, Alessio
    Monti, Antonello
    Del Rosario, Gerard
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Garcia, C.C.
    A distributed automation architecture for distribution networks, from design to implementation2018In: Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, ISSN 0284-4354, E-ISSN 2352-4677, Vol. 15, p. 3-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the current increase of distributed generation in distribution networks, line congestions and PQ issues are expected to increase. The smart grid may effectively coordinate DER, only when supported by a comprehensive architecture for automation. In IDE4L project such architecture is designed based on monitoring, control and business use cases. The IDE4L instance of SGAM architecture is derived and explained in details. The automation actor are specified in terms of interfaces, database and functions. The division in these three layers boosted the implementation phase as dedicated interfaces, databases or application has been developed in a modular way and can be installed in different HW/SW. Some implementation instances are presented and the main output of the architecture is discussed with regards to some indexes as communication traffic and level of distribution of automation functions.

  • 21.
    Anh, Nguyen Tua
    et al.
    KU Leuven.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems. Statnett SF.
    Van Hertem, Dirk
    KU Leuven.
    A Quantitative Method to Determine ICT Delay Requirements for Wide-Area Power System Damping Controllers2015In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, ISSN 0885-8950, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 2023-2030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quantitative method to determine delay requirements of the information and communication technology (ICT) system supporting wide-area power oscillation damping (WAPOD) controllers. An allowable time delay for the ICT infrastructure named “equivalent time delay (ETD)” is defined. The ETD is calculated by numerically comparing the damping behavior of the system when local input signals (LI) and remote input signals (RI) are used in the damping controller. The use of a WAPOD is only justified when its response outperforms that of a controller using local inputs. Therefore, the total time delay in the control loop must be below the calculated ETD. As such, the ETD serves as a design criteria to determine ICT latency requirements. The selection of an effective RI signal can be carried out by considering the maximum delays (ETDs) of different wide-area measurements. A damping improvement ETDx% has been proposed using the same methodology indicating a minimum outperformance of the remote signals. The proposed method is demonstrated using the well-known Klein-Rogers-Kundur multi-machine power system and the Vietnamese power system model.

  • 22.
    Baudette, Maxime
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Singh, Ravi Shankar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Peric, Vedran S.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Løvlund, Stig
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    ’In silico’ testing of a real-time PMU-based tool for power system mode estimation2016In: 2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, PESGM 2016, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 1-5, article id 7741638Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the software implementation of a real-time mode estimator application and its testing. The application was developed to estimate inter-area modes from both ambient and ring-down synchrophasor data from multiple phasor measurement units (PMU). The software application was implemented in LabVIEW using Statnett’s synchrophasor software development kit (S3DK), to receive real-time synchrophasor measurements. The different features of the application were tested using two types of experiments presented herein. The first experiment is performed using emulated signals from a simple linear model. The second experiment was designed to use a linearized representation of the KTH-Nordic32 power system model. These experiments are used to carry out quantitative analyses of the tool’s performance.

  • 23.
    Baudette, Maxime
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Del Rosario, Gerard
    IREC.
    Ruiz Alvarez, Albert
    IREC.
    Dominguez Garcia, Jose Luis
    IREC.
    Al-Khatib, Iyad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Shoaib Almas, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Gjerde, Jan Ove
    Statnett SF.
    Validating a real-time PMU-based application for monitoring of sub-synchronous wind farm oscillations2014In: 2014 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, 2014, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents validation experiments performed on a Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) based fast oscillation detection application. The monitoring application focuses on the detection of sub-synchronous oscillations, utilizing real-time measurements from PMUs. The application was first tested through Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation. Validation experiments were carried out with a different set-up by utilizing a micro grid laboratory. This second experimental set-up as well as the results of the validation experiments are presented in this paper.

  • 24.
    Bidadfar, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Hooshyar, Hossein
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Monadi, Mehdi
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Decoupled voltage stability assessment of distribution networks using synchrophasors2016In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), 2016, 2016, article id 7741644Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a real-time voltage stabilityassessment in distribution networks (DNs) capable of separatingthe effects of the transmission and distribution network by usingsynchronized phasor measurements. The method aims to assisttransmission and distribution system operators to quantify theneed of their services in different parts of the DN in order toprovide adequate voltage support to their specific stakeholders.The method uses data from phasor measurement units (PMUs) toestimate models for both DN and transmission network (TN). ATh´evenin equivalent model is estimated for the TN and a T-modelfor the DN. By applying the superposition theorem on these twomodels, the contribution of each network to the overall systemvoltage stability can be distinguished at a specific bus (equippedwith a PMU). The method has been validated by a hardware-inthe-loop setup which consists an OPAL-RT real-time simulatorand three PMUs.

  • 25.
    Bogodorova, Tetiana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Sabate, Marc
    Aplicaciones en Informática Avanzada.
    Leon, Gladys
    Aplicaciones en Informática Avanzada.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Halat, Milenko
    Aplicaciones en Informática Avanzada.
    Heyberger, Jean-Baptiste
    RTE, France.
    Panciatici, Patrick
    RTE, France.
    A Modelica Power System Library for Phasor Time-Domain Simulation2013In: 2013 4th IEEE/PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Power system phasor time-domain simulation is often carried out through domain specific tools such as Eurostag, PSS/E, and others. While these tools are efficient, their individual sub-component models and solvers cannot be accessed by the users for modification. One of the main goals of the FP7 iTesla project [1] is to perform model validation, for which, a modelling and simulation environment that provides model transparency and extensibility is necessary.1 To this end, a power system library has been built using the Modelica language. This article describes the Power Systems library, and the software-to-software validation carried out for the implemented component as well as the validation of small-scale power system models constructed using different library components. Simulations from the Modelica models are compared with their Eurostag equivalents. Finally, due to its standardization, the Modelica language is supported by different modelling and simulation tools. This article illustrates how Modelica models can be shared across different simulation platforms without loss of information and maintaining consistency in simulation results.

  • 26.
    Bogodorova, Tetiana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. Research and Development Division, Statnett SF, Norway. .
    Turitsyn, Konstantin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Bayesian Parameter Estimation of Power System Primary Frequency Controls under Modeling Uncertainties2015In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 48, p. 461-465Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear Bayesian filtering has been utilized in numerous fields and applications. One of the most popular class of Bayesian algorithms is Particle Filters. Their main benefit is the ability to estimate complex posterior density of the state space in nonlinear models. This paper presents the application of particle filtering to the problem of parameter estimation and calibration of a nonlinear power system model. The parameters of interest for this estimation problem are those of a turbine governor model. The results are compared to the performance of a heuristic method. Estimation results have been validated against real-world measurement data collected from staged tests at a Greek power plant.

  • 27.
    Bogodorova, Tetiana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Turitsyn, Konstantin
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Voltage Control-Based Ancillary Service using Thermostatically Controlled Loads2016In: 2016 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the possibility of providing voltage control-based ancillary services using thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs). The idea is to change the voltage at the point of common coupling in order to control power consumption of the TCLs through time. This allows to utilize the most common type of loads in the grid to provide ancillary services. These services differ from usual demand response strategies that operate on short to medium time scales. In this paper the authors propose a controller that regulate the power consumption by minimizing the power consumption error signal and by taking physical restrictions into account. Voltage restrictions arise due to the small window of voltage variability about the nominal value of the controlled voltage. In addition, capacitor bank switching interactions with motor and thermostatically controlled loads is discussed.

  • 28.
    Cairo, Ignasi
    et al.
    IREC.
    Del Rosario, Gerard
    IREC.
    Dominguez, J.L.
    IREC.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Al-Khatib, Iyad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Baudette, Maxime
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Almas, M. Shoaib
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Equipos para medidas precisas de fase en tension corriente para redes inteligentes2013In: Automatica e Instrumentación, ISSN 0213-3113, no 451, p. 87-90Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Implementation of an experimental wide-area monitoring platform for development of synchronized phasor measurement applications2011In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE, IEEE , 2011, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrophasor-based Wide-Area Monitoring and Control Systems (WAMC) are becoming a reality with increased international research and development. Several monitoring and control applications based on these systems have been proposed, and although with a relative small adoption, they are currently supporting the operations of some large transmission system operators. It is expected that the continued research and development of phasor data applications will enable the miracle of #x201C;Smart Grids #x201D; at the transmission level. The authors have realized that this can be achieved in timely fashion only if a research and development platform is developed to simultaneously address issues regarding information and communication infrastructures, and phasor data applications. This paper discusses the preliminary development, and deployment of an experimental wide-area monitoring and control platform in which several basic applications have been implemented, and that in the future will allow for the implementation and testing of envisioned applications. At its current stage, the platform allows both online monitoring and off-line analysis. In the future, it will be the cornerstone to a wider platform enabling research on phasor data applications that intrinsically account for ICT aspects.

  • 30.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Li, Wei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Development and Implementation of the Nordic Grid Model for Power System Small-Signal and Transient Stability Studies in a Free and Open Source Software2012In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2012 IEEE, IEEE , 2012, p. 6344571-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an implementation of a Nordic grid model in Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) -a free and open-source software. A newly developed hydro turbine and hydro governor (HTG) model is implemented with this grid model and compared with the currently available PSAT turbine and governor models. Small-signal and transient stability analyses of the system using the two models are carried out and compared to demonstrate the difference and necessity of accurate hydro turbine and governor model utilization. The paper ends with a validation of the linearized Nordic grid model generated by PSAT including the newly implemented HTG models. This validation is done through nonlinear time-domain simulation by applying both large and small disturbances.

  • 31.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    A fundamental study on damping control design using PMU signals from dominant inter-area oscillation paths2012In: North American Power Symposium (NAPS), 2012, IEEE , 2012, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a fundamental study on feedback control using different types of signals available from a dominant inter-area oscillation path; the passageway containing the highest content of the inter-area oscillations. Results from the previous studies verify the persistence and robustness of dominant path signals and suggest that using such signals, effective damping control may be achieved. To corroborate the implication, signals available from phasor measurement units (PMU) e.g. voltage phasors (magnitude and angle) from the dominant path are used as feedback inputs for a power system stabilizer (PSS) control design for damping enhancement. The corresponding performance are compared with those using generator speed, which is a commonly used signal though not available from PMUs, as inputs. Contrary to expectations found in common practice, that of speed being the one of the most effective signal for damping control, it is demonstrated here that their corresponding damping performance is inferior to those using voltage phasors as feedback inputs. A conceptualized two-area system is used to analyze damping performance throughout this study.

  • 32.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems. Statnett SF, Norway .
    Analysis of Time Delay Effects for Wide-Area Damping Control Design using Dominant Path Signals2014In: 2014 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 6938872-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the effects of time delays for wide-area damping control design when signals from dominant inter-area oscillation paths are used as feedback inputs for damping controllers. The analysis is carried out using a two-area study system. Frequency and time-domain responses of a generator's terminal voltage when the PSS uses PMU signals subject to time delays will be compared and assessed. The analysis reveals that while modal observability of the dominant path signals corresponds to the gain of the open-loop system at the inter-area frequency, these properties are inversely proportional to their corresponding delay margins.

  • 33.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Identification of Power System Dominant Inter-Area Oscillation Paths2013In: 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), IEEE , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Identification of power system dominant inter-area oscillation paths2013In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 2798-2807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents three algorithms for identification of dominant inter-area oscillation paths: a series of interconnected corridors in which the highest content of the inter-area modes propagates through. The algorithms are developed to treat different sets of data: 1) known system model; 2) transient; and 3) ambient measurements from phasor measurement units (PMUs). These algorithms take feasibility into consideration by associating the network variables made available by PMUs, i.e., voltage and current phasors. All algorithms are demonstrated and implemented on a conceptualized Nordic Grid model. The results and comparison among three algorithms are provided. The applications of the algorithms not only facilitate in revealing critical corridors which are mostly stressed but also help in indicating relevant feedback input signals and inputs to mode meters which can be determined from the properties of dominant paths.

  • 35.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Linear Analysis of a Single-Machine Infinite Bus System and Controller Design2011Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Linear Analysis of the KTH-NORDIC32 System2011Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    On the persistence of dominant inter-area oscillation paths in large-scale power networks2012In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) Volume 8, Issue PART 1, 2012, 2012, p. 150-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the degree of persistence of dominant inter-area oscillation paths: the passageways containing the highest content of inter-area oscillations in large-scale power networks. To this aim, a number of contingency studies are carried out: faults being imposed on the lines connecting to the dominant inter-area path. The path persistence is then examined using the relationship between sensitivities of network variables (i.e. voltages and current, magnitude and angle), and mode shapes describing the contribution of the oscillations among the generators variables (e.g. speed and angle). This relationship is termed network modeshape. The larger in magnitude and the lesser the variation the network modeshape is, the more observable and the more robust the signals measured from the dominant path becomes. The outcome is a proposed signal combination to be used as inputs to the damping controller for mitigation of inter-area oscillations in large-scale power systems.

  • 38.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Persistence of Multiple Interaction Paths for Individual Inter-Area Modes2012In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline): Power Plants and Power Systems Control, Volume 8, Part 1, 2012, p. 14-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dominant interaction paths are the passageways containing the highest modal content of particular oscillations in interconnected power systems. For the case of inter-area modes, pinpointing the dominant path that corresponds to each mode may allow for the extraction of signals that bear a significant modal content at a particular inter-area frequency. Strong modal content for these inter-area modes may also be spread onto secondary paths. These secondary paths bear similar properties as those shown by dominant paths. The aim of this study is thus to demonstrate the persistence of both dominant and secondary paths by employing “network modeshape” properties. The existence of the paths is verified by nonlinear time-domain simulations where modal content at each inter-area frequency is extracted. The proper selection of feedback signals from the dominating paths may increase the flexibility of WAPODs by providing a number of signal choices to be used as backup in the presence of contingencies.

  • 39.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems. Statnett SF, Oslo, Norway.
    Using PMU signals from dominant paths in power system wide-area damping control2015In: Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, ISSN 0284-4354, E-ISSN 2352-4677, Vol. 4, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a comprehensive study of dominant inter-area oscillation path signals and their application for power system wide-area damping control (WADC). The analysis, carried out on both small and large study systems, focuses on the relationships that emerge from physical characteristics of inter-area oscillations, namely the modal observability of signals from dominant paths and their corresponding control loop system properties (i.e. stability and robustness). The aim is to be able to appropriately exploit the dominant path signals for the mitigation of inter-area oscillations. Guidelines and considerations are provided to facilitate the design of WADC using the proposed approach.

  • 40.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Ghandhari, Mehrdad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Survey on Power System Stabilizers Control and their Prospective Applications for Power System Damping using Synchrophasor-Based Wide-Area Systems2011In: European transactions on electrical power, ISSN 1430-144X, E-ISSN 1546-3109, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 2098-2111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powersystemoscillationdampingremains as one of the major concerns for secure and reliable operation of largepowersystems, and is of great current interest to both industry and academia. The principal reason for this is that the inception of poorly-damped low-frequency inter-areaoscillations (LFIOs) whenpowersystemsare operating under stringent conditions may lead tosystem-widebreakups or considerably reduce thepowertransfers over critical corridors. With the availability of high-sampling rate phasor measurement units (PMUs), there is an increasing interest for effectively exploiting conventionaldampingcontroldevices, such aspowersystemstabilizers(PSSs), by using these measurements ascontrolinput signals. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of distinct elements (or "building blocks") necessary forwide-areapowersystemdampingusing synchrophasors and PSSs. These building blocks together shape a tentative methodical framework, and are disposed as follows: (1) fundamental understanding of the main characteristics of inter-areaoscillations, (2)wide-areameasurement andcontrolsystems(WAMS and WACS) andwide-areadampingcontrol(WADC), (3) advanced signal processing techniques for mode property identification, (4) methods for model-basedsmall-signal analysis, (5)controlinput signals selection, and (6) methods for PSScontroldesign. We also describe the latest developments in the implementation ofsynchrophasormeasurements in WAMS and WACS as well as their prospectives for WADCapplications. This paper serves both to abridge the state-of-the-art in each of these elements, and to accentuate aspiring ideas in each building block.

  • 41. Chow, J. H.
    et al.
    Chakrabortty, A.
    Vanfretti, L.
    Arcak, M.
    Estimation of Radial Power System Transfer Path Dynamic Parameters Using Synchronized Phasor Data2008In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 564-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a measurement-based method for estimating a two-machine reduced model to represent the interarea dynamics of a radial, multimachine power system. The method uses synchronized bus voltage phasor measurements at two buses and the line current on the power transfer path. The innovation is the application of the interarea oscillation components in the voltage variables resulting from disturbances for extrapolating system impedances and inertias beyond the measured buses. Expressions for the amplitudes of the bus voltage and bus frequency oscillations as functions of the location on the transmission path are derived from a small-signal perturbation approach. The reduced model provides approximate response to disturbances on the transfer path and offers an alternative to model reduction techniques based on detailed system models and data.

  • 42. Chow, Joe H.
    et al.
    Quinn, Patrick
    Beard, Lisa
    Sobajic, Dejan
    Silverstein, Alison
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Guidelines for Siting Phasor Measurement Units: Version 8, June 15, 2011 North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) Research Initiative Task Team (RITT) Report2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchrophasor technology is relatively new to many utility companies as they plan for its introduction as part of their smart grid infrastructure investment. A first question that arises in planning for synchrophasor technology use is where should we place the phasor measurement units (PMUs)? Because synchrophasor data can be used in a variety of applications, the placement of PMUs should be driven by the intended applications, which may have varying data needs and differing PMU siting considerations. This white paper intends to provide information on and be a resource for such PMU placement issues, using recently developed PMU placement documents from various power grid operators and from applications described in technical papers.

    This white paper offers some guidelines for designers and users of the synchrophasor systems to decide where to place new PMUs. The paper addresses the information requirements of power system applications under all conditions (normal, alert, emergency, restorative) and across all time horizons (monitoring, protection, control, operation, planning).

    As many PMU placement documents are already available, the main sections of this document will be quite brief. Some expanded details on the guidelines can be found in the appendices.

  • 43. Chow, Joe. H.
    et al.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    Armenia, Andrew
    Ghiocel, Scott
    Sarawgi, Sanjoy
    Bhatt, Navin
    Bertagnolli, David
    Shukla, Meera
    Luo, Xiaochuan
    Ellis, Dean
    Fan, Dawei
    Patel, Mahendra
    Hunter, Andrew M.
    Barber, David E.
    Kobet, Gary L.
    Preliminary synchronized phasor data analysis of disturbance events in the US Eastern Interconnection2009In: Power Systems Conference and Exposition, 2009. PSCE ’09. IEEE/PES, IEEE , 2009, p. 136-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents analysis results of synchronized phasor data from 10 disturbance events recorded in the US Eastern Interconnection (EI). The phasor data covers a wide region in the EI, allowing for the study of disturbance propagation, interarea modes, and oscillations in voltages and currents. The analysis is not straightforward because the EI is a meshed system with adequate interarea mode damping. Disturbances involving tripping a single large generator unit produce very short interarea swing responses. Islanding events involving regions at the perimeter, however, provide more prominent responses for analysis.

  • 44.
    Danielson, Magnus
    et al.
    Net Insight AB.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Chompoobutrgool, Yuwa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Gjerde, J.O.
    Analysis of Communication Network Challenges for Synchrophasor-Based Wide-Area Applications2013In: Proceedings of IREP Symposium: Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - IX Optimization, Security and Control of the Emerging Power Grid, IREP 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-area synchrophasor applications inherently depend on the underlying IT and communications infrastructure supporting them. In particular, closed loop control systems for power grid oscillation damping is problematic, as it is a complex mixture of power grid monitoring, communication network properties and overall system stability issues. This article offers a holistic analysis of these fields, proposing a combined requirement on the full system: to keep system delays down to maintain stability. Simulation results to support the analysis findings, also showing how observability of power oscillations is important in combination with system delays related to feedback signals, and finally laying out experimentation plans to be performed in the lab on a complex power-grid model with real PMUs, communication network and controllers interacting with the SmarTS Lab real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulator platform.

  • 45.
    Dominguez-Garcia, José Luís
    et al.
    IREC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Baudette, Maxime
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Del-Rosario, Gerard
    IREC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ruiz-Alvarez, Albert
    IREC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Shoaib Almas, Muhammad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Cairo, Ignasi
    IREC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Validation Experiment Design of a PMU-€“Based Application for Detection of Sub-Synchronous Oscillations2015In: 15th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering, IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2015, p. 1898-1903Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to design laboratory experiments able to test the functional performance of a PMU-based application. The function of this application is to detect sub-synchronous oscillatory dynamics product of wind farm-to-grid interactions. The designed experiments are carried out in operation conditions similar to those that the PMU-based application would experience in field implementations, while the approach adopted for experiment design takes into account technical limitations of laboratory equipment. The experiments are performed in a laboratory which has been equipped with synchrophasor technology for the purposes of this work. Real PMU devices physically connected on a small replica of a three-phase low voltage micro-grid where oscillations can be systematically injected.

  • 46.
    Dotta, Daniel
    et al.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
    Chow, Joe H.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Agostini, Marcelo N.
    UFSC Florianopolis, Brazil.
    A MATLAB based PMU Simulator2013In: 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), IEEE , 2013, p. 6672629-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The  use of Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data in power system operation is of practical importance. These data are currently used  for real-time operation  monitoring and  off- line analysis. Understanding of the mechanisms involved in the phasor estimation  process is necessary for correct phasor data interpretation and  analysis,  as  well as  for design  of advanced control and protection schemes. In this paper the main phenom- ena involved in the phasor measurement process  are illustrated using a MAT L A B based  PMU simulator.

  • 47. Díez-Maroto, L.
    et al.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Jónsdóttir, G. M.
    Rouco, L.
    A WACS exploiting generator Excitation Boosters for power system transient stability enhancement2017In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 148, p. 245-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excitation Boosters (EB) are designed to improve transient stability of synchronous generators equipped with bus fed static excitation systems. They can be controlled using either local or remote signals following a disturbance. This paper explores how critical clearing times (CCT) can be improved by EBs controlled using remote signals. Particularly, Pseudo Center of Inertia (PCOI) and Dominant Interarea Path (DIP) signals derived from Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) within a Wide Area Control System (WACS) are used. Prototype controllers are tested by means of a Real Time (RT) Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) experimental setup.

  • 48.
    Farrokhabadi, Mostafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    An efficient automated topology processor for state estimation of power transmission networks2014In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 106, p. 188-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust network topology processor that can be utilized in both traditional and PMU-based state estima- tors is developed. Previous works in the field of topology processing are scrutinized and their drawbacks are identified. Building on top of the state of the art, an algorithm covering the limitations of available topology processing approaches and including new features is proposed. The presented algorithm was implemented in MATLAB and tested using two different power networks with detailed substation config- urations (bus/breaker models) including a modified version of the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996. As the topology processor is intended to supply network topologies to a PMU-based Sate Estimator, the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996 is simulated in real-time using the eMegaSim Opal-RT real-time simulator which is part of “SmarTS Lab” at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Testing is carried out through several test scenarios and computation times are calculated. It is shown that the computation times are adequate for supporting a PMU-only state estimator. 

  • 49.
    Farrokhabadi, Mostafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Phasor-Assisted Automated Topology Processing for State Estimators2013In: 2013 IEEE ELECTRICAL POWER & ENERGY CONFERENCE (EPEC), 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a robust network topology processor for state estimators that utilizes both conventional and/or PMU measurements. The emphasis is on the involvement of PMU measurements in topology processing. Building on top of the state of the art, an algorithm is proposed in a way to cover the limitations of current approaches and at the same time to suggest new features. The topology processor was coded in MATLAB and is tested using a modified version of the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996. The topology processor is intended to provide network topologies to PMU-only sate estimators, so the test system is simulated in real-time using the eMegaSim Opal-RT real-time simulator that generates synthetic data mimicking a real PMU. Different test scenarios are carried out and the topology processor efficiency and robustness is verified by the test results. Specifically, it is testified through a discussion that the proposed method is fast enough to support PMU-only state estimators, as well as conventional or phasor-assisted state estimators.

  • 50.
    Farrokhabadi, Mostafa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    Vanfretti, Luigi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power Systems.
    State-of-the-art of topology processors for EMS and PMU applications and their limitations2012In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE , 2012, p. 1422-1427Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a review of the current openly available works in the field of topology processing. The most important works in this area are critically scrutinized, and their limitations are identified. The drawbacks are identified and fully discussed, and their effect on the output of the topology processor is investigated. To support the discussion, the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996 is simulated in real-time to show the deficiencies with the current available topology processor that uses PMU data. The real-time simulation is performed using an eMegaSim Opal-RT real-time simulator which is part of the 'SmarTS Lab' at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Finally, possible potential solutions are briefly proposed as a conclusion.

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