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  • 1.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Designing appropriate contracts for achieving efficient winter road and railway maintenance with high performance quality: A survey of the state of practice in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - For a long time, the winter maintenance of the Swedish road and railway network had been performed in-house by Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish local authorities i.e. municipalities and Stockholm public transport. During the last 15 years the winter operation and maintenance of these state infrastructures have been performed by public procurement and contracting from independent contractors, where in practice the lowest price is the dominating selection criteria. The aim of this paper is to investigate and identify how these contracts are designed and how satisfied the parties are with the contract and the quality of the performed work during the winter and point our directions for improvement. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted by a literature review and followed by semi-structured interviews and electronic questionnaire. Findings - The results of the study which are based on the interviews and the online questionnaire show that there is widespread dissatisfaction with the contracts among both clients and contractors. Practical implications - The article prepares a basis showing how a contract affects the quality of the performed winter road and railway maintenance services. Originality/value - The findings lead to a number of suggestions about how to improve the contracts, e.g. having a separate winter maintenance contract to increase the quality of performed winter maintenance measures, a more partnering-like structure where consultations and adjustment can be made during the contract period. A partnering structure also makes it less important to get all the details right in the contract.

  • 2.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Effective Winter Highway Maintenance through Applicationof Partnering Concept2013In: International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics (IJEME), ISSN 1756-5154, E-ISSN 1756-5162, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 112-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inmany countries winter road maintenance is outsourced to private contractors. Selecting appropriate contract for performance of winter highway maintenance and implementing it in an efficient way is then very important for both results and costs. Writing contracts concerning winter road maintenance is however difficult as weather conditions are hard to describe in an exact way and as what is rational to do in a certain situation, depends on expected future conditions. Problems during recent harsh winters in Sweden have clearly illustrated this. The study argues, with reference both to theoretical and empirical studies, that a partnering concept can improve efficiency in outsourced winter road maintenance. A detailed model of how partnering can be implemented is presented for winter road maintenance contracts together with systems for information supply such as International Roughness Index –surface unevenness measurement and Road Weather Information System.

  • 3.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services2013In: Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, ISSN 1835-6354, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In countries with severe winters, a major portion of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated to winter road maintenance. Thus it is important to identify an appropriate basis for the remuneration of the entrepreneurs who carry out the maintenance tasks, one that minimises or eliminates disputes and that satisfies both client organisations and contractors. The objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden for winter road maintenance services and suggest possible improvements. Inadequate reimbursement models lead either to unnecessary cost overruns that affect the client's annual budget or cause cash flow problems for the contractor, which can result in safety issues. To solve the problems associated with paying for just-in-time road maintenance, cold region countries such as Sweden have developed various remuneration models, including some based on what is known as the Weather Index. The study uses a domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of current contract documents, a series of meetings with project managers followed by an international benchmarking investigation. The study identified four winter maintenance remuneration models of which one is based on weather data. The study reveals that the payment model based on weather data statistics is applied only to roads with higher traffic flow and generates the most uncertainty about costs. Possible improvements should include more reliable weather data obtained from weather stations and bonuses related to customer satisfaction.

  • 4.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Public Procurement of Winter Road Maintenance Services Based on EU Procurement Directive: Lessons from Sweden2013In: Journal of Investment and Management, ISSN 2328-7721, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement of road maintenance services, particularly in cold regions is not an easy task in order to satisfy road-users during winter. Road-users’ dissatisfaction, complaint and pressure can usually be considered as major factors for having more accessible and safe roads during winter. These pressures have contributed and led to an increasing critical approach focusing on public procurement of these services after some harsh winters in the recent years in Sweden with traffic disruption and delay as consequence i.e. an increasing focus on the way in which the Swedish state authorities and local governments procure winter road maintenance services. The present study which is part of a larger research project investigating efficient winter road maintenance through procurement, tendering and contract aimed at extending this knowledge base with regard to procurement and socioeconomic factors with focus on the winter maintenance of the Swedish road network. The study reveals that even the Swedish winter road maintenance services are procured and outsourced in accordance with EU directive and public procurement rules transposed into the Swedish act on public procurement, the act has been interpreted in a manner that all the process has led to great dissatisfaction of end-users during winter due to improper bundling of winter related services. The lack of economic motivation in current contracts concerning winter road maintenance in the form of incentives has led to an inefficient performance of winter road measures. The study suggests a number of proposals in order to make forthcoming contracts more effective through proper bundling of winter services and create incentives for contractors to improve the performance of winter road maintenance services.

  • 5.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Use of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) as Assistive Tool for Effective Winter Road Maintenance: Technical andContractual Interactions2012In: International Journal of Engineering and Technolgy, ISSN 2049-3444, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 2002-2012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter highway operation and maintenance in the northern periphery is a challenge, a broad and complex area. Understanding about this area and its effect on winter traffic performance is far from complete. During the last forty years since Swedish Transport Administration (former Swedish National Road Administration) began attempting of the use of Road Weather Information System -RWIS on the Swedish road network, the repair and maintenance methods of this assistive tool has dramatically changed. Changing of the methods have been due to the progress and development of the technology within this area i.e. from simple stations that could be connected via telephone network for icy road warning to amore sophisticated and modern internet based technology. The main objective of this study was to investigate and find the importance and effectiveness of using weather data collected from RWIS by road agencies as an assistive tool for effective performance of winter road maintenance, and how these tools are currently maintained without influencing the delay of winter road maintenance.The study also attempts to find possible interactions between technical and contractual issues that may affect winter road maintenance. The method of the study was partly based on a theoretical study by reviewing some internationally published articles and reports in this area and furthermore a domestic questionnaire survey, an internationalbenchmarking and a follow-up study within a selected region in Sweden. The results of the study reveal that even if the weather stations are normally placed on roads where the risk of icy roads is greatest, there are indirect factors which influence the planned maintenance of these tools which subsequenly cause delay of winter road maintenance.

  • 6.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Krav på tillgänglighetsanpassning vid renovering: Ett diskussionsinlägg2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Strategies in decling housing markets: a comparison of public and private housing companiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Gävle.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market: a comparative study2018In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 400-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is first to examine and compare sustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of new legislation that requires public housing companies to act in a ‘businesslike’ way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative study was conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The results show that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than private housing companies. The results can be viewed as an on-going interaction process, where a company’s strategies affect its profit. The study aims toincrease the understanding of activities within housing companies in adeclining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies to improve their market knowledge and profit.

  • 9.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Who is Governing the Commons: Studying Swedish Housing Cooperatives2016In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines current governance structures related to multifamily buildings designed by single actors (developers) and operated in cooperative forms. The study analyses the long-term sustainability of the resource regime of study (multifamily buildings) and inked governance structures by applying Ostrom’s eight design principles for long-term survival of self-organized resource regimes (Common-pool resources or CPR’s). The study also searches for signs of movement towards social innovation and collective action in current governance structures. We argue that the structures governing planning, production and operation of housing cooperatives in Sweden do not fulfil the eight design principles for the long-term survival of the resource regime of study, nor do they encourage movement towards social innovation or collective action. In order to ensure the long-term survival of the resource regime of study and to increase innovation in governance structures, five adjustments are proposed; changes in the structures governing risk/profit distribution, communication, collaboration and information between actors in the Swedish cooperative housing sector.

  • 10.
    Atterhög, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    How does increased competition on the housing market affect rents?: an empirical study concerning Sweden2004In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 107-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to investigate if more competition leads to lower rents on the housing market. Data about the rent level for similar apartments in 30 cities in Sweden were available. Three hypotheses were formulated: (H1) Increased 'internal' competition, measured by the market share of the municipal housing company (that dominates the market and is price-leader according to the Swedish system of rent regulation), leads to lower rents. (H2) Increased 'external' competition measured by the price level on the market for single-family owner occupied housing, leads to lower rents. (H3) Lower capital expenditure in the municipal housing company leads to lower rents. The statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between the rent level and the level of external competition, but no relation was found for the level of internal competition and the level of capital expenditure. A possible conclusion is that policies that make it easier for households to leave the rental market are important for increasing the pressure on the firms in the rental sector and reducing rents.

  • 11. Bellman, L.
    et al.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Öhman, P.
    How does education from a high-status university affect professional property appraisers' valuation judgments?2016In: Journal of Real Estate Practice and Education, ISSN 1521-4842, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 99-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The repertory grid technique is used to investigate professional property appraisers' thought patterns, and these patterns' complexity, with respect to the universities from which the appraisers graduated. Nearly half of Sweden's 138 authorized property appraisers participated in the study. The results indicate that the appraisers graduating from the university with the longest tradition of property education and ranked highest among the universities offering such education in Sweden have less complex thought patterns than do those graduating from other Swedish universities. This indicates that appraisers graduating from the highest ranked university simplify their valuation judgments more than do other appraisers.

  • 12.
    Blomé, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    The return of the Swedish slumlord: Analysis of a recent caseIn: International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, ISSN 1753-8270, E-ISSN 1753-8289Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The article tries to explain how long-term mismanagement of a housing estate could arise in a country with a strong legal framework aimed at preventing such situations.

    Approach: Assuming that both tenants and landlord are rational, the article presents a set of hypotheses that is consistent with the information available.

    Findings: It is argued that the tenants stayed even though the rent was higher and the quality was lower than in neighboring areas because of a combination of three factors: Rents was paid by different forms of welfare payments, lack of alternatives because of queues to other areas and because some tenants saw an advantage in the “no-question“ asked policy that the slumlord followed. It is further argued that the property owner found this slum-strategy as profitable either because the hoped to find a “bigger fool” to sell to and because the decision makers in the company had not invested their own money. Both tenants and investors were in the end losers, but not the company managers.

    Practical and social implications: The Swedish legal framework is to a large extent based on the idea that tenants should take action when there are problems. For several reasons the tenants in the area did not do that and it indicates that a more active role for the local authorities is necessary.Originality: The article focus on an interesting case that most people thought could not occur and tries to explain this within a framework of rational actors.

  • 13.
    Borg, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hans, Lind
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new structure for classifying contract types and paymentmethods. Concerning the procurement contract types the first important feature is the stepwisestructure with three main steps in the contract design: (1) should the contract only includeconstruction or both construction and operation/maintenance? (2) Who should do the detaileddesign of the premise? (3) How many contractors should the client use? An important newfeature of the structure is that in both step 2 and step 3 there is a continuum of alternatives.Concerning the payment methods the structure is primarily based on how the project specificrisks are shared.

  • 14.
    Borg, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts2014In: Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, ISSN 1835-6354, E-ISSN 1837-9133, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 71-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1) what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2) who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3) how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  • 15.
    Borg, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Service-led construction: is it really the future?2010In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 28, p. 1145-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Brunes, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Explaining cost overruns in infrastructural projects: A newframework with applications to Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Caesar, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Bäste herren på täppan: En ESO-rapport om bostadsbyggande och kommunala markanvisningar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stora delar av den mark som kan användas för bostadsbebyggelse ägs av kommunerna. Hur kommunerna hanterar sina markområden är därför en central bostadspolitisk fråga.

    -      Finns det brister i kommunernas markhantering som begränsar bostadsmarknadens effektivitet?

    -      Vad kan kommunerna göra för att främja konkurrensen bland byggherrarna och förbättra bostadsbyggandet?

  • 18. Elsinga, Marja
    et al.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    The Effect of EU-Legislation on Rental Systems in Sweden and the Netherlands2013In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 960-970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both Sweden and the Netherlands had housing systems that include broad models of municipal housing (Sweden) or social housing (Netherlands). These broad models, however, came under discussion due to the competition policy of the European Commission. Financial government support - state aid - for public or social housing is considered to create false competition with commercial landlords. The countries chose different ways out of this problem. The Netherlands choose to direct state aid to a specified target group and had to introduce income limits for dwellings owned by housing associations. Sweden instead chose to change the law regulating municipal housing companies and demands that these companies should act in a businesslike way' and with that aims to create a level playing field. This paper will describe why the two countries chose different options, the development during the first years, and also speculate about the consequences on the longer run and the future role of the public/social housing sector in housing and urban policy.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Moral hazard and construction procurement: A conceptual framework2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first aim of this paper is to clarify the meaning of moral hazard in the context ofconstruction procurement. Two important points are that typically there is a doublemoral hazard problem, as the client also can “misbehave” in a number of ways, andthat both internal moral hazard (within the client and contractor organization) andexternal moral hazard (between client and contractor) must be handled.The second aim of the paper is to give an overview of strategies to reduce the risk ofmoral hazard. Eight different strategies are identified: 1) “the shadow of the future”,promises of future work if effort is high 2) selection mechanism forcontractor/employee, 3) length of contract, length of warranties, 4) level of detail inthe contract, 5) payment systems, 6) monitoring intensity, 7) social norms, and 8)relation specific investments.At the end of the paper a number of questions for future research are identified. Canthe strategies be grouped into an ideal type of hard/formal strategies (with e.g.detailed contracts, more monitoring, and choose the bidder with the lowest price)and soft/informal strategies (with e.g. long term relations and more flexiblecontracts)? How are methods used internally and methods used externally to reducemoral hazard related? What are the differences in these respects between privatesector procurement and public sector procurement methods?

  • 20.
    Fili, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Future market value2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Fredrik, Brunes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hans, Lind
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Policies to avoid cost overruns:Critical evaluation and recommendations2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many infrastructural projects have cost overruns and there has been a lot of research both on whythese cost overruns occur and what can be done to reduce cost overruns. Bent Flyvbjerg is the leadingresearcher in the area and in this article his proposals are also the starting point. Beside a literaturereview a questionnaire was also sent out to experienced Swedish project managers to find out whatthey thought could reduce cost overruns. This has been the foundation for the proposals formulated inthis article. Proposals concerns three areas 1. Organizational macro-structure, e.g. using more PPPprojectsbut also decentralization of budgets where cost-overruns in one project in a region leads toless other projects in the specific region. 2. Organizational quality: It should be easy to see when andwhere cost overruns occur and who was responsible. There should be an well-developed knowledgemanagement system in the organization and an organization culture of openness and a focus onimprovements. 3. Organizational processes, e.g. a systematic use of external reviewers in differentstages of a project.

  • 22.
    Grahn, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Wikforss, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication.
    Byggsektorns förmågor2011Report (Other academic)
  • 23. Granqvist, R.
    et al.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The deadweight loss of income taxes - Have economists really measured what is relevant?2000In: Ekonomiska samfundets tidskrift, ISSN 0013-3183, E-ISSN 2323-1378, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 71-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [de]

    The concept deadweight loss, or excess burden, is central in economists' analysis of the effects of income taxes on the allocation of resources. The normal, definition of this concept can be questioned since it does not refer to the real change in the allocation, but to the hypothetical change that would occur if the individuals were compensated. An alternative definition is suggested, according to which the relevant measure is the uncompensated elasticity, i.e. the sum of the substitution and the income effects. Since this elasticity typically is smaller than the compensated, i.e. the substitution effect, which is the normal definition of deadweight loss, it can be argued that normal measurements overestimate the deadweight loss of income taxes.

  • 24.
    Hellström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Underhållsstrategier: Nya synsätt och metoder för underhåll av offentliga byggnader2006Book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hou, Yongzhou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Risk allocation on the housing market: a comparision between Sweden and ChinaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hungria-Garcia, Rosane
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Karlsson, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Property yields as tools for valuation and analysis2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project was started in order to get an overview of conceptual problems, measurement problems, theories of determinants of yields, the use of yields in different contexts and how the actors on the Swedish market looked upon yields. Important issues discussed in the report is the need for:

    - Conceptual clarity: A number of different yield terms exist on the market and it is very important to be clear about how the specific terms are defined.

    - Operational clarity: There are measurement problems both concerning rental incomes, operating and maintenance costs and property values. This means that reported yields can be “manipulated” by choosing suitable operationalisations and pushing estimations of uncertain factors in directions that are favourable to the actor in question.

    - Specify the purpose for which the yield should be used. The most important distinction is between using yields/income returns for valuation purposes and using yields as benchmarks or bubble indicators. In the first case various types of normalization of the net operating income can be rational. In the second case it is important that the figure reflects “actual” incomes and costs, and that the concept is standardized and in such a way that the room for manipulation is small.

    - A clear view about how yields/income returns should develop according to different theories, e.g how the relate to the real return on other investments, inflation levels, risks and expectations about the development of the net operating income. Theories can always be questioned but they give a framework that are helpful in getting a perspective on what is happening on a specific market, and evaluate e.g. if property prices develop in a way that could be a bubble on the market.

  • 27.
    Högberg, Lovisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Grange, Kristina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Incentives for improving energy efficiency when renovating large-scale housing estates: A Case Study of the Swedish Million Homes Programme2009In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 1349-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has adopted ambitious energy savings objectives for buildings, but at the current rate of energy efficiency investments the objectives are unlikely to be reached. In this article we report the early findings of how real estate owners reason and act in energy efficiency investment decisions. Based on the results from interviews with the real estate companies, the companies have been divided into four ideal types that illuminate the differences in energy efficiency ambition and strategies; the Strict Profit Maximizing Company, the Little Extra Company, the Policy Led Ambitious Company and the Administration Led Ambitious Company. The different strategies will determine how the companies respond to incentives to invest in energy efficiency, and affect the overall result in the energy efficiency work. The ideal types hence are important to have in mind when designing policies to increase energy efficiency.

  • 28.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Cars, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nya regler för ökat bostadsbyggande och bättre infrastruktur2013Book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Compulsory Purchase - Reasonable and Fair Compensation: An Experimental Study2007In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish law provides that compensation for compulsory purchase – in some cases – shall be decided according to the following general principle: The compensation should correspond to the price that could have been expected if it had been a "normal voluntary transaction". However, in those specific situations where compulsory purchase applies, there is always a lack of empirical data of price levels in voluntary agreements. In this article we enlighten the problem through bargaining experiments with buyers and sellers. We provide experimental evidence from Sweden indicating that the price level – or the profit-sharing between buyer and seller – depends on the context and what is judged to be reasonable principles of fair distribution.

  • 30.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Plan- och byggprocessen. Tidsåtgång och kostnader.2001In: Plan- och byggprocessens längd, Stockholm: Riksdagens Revisorer, Rapport nr. 2001/02:RR8 , 2001Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Public Land Leasing for Housing Purposes in Sweden: Motives, effects and currrent trends2005In: A Review of Public Land Leasing System and its Feasibility in Korea: An Impulse in the Provision of Affordable Housing, Seoul: Housing & Urban Research Institute , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Valuing Easements: Some Experimental Evidence1999In: Journal of Real Estate Research, ISSN 0896-5803, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 491-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trefzger and Munneke (1998) present a theoretical model, where the surplus that an easement gives rise to will be split equally between the parties. We provide experimental evidence from Sweden indicating that the split of the surplus depends on the context and what is judged to be reasonable principles of a fair distribution. The dominant estates got a significantly higher share of the surplus because they could start the bargaining with a bid that only included compensation for cost, whereas the servient estate could not find any principle that would give them the whole surplus. After these initial asymmetric bids, the parties usually met halfway.

  • 33.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundström, Stellan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    En flexibel och effektiv bostadsmarknad - problem och åtgärder2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport är den tredje och avslutande i ett uppdrag från Tillväxtverket (Nutek) till KTHs institution för Fastigheter och byggande. Ett parallellt uppdrag har gått till Institutet för Bostadsforskning vid Uppsala universitet. Den grundläggande frågan har rört hur bostadsmarknaden och bostadsbyggandet i storstadsregionerna kan utvecklas.

    I rapporten sammanfattas tio års forskning om bostadsmarknadens roll och funktion inkluderat hur nya bostäder kan tillskapas och hur beståndet kan utnyttjas effektivare. Våra observationer och rekommendationer baseras på såväl empiri som teori. De förändringar i regelverk och synsätt som presenteras och diskuteras utgår från bostadskonsumenten och den bostadskarriär som varje hushåll gör.

    Vår målgrupp är politiker och andra aktörer på bostadsmarknaden. De ska förhoppningsvis finna att rapporten ger nya uppslag och underlag för en intressant och konstruktiv debatt. De slutsatser som dras är våra egna.

  • 34.
    Kalbro, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundström, Stellan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    En flexibel och effektiv bostadsmarknad till stöd för regional tillväxt2011In: Storstäder och tillväxt: Om storstadsregioners roll, betydelse och utmaningar för hållbar ekonomisk utveckling / [ed] Jörgen Lindell, Uppsala: Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University , 2011, p. 175-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Kulander, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lundström, Stellan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hur skulle hyresmarknaden för bostäder i Stockholm påverkas av friare hyressättning?2008Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    A Human Rights based approach to Housing Policy:A critical and normative analysis2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The first part of the article is a critical evaluation of the arguments in Rory Hearne’s“Realising the right to the city – a a human right based framework for regeneration of areasof urban disadvantage.” In the second part of the articles three current Swedish cases areanalyzed from a normative perspective to illustrate how a rights based approach can beimplemented in a better way.Design/methodology/approach: The article uses an analytical/philosophical approach.Findings: Hearne includes both “means” and “ends” among the rights, and it is argued thatthe rights should only be formulated in terms of ends. In the Swedish cases the commonfeature is that tenants are living in rent‐regulated apartments with low rent and thensomething happens that withdraws this opportunity. It is argued that society is alwayschanging and no one has an unconditional right to continue to live in the same way asbefore. The main rights should be formulated in terms of access to “reasonable” alternativesand as right to a time to adjust to the new situation.Practical/social implications: How one looks at the rights in the situations described will bethe foundation for the type of legal rules that should be implemented.Originality/value: The article shows a human rights based approach could be implemented ina more convincing way a number of specific housing situations.

  • 37.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    A Monstrous Hybrid: A comment on Brett Christophers´ interpretation of Swedish housing policy2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this comment it is argued that Christophers´ misunderstands the nature of the post warhousing model in Sweden. This was actually a market friendly model where rent and priceregulations were seen as something temporary and that an increase in supply was the mostimportant policy. It is further argued that it is a mistake to describe the development inrecent decades as a move towards a neo‐liberal model. Even if there are no state subsidies,there still is a municipal planning monopoly that reduce the supply of land. Municipalitieshave become more and more restrictive towards new construction, and a combination ofNIMBY‐arguments and environmental demands have especially reduced the number ofhousing projects targeting households with lower incomes.

  • 38.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Bygg- och boendekostnader i ett historiskt perspektiv2006In: Familjebostäder: Flera kapitel i svensk bostadspolitik / [ed] Ulrika Sax, Stockholmia förlag, 2006Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Direktavkastning och direktavkastningskrav för fastigheter2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport tar upp:1. Innebörden i begreppet direktavkastning. Den grundläggande definitionen av direktavkastning är driftnetto dividerat med marknadsvärde. Det är dock viktigt att skilja mellan faktisk direktavkastning och normaliserad direktavkastning. I det senare fallet tas hänsyn till om hyrorna i kontrakten avviker från de marknadsmässiga. Flera mätproblem tas också upp, t ex gränsdragningen mellan underhåll och investeringar.2. Teorier om vad som bestämmer direktavkastningen/direktavkastningskravet. Ett synsätt äratt direktavkastningen ska motsvara total avkastning på alternativ placering +/- justering pga skillnader i risk +/- justering pga skillnader i värdeutveckling. En central fråga är om direktavkastningskravet ska ses som realt eller nominellt, och svaret på den frågan beror av om driftnettoutvecklingen antas följa inflationen eller inte. I rapporten berörs också hur direktavkastningen kan förväntas utvecklas över konjunkturcykeln och om utvecklingen, åtminstone i grova drag, är förutsedd bör direktavkastningen vara högre i högkonjunkturen,pga sämre förväntad värdeutveckling då. 3. Direktavkastningsmetod som metod för fastighetsvärdering. Här noteras att relationen driftnetto/marknadsvärde sannolikt blir stabilare om det sker en normalisering av värdena, och därmed blir den mer användbar för värdering. I teorin finns det argument för att direktavkastningen ska vara mer stabil än en bruttokapitaliseringsfaktor om olika objekt jämförs. Detta kan dock motverkas av de mätproblem som nämndes ovan. 4. Direktavkastning som bubbelindikator. Tanken här är att en alltför låg direktavkastning kan tyda på att det finns spekulation om stigande fastighetspriser. Om direktavkastningen ska användas som bubbelindikator är det den faktiska direktavkastningen som ska användas eftersom normaliseringen innehåller bedömningsmoment som kan påverkas av atmosfären under en bubbla. 5. Direktavkastningen på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden analyseras sedan utifrån resonemangen i de tidigare kapitlen. Direktavkastningen tenderar att vara lägre i större orter, i centrala lägen, och för bostäder (under senare år). Dessa siffror speglar förväntningar rörande risk och driftnettoutveckling (värdeutveckling) på olika orter. Det är dock ont om empiriska studier som styrker dessa bedömningar.

  • 40.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Ekonomiska aspekter på renoveringar av bostäder: en översikt2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När ett företag genomför ett renoveringsprojekt är en rad olika personer och yrkesgrupper involverade. Kommunikation mellan olika professioner är då viktig. Situationen är likartad i ett tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt.

    Ekonomiska faktorer är viktiga för både utformning och genomförande av en renovering, men det som kallas ekonomi kan omfatta en rad olika saker, t ex hur lönsamt är en renovering, hur kan den finansieras, hur påverkas företagets redovisade resultat och hur ska man se på renoveringen ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv?

    Syftet med denna rapport är att klargöra innebörden av dessa olika ekonomiska aspekter och hur de förhåller sig till varandra samt beskriva hur man går tillväga för att bedöma dessa ekonomiska aspekter. Det handlar alltså inte om att peka ut någon viss strategi som mer ekonomisk än en annan, utan att beskriva hur ekonomiska analyser görs.

    Målgruppen är i första hand icke-ekonomer, men oklarhet kring de olika ekonomiska aspekterna finns även inom ekonomkåren, t ex om samband mellan projektets lönsamhet och hur det påverkar företagets redovisade resultat. Ibland skiljs inte heller mellan lönsamhetsproblem och finansieringsproblem.

    De olika ekonomiska aspekter som berörs är kortfattat följande:

    Ger åtgärderna en rimlig avkastning på satsade pengar: Lönsamhet och lönsamhetskalkyler (kap 3).

    Ska man fondera pengar till underhåll: Underhållsfonder (kap 4).

    Hur kommer en renovering att påverka siffrorna i företagets årsredovisning: Effekter på redovisat resultat och balansräkning (kap 5).

    Hur får man fram pengar för att betala de företag som anlitas för att genomföra renoveringen: Finansieringsfrågor (kap 6).

    Kommer företaget att ha löpande inkomster som gör att man kan betala t ex ränta och amorteringar på de lån som tagits upp? Kommer företaget att ha ett positivt årligt kassaflöde av rimligt storlek efter renoveringen: Likviditetsfrågor (kap 6).

    Ger investeringen ytterligare effekter, vid sidan av effekten på företaget: Samhällsekonomiska lönsamhetsfrågor (kap 7).

  • 41.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Fastigheter och Byggande2010In: Makten över rummet: tankar om den hållbara staden / [ed] Göran Graninger och Christer Knuthammar, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010, p. 79-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Hundägande– en betraktelse utifrån modern ekonomisk teori2007In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 6, p. 91-92Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Industrialized House Building In Sweden: A Stress Test Approach For Understanding success And Failure2011In: Proceedings from the 6th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized building of residential houses - which here means off-site production of large elements - has been a controversial area at least since the Second World War. During the last 50 years industrialized house building in Sweden has had two faces. The first is a series of failed large scale projects that tried to introduce a more industrialized approach to the building of multi-family houses. The last two of these failures were NCC-Komplett and Open House. The second face consists of a number of manufacturers of single family houses that for more than 50 years continuously has produced what in Sweden is called “catalogue houses”.

    The theoretical framework used in the article is based on the combination of standard economic theory and transaction cost theory presented in the book “Economics, organization and management “by Paul Milgrom and John Roberts (1992).

    Based on case studies the aim of the paper is to explain these successes and failures using a "stress test" approach focusing on how the different systems can handle stresses in the form of changes in the business cycle, changes in tastes, technological problems and problems with suppliers.

    The conclusion was that that the new systems for industrialized housing were not designed in such a way that it could handle different types of stress. The successful producer of catalogue houses::

    - Spread risk among a larger number of involved actors – e.g. salespersons and local contractors that assembled the product. In this way they also created stronger incentives.

    - This company had more direct contact with the market and could both learn from and influence demand to a higher degree.

    - This company used established techniques and also more products bought from supplier and subcontractors with which company A had long term relations.

    Perhaps the conclusion should also in this area be that revolutions are very difficult. Introducing a radically new way of producing that would in a short period of time change the way houses are produced is then doomed to fail. More interesting developments are then to experiment with smaller steps, where e.g. somewhat larger components are bought from subcontractors.

  • 44.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Leder hyreslagens regler till rätt renoveringar: Analys och förslag2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard view is that rent regulation leads to a reduction in maintenance, as the landlord will be able to find tenants at the regulated rent even if the level of maintenance is low. In this article it is shown that the rent regulation system in Sweden interacts with a contract structure where the rent is allowed to increase only if the standard of the apartment is raised compared to when the apartment was new. Ordinary maintenance is included in the rent, and the rent is therefore not allowed to increase when such maintenance is carried out. It is shown that when there is a housing shortage this system creates economic incentives for increasing the standard of apartments, even if this reduces total welfare. The result can be that quality is increased more than in a market system, and that it can increase gentrification compared to such a system. Policy proposals are also presented.

  • 45.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lånevillkor för samfällighetsföreningar2016Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    ”Mechanism design”och bostadsmarknaden− några reflexioner2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 8, p. 56-59Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nationalekonomi i Marx anda1992Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Nya ägare - effektivare resursutnyttjande?: En studie av ägarförändringar på den svenska kommersiella fastighetsmarknaden 2000-20052005Report (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Penningpolitiken och bostadsmarknaden: Några reflexioner2009In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 37, no 8, p. 77-81Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Price bubbles in housing markets: Concept, theory and indicators2009In: International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, ISSN 1753-8270, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of bubble, what it means to explain a bubble and propose a list of bubble indicators.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a literature review and some philosophical ideas to derive conclusions for the problems studied.

    Findings – A price bubble should be defined only in relation to the development of prices: a dramatic increase immediately followed by a dramatic fall. The traditional definition in terms of prices not determined by fundamentals is problematic primarily because the concept “fundamentals” is vague. A bubble can never be explained by a single factor, but is the result of the interaction of a number of factors. The explanatory factors proposed are used to derive a set of indicators working as warning signals whether a dramatic increase in prices will be followed by a dramatic fall. The list developed covers, for example, interest costs in relation to household incomes, the elasticity of supply, price expectations and credit conditions.

    Research limitations/implications – Both the explanatory framework and the list of indicators should be seen as preliminary and the starting point for further development through empirical testing.

    Practical implications – A developed list of bubble indicators could be useful for a number of actors, e.g. banks and authorities responsible for monitoring financial stability.

    Originality/value – The contribution is a clearer and more useful concept of bubble, a clearer separation of the question whether bubbles exist and how they should be explained. The proposed list of indicators goes far beyond earlier indicators.

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