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  • 1.
    Ekberg, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Chang, Ernest W.
    Yun, Seok Hyun
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion.
    Fast and accurate metrology of multi-layered ceramic materials by an automated boundary detection algorithm developed for optical coherence tomography data2014Inngår i: Optical Society of America. Journal A: Optics, Image Science, and Vision, ISSN 1084-7529, E-ISSN 1520-8532, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 217-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is useful for materials defect analysis and inspection with the additional possibility of quantitative dimensional metrology. Here, we present an automated image-processing algorithm for OCT analysis of roll-to-roll multilayers in 3D manufacturing of advanced ceramics. It has the advantage of avoiding filtering and preset modeling, and will, thus, introduce a simplification. The algorithm is validated for its capability of measuring the thickness of ceramic layers, extracting the boundaries of embedded features with irregular shapes, and detecting the geometric deformations. The accuracy of the algorithm is very high, and the reliability is better than 1 mu m when evaluating with the OCT images using the same gauge block step height reference. The method may be suitable for industrial applications to the rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness.

  • 2.
    Kirillin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Physics RAS.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Sergeeva, Ekaterina
    Laboratory of Biophotonics, Institute of Applied Physics RAS.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Myllylä, Risto
    Monte Carlo simulation in optical coherence tomography for quality inspection of materials2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality inspection of materials is one of modern applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) featuring non-invasiveness and high speed required for in-production control of such materials as paper and alumina ceramics. Some of materials to be controlled are characterized by high scattering which can introduce distortions to the obtained OCT images, therefore additional interpretation can be required in order to evaluate material quality. In order to understand formation of OCT images of highly scattering materials samples and evaluate OCT potential for their quality inspection Monte Carlo simulations could be employed. This paper discusses application of Monte Carlo technique for simulation of OCT inspection of paper and alumina ceramics samples. Implementation of Monte Carlo simulation allows to evaluate the effect of OCT setup parameters and material properties on formation of the OCT-images. Multilayer models of paper and alumina ceramics structures are involved in the study.

  • 3.
    Li, Yujiang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Datorsystem för konstruktion och tillverkning.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Hedlind, Mikael
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Datorsystem för konstruktion och tillverkning.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Kjellberg, Torsten
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Datorsystem för konstruktion och tillverkning.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Model based in-process monitoring with optical coherence tomography2012Inngår i: Procedia CIRP: 1st CIRP Global Web Conference: Interdisciplinary Research in Production Engineering (CIRPE2012),, Elsevier, 2012, s. 70-73Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on in-process 3D monitoring in ceramic micromanufacturing industry require a high-precision, non-destructive, rapid and automated inspection technique for measuring the thickness of component layer, determining the shape and dimensions of the embedded 3D structures, and detecting the de-bonding, cracks, warping and deformation. One of the promising metrology techniques is optical coherence tomography (OCT). With the dedicated image processing algorithm and the industrial product data exchange standard, the model-based integration of OCT as a new metrology tool is demonstrated. As a generic standard for any product or manufacturing information, ISO 10303 STEP AP242 is employed for the measured data model. Unambiguous data representation is achieved by integrating additional modelling constraints. The proposed framework allows fully using the technical advantages of OCT to in-process 3D monitoring.

  • 4.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Assessment of optical coherence tomography for metrology applications in high-scattering ceramic materials2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale and cost-effective manufacturing of ceramic micro devices based on tape stacking requires the development of inspection systems to perform high-resolution in-process quality control of embedded manufactured cavities, metal structures and defects.

    In this work, alumina ceramic samples are evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) operating at 1.3μm wavelength and some dimensional data are obtained by dedicated image processing and segmentation. Layer thicknesses can be measured and laser-machined channels can be verified embedded at around 100μm depth. Moreover, detection of internal defects is enabled.

    Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations are employed to analyze the abilities of OCT in imaging of the embedded channels. The light scattering mechanism is studied for the alumina ceramics, and different scattering origins and models are discussed. The scattering parameters required as input data for simulations are evaluated from the integrating sphere measurements of collimated and diffuse transmittance spectra using a reconstruction algorithm based on refined diffusion approximation approach.

     

  • 5.
    Su, Rong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Improved inspection and micrometrology of embedded structures in multi-layered ceramics: Development of optical coherence tomographic methods and tools2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Roll-to-roll manufacturing of micro components based on advanced printing, structuring and lamination of ceramic tapes is rapidly progressing. This large-scale and cost-effective manufacturing process of ceramic micro devices is however prone to hide defects within the visually opaque tape stacks. To achieve a sustainable manufacturing with zero defects in the future, there is an urgent need for reliable inspection systems. The systems to be developed have to perform high-resolution in-process quality control at high speed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising technology for detailed in-depth inspection and metrology. Combined with infrared screening of larger areas it can solve the inspection demands in the roll-to-roll ceramic tape processes. In this thesis state-of-art commercial and laboratory OCT systems, operating at the central wavelength of 1.3 µm and 1.7 µm respectively, are evaluated for detecting microchannels, metal prints, defects and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometers beneath surfaces.

    The effect of surface roughness induced scattering and scattering by pores on the probing radiation, is analyzed by experimentally captured and theoretically simulated OCT images of the ceramic samples, while varying surface roughnesses and operating wavelengths. By extending the Monte Carlo simulations of the OCT response to the mid-infrared the optimal operating wavelength is found to be 4 µm for alumina and 2 µm for zirconia. At these wavelengths we predict a sufficient probing depth of about 1 mm and we demonstrate and discuss the effect of rough surfaces on the detectability of embedded boundaries.

    For high-precision measurement a new and automated 3D image processing algorithm for analysis of volumetric OCT data is developed. We show its capability by measuring the geometric dimensions of embedded structures in ceramic layers, extracting features with irregular shapes and detecting geometric deformations. The method demonstrates its suitability for industrial applications by rapid inspection of manufactured samples with high accuracy and robustness.

    The new inspection methods we demonstrate are finally analyzed in the context of measurement uncertainty, both in the axial and lateral cases, and reveal that scattering in the sample indeed affects the lateral measurement uncertainty. Two types of image artefacts are found to be present in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighboring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index. A wavefront aberration is found in the OCT system with a scanning scheme of two galvo mirrors, and it can be corrected using our image processing algorithm.

  • 6.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Chang, Ernest
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Yun, Seok
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Enhancement of probing depth and measurement accuracy of optical coherence tomography for metrology of multi-layered ceramics2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Light scattering strongly limits the probing depth and speckles degrade the image quality in optical coherence tomography (OCT) detection of embedded features in high-scattering ceramics. For high-precision metrology application we evaluated an OCT system working at a centre wavelength of 1.7μm in order to improve the probing depth, and developed a dedicated image processing algorithm for improving the measurement accuracy and speed. The results are demonstrated for 3D OCT measurement of embedded laser-machined pattern in ceramics.

  • 7.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Leitner, Michael
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Accurate and automated image segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography data suffering from low signal to noise levelsInngår i: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, ISSN 1057-7149, E-ISSN 1941-0042Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be a useful tool for investigating internal structures in ceramic tapes and the technique is expected to be important for roll-to-roll manufacturing. However, because of high scattering in ceramic materials, noise and speckles deteriorate the image quality which makes automated quantitative measurements of internal interfaces difficult. To overcome this difficulty we present in this paper a new image analysis approach based on volumetric OCT data. The engine in the analysis is a 3D image processing and analysis algorithm. It is dedicated for boundary segmentation and dimensional measurement in volumetric OCT images, and offers high accuracy, efficiency, robustness, sub-pixel resolution and a fully automated operation. The method relies on the correlation property of a physical interface and eliminates effectively pixels caused by noise and speckles. The remaining pixels being stored are the ones confirmed to be related to the target interfaces. Segmentation of tilted and curved internal interfaces separated by ~10 μm in z-direction is demonstrated. The algorithm also extracts full-field top-view intensity maps of the target interfaces for high-accuracy measurements in x- and y- directions. The methodology developed here may also be adopted in other similar 3D imaging and measurement technologies, e.g. ultrasound imaging, and for various materials.

  • 8.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Leitner, Michael
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Accurate and automated image segmentation of 3D optical coherence tomography data suffering from low signal-to-noise levels2014Inngår i: Journal of the Optical Society of America A, ISSN 0740-3232, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 2551-2560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proven to be a useful tool for investigating internal structures in ceramic tapes, and the technique is expected to be important for roll-to-roll manufacturing. However, because of high scattering in ceramic materials, noise and speckles deteriorate the image quality, which makes automated quantitative measurements of internal interfaces difficult. To overcome this difficulty we present in this paper an innovative image analysis approach based on volumetric OCT data. The engine in the analysis is a 3D image processing and analysis algorithm. It is dedicated to boundary segmentation and dimensional measurement in volumetric OCT images, and offers high accuracy, efficiency, robustness, subpixel resolution, and a fully automated operation. The method relies on the correlation property of a physical interface and effectively eliminates pixels caused by noise and speckles. The remaining pixels being stored are the ones confirmed to be related to the target interfaces. Segmentation of tilted and curved internal interfaces separated by similar to 10 mu m in the Z direction is demonstrated. The algorithm also extracts full-field top-view intensity maps of the target interfaces for high-accuracy measurements in the X and Y directions. The methodology developed here may also be adopted in other similar 3D imaging and measurement technologies, e.g., ultrasound imaging, and for various materials.

  • 9.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Kirillin, Mikhail
    Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Laboratory of Biophotonics.
    Chang, Ernest
    Wellman center for photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital.
    Sergeeva, Ekaterina
    Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Laboratory of Biophotonics.
    Yun, Seok
    Wellman center for photomedicine, Harvard Medical School.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Perspectives of mid-infrared optical coherence tomography for inspection and micrometrology of industrial ceramics2014Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, nr 13, s. 15804-15819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising tool for detecting micro channels, metal prints, defects and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometers beneath surfaces. The effect of surface roughness and scattering of probing radiation within sample on OCT inspection is analyzed from the experimental and simulated OCT images of the ceramic samples with varying surface roughnesses and operating wavelengths. By Monte Carlo simulations of the OCT images in the mid-IR the optimal operating wavelength is found to be 4 mu m for the alumina samples and 2 mu m for the zirconia samples for achieving sufficient probing depth of about 1 mm. The effects of rough surfaces and dispersion on the detection of the embedded boundaries are discussed. Two types of image artefacts are found in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighboring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index.

  • 10.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Kirillin, Mikhail
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Three-dimensional metrology of embedded microfeatures in ceramics by infrared optical coherence tomography – advantages and limitations2015Inngår i: The Proceedings of the 11th International Conference and Exhibition on Laser Metrology, Coordinate Measuring Machine and Machine Tool Performance, European society for precision engineering & nanotechnology , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced printing, structuring, and lamination technologies allow for large-scale and cost-effective manufacturing of multi-layered ceramic micro devices with complex three-dimensional (3D) structures. Infrared (IR) optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising technology for rapid, non-contact, high-resolution, and 3D inspection of the microchannels, metal prints, defects, and delaminations embedded in alumina and zirconia ceramic layers at hundreds of micrometres beneath surfaces. In this study the recent progresses of OCT technology for ceramic materials are reviewed, and its advantages and limitations as a metrology tool are evaluated through experiments and Monte Carlo simulations. Several measurement errors of OCT are revealed and the measurement in lateral directions is significantly affected by scattering in the ceramics. Besides of that, two types of image artefacts are found to be present in OCT images due to multiple reflections between neighbouring boundaries and inhomogeneity of refractive index. A wavefront aberration exists in the OCT system with a scanning scheme of two galvo mirrors.

  • 11.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Kirillin, Mikhail
    Laboratory of Biophotonics, Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Russia.
    Ekberg, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Roos, Arne
    The Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sergeeva, Ekaterina
    Laboratory of Biophotonics, Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Russia.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Optical coherence tomography for quality assessment of embedded microchannels in alumina ceramic2012Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 4603-4618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale and cost-effective manufacturing of ceramic micro devices based on tape stacking requires the development of inspection systems to perform high-resolution in-process quality control of embedded manufactured cavities, metal structures and defects. With an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system operating at 1.3 mu m and a dedicated automated line segmentation algorithm, layer thicknesses can be measured and laser-machined channels can be verified in alumina ceramics embedded at around 100 mu m depth. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to analyze the abilities of OCT in imaging of the embedded channels. The light scattering parameters required as input data for simulations are evaluated from the integrating sphere measurements of collimated and diffuse transmittance spectra using a reconstruction algorithm based on refined diffusion approximation approach.

  • 12.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Kirillin, Mikhail
    Institute of Applied Physics RAS, Russia.
    Jurków, Dominik
    Wrocław University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystems Electronics and Photonics, Poland.
    Malecha, K.
    Wrocław University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystems Electronics and Photonics, Poland.
    Golonka, L.
    Wrocław University of Technology, Faculty of Microsystems Electronics and Photonics, Poland.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Optical coherence tomography: a potential tool for roughness assessment of free and embedded surfaces of laser-machined alumina ceramic2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Heinz Kuck, Holger Reinecke and Stefan Dimov, Singapore: Research Publishing , 2011, s. 140-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For an emerging market a mass and cost-effective production of non-silicon micro devices requires an in-process and accurate 3D monitoring to assure the quality. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) providing high-resolution contactless imaging is used to inspect the surface quality of a laser-machined alumina ceramic layer. Quantitatively the root mean square (rms) roughness is measured by traditional means and provides input parameters to theMonte Carlosimulation of OCT method. We found that the quality of both free and embedded surfaces of the highly-scattering alumina ceramic material can be evaluated by OCT.

  • 13.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Depth profiling in alumina ceramic by optical coherence tomography2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Bertrand Fillon, Chantal Khan-Malek, Stefan Dimov, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2010, , s. 323s. 316-319Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality inspection of multi layer ceramic micro devices is a challenging task for large-scale production. Detection of embedded cavities, metal strips or defects within a sintered multi layer alumina ceramic stack is one of the research areas under investigation in the EU-Multilayer project. Since visible light is highly scattered in the turbid alumina, traditional optical imaging techniques fails and acoustic microscopy requires the structure to be soaked in a liquid for good acoustic coupling. In this paper we investigate the performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a candidate for inspection of alumina films. To understand how deep we can “see” through the alumina material, an optical scattering model is built up based on the study of microstructure of the sintered alumina sample. The investigated sample has high purity, more than 1% porosity and an average pore size of 0.8 µm. By applying optical coherence tomography (OCT) to a sintered tapered alumina ceramic sample for the first time, a depth profile of sample is obtained with high resolution. The maximum detectable thickness was is 0.26 mm using an OCT system with center wavelength at 1.3 µm and axial resolution of 12 µm.

  • 14.
    Su, Rong
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Mattsson, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion, Mätteknik och optik.
    Evaluation of optical inspection methods for non-destructive assessment of embedded microstructures and defects in ceramic materials2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture / [ed] Humbert Noll, Nadja Adamovic and Stefan Dimov, Singapore: Research Publishing Services, 2012, s. 109-112Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The future ceramic micro processing based on tape stacking requires the development of inspection systems toperform high-resolution in-process quality control of embedded manufactured cavities, metal structures anddefects. This paper presents non-destructive techniques for monitoring processes and controlling the differentsteering parameters. Results are shown for optical coherence tomography (OCT), IR-transmission and reflectionmeasurement, and X-ray micro computed tomography. Suitable working conditions are analyzed to improve thedetection performance.

1 - 14 of 14
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