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  • 1.
    Abu Sa'a, Ehab
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Enabling knowledge sharing in university-cross-industry competence centres2023In: Proceedings of European Academy of Management (EURAM) 2023: Transforming Business for Good, Dublin, Ireland, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    University competence centres (UCCs) are created to enhance university-industry collaboration and knowledge sharing among collaborating partners. This study investigates the organisation of knowledge sharing among firms in UCCs through a qualitative case study of UCCs with or without a focus on research in their activities. Data collection was done through interviews and observations over a period of 24 months. While the findings indicate that both types of UCCs are non-neutral, they also reveal several different characteristics that appear primarily based on a strong tie either to the first (education) or the second (research) mission of academia. Although both types of UCCs act to build a common meaning among participating organisations, the focus on the first or the second mission leads to this meaning is primarily being constructed in the firm-to-firm or university-to-firm interfaces, respectively. Whereas cross-industry knowledge sharing is emphasised by both types of centres, it is thus more strongly emphasised by UCCs without a focus on research as it helps to avoid harmful effects of knowledge spillovers. The focus on the first mission also appears able to sustain the organisation of knowledge ecosystems created by UCCs without a focus on research in a prefigurative form, which is otherwise typically transient. Furthermore, the challenges to sustainability are different, with centres focused on research being pre-occupied with funding issues, while centres not focused on research leveraging on others means to maintain the interest of industry. The findings contribute to innovation management research and practice by refining current understanding of processes and practices of university-industry collaboration, and how they contribute to facilitate (cross-industry) collaboration and knowledge transfer. Given that university-industry collaboration is often promoted in national innovation policies to create value for society as whole, our findings contribute towards enabling organisations, managers as well as governments to take more informed actions when engaging in such collaborations.

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  • 2.
    Alam, Assad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Björk, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Garcia Alonso, Liliana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Khaksari, Farzad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Khan, Altamash
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Kjellberg, Joakim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Liang, Kuo-Yun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Lyberger, Rickard
    Scania CV AB.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Nilsson, John-Olof
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Scania CV AB.
    Pettersson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stålklinga, Elin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Sundman, Dennis
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Zachariah, Dave
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing.
    Cooperative driving according to Scoop2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Scania are entering the GCDC 2011 under the name Scoop –Stockholm Cooperative Driving. This paper is an introduction to their team and to the technical approach theyare using in their prototype system for GCDC 2011.

  • 3.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Exploratory Testing: Do Contextual Factors Influence Software Fault Identification?2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Exploratory Testing (ET) is a manual approach to software testing in which learning, test design and test execution occurs simultaneously. Still a developing topic of interest to academia, although as yet insufficiently investigated, most studies focus on the skills and experience of the individual tester. However, contextual factors such as project processes, test scope and organisational boundaries are also likely to affect the approach.

    Objective: This study explores contextual differences between teams of testers at a MedTec firm developing safety-critical products to ascertain whether contextual factors can influence the outcomes of ET, and what associated implications can be drawn for test management.

    Method: A development project was studied in two iterations, each consisting of a quantitative phase testing hypotheses concerning when ET would identify faults in comparison to other testing approaches and a qualitative phase involving interviews.

    Results: Influence on ET is traced to how the scope of tests focus learning on different types of knowledge and imply an asymmetry in the strength and number of information flows to test teams.

    Conclusions: While test specialisation can be attractive to software development organisations, results suggest changes to processes and organisational structures might be required to maintain test efficiency throughout projects: the responsibility for test cases might need to be rotated late in projects, and asymmetries in information flows might require management to actively strengthen the presence and connections of test teams throughout the firm. However, further research is needed to investigate whether these results also hold for non safety-critical faults.

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  • 4.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Risks Related to the Use of Software Tools when Developing Cyber-Physical Systems: A Critical Perspective on the Future of Developing Complex, Safety-Critical Systems2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity and size of modern Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) has led to a sharp decline in productivity among CPS designers. Requirements on safety aggravate this problem further, both by being difficult to ensure and due to their high importance to the public.

    Tools, or rather efforts to facilitate the automation of development processes, are a central ingredient in many of the proposed innovations to mitigate this problem. Even though the safety-related implications of introducing automation in development processes have not been extensively studied, it is known that automation has already had a large impact on operational systems. If tools are to play a part in mitigating the increase in safety-critical CPS complexity, then their actual impact on CPS development, and thereby the safety of the corresponding end products, must be sufficiently understood.

    An survey of relevant research fields, such as system safety, software engineering and tool integration, is provided to facilitate the discussion on safety-related implications of tool usage. Based on the identification of industrial safety standards as an important source of information and considering that the risks posed by separate tools have been given considerable attention in the transportation domain, several high-profile safety standards in this domain have been surveyed. According to the surveyed standards, automation should primarily be evaluated on its reliable execution of separate process steps independent of human operators. Automation that only supports the actions of operators during CPS development is viewed as relatively inconsequential.

    A conceptual model and a reference model have been created based on the surveyed research fields. The former defines the entities and relationships most relevant to safety-related risks associated with tool usage. The latter describes aspects of tool integration and how these relate to each other. By combining these models, a risk analysis could be performed and properties of tool chains which need to be ensured to mitigate risk identified. Ten such safety-related characteristics of tool chains are described.

    These safety-related characteristics provide a systematic way to narrow down what to look for with regard to tool usage and risk. The hypothesis that a large set of factors related to tool usage may introduce risk could thus be tested through an empirical study, which identified safety-related weaknesses in support environments tied both to high and low levels of automation. The conclusion is that a broader perspective, which includes more factors related to tool usage than those considered by the surveyed standards, will be needed.

    Three possible reasons to disregard such a broad perspective have been refuted, namely requirements on development processes enforced by the domain of CPS itself, certain characteristics of safety-critical CPS and the possibility to place trust in a proven, manual development process. After finding no strong reason to keep a narrow perspective on tool usage, arguments are put forward as to why the future evolution of support environments may actually increase the importance of such a broad perspective.

    Suggestions for how to update the mental models of the surveyed safety standards, and other standards like them, are put forward based on this identified need for a broader perspective.

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    Thesis
  • 5.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Safety and Tool Integration, A System-Theoretic Process Analysis2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report I detail a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis of the tool integration of development environments for embedded systems. Building on results from previous studies I generalize and expand on earlier findings regarding the relationship between safety and tool integration.

    To prepare for the analysis I customized STPA for the context of tool integration. This customization allowed me to subsequently design and analyze three versions of a tool chain originally provided by an industrial partner. A net result of 85, 98 and 73 risks was identified, in comparison to 25 integration weaknesses identified through expert knowledge. The design of the different versions of the tool chain and a comparison of the identified risks with the integration weaknesses allowed me to validate the usefulness of STPA for both identifying and correctly categorizing risks and causes in the context of tool integration. An analysis of my results also points out the fact that STPA is not a silver bullet, without enough expertise it is easy to omit important parts of process models and thus arrive at incomplete conclusions.

    In regard to the relationship between safety and tool integration nine properties were identified, properties that need to be supported correctly to avoid hazards in the context of tool integration. These properties require support throughout a noticeable part of a development environment to have an impact and derive much of that impact from the possibility to centralize them. They also interrelate, so that often several of them need to be handled to mitigate one type of risk. However, introducing support for them across a whole development environment is likely to be costly, or even impossible. Furthermore, introducing support for these properties will mitigate some risks, but also create other risks at higher levels of organization.

    These properties therefore point to the size a development environment, the number of contexts towards which the development environment can be verified and the effort required to ensure the added requirements at higher levels of organization as deciding factors on whether the effort to support them should be made (other efforts, more efficient in those particular cases, could otherwise be considered). The existence of these properties also point to the possibility of developing and pre-qualifying tools and tool chains based on the assumption that some or all of these properties will be supported by the final development environment. This could potentially lower, or at least distribute, the cost of the final qualification.

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  • 6.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The future of software tool chain safety qualification2015In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 74, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High profile systemic safety standards for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) development within the transportation domain have commonalities with regard to their view of the safety-related implications of tool usage. Their guidelines on tool qualification favor a bottom-up approach in which tools are dealt with in isolation and mostly if they may directly introduce faults into end products. This guidance may ignore risk introduced by the integration of software tools, especially if these risks are related to low levels of automation - such as process notifications and improper graphical user interfaces. This paper presents a study that ties weaknesses in support environments to software faults. Based on the observed weaknesses guidelines for a top-down software tool chain qualification are suggested for inclusion in the next generation of safety standards. This has implications not only for the surveyed standards in the transportation domain, but also for other standards for safety-critical CPS development that do not include a broader view on risks related to tool usage. Furthermore, given the type of omission identified in the surveyed standards, it is suggested that researchers interested in the safety-related implications of tool integration should approach organizational research in search of possibilities to set up theory triangulation studies.

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  • 7.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration and Safety: A Foundation for Analysing the Impact of Tool Integrationon Non-functional Properties2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded systems development is becoming difficult to handle with development environments based on disjoint engineering tools. Support for interactions between various engineering tools, especially through automated means, has therefore received an increased amount of attention during the last few years. The subsequent increase in the amount of tool integration is leading to an increased impact of tool integration on non-functional properties of development efforts, development environments and end products. At the same time there is a lack of methods and tools for analysing the relationship between these properties and tool integration. To establish a foundation for analysing this generic relationship, the specific relationship between tool integration and the safety of end products is analysed in this thesis.

    A survey was conducted to analyze the State of the Art of tool integration as related to safety. This survey specifically identified the lack of an efficient handling of tool integration by modern safety standards as an important concern. In relation to this survey, three theories were identified as of specific importance. These are the school of thought known as Systems Thinking, the Systems-Theoretic Accident Model and Processes (STAMP) causality model and the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) hazard analysis technique.

    Building on these theories, this thesis provides original contributions intended to (1) describe concepts and models related to tool integration and safety (the first and second contribution), (2) link tool integration to safety in a way that reduces complexity during analysis (the third contribution) and (3) propose how to interpret and make use of the implications of the presented theories and the first three contributions (the fourth and fifth contribution).

    • The first contribution is a new conceptual model of a development effort that emphasizes tool integration.

    • The second contribution is a new reference model for tool integration in highly heterogeneous environments.

    • The third contribution consists of nine safety-related tool chain properties, i.e. properties of tool chains that could mitigate at least part of the risks introduced by tool integration.

    • The fourth contribution is a proposition on how to identify safety implications due to a high level of automation of tool integration.

    • The fifth contribution is a proposition for a new software tool qualification process.

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  • 8.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-Khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration Beyond Wasserman2011In: Advanced Information Systems Engineering Workshops / [ed] Camille Salinesi, Oscar Pastor, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, p. 270-281Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The typical development environment today consists of many specialized development tools, which are partially integrated, forming a complex tool landscape with partial integration. Traditional approaches for reasoning about tool integration are insufficient to measure the degree of integration and integration optimality in today’s complex tool landscape. This paper presents a reference model that introduces dependencies between, and metrics for, integration aspects to overcome this problem. This model is used to conceive a method for reasoning about tool integration and identify improvements in an industrial case study. Based on this we are able to conclude that our reference model does not detract value from the principles that it is based on, instead it highlights improvements that were not well visible earlier. We conclude the paper by discussing open issues for our reference model, namely if it is suitable to use during the creation of new systems, if the used integration aspects can be subdivided further to support the analysis of secondary issues related to integration, difficulties related to the state dependency between the data and process aspects within the context of developing embedded systems and the analysis of non-functional requirements to support tool integration.

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  • 9.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards the Automated Qualification of Tool Chain Design2012In: SAFECOMP 2012 Workshops: Sassur, ASCoMS, DESEC4LCCI, ERCIM/EWICS, IWDE, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012, Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 392-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of safety-critical embedded systems is supported by a number of development tools, which are increasingly integrated into automated tool chains. Safety standards require these tool chains to be qualified, which is costly and requires a large effort. To reduce cost and effort tool chains can be composed of pre-qualified tools and then themselves pre-qualified by identifying the parts of tool chain software that have an impact on safety more exactly. In this paper we propose the use of a modeling language to describe this tool chain composition. This allows us to reduce effort even further by automatically analyzing the tool chain model for safety issues. It also promises to reduce the effort and cost of later steps in the deployment of the tool chain by formalizing the communication of safety issues and automating the generation of code for tool chain software.

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  • 10.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Knowing too much?: On bias due to domain-specific knowledge in internal crowdsourcing for explorative ideas2021In: R&D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal crowdsourcing utilizes a firm’s employees, of which many have a strong understanding of the domains in which the firm operates, for contributing with, developing and evaluating ideas. On the one hand, these employees can use their domain-specific knowledge to identify the value of what may seem a far-fetched solution to the average employee. On the other hand, previous research has shown that employees typically evaluate ideas in their domains less favorably if they do not align with ongoing exploitation activities. Hence, this study focuses on whether a higher degree of relevant domain-specific knowledge makes employees participating in internal crowdsourcing prefer exploitative solutions when evaluating ideas. An empirical study of an online platform for firm-internal innovation in a multinational engineering company showed that employees who only infrequently participated in internal crowdsourcing mostly contributed to and evaluated ideas within their own domain. Employees who frequently participated also contributed to and evaluated ideas outside their own domains. By statistically analyzing group differences during idea evaluation, we show that employees participating infrequently favor exploitable solutions, whereas employees participating frequently are more uncertain. The former difference is only seen concerning ideas that require domain-specific knowledge to understand, but the latter is observed for all types of ideas. This study makes three substantial contributions. First, employees with domain-specific knowledge, through their preference for exploitative solutions, bias the outcome of internal crowdsourcing when idea evaluation requires domain-specific knowledge. Second, this bias is aggravated by the overall higher level of uncertainty displayed by employees participating frequently in internal crowdsourcing and thereby tend to reach out to other domains. Third, in order to mitigate this, bias management can build engagement in internal crowdsourcing through idea challenges that do not require domain-specific knowledge and consider avoiding employees with a strongly associated domain knowledge for idea evaluation.

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  • 11.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Björk, Jennie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Patrick, Adam J.
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    The genesis of public-private innovation ecosystems: Bias and challenges2021In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 162, article id 120378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of technology increasingly depends on innovation ecosystems and frequently involves actors from both industry and academia. However, value creation may experience challenges due to bias formed during public-private innovation ecosystem genesis.

    This empirical study of bias in a new pan-European public-private initiative provides results regarding innovation ecosystems and the individuals typically active during their genesis: value creation is biased towards the selection of incumbent firms and complement challenges, and participation is biased towards engineers with knowledge of exploitation from multiple domains and researchers with knowledge of exploitation from single domains.

    This suggests that the implications of the loose coupling emphasised by the innovation ecosystems discourse and the knowledge of the different contexts in which firms capture value are more complex than previously acknowledged. The practical implications are that the ability of public innovation ecosystem leadership to act early on novel technology might be offset by the inability of involved firms to commit to bringing the technology to market and that individuals typically active during public-private innovation ecosystems genesis are not ideal for handling this challenge. In fact, increasingly connected public leadership could smother the innovation ecosystem unless well-connected and multidisciplinary researchers are brought in as brokers.

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  • 12.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Qualifying Software Tools, a Systems Approach2012In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 31st International Conference, SAFECOMP 2012, Magdeburg, Germany, September 25-28, 2012. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 340-351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern safety standards designed to ensure safety in embedded system products often take a descriptive approach, focusing on describing appropriate requirements on management, processes, methods and environments during development. While the qualification of software tools has been included in several such standards, how to handle the safety implications of tools integrated into tool chains has been largely ignored. This problem is aggravated by an increase both in automation of tool integration and the size of development environments.

    In this paper we define nine safety goals for tool chains and suggest a qualification method that takes a systems approach on certifying software tools as parts of tool chains. With this method, software tools are developed and pre-qualified under the assumption that certain properties will be supported by the development environment they are to be deployed in. The proposed method is intended to (1) achieve a stronger focus on the relevant parts of tool chains in regard to safety and (2) separate the extra effort these parts imply from the effort already stipulated by safety standards.

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  • 13.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    Törngren, Martin
    Safety-Guided Design through System-Theoretic Process Analysis, Benefits and Difficulties2012In: 30th International System Safety Conference Proceedings, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments for embedded systems are moving towards increased automation between Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) engineering tools. While automation provides new opportunities for e.g. verification, it also to some extent decreases the possibility of identifying and acting on safety issues that arise during development. To investigate the relationship between tool integration and safety we performed a System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) of a tool chain from an industrial case study. This tool chain was then reanalyzed and redesigned twice, in part motivated by identified hazards.

    This paper presents our experiences from applying STPA to safety-guided design in the context of integrating COTS engineering tools into tool chains. We discuss the benefits of and difficulties with applying STPA. We also suggest improvements that complement STPA with support methods and tools.

    The primary benefit was the support in categorizing risks and causes. The three difficulties we encountered were identifying context-specific causal factors, defining control structures across several domains (management, user, technical, etc.) and limiting the domains taken into account. The use of STPA during safety-guided design would be facilitated by the use of expert systems and simulation, especially in regard to relating different domains.

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  • 14.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Flening, Elias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Boundary spanning at work placements: Challenges to overcome, and ways to learn in preparation for early career engineering2021In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from engineering student to early career engineer is often difficult as not all skills that constitute effective engineering practice are formally taught. Work placements are suggested as a solution by providing opportunities to learn skills that academia is unable to teach. However, academic requirements for skills such as research proficiency can be overlooked in a work placement environment, since they are often seen as of little value to engineers. Nevertheless, through interviews with master’s students that have conducted their thesis projects at a firm, their experience of boundary spanning to align academic and industrial requirements has been shown to prepare them for an (early) career in engineering by providing opportunities to learn informal professional skills. As the effect is moderated by the motivation of the individual firm for offering work placements, teachers need to consider this motivation when planning and preparing a student for such a work placement.

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  • 15.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Reinforcing Learning in an Engineering Master’s Degree Program: The Relevance of Research Training2019In: International journal of engineering education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 598-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Master students at our institute were graduating without acceptable research proficiency. We intervened by shifting our research training from teaching-centred to student-centred, and from research-related subject content to research-related processes. We performed a mixed methods study aimed to confirm there was improved research proficiency without a negative trade-off for our students’ engineering skills. Results indicated improvements to research proficiency, which our students were able to transfer to engineering-related learning activities to increase their ability to achieve engineering synthesis. This outcome was potentially supported by our courses including several perspectives on scientific knowledge production. This implies that research training, rather than having a negative effect on engineering skills, can be helpful in learning diametrically opposing aspects of thinking required by current engineering. As engineering education evolves towards more cross-disciplinary cooperation, this implies the need to pursue the increased opportunities for students to learn about different perspectives on knowledge production.

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  • 16.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Holland, Greg
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Odeh, Saleh
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Conflict as software levels diversify: Tactical elimination or strategic transformation of practice?2020In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 126, article id 104682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communities of Practice create a shared consensus on practice. Standards defining software levels enable firms to diversify practice based on a software component’s contribution to potential failure conditions. When industrial trends increase the importance of lower software levels, there is a risk that the consensus on practice for software engineers used to primarily working at higher levels of assurance is eroded. This study investigates whether this might lead to conflict and – if so – where this conflict will materialize, what the nature of it is and what it implies for safety management.

    A critical case study was conducted: 33 engineers were interviewed in two rounds. The study identified a disagreement between designers with different roles. Those involved in the day-to-day activities of software development advocated elimination of practice (dropping or doing parts less stringently), while those involved in expert advice and process planning suggested transforming practice (adopting realistic alternatives).

    This study contributes to practice by showing that this conflict has different implications for firms that do not lead vs those that lead the early adoption of technology. At the majority of firms, safety management might need to support the organisation of informal opinion leaders to avoid vulnerability. At early adopters, crowdsourcing could provide much-needed help to refine the understanding of new practice. Across entire industries, crowdsourcing could also benefit entire engineering standardization processes. The study contributes to theory by showing how less prescriptive standardization in the context of engineering does not automatically shift rulemaking towards allowing engineers to act more autonomously.

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  • 17.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Macedo, Hugo Daniel
    Aarhus University.
    Sassanelli, Claudio
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Problematizing the Service Portfolio of Digital Innovation Hubs2021In: Smart and Sustainable Collaborative Networks 4.0: Proceedings of the Smart and Sustainable Collaborative Networks 4.0 - 22nd IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2021 / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Xavier Boucher, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Springer Nature, 2021, p. 419-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital innovation hubs (DIHs) are a strategic means to drive European Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) digital transition. The European Commission has envisioned four main functions characterizing DIHs' service portfolios (“Test before invest”; “Support to find investments”; “Innovation eco-system and networking”; and “Skills and training”). However, DIHs target different functions, e.g. focusing on helping launch novel digital technologies to market, or directing investment opportunities. DIHs are also at different maturity levels, interact with different actors and exist in regions with different conditions for innovation. There might not be an equal need for all four functions, and they might not be equally well served. This study aims to explore and derive implications for the deployment of the four main functions by DIHs. It builds on the activities of DIHs involved in the DIH initiative through several innovation actions, including FED4SAE and HUBCAP.

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  • 18.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Vahlne, Tobias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Northvolt AB.
    Which skills? A critical perspective on the skills facilitating the transfer of third-cycle students to knowledge-intensive SMEs2022In: Proceedings of Frontiers in Education 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Research Full Paper relates to public-private innovation ecosystems. This loosely knit form of cooperation allows for beneficial activities such as knowledge transfer, dissemination of novel technology, and recruitment. In these contexts students graduating from third-cycle education should be able to find opportunities for transferring to knowledge-intensive positions in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    However, a 3-year study of the reasons why firms approach public organisations within a Europe-wide, public-private innovation ecosystem suggests that students might struggle to find such opportunities. Through a questionnaire provided to all firms approaching the ecosystem we identify recruitment as one of their lowest ranked interests. By interviewing members of the public organisations found in the ecosystem we identify how cooperation is initiated and maintained, and how this influences the opportunities for students to transfer into industry. The results provide nuance to the current emphasis in skill development within third-cycle (engineering) education. It is rarely recognized that fostering technical skill and academic entrepreneurship might not be enough to allow all types and sizes of firms to receive engineering students. 

    Particularly, this study identifies the academic and industrial boundary spanning roles at knowledge-intensive SMEs as important. These roles require a third-cycle education that early on hones skills that typically do not become critical until much later for students that pursue an academic path – e.g., the inter-organisational project management skills necessary to effectively seek research funding or to negotiate goal alignment between organisations. We argue that to allow third-cycle students to practice the finer points of such skills, universities need to evolve more distributed support structures for innovation that integrate in-depth engineering knowledge with innovation skills and have an increased focus on human and social capital.

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  • 19.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    McDermid, John
    University of York.
    Oates, Robert
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Roberts, Jonathan
    Rolls-Royce plc.
    Rapid Integration of CPS Security and Safety2018In: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters, ISSN 1943-0663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The security and safety of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) often influence each other. Ensuring that this does not have negative implications might require a large and rigorous effort during the development of CPS. However, early in the lifecycle, quick feedback can be valuable helping security and safety engineers to understand how seemingly trivial design choices in their domain may have unacceptable implications in the other.

    We propose the Cyber Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF) for this purpose. The CRAF is based on openly available and widely used taxonomies from the safety and security domains, and a unique mapping of where loss of data security may impact aspects of data with safety implications. This paper represents the first time these different elements have been brought together into a single framework with an associated process. Through examples from within our organisations we show how this framework can be put to good use.

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  • 20.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    The Discourse on Tool Integration Beyond Technology, A Literature Survey2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 106, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tool integration research area emerged in the 1980s. This survey focuses on those strands of tool integration research that discuss issues beyond technology.

     

    We reveal a discourse centered around six frequently mentioned non-functional properties. These properties have been discussed in relation to technology and high level issues. However, while technical details have been covered, high level issues and, by extension, the contexts in which tool integration can be found, are treated indifferently. We conclude that this indifference needs to be challenged, and research on a larger set of stakeholders and contexts initiated.

     

    An inventory of the use of classification schemes underlines the difficulty of evolving the classical classification scheme published by Wasserman. Two frequently mentioned redefinitions are highlighted to facilitate their wider use.

     

    A closer look at the limited number of research methods and the poor attention to research design indicates a need for a changed set of research methods. We propose more critical case studies and method diversification through theory triangulation.

     

    Additionally, among disparate discourses we highlight several focusing on standardization which are likely to contain relevant findings. This suggests that open communities employed in the context of (pre-)standardization could be especially important in furthering the targeted discourse.

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  • 21.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    Biehl, Matthias
    El-khoury, Jad
    Frede, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tool Integration, from Tool to Tool Chain with ISO 262622012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of innovative power sources in future cars has long-ranging implications on vehicle safety.  We studied these implications in the context of the guidance on software tool qualification in the then current ISO 26262 draft, when building an urban concept vehicle to participate in the 2011 Shell Eco-Marathon. While the guidance on tool qualification is detailed, the guidance in regard to tools integrated into tool chains is limited. It only points out that the environment that tools execute in needs to be taken into consideration.

    In this paper we clarify the implications of tool chains on tool qualification in the context of ISO 26262 by focusing on answering two questions; first, are there parts of the development environment related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside of tool qualification efforts as currently defined by ISO 26262; secondly, can we define if, and -if so- how, tool integration is affected by ensuring functional safety.

    We conclude by identifying two areas related to tool integration that are likely to fall outside the tool qualification efforts (data integrity and process logic) and describing how different constraints imposed by ISO 26262 in relation to tool qualification conflict when tool integration is improved (improvements aimed at supporting completeness, consistency and the safety lifecycle vs. tool qualification cost).

    We are able to make additional conclusions in relation to the State of the Art discussion on software tool qualification according to ISO 26262. First, reference tool chains and guidelines on which characteristics tool qualification should ensure for tool chains are needed to complement ISO 26262. Secondly, guidance on tool integration can be found in the completeness characteristic, the consistency characteristic and the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle process. Finally, qualification efforts should ideally target tool chains rather than individual tools.

  • 22.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Hawkins, Richard
    University of York.
    McDermid, John A.
    University of York.
    The Need for a Confidence View of CPS Support Environments (Fast Abstract)2015In: Proceedings of HASE 2015, The 16th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 273-274Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-View Modelling Integration Frameworks (MVMIFs) may help mitigate complexity associated with the development of CPS, but may also have implications on safety. Safety-related standards do not provide guidance to mitigate this problem. We therefore suggest that MVMIFs are extended with a confidence view to support the creation of an assurance case that covers issues related to risks in the support environment.

  • 23.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Ulfvengren, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Management & Technology.
    Engineer-Centred Design Factors and Methodological Approach for Maritime Autonomy Emergency Response Systems2022In: Safety, E-ISSN 2313-576X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 54-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial deployment of maritime autonomous surface ships (MASSs) is close to becoming a reality. Although MASSs are fully autonomous, the industry will still allow remote operations centre (ROC) operators to intervene if a MASS is facing an emergency the MASS cannot handle by itself. A human-centred design for the associated emergency response systems will require attention to the ROC operator workplace, but also, arguably, to the behaviour-shaping constraints on the engineers building these systems. There is thus a need for an engineer-centred design of engineering organisations, influenced by the current discourse on human factors. To contribute to the discourse, think-aloud protocol interviewing was conducted with well-informed maritime operators to elicit fundamental demands on cognition and collaboration by maritime autonomy emergency response systems. Based on the results, inferences were made regarding both design factors and methodological choices for future, early phase engineering of emergency response systems. Firstly, engineering firms have to improve their informal gathering and sharing of information through gatekeepers and/or organisational liaisons. To avoid a too cautious approach to accountability, this will have to include a closer integration of development and operations. Secondly, associated studies taking the typical approach of exposing relevant operators to new design concepts in scripted scenarios should include significant flexibility and less focus on realism.

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  • 24.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Ulfvengren, Pernilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Management & Technology.
    Work functions shaping the ability to innovate: insights from the case of the safety engineer2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To perform as intended, firms are divided into work functions that contribute to the behaviour-shaping constraints under which individuals build their skills, knowledge and networks. These in turn provide a specialized perspective on organisational structure and culture. In a mixed methods study involving interviews and statistical analyses, we investigate whether a work function can thereby affect individuals’ innovation foci and efficacy. Safety engineers, central to firms developing Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), are shown to play a significant role in identifying and supporting viable innovation related to organisational aspects. Results indicate that safety engineers could use the firm’s collaborative innovation process to facilitate organisational learning, helping different work functions come together to construct working practices aligned with the organisational values of the firm. This is explained by their understanding of safety culture—a specialized understanding of organisational culture and complexity provided by their work function. We conclude that work functions that provide their members with a perspective well aligned with their firm’s organisational values can instil the ability to identify and support organisational innovation. This suggests that safety engineers in CPS domains could be effective in a mediatory role, facilitating innovative changes to organisational structures and processes when introducing and operating safety management systems. Stronger aspects of organisational liaising and systems thinking could reinforce this ability—the former by a wider scope and motivation leading to an increased skill in communicating with dissimilar individuals, and the latter by providing the skills and tools needed to analyse the politics of complex organisations.

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  • 25.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Söderberg, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). The SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Architecture challenges for intelligent autonomous machines: An industrial perspective2016In: 13th International conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS-13), Springer, 2016, Vol. 302, p. 1669-1681Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are displaying a trend of increasing autonomy. This has a far reaching impact on the architectures of the embedded systems within the machine. The impact needs to be clearly understood and the main obstacles to autonomy need to be identified. The obstacles, especially from an industrial perspective, are not just technological butalso relate to system aspects like certification, development processes and product safety. In this paper, we identify and discuss some of the main obstacles to autonomy from the viewpoint of technical specialists working on advanced industrial product development. The identified obstacles cover topics like world modeling, user interaction, complexity and system safety.

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    ias-13
  • 26. Cancila, D.
    et al.
    Birk, W.
    Nuzzo, V.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Stoycheva, M.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experiences and reflections on three years of CPS Summer schools within EIT digital2016In: 2016 Workshop on Embedded and Cyber-Physical Systems Education, WESE 2016 - Organized as a Part of Embedded Systems Week, Proceedings, ACM Digital Library, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of current European Commission effort in term of educational innovation to reduce the gap between research and industry which still is a barrier to the economic development. Entrepreneurial innovation & education driving Europe's digital transformation (EIT Digital for short) is an European-based initiative fostering I&E (innovation and entrepreneurship) by integrating education, research and business at different educational levels. For instance in EIT master programmes, students work together with industries and academics to have a faster go-to-market of research results. Summer schools are part of the master programs; three of them have been organised related to CPS (cyber-physical systems), critical infrastructure and, more recently, Industry 4.0. Past and present events are discussed and the experience from these events is reported. It is further analysed how the general setup of the summer school program is affecting the educational aspects and achievement of the intended learning outcomes.

  • 27.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Kenneth, Östberg
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A Systematic approach to Risk Management in ITS Context: Challenges and Research Issues2014In: Radioelectronic and Computer Systems, 2014, No 5 ( 69 ), Ukraine, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) with autonomic functions that are cyber-physical in nature is of rapidly increasing importance for traffic efficiency and safety. Current engineering approaches to such functions often rely on worst-case assumptions, originally used for safety engineering, due to the difficulty and cost involved in precisely modeling and analyzing the system boundaries and emergent behaviors in a highly dynamic configuration of system-of-systems. This can lead to the loss of many of the benefits in regard to traffic efficiency, but also to conditions where the transport system as a whole is prone to unacceptable high risks. We envisage a systematic approach to the development of autonomous functions in ITS resting on the basis of a formal modeling framework. This paper presents our vision for achieving such a goal on the basis of EAST-ADL, which is an ISO26262 compatible architecture modeling language and methodology for the development and management of automotive Electrics & Electronics systems. Especially, this paper elaborates on some key challenges and outlines related research issues to be regarded in a Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 28.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Brezhniev, Eugene
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Towards an Ontology-Based Approach to Safety Management in Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems2015In: Theory and Engineering of Complex Systems and Dependability: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland / [ed] Zamojski, W., Mazurkiewicz, J., Sugier, J., Walkowiak, T., Kacprzyk, J., Springer, 2015, Vol. 365, p. 107-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in transports of people and goods across Europe will aggravate the problems related to traffic congestion, accidents and pollution. As new road infrastructure alone would not solve such problems, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has been considered as new initiatives. Due to the complexity of behaviors, novel methods and tools for the requirements engineering, correct-by-construction design, dependability, product variability and lifecycle management become also necessary. This chapter presents an ontology-based approach to safety management in Cooperative ITS (C-ITS), primarily in an automotive context. This approach is supposed to lay the way for all aspects of ITS safety management, from simulation and design, over run-time risk assessment and diagnostics. It provides the support for ontology driven ITS development and its formal information model. Results of approach validation in CarMaker are also given in this Chapter. The approach is a result of research activities made in the framework of Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

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  • 29.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Meinke, Karl
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Baumann, Christoph
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A Knowledge-in-the-Loop Approach to Integrated Safety&Security for Cooperative System-of-Systems2015In: IEEE Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Information Systems, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system-of-systems (SoS) is inherently open inconfiguration and evolutionary in lifecycle. For the nextgeneration of cooperative cyber-physical system-of-systems,safety and security constitute two key issues of public concernthat affect the deployment and acceptance. In engineering, theopenness and evolutionary nature also entail radical paradigmshifts. This paper presents one novel approach to thedevelopment of qualified cyber-physical system-of-systems, withCooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) as one target.The approach, referred to as knowledge-in-the-loop, aims toallow a synergy of well-managed lifecycles, formal qualityassurance, and smart system features. One research goal is toenable an evolutionary development with continuous andtraceable flows of system rationale from design-time to postdeploymenttime and back, supporting automated knowledgeinference and enrichment. Another research goal is to develop aformal approach to risk-aware dynamic treatment of safety andsecurity as a whole in the context of system-of-systems. Key basetechnologies include: (1) EAST-ADL for the consolidation ofsystem-wide concerns and for the creation of an ontology foradvanced run-time decisions, (2) Learning Based-Testing for runtimeand post-deployment model inference, safety monitoringand testing, (3) Provable Isolation for run-time attack detectionand enforcement of security in real-time operating systems.

  • 30.
    El-khoury, Jad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Roadmap Towards Integrated CPS Development Environments2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical System (CPS) development is highly heterogeneous, involving many stakeholders, each of which interacts with its development artifacts through a variety of tools, and within several engineering processes. Successful CPS development requires these tools to be well-integrated into a Development Environment (DE) in order to support its many stakeholders and processes. In this paper we identify the main challenges facing DE development for CPSs, and presents a roadmap to meet these challenges. We here take the position that focus should be redirected from trying to achieve a single, one-size-fits-all solution to such a heterogeneous problem. Instead, focus should be placed on supporting the development of highly-customized DEs, which readily can be applied to industrial development. Such a highly-customized DE should fit the needs of a particular development organization, while at the same time taking advantage of relevant standardization efforts.

  • 31.
    Flening, Elias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Measuring professional skills misalignment based on early-career engineers’ perceptions of engineering expertise2021In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional skills have long been perceived as lacking in junior engineers. Adopting a social realist theoretical framework of knowledge in practice, a hypothesis-based survey study of early career engineers’ perceptions of engineering expertise was conducted. It investigated a professional skills readiness difference between initial career trajectories (hypothesis 1) through an analysis of engineering expertise perception, and whether this difference decreases over time as engineers mature (hypothesis 2). Both hypotheses were supported by three statistical tests which established the specific nature and size of this difference. Three themes were identified: Academic bias, Technical competence bias, and Rationality bias. Thematic analysis through the framework of these three themes indicates how context and complexity (Semantic dimension) and Knowledge and Knower (Specialisation dimension) were understood in practice. The three themes expressed challenges over these two dimensions in understanding Technical knowledge, Collaboration, and the Legitimate basis for practice, leading to recommendations for education and practice.

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  • 32. Gavkalova, Nataliia
    et al.
    Gładysz, Bartłomiej
    Quadrini, Walter
    Sassanelli, Claudio
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Ramli, Muhammad Rusyadi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Detzner, Peter
    Deville, Jane
    Dragic, Miroslav
    Van Erp, Tim
    Georgescu, Amalia
    Price, Liz
    Robertsone, Galina
    Terzi, Sergio
    Digital Innovation Hubs and portfolio of their services across European economies2023In: Oeconomia Copernicana, ISSN 2083-1277, E-ISSN 2353-1827, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research background: Digital ecosystems in Europe are heterogenous organizations involving different economies, industries, and contexts. Among them, Digital Innovation Hubs (DIHs) are considered a policy-driven organization fostered by the European Commission to push companies’ digital transition through a wide portfolio of supporting services.

    Purpose of the article: There are DIHs existing in all European economies, but literature needs more precise indications about their status and nature. The purpose is to study a distribution of DIHs and differences in portfolios of DIHs’ services across European economies. Therefore, the paper wants to deliver more precise data on effects on national and European policies. This is required to define their final role and scope in the complex dynamics of the digital transition, depending on regional context and heterogeneity of industries.

    Methods: Data on 38 economies was collected from the S3 platform (on both existing and in preparation DIHs) and further verified by native speaking researchers using manual web scrapping of websites of DIHs identified from S3. To find potential similarities of digital ecosystems in different economies as emanated by the existence of DIHs, clusterization (Ward’s method and Euclidean distances) was applied according to the services offered. Economies were clustered according to the number of DIHs and the spread of DIHs intensity in different cities. The results were further analyzed according to the scope of the provided services.

    Findings & value added: The applied clustering classified European economies in four different sets, according to the types of services offered by the DIHs. These sets are expression of the different digitalization statuses and strategies of the selected economies and, as such, the services a company can benefit from in a specific economy. Potential development-related reasons behind the data-driven clustering are then conjectured and reported, to guide companies and policy makers in their digitalization strategies.

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  • 33.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    A Systematic Review to Merge Discourses: Interoperability, Integration and Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2467-964X, E-ISSN 2452-414XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are developed through the cooperation of several engineering disciplines. Powerful software tools are utilized by each individual discipline, but it remains challenging to connect these into tool chains for increased efficiency. To support this endeavour, the literature on interoperability assessment was surveyed to identify concepts valuable to transfer from the interoperability to the tool integration research field.

    Implementation options, types of interoperability and domains described in interoperability assessment models were concepts identified as directly transferable. To avoid the problems with uptake that plague the models identified, visual analytics is suggested as a vehicle for the transfer. Furthermore, based on the use of non-functional properties as an underlying motivation for these models, cost, performance and sustainability are suggested as a common base for future research in both discourses.

  • 34.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Measuring Tool Chain Interoperability in Cyber-physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems are developed through complex engineering projects that include many stakeholders and a variety of tools and processes from different engineering backgrounds. Interoperability in these development tool chains is an important aspect for well-integrated systems. Furthermore, since full tool chain interoperability is neither possible nor necessarily desired, measuring interoperability in development environments is essential for setting the right priorities. This systematic literature review gives an overview of the literature about interoperability assessment methods. A survey was conducted through digital libraries and a total of 42 papers were read. Out of these papers, 24 different interoperability assessment models were identified and analyzed. A striking find of this study is that no proof of industrial adaptation of these models was found. In this paper, we analyze the reasons for this lack of validation in the context of CPS development. 

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  • 35.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frederic
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Visual Analytics Towards Tool Interoperabilty: A Position Paper2016In: Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications, SCITEPRESS , 2016, p. 141-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex-engineering projects include artefacts from several engineering disciplines such as mechanical, electrical, software components, processes and plans. While software tools can be powerful in each individual discipline, it is difficult to build integrated tool chains. Moreover, it is challenging to evaluate and update existing tool chains. At the same time, the field of visualization is getting mature and visual analytics promises an opportunity to develop knowledge, methods, technologies and practice for exploiting and combining the strengths of human and data. We consider this as a potential to evaluate current tool chains. This position paper discusses the visualization and visual analytics practices to assess existing tool chains performance.

  • 36.
    Gürdür, Didem
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    El-khoury, Jad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Assessing tool chain interoperability in cyber-physical systems: A systematic reviewManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are developed using artefacts from several engineering disciplines. Powerful software tools are utilized by each individual discipline, but it remains challenging to connect these into tool chains for increased efficiency. To support this endeavour, a survey of the literature on interoperability assessment was performed to identify concepts that could be valuable to transfer to the tool integration field.

    Interoperability assessment models were identified as potentially valuable to transfer, but lacking in industrial uptake. To avoid importing inefficient concepts, this lack of impact was analysed. Three main problems were identified as; the models either use complex metrics, separate levels or combinations of these; they concentrate on selective aspects of interoperability; and they focus on structure and content, providing little guidance on how to deal with problems. Visualization and visual analytics is discussed as a promising direction to be used during assessment of tool integration. Based on this approach it is suggested that the following concepts are transferred: the elaborated parts of system contexts; types of interoperability; and the theory connected to interoperability as a balance between interests rather than an optimization of a single, uniform metric. It is also suggested that interoperability researchers consider visualization and visual analytics techniques in their own contexts.

  • 37.
    Kaznov, Viktor
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Svahn, Johan
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Roos, Per
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Behere, Sagar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Architecture and Safety for Autonomous Heavy Vehicles: ARCHER2017In: Automated Driving: Safer and More Efficient Future Driving / [ed] Daniel Watzenig, Martin Horn, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2017, p. 571-581Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machines are converging towards autonomy. The transition is driven by safety, efficiency, environmental and traditional ‘robotics automation concerns’ (dirty, dull and dangerous applications). Similar trends are seen in several domains including heavy vehicles, cars and aircraft. This transition is, however, facing multiple challenges including how to gradually evolve from current architectures to autonomous systems, limitations in legislation and safety standards, test and verification methodology and human–machine interaction.

  • 38.
    Ko, Siu-Teing
    et al.
    Össur.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Zeybek, Begum
    Teesside University.
    A Scoping Review of Pressure Measurements in Prosthetic Sockets of Transfemoral Amputees during Ambulation: Key Considerations for Sensor Design2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 15, article id 5016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor systems to measure pressure at the stump–socket interface of transfemoral amputees are receiving increasing attention as they allow monitoring to evaluate patient comfort and socket fit. However, transfemoral amputees have many unique characteristics, and it is unclear whether existing research on sensor systems take these sufficiently into account or if it is conducted in ways likely to lead to substantial breakthroughs. This investigation addresses these concerns through a scoping review to profile research regarding sensors in transfemoral sockets with the aim of advancing and improving prosthetic socket design, comfort and fit for transfemoral amputees. Publications found from searching four scientific databases were screened, and 17 papers were found relating to the aim of this review. After quality assessment, 12 articles were finally selected for analysis. Three main contributions are provided: a de facto methodology for experimental studies on the implications of intra-socket pressure sensor use for transfemoral amputees; the suggestion that associated sensor design breakthroughs would be more likely if pressure sensors were developed in close combination with other types of sensors and in closer cooperation with those in possession of an in-depth domain knowledge in prosthetics; and that this research would be facilitated by increased interdisciplinary cooperation and open research data generation.

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  • 39.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Collision Mitigation in the Presence of Uncertainty2021In: Proceedings 2021 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2021), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, p. 1655-1662Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a probabilistic collision mitigation system (CMS) that aims to decrease the severity of unavoidable collisions. CMSs have to decide when to act in order to keep enough trajectories for lowering severity available, while at the same time not increasing the collision probability. This paper operationalises the choice of when to act as a probability threshold, which is applied to all or part of the trajectories available to an automated vehicle equipped with the CMS. Through simulations the relationship between the value of the threshold, and the trade-off between being able to reduce the collision severity and not causing a collision, is investigated. We identify two types of behaviours that increase the severity of collisions: one when acting late (setting a higher threshold) reduces the number of available trajectories with lower severity, and one when acting early is susceptible to prediction errors. Regardless, by setting a lower prediction horizon the prediction accuracy increases, but also reduces the available trajectories with lower severity. We also note that the outcome of the CMS improves when the severity of a trajectory is aligned with maximum risk of collision along it, rather than the severity at the time step when it crosses the probability threshold.

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  • 40.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    New Needs to Consider during Accident Analysis: Implications of Autonomous Vehicles with Collision Reconfiguration SystemsIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles are equipped with advanced vehicle technology (AVT) that will improve road traffic safety and reduce accidents. However, due to the uncertain behavior of other road users, collisions can never be completely eliminated. Collision reconfiguration systems offer a solution by, for instance, changing where vehicles are hit and how the impact force is directed towards them. Unfortunately, the logic behind the decision-making of collision reconfiguration systems is fundamentally different from that of other AVTs. Fundamentally different feedback might thus be required from accident analyses to ensure the successful design of collision reconfiguration systems. Through simulations, this study explores decision-making strategies of collision reconfiguration systems to ascertain the implications of which feedback is required from accident analyses. Results show that different strategies can be statistically significantly different from each other in the way they affect severity; and that a new source of unobserved heterogeneity could easily be small variations in the algorithms used by collision reconfiguration systems. Based on this, three new needs to consider during accident analysis are put forth: firstly, new safety surrogate measures (SSMs) that consider severity are required; one such SSM is proposed; secondly, to identify new unobserved heterogeneity as a result of collision reconfiguration systems, the trajectories of traffic near-collisions should be recorded, and statistical tools to identify comparable scenarios developed. Thirdly, new collision patterns will make it difficult to analyze the implications of reconfigured collisions, which suggests that collision configurations must be carefully recorded to provide early feedback. 

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  • 41.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Svensson, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Pre-Crash Vehicle Control and Manoeuvre Planning: A Step Towards Minimizing Collision Severity for Highly Automated Vehicles2019In: 2019 IEEE International Conference of Vehicular Electronics and Safety (ICVES), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the control of a highly automated vehicle in a traffic scenario, where colliding with other traffic agents is unavoidable. Such a critical situation could be the result of a fault in the vehicle, late obstacle detection or the presence of an aggressive driver. We provide an approach that allows the vehicle’s control system to choose the manoeuvre that is likely to lead to the least severe injuries to vehicle occupants.The approach involves the off-line solving of an optimal control problem to create a set of trajectories based on controlling the steering angle rate and the braking rate at the vehicle’s limits. Occupant injury severity prediction, based on accident data with the focus on impact location, is used by a real-time collision control algorithm to choose a trajectory from the pre-computed optimal set. A simulation set-up is presented to illustrate the idea of the collision control algorithm in a simple scenario involving dynamic traffic agents.

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  • 42.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Svensson, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sinz, Wolfgang
    Graz University of Technology.
    Tomasch, Ernst
    Graz University of Technology.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Data-Driven Method Towards Minimizing Collision Severity for Highly Automated Vehicles2021In: IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, ISSN 2379-8858, E-ISSN 2379-8904, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 723-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of autonomous vehicles on public roads calls for the development of methods that are reliably able to mitigate injury severity in case of unavoidable collisions. This study proposes a data-driven motion planning method capable of minimizing injury severity for vehicle occupants in unavoidable collisions. The method is based on establishing a metric that models the relationship between impact location and injury severity using real accident data, and subsequently including it in the cost function of a motion planning framework. The vehicle dynamics and associated constraints are considered through a precomputed trajectory library, which is generated by solving an optimal control problem. This allows for efficient computation as well as an accurate representation of the vehicle. The proposed motion planning approach is evaluated by simulation, and it is shown that the trajectory associated with the minimum cost mitigates the collision severity for occupants of passenger vehicles involved in the collision.

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  • 43.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Industrial safety-related considerations to introducing full autonomy in the automotive domain2017In: Ada User Journal, ISSN 1381-6551, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 218-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations in the automotive domain, which aim to transition into developing fully autonomous vehicles face many challenges. These range from organizational issues to engineering concerns. This paper builds on structured interviews with professionals from industry and academia to provide a deeper understanding of existing problems. Standards, safety analysis, legacy assumptions related to having a human driver, and increased complexity and complexity handling were raised as important concerns. The analysis of these concern leads us to consider the current relationship between academia and industry as too disconnected. There is a risk that new techniques developed by academia end up irrelevant to industry. This underlying problem, and others relevant to autonomy, might be solved by collaborative research between different automotive companies. However, there are experts that challenge the underlying need for such collaboration. Therefore, externally to automotive companies, new expert arenas might be required in order to facilitate an exchange of ideas that lead to new collaboration efforts. Internally to automotive companies, the changes brought on by autonomy will lead to organizational changes and the creation of new roles. These organizational changes will have to be managed, or otherwise unnecessary conflict might occur between new and old roles.

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  • 44.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Engineering Design, Mechatronics and Embedded Control Systems.
    Motion planning for autonomous vehicles with the inclusion of post-impact motions for minimising collision risk2022In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of more automation into our vehicles is increasing our ability to avoid or mitigate the effects of collisions. Early systems could brake when a likely collision was detected, while more advanced systems will be able to steer to avoid or reconfigure a collision during the same circumstances. This paper addresses how the post-impact motion of an impacted vehicle could be included in the decision-making process of severity minimisation motion planning. A framework is proposed that builds on previous work by the authors, combining models from motion planning, vehicle dynamics, and accident reconstruction. This framework can be configured for different contexts by adjusting its cost function according to relevant risks. Simulations of the unified system are carried out and analysed from the perspective of vehicle model complexity and collision parameters sensitivity. Additionally, effects are highlighted concerning different modelling decisions, with respect to vehicle dynamics models and collision models, that are important to consider in further research.

  • 45.
    Parseh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Motion Planning for Autonomous Vehicles with the Inclusion of Post-impact Motions for Minimizing Collision RiskManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of more automation into our vehicles is increasing our ability to avoid or mitigate the effects of collisions. Early systems could brake when a likely collision was detected, while more advanced systems will be able to steer to avoid or reconfigure a collision during the same circumstances. This paper addresses how the post-impact motion of an impacted vehicle could be included in the decision making process of severity minimization motion planning. A framework is proposed that builds on previous work by the authors, combining models from motion planning, vehicle dynamics and accident reconstruction. This framework can be configured for different contexts by adjusting its cost function according to relevant risks. Simulations of the unified system are carried out and analysed from the perspective of vehicle model complexity and collision parameters sensitivity. Additionally, effects are highlighted concerning different modeling decisions, with respect to vehicle dynamics models and collision models, that are important to consider in further research.  

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  • 46.
    Thompson, Haydn
    et al.
    THHINK Wireless Technologies.
    Reimann, Meike
    Steinbeis 2i.
    Ramos-Hernandez, Daniela
    THHINK Wireless Technologies.
    Bageritz, Steve
    Steinbeis 2i.
    Brunet, Adrien
    Steinbeis 2i.
    Robinson, Charles
    Thales.
    Sautter, Björn
    FESTO.
    Linzbach, Johannes
    FESTO.
    Pfeifer, Holger
    fortiss.
    Aravantinos, Vincent
    fortiss.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    de Sutter, Isabelle
    Systematic Paris Region.
    Platforms4CPS, Key Outcomes and Recommendations2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has key strengths in the CPS domain with many world leading companies in important business sectors such as Automotive, Aerospace, Rail, Energy and Health, as well as supporting technology and research providers in terms of SMEs and academia. This document summarises the findings of the Platforms4CPS project, co-financed by the European Commission under the H2020 Research and Innovation Programme, to identify business opportunities, develop a CPS Community Roadmap, a Technology and Research Radar and make recommendations for strategic action required for operational and future deployment of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). In order to exploit the business opportunities highlighted in this report, recommendations are provided for Research, Innovation, Societal, Legal and Business challenges, that need addressing to ensure that:

    The right technology areas are supported

    There is successful transfer of new ideas to European companies via innovation mechanisms

    Societal concerns which are barriers to uptake of new technologies such as trust, privacy, regulation, liability, and security of employment are addressed

    European citizens can rely on trustable systems

    In the shorter term these can begin to be addressed under Horizon 2020 and existing Digitising European Industry activities via engagement with and expansion of the Digital Innovation Hubs, linking PPPs to work in synergy and supporting the development of platforms and large-scale pilots in key domains such as Automotive, Agriculture, Medicine, etc. Further in the future the recommendations address Horizon Europe linking with developing ideas within the Commission such as the Edge 2030 vision.

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  • 47.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bensalem, S.
    McDermid, J.
    Passerone, R.
    Pfeifer, H.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A.
    Schätz, B.
    Characterization, Analysis, and Recommendations for Exploiting the Opportunities of Cyber-Physical Systems2016In: Cyber-Physical Systems: Foundations, Principles and Applications, Elsevier, 2016, p. 3-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leveraging on a comprehensive analysis of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) in Europe, this chapter presents overall findings focusing on (1) a characterization of CPS, (2) opportunities and challenges in representative CPS application domains, and (3) recommendations for action resulting from a cross-domain analysis. The characterization enables a high-level description of a CPS, or classes of CPS, according to their technical emphasis, cross-cutting aspects, level of automation, and life-cycle integration. We illustrate how these characteristics can be used to relate to design issues, systems, and related terms.The recommendations are to: (1) strengthen cross-disciplinary research collaboration, (2) foster CPS education and training, (3) stimulate public-private partnerships for CPS technology experimentation and to ensure dependable information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure, (4) promote interoperability of CPS technology, (5) anticipate new business models and support open innovation, (6) ensure trustworthiness including safety and security, and (7) favor human-centered approaches to CPS. 

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  • 48.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Ericson, Tor
    ÅF Digital Solutions AB.
    Granbom, Catrin
    Ericsson AB.
    Herzog, Erik
    Saab Aeronautics.
    Lu, Zhonghai
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Electronic and embedded systems.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Månsson, Maria
    Prevas AB.
    Norrwing, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Olsson, Johanna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Öberg, Johnny
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Embedded systems, Electronic and embedded systems.
    Competence Networks in the Era of CPS: Lessons Learnt in the ICES Cross-Disciplinary and Multi-domain Center2019In: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Design, Modeling, and Evaluation of Cyber Physical Systems, CyPhy 2019: Workshop on Embedded Systems and Cyber-Physical Systems Education / [ed] Chamberlain R., Edin Grimheden M., Taha W., Cham, 2019, Vol. 11971, p. 264-283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are evolving to become more intelligent, autonomous and collaborating, playing an important role in societal infrastructure. The amount of knowledge required in developing and managing future CPS will be unprecedented, leading to stronger needs for collaboration, competence provisioning, continuous learning and renewal of education. This is where “competence” (or learning) “networks” involving academia and industry play an important role. We elaborate and discuss needs, lessons learnt and challenges for such competence networks in the context of CPS. We draw upon our experiences gained from ICES - the KTH-industry cross-disciplinary and multi-domain competence network which in 2019 has been operational for 11 years, growing from 6 to more than 30 participating organizations. The ICES network focuses on activities to support students, industrial engineers and managers, and academic faculty, acting as a network, catalyst and competence provider directed towards these stakeholders. We elaborate challenges faced during the operation of ICES including the lack of prioritization of competence networks and education, the paradox with strong needs for competence networks but perceived lack of time, the challenges of reaching out to stakeholders, and fragmented efforts addressing competence provisioning. We finally discuss ways forward. In conclusion, we believe that the ICES type of network could be relevant in many other areas characterized by complex systems.

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  • 49.
    Törngren, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Magnusson, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    The role of competence networks in the era of Cyber-Physical Systems: Promoting knowledge sharing and knowledge exchange2020In: IEEE design & test, ISSN 2168-2356, E-ISSN 2168-2364, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 8-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Needs for new engineering methodologies, curriculum renewal, and new forms of education and training arise, as Cyber-Physical Systems are becoming smarter, more automated, connected and collaborative. In this setting, the use of competence networks, i.e. non-profit collaborations between industry and academia aiming to promote learning and knowledge creation, stands out as a promising approach. Drawing upon experiences from the Innovative Center for Embedded Systems, a KTH-Industry cross-disciplinary and multidomain competence network for students, practicing engineers, managers, and academic faculty, we describe and reflect on challenges and lessons learnt during the 11 years of operation of the ICES network. The findings support a need to emphasize knowledge sharing and exchange encompassing multiple disciplines and cross-domain industrial experience. A competence network acts as a social network that facilitates communication, learning and knowledge creation for both individuals and organizations. Competence networks can thus act as tools for policy makers, creating incentives for life-long learning inside companies. A focused engagement and activities directed towards stakeholders help to establish trust, providing potential for agile and persevering forms of cooperation.

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  • 50. Östberg, K.
    et al.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bengtsson, M.
    Intelligent transport systems - The role of a safety loop for holistic safety management2014In: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: SAFECOMP 2014 Workshops: ASCoMS, DECSoS, DEVVARTS, ISSE, ReSA4CI, SASSUR. Florence, Italy, September 8-9, 2014. Proceedings, Springer , 2014, p. 3-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ITS represents a Cyber-Physical System (CPS), which will involve information exchange at operational level as well as potential explicit collaboration between separate entities (systems of systems). Specific emphasis is required to manage the complexity and safety of such future CPS. In this paper we focus on model-based approaches for these purposes for analyzing and managing safety throughout the lifecycle of ITS. We argue that: (1) run-time risk assessment will be necessary for efficient ITS; (2) an information centric approach will be instrumental for future ITS to support all aspects of safety management - a "safety loop"; (3) a formal basis is required to deal with the large amounts of information present in an ITS. We elaborate these arguments and discuss what is required to support their realization.

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